Volume 61 - Number 2 - Summer 1995

L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations

Studies concerned with the relations between population factors as a whole and noneconomic factors. Relations affecting a single demographic variable are coded under the variable concerned and not in this division. Studies concerned equally with economic and social factors are coded under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population .

L.1. General Social Development and Population

Studies on interrelations with education, religion, social change, and socioeconomic status.

61:20693 Chen, Zaihua. A discussion of the comprehensive index of women's status. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1994. 211-21 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"As a complex system with multiple indexes, women's status must be evaluated by the use of comprehensive indexes and systematic analysis....An evaluation of Chinese women's status in 1990 was carried out using the comprehensive index established in this article and data from the 1990 census and the Survey of Chinese Women's Social Status...."
Correspondence: Z. Chen, Beijing College of Economics, Research Institute of Population Economics, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20694 Creedy, John; Taylor, Penelope S. Population ageing and social expenditure in Australia. Australian Economic Review, No. 103, Jul-Sep 1993. 56-68 pp. Parkville, Australia. In Eng.
Questions concerning the impact of demographic aging on the dependency burden in Australia are examined. "This article shows that the social expenditure to GDP ratio is heavily dependent on assumptions made about real spending growth, productivity growth, unemployment and participation rates. It produces a framework that makes the assumptions underlying the projections clear and enables the results of changing the assumptions to be easily compared. The projected ratios are significantly higher than those obtained in previous Australian studies."
Correspondence: J. Creedy, University of Melbourne, Department of Economics, Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

61:20695 Kishor, Sunita. Autonomy and Egyptian women: findings from the 1988 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey. DHS Occasional Paper, No. 2, Jan 1995. xiii, 56 pp. Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Calverton, Maryland. In Eng.
"In this study, data from the 1988 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS-1988) are used to explore the multidimensionality of Egyptian women's autonomy." Three indices of women's autonomy are defined and utilized to perform two separate analyses. "The first examines whether the different dimensions of women's autonomy as measured by the three indices are equally associated with two demographic outcomes, i.e., the use of contraception by women and the survival of children up to the age of five. The second identifies factors that explain the cross-sectional variation in each separate index of autonomy. The latter analysis is done by using ordered logit estimation techniques and regressing each index of autonomy on several modernization, economic and cultural factors as well as on the other two dimensions of autonomy."
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Calverton, MD 20705-3119. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20696 Meeker, Jeffrey; Meekers, Dominique. The precarious socio-economic position of women in rural Africa: the case of the Kaguru of Tanzania. Population Research Institute Working Paper in African Demography, No. AD95-03, Jan 1995. 30 pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"This study uses ethnographic interviews to gain a better understanding of the household complexities and the other aspects of daily life that may affect the educational and income-earning opportunities of rural Kaguru women [in Tanzania], and discusses the policy implications of these findings....The...discussion is organized into five sections: 1. educational opportunities and obstacles, 2. food production and household work, 3. gender inequalities in access to agricultural and household resources, 4. income-earning work, and 5. gender inequality in access to income-earning opportunities."
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6411. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20697 Niraula, Bhanu B. Old age security and inheritance in Nepal: motives versus means. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 27, No. 1, Jan 1995. 71-8 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper documents expectations of old age support in rural Nepal. Current living arrangements of the elderly have been analysed with a focus on the ownership of land holdings. It is argued that the intergenerational transfer of property through inheritance from the older to the younger generation, especially among sons, together with the Nepali normative prescription that sons care for their aged parents, provides a mechanism for old age support. However, land is becoming a scarce resource, cultural traditions are breaking down through modernisation and the living conditions of the elderly are likely to deteriorate as this process continues."
Correspondence: B. B. Niraula, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20698 United Nations. Economic Commission for Africa [ECA]. Population Division. Planning and Policies Section (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia). Manual for the integration of population factors in human resource development with particular reference to educational sector planning. African Population Studies Series, No. 12; E/ECA/SER.A/10, 1994. ix, 103 pp. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. In Eng.
This manual concerns educational sector planning and how to include population factors in the planning process. Particular attention is given to the use of models in the planning process.
Correspondence: UN Economic Commission for Africa, Population Division, Planning and Policies Section, P.O. Box 3001, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20699 van Praag, B.; van Dalen, H.; Lutz, W. Aging populations and social challenges. IIASA Collaborative Paper, No. CP-94-7, Apr 1994. vi, 47 pp. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
This is one of six papers presented at IIASA's twentieth anniversary conference, held May 12-13 1992. This paper concerns the social challenges posed by aging populations in developed countries. The topics discussed include social security for the aged, how to pay for it, and the role of international migration as a solution.
Correspondence: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Schlossplatz 1, 2361 Laxenburg, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20700 von Hagen, Jurgen; Walz, Uwe. Social security and migration in an ageing Europe. CEPR Discussion Paper, No. 1022, Sep 1994. [iv], 28 pp. Centre for Economic Policy Research [CEPR]: London, England. In Eng.
"The European ageing process will lead to a dramatic rise in dependency ratios over the next decades. At the same time labour mobility will increase as a result of greater European economic integration. We analyse the implications of migration and ageing for European social security systems."
Correspondence: Centre for Economic Policy Research, 25-28 Old Burlington Street, London W1X 1LB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20701 Yang, Yaosheng. On the relationship between traditional culture and population in China. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1994. 129-41 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In China, the development of population has been effected not only by agricultural civilization but also, more importantly, by the Chinese cultural tradition. That is to say, the process of population development in China has been stamped with the general brand of agricultural civilization and conditioned by the unique Chinese cultural tradition, and the influence of the latter can still be felt so strongly today that it deserves a careful examination."
Correspondence: Y. Yang, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Population Research Institute, 5 Jianguomen Nei Da Jie 5 Hao, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20702 Yang, Yuechen. A preliminary study on the correlation between population size and educational level. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1994. 143-53 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article provides a preliminary analysis of the correlation between population size (including population structure) and the level of education in the population. An extremely important inference has been derived from the analysis: the fundamental solution for China's population problems lies in improving the educational level of the entire population."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20703 Zeng, Yi. An examination of reforms on the social security system of retirement based on practices in Hainan province. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 6, No. 4, 1994. 323-31 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The first task of this article is to analyze and dissect the seven major drawbacks of the current disjointed retirement system [in China] characterized by collection of pension for immediate distribution. This will be followed by an introduction of the reforms on the social security system of elderly support for enterprise retirees carried out in Hainan Province and specific social security and elderly support practices by private businesses in Haikou, capital city of Hainan Province....Special inquiries are made regarding the necessity and feasibility of establishing a national uniform social security system of elderly support covering civil servants, enterprise workers, private business owners, managers, and employees and farmers."
Correspondence: Y. Zeng, Beijing University, Institute of Population Research, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20704 Zeng, Yi. China's agenda for support of the elderly in rural areas. In: Low fertility in East and Southeast Asia: issues and policies. Aug 1994. 139-50 pp. Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs [KIHASA]: Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
"This chapter describes the establishment of a pioneering old age security scheme [in China] that was recently started in the rural areas of Shandong province, outlines the problems that have been encountered and considers how the scheme can be expanded."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.2. Demographic and Political Factors

Studies on the political aspects of population growth, including the demographic impact of war.

61:20705 Ben-Meir, Alon. Israelis and Palestinians: harsh demographic reality and peace. Strategic Review, Vol. 21, No. 3, Summer 1993. 47-57 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Maintaining the separate national identities of both Israel and any future Palestinian 'entity' that might be established in the West Bank and Gaza is critical to resolving the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. These national identities, however, are affected in diametrically opposite ways by current and future demographic factors and by the interdispersement of Israeli and Palestinian populations. Because of the stark demographic realities and the projected Israeli and Palestinian population growth, any solution to the conflict will have to be based on the coexistence of Israelis and Palestinians under separate political authority; independent authority over agreed-upon territory delineated by political lines; the free movement of people across both sides of the political borders; and an understanding that any agreement between Israelis and Palestinians should not preclude future political association between the Palestinian entity and Jordan."
Correspondence: A. Ben-Meir, New School for Social Research, Department of Political Science, 66 West 12th Street, New York, NY 10011. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

L.3. Demographic Factors and Health

Studies on nutrition and health, including psychological aspects and sex behavior. Studies that are concerned with the impact of these factors on fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility .

61:20706 Armenian, Haroutune K. Health information system: diversity of data and need for integration. In: Measurement of maternal and child mortality, morbidity and health care: interdisciplinary approaches, edited by J. Ties Boerma. [1994]. 13-25 pp. Ordina Editions: Liege, Belgium; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"This paper will review some alternative approaches for health information systems, illustrate the diversity of sources and methods used by such systems, and, in conclusion, highlight the need for integrative approaches to health information." The geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: H. K. Armenian, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20707 Bartecchi, Carl E.; MacKenzie, Thomas D.; Schrier, Robert W. The global tobacco epidemic. Scientific American, Vol. 272, No. 5, May 1995. 44-51 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
A general review of global trends in cigarette smoking is presented, and smoking's negative effects are described. The authors note that despite growing awareness of the dangers of smoking, "cigarette smoking has stopped declining in the U.S. and is rising in other parts of the world. Aggressive marketing and permissive regulations are largely to blame."
Correspondence: C. E. Bartecchi, University of Colorado School of Medicine, C281, 4200 East 9th Avenue, Denver, CO 80262. Location: Princeton University Library (SW).

61:20708 Boerma, J. Ties; Van Ginneken, Jeroen K. Comparison of substantive results from demographic and epidemiological survey methods. In: Measurement of maternal and child mortality, morbidity and health care: interdisciplinary approaches, edited by J. Ties Boerma. [1994]. 27-60 pp. Ordina Editions: Liege, Belgium; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"This paper compares the substantive results of epidemiological and demographic studies, while exploring the key methodological issues that arise in making such comparisons. While there are a wide range of topics common to both disciplines, this review will be limited to just four areas: morbidity due to diarrhoea, morbidity due to lower respiratory infections, immunization coverage, and neonatal tetanus mortality." The focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: J. T. Boerma, Macro International, Institute for Resource Development, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Suite 300, Columbia, MD 20705. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20709 Boerma, J. Ties. Measurement of maternal and child mortality, morbidity and health care: interdisciplinary approaches. ISBN 2-87040-047-0. [1994]. 427 pp. Ordina Editions: Liege, Belgium; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
This is a selection of papers presented at a 1991 seminar held in Cairo, Egypt, which focused on methodological issues in the collection of data on maternal and child health, with an interdisciplinary perspective. "The first section includes various approaches to data collection from demographic, epidemiological, and anthropological perspectives. The second section deals with the measurement of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity, while the third section focuses on provider-based data."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Ordina Editions, 10 place Saint Jacques, 4000 Liege, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20710 Boerma, J. Ties; Rashad, Hoda; Gray, Ronald H. Measurement of maternal and child mortality, morbidity and health care: introduction. In: Measurement of maternal and child mortality, morbidity and health care: interdisciplinary approaches, edited by J. Ties Boerma. [1994]. 1-12 pp. Ordina Editions: Liege, Belgium; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The authors briefly review the papers in this volume, which is the result of a 1991 seminar on methodological issues in the collection of data on maternal and child health. Aspects considered include approaches to data collection, maternal and perinatal health, and provider-based data.
Correspondence: J. T. Boerma, Macro International, Institute for Resource Development, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Suite 300, Columbia, MD 20705. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20711 Brabin, Loretta; Kemp, Julia; Obunge, Orikomaba K.; Ikimalo, John; Dollimore, Nicola; Odu, Ngozi N.; Hart, C. Anthony; Briggs, Nimi D. Reproductive tract infections and abortion among adolescent girls in rural Nigeria. Lancet, Vol. 345, No. 8945, Feb 4, 1995. 300-4 pp. New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
Levels of reproductive health and induced abortion in Nigeria are analyzed using data for 868 women, of which 410 were aged 12-19, in a rural community in Rivers State. The data were collected in 1992. "43.6% of those [under age 17] and 80.1% aged 17-19 years were sexually active and at least 24.1% had undergone an induced abortion; only 5.3% had ever used a modern contraceptive....42.1% of sexually active adolescents had experienced either an abortion or a sexually transmitted disease."
Correspondence: L. Brabin, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool L3 5QA, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

61:20712 Brown, Tim; Sittitrai, Werasit; Vanichseni, Suphak; Thisyakorn, Usa. The recent epidemiology of HIV and AIDS in Thailand. East-West Center Reprints: Population Series, No. 304, ISBN 1-87048-574-2. 1994. [11] pp. East-West Center, Program on Population [POP]: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
"By the time Weniger et al. had produced their 1991 review of the epidemiology of HIV and AIDS in Thailand, the prevailing patterns of the Thai epidemic were well defined....This paper will update the situation, focusing on changes that have occurred since then, such as the declines in STDs and the rise in maternal and pediatric HIV and AIDS....From the results presented here, it is clear that the epidemic in Thailand has firmly established itself in the general population and will soon have substantial medical, social, and economic effects at the community and household levels."
This paper is reprinted from AIDS (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania), Vol. 8, Suppl. 2, Aug 1994, pp. S131-41.
Correspondence: East-West Center, Program on Population, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20713 Centro de Estudios de Poblacion y Paternidad Responsable [CEPAR] (Quito, Ecuador). Population, health, and nutrition in Ecuador. [Poblacion, salud y nutricion en el Ecuador.] Mar 1992. 72 pp. Quito, Ecuador. In Spa.
This study presents an analysis of the interrelations among demographic factors, health, and nutrition in Ecuador, with a focus on mothers and children. Data are primarily from censuses and surveys. Information is provided on health resources; mortality, including infant, child, and maternal; maternal-child health; and nutrition in various regions of the country.
Correspondence: Centro de Estudios de Poblacion y Paternidad Responsable, Toribio Montes 423 y Daniel Hidalgo, Casilla No. 17-01-2327, Quito, Ecuador. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20714 Corbin, Jinkie; Ryan, Anne; Seybolt, Peggy; Rudolph, David; Stanecki, Karen; Way, Peter O. Recent HIV seroprevalence levels by country: June 1994. CIR Health Studies Branch Research Note, No. 13, Jun 1994. v, 45 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Center for International Research [CIR]: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This report presents information from the semiannual update of the U.S. Bureau of the Census's database on HIV seroprevalence in developing countries. The report includes "summary tables showing seroprevalence estimates for high and low-risk population groups in major cities and rural areas for all countries. Tables are provided for HIV-1 and HIV-2, where available. Urban data for Africa have been plotted on maps as well, showing the distribution by country. A section reviewing the spread of HIV in Southern Africa is also included. A brief review of data quality issues and discussion of selection criteria follows."
For a previous report for December 1993, see 60:40724.
Correspondence: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Center for International Research, Health Studies Branch, Washington, D.C. 20233-3700. Location: Brown University, PSTC Library, Providence, RI.

61:20715 Corbin, Jinkie; Ryan, Anne. Trends and patterns of HIV/AIDS infection in selected developing countries: country profiles, June 1994. CIR Health Studies Branch Research Note, No. 14, Jun 1994. [100] pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Center for International Research [CIR]: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This paper presents a series of country profiles compiled from the U.S. Census Bureau's database on HIV seroprevalence in developing countries. "These country profiles examine the patterns and trends of the epidemic using the best of the imperfect data available. In order to minimize the biases and confusion in using current seroprevalence estimates, we have developed several criteria to select the most representative sample estimate: larger samples are generally favored over smaller samples, more recent estimates are selected over older estimates, and better documented data are usually selected over poorly documented data. Each briefing highlights patterns of infection within population subgroups, patterns of infection by age, by sex, by race, and recent time trends in infection levels."
Correspondence: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Center for International Research, Health Studies Branch, Washington, D.C. 20233-3700. Location: Brown University, PSTC Library, Providence, RI.

61:20716 Correa, Hector. A model for the analysis of optimal policies to control the AIDS epidemic. Journal of Policy Modeling, Vol. 16, No. 1, Feb 1994. 97-111 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Several policies have been suggested to restrain the AIDS epidemic. The object of this paper is to present a model for selecting the most efficient or cost-effective policy from among those proposed. Preliminary results, obtained using available statistical data, are presented. They indicate that it is not possible to avoid all new HIV infections, and that the first priority to minimize new cases should be to combat the epidemic among IV drug users through education and distribution of needles."
Correspondence: H. Correa, University of Pittsburgh, Graduate School of Public and International Affairs, Forbes Quadrangle, Pittsburgh, PA 15260. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

61:20717 Denton, Frank T.; Spencer, Byron G. Demographic change and the cost of publicly funded health care. QSEP Research Report, No. 309, Nov 1994. 37 pp. McMaster University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Program for Quantitative Studies in Economics and Population: Hamilton, Canada. In Eng.
"This paper is concerned with questions relating to demographic change (population growth and aging) and its implications for operating a publicly funded health care system in a Canadian setting. It provides an assessment of how prospective population changes alone would affect the share of health care costs in total national income in Canada over the next several decades; it provides also an analysis of how actual patterns of hospital service provision change in Ontario over the last decade in response to budgetary restrictions in a period of rising demand for services. Finally, a case is made for viewing health care as an integrated system; a description is provided of a set of computer-based models that have been developed to facilitate analysis of the health care system, and illustrative projections are discussed."
Correspondence: McMaster University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Program for Quantitative Studies in Economics and Population, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20718 Fraser, Alison M.; Brockert, John E.; Ward, R. H. Association of young maternal age with adverse reproductive outcomes. New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 332, No. 17, Apr 27, 1995. 1,113-7 pp. Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"To determine whether a young age confers an intrinsic risk of adverse outcomes of pregnancy, we performed stratified analyses of 134,088 white girls and women, 13 to 24 years old, in Utah who delivered singleton, first-born children between 1970 and 1990." The results show that even among a population that was predominantly white and middle-class, "a younger age conferred an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes that was independent of important confounding sociodemographic factors."
Correspondence: R. H. Ward, University of Utah, Department of Human Genetics, 2100 Eccles Institute of Human Genetics, Salt Lake City, UT 84112. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

61:20719 Goodburn, Elizabeth A.; Gazi, Rukhsana; Chowdhury, Mushtaque. Beliefs and practices regarding delivery and postpartum maternal morbidity in rural Bangladesh. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 26, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1995. 22-32 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Most maternal deaths occur in the puerperium and most maternal morbidities probably also arise at that time. Maternal morbidities occur much more frequently than maternal deaths, but very little is known about their magnitude or causes. This study uses focus-group discussions to explore the experiences of childbirth and postpartum illness among rural Bangladeshi women. The women's beliefs about disease causation, and their use of traditional health care, are explored. The significance of the findings for the training of traditional birth attendants and for programs of postpartum care is discussed."
Correspondence: E. A. Goodburn, United Nations Population Fund, 53 Rue Pasteur, Boeung Weng Kang, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20720 Greenhalgh, David; Das, Rupi. Modelling epidemics with variable contact rates. Theoretical Population Biology, Vol. 47, No. 2, Apr 1995. 129-79 pp. Orlando, Florida/Brugge, Belgium. In Eng.
"In this paper we are concerned with modelling an infectious disease in a population where the infected people suffer a disease-related mortality. We present a simple mathematical model for the effect of an endemic disease on a population. We use a compartmental model which divides the population into classes such as susceptible, infected, and immune individuals and use differential equations to model the spread of the disease between these classes....This paper aims to examine epidemic models where both the contact rate and the death rate depend on population density....We shall attempt to answer questions such as what conditions are necessary for the disease to persist and what are the implications of density dependence in these parameters for the growth or decay of the population in the presence of disease. We shall ask whether disease can turn a growing population into a steady one or even reverse its growth."
Correspondence: D. Greenhalgh, University of Strathclyde, Department of Statistics and Modelling Science, Livingstone Tower, 26 Richmond Street, Glasgow G1 1XH, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

61:20721 Gupta, R. B.; Sharma, Sanjiv; Sharma, N. K.; Gupta, Hitesh. Immunization coverage evaluation: a comparison between WHO and IRMS methodologies. Demography India, Vol. 22, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1993. 19-29 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The main objective of the present study is to compare and test the level of differences in immunisation coverage [in four districts of Rajasthan, India]....The study attempts to test the hypotheses that the estimation of different immunisation coverage is affected by: (a) heterogeneity in different socio-cultural and economic groups of population; and (b) comparatively smaller sample size...used in WHO methodology, especially in [the] case of large size villages."
Correspondence: R. B Gupta, Population Council, 53 Lodi Estate, New Delhi 110 003, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20722 Hanvelt, Robin A.; Ruedy, Natali S.; Hogg, Robert S.; Strathdee, Steffanie; Montaner, Julio S. G.; O'Shaughnessy, Michael V.; Schechter, Martin T. Indirect costs of HIV/AIDS mortality in Canada. AIDS, Vol. 8, No. 10, 1994. F7-F11 pp. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
The objective of this study is "to estimate and compare the societal impact of HIV infection and AIDS with other selected causes of male mortality in terms of the indirect costs of future production lost." Data concern "all men aged 25-64 years for whom HIV/AIDS or another selected disease was listed as the underlying cause of death in Canada from 1987 to 1991, as reported to Statistics Canada....Our findings demonstrated HIV/AIDS mortality is already having a dramatic impact on future wealth production in Canada. If the past trend continues, the production lost in 1994 should exceed 0.86 billion 1990 U.S.$ and will account for more than 10% of the total annual loss for men aged 25-64 years."
Correspondence: R. A. Hanvelt, British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, St. Paul's Hospital, 1081 Burrard Street, Vancouver, British Columbia V6Z 1Y6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20723 Inaba, Hisashi. Estimation of the number of HIV infected in the early stage of the epidemic and a control strategy. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 49, No. 4, Jan 1994. 23-33 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
This study concerns the methodology for estimating numbers of those with HIV infections at the early stages of the epidemic, with particular reference to Japan.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20724 Kault, D. A. Modelling AIDS reduction strategies. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 24, No. 1, Feb 1995. 188-97 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The uncertainties inherent in models of the AIDS epidemic appear to limit their relevance to epidemiologists. However, it is shown here that the uncertainties need not prevent models being used to make reliable decisions about which preventive strategy will be most effective....A range of strategies [is] simulated in a model of the AIDS epidemic....Although varying one uncertain factor created enormous variation in the size of the epidemic, it is remarkable that for most preventive strategies the relative effectiveness of the strategies was barely altered. Hence for the most part the ranking of strategies in order of effectiveness is not affected by the area of uncertainty explored here. The results also highlight the potential effectiveness not only of general condom promotion, but also the use of circumcision and spermicides and general screening or targetted screening in sexually transmitted disease clinics."
Correspondence: D. A. Kault, James Cook University, Anton Breinl Centre for Tropical Health and Medicine, Townsville, Queensland 4811, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20725 Klatsky, Arthur L.; Friedman, Gary D. Alcohol and longevity. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 85, No. 1, Jan 1995. 16-8 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The literature on the relationship between drinking alcohol and longevity is reviewed. The focus is on the advice that public health officials should give concerning alcohol drinking, given that although moderate alcohol consumption may well be beneficial, heavy drinking is not.
Correspondence: A. L. Klatsky, Kaiser Permanente Medical Center, Division of Research, Department of Medicine, 3505 Broadway, Oakland, CA 94611. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

61:20726 Krasovec, Katherine. Measurement of maternal health: maternal anthropometry. In: Measurement of maternal and child mortality, morbidity and health care: interdisciplinary approaches, edited by J. Ties Boerma. [1994]. 261-97 pp. Ordina Editions: Liege, Belgium; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"Various methods currently exist for monitoring maternal nutritional status, the most common of which are anthropometric indicators of measurements of body composition....This paper discusses the following anthropometric indicators of maternal nutritional status: weight gain during pregnancy and weight gain in relation to body mass indices (weight for height as a percentage of a reference standard or Body Mass Index), pre-pregnancy weight, height, arm circumference, and body mass indices in non-pregnant women."
Correspondence: K. Krasovec, United Nations Childrens Fund, Kigali, Rwanda. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20727 Lalou, Richard; Piche, Victor. Migration and AIDS in West Africa: a review of current knowledge. [Migration et SIDA en Afrique de l'Ouest: un etat des connaissances.] Les Dossiers du CEPED, No. 28, ISBN 2-87762-069-7. Nov 1994. 53 pp. Centre Francais sur la Population et le Developpement [CEPED]: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The relationship between AIDS and migration is examined in the context of Western Africa. The authors note that "labor migrants are often unaccompanied young males, either single or separated from their wives for long periods. First of all, spousal separation, loneliness and poverty can be responsible for a stressful situation and enhances high risk sexual behaviour. Illiteracy and cultural differences of migrants diminishes the impact of AIDS messages. Finally, the migrant's more precarious health makes him more vulnerable in terms of blood transfusion and needle infected risk."
Correspondence: Centre Francais sur la Population et le Developpement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Medecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20728 Manton, Kenneth G.; Singer, Burton H.; Suzman, Richard M. Forecasting the health of elderly populations. Statistics in the Health Sciences, ISBN 0-387-97953-0. LC 92-48819. 1993. x, 371 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"Models to forecast changes in mortality, morbidity, and disability in elderly populations are essential to national and state policies for health and welfare programs. This volume presents a wide-ranging survey of the forecasting of the health of elderly populations, including the modeling of the incidence of chronic diseases in the elderly, the differing perspectives of actuarial and health care statistics, and an assessment of the impact of new technologies on the elderly population." The primary geographical focus is on the United States, although some consideration is given to the situation in other developed countries.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Springer-Verlag, 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10010. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20729 Manton, Kenneth G. Health forecasting and models of aging. In: Forecasting the health of elderly populations, edited by Kenneth G. Manton, Burton H. Singer, and Richard M. Suzman. 1993. 79-106 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"This chapter discusses statistical and mathematical forecasting techniques that may improve health forecasts by (1) using a broad range of data types, (2) appropriately combining data from multiple sources, and (3) improving the biological realism of forecasts." The geographic focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: K. G. Manton, Duke University, Center for Demographic Studies, 2117 Campus Drive, Durham, NC 27708-0088. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20730 Mbacke, Cheikh. Integrating hospital and demographic data to inform health programmes. In: Measurement of maternal and child mortality, morbidity and health care: interdisciplinary approaches, edited by J. Ties Boerma. [1994]. 369-85 pp. Ordina Editions: Liege, Belgium; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"To evaluate a health programme...requires more information about the characteristics of the respondent and her household than can be collected in a clinic's routine questionnaire. This paper has shown that a single postpartum visit to mothers, at home, can provide the needed socioeconomic data and thus significantly increase the usefulness of routine health data collected by maternity clinics--in particular, data on birth weight which is otherwise almost impossible to get. It has also demonstrated how follow-up interviews can broaden the already considerable advantages of the preceding birth technique for studying mortality determinants. Finally, this approach allows the study of neonatal mortality based on the actual experience of the newborns." The geographical focus is on Bamako, Mali.
Correspondence: C. Mbacke, Institut du Sahel, Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches sur la Population pour le Developpement, B.P. 1530, Bamako, Mali. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20731 Newman, Jeanne S.; Hatzell, Theresa A.; Blumenfeld, Stewart N.; Nicholas, David D.; Heiby, James R. Assessing the quality of health services. In: Measurement of maternal and child mortality, morbidity and health care: interdisciplinary approaches, edited by J. Ties Boerma. [1994]. 387-407 pp. Ordina Editions: Liege, Belgium; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"This paper describes the methodology originated by PRICOR [Primary Health Care Operations Research Project, sponsored by the United States Agency for International Development] and currently being refined and promoted by the Quality Assurance Project to document and measure the quality of primary health care in LDCs and to help managers institute and monitor a quality improvement process. Beginning with presentation of a model of health care as a system, the paper describes the salient features of the PRICOR assessment methodology, as implemented in 12 LDCs, and the use of these data in a problem identification and problem-solving process for quality improvement....The paper closes with a discussion of current efforts of the Quality Assurance Project to adapt and refine the methodology pioneered by PRICOR to assist LDC health managers to improve and maintain the quality of their primary health care services."
Correspondence: J. S. Newman, Center for Human Services, Bethesda, MD 20892. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20732 Okafor, Chinyelu B.; Rizzuto, Rahna R. Women's and health-care providers' views of maternal practices and services in rural Nigeria. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 25, No. 6, Pt. 1, Nov-Dec 1994. 353-61 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Maternal mortality and morbidity estimates in Nigeria continue to be dramatically high largely because maternal services, especially in rural areas, are often deficient and inappropriate to women's situations. The Safe Motherhood Project in Zone A examined the pregnancy-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices of community members, and women's use of community maternal health services. Focus-group discussions and interviews confirmed a number of recent findings by other studies; they also documented extensive hostility between the two most commonly used health-care providers: traditional birth attendants and midwives. The hostility resulted in rumors, deliberate attempts to discourage women from seeking higher levels of care, and refusals to accept referrals or treat patients, which were found to be serious constraints to good maternal care in the targeted rural area."
Correspondence: C. B. Okafor, University of Nigeria, College of Medicine, Women's Health Unit, Nsukka, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20733 Okojie, Christiana E. E. Social dimensions of the health behavior of rural women: findings from focus group research in Nigeria. In: Measurement of maternal and child mortality, morbidity and health care: interdisciplinary approaches, edited by J. Ties Boerma. [1994]. 129-51 pp. Ordina Editions: Liege, Belgium; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"This paper examines the social dimensions of the health behavior of rural women in Nigeria. It seeks to identify the socio-cultural factors, including belief systems, that influence the women's health behavior. The contribution of geographic cost factors will also be highlighted. The findings are drawn from a research project on the consequences of high fertility that involved household surveys and focus group sessions with men and women in three rural communities. The results reported here are mainly those from the focus groups."
Correspondence: C. E. E. Okojie, University of Benin, Department of Economics and Statistics, Benin City, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20734 Peters, David H.; Becker, Stan; Logarta, Josephine; Gray, Ronald H.; Black, Robert E. Estimates of availability and use of oral rehydration salts for the treatment of diarrhoea in Cebu, the Philippines. In: Measurement of maternal and child mortality, morbidity and health care: interdisciplinary approaches, edited by J. Ties Boerma. [1994]. 353-68 pp. Ordina Editions: Liege, Belgium; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"In this study, we analyze a community-based study of mothers and children in Metro Cebu, Philippines, to document access to health care providers and the use of ORS [oral rehydration salts] to treat episodes of diarrhoea....First, we explore the proximity to a health facility as a measure of access to health care. Second, we examine whom mothers consult when their child has diarrhoea and what treatments are given to the child. Third, we examine factors which distinguish women who give ORS to their children with diarrhoea from mothers who do not....We then discuss the utility of provider-based data as compared to community-based data."
Correspondence: D. H. Peters, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20735 Philipson, Tomas; Vytlacil, Edward. Estimating the extent of trade under incomplete information: the case of HIV. Population Research Center Discussion Paper Series, No. 94-8, Aug 1994. 22, [23] pp. University of Chicago, National Opinion Research Center [NORC], Population Research Center: Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"In this paper we address the transmission of HIV from the perspective of information economics....The economic interpretation of transmissive behavior to be used is that of a market for sexual trades, i.e., ex-ante mutually beneficial sexual activity under incomplete information regarding quality (HIV status)....The purpose of the paper is to analyze the extent to which trade occurs under incomplete information regarding individuals' HIV status." Data are from the 1988-1989 San Francisco Home Health Study of 1,770 unmarried persons aged 20-44.
Correspondence: University of Chicago, National Opinion Research Center, Population Research Center, 1155 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20736 Ramanujam, C.; Rajamanickam, S.; Arokiasamy, P.; Pathak, K. B.; Ramesh, B. M.; Kumar, Sushil; Retherford, Robert D. National Family Health Survey (MCH and family planning), Tamil Nadu, 1992. Dec 1994. xxviii, 290 pp. Population Research Centre: Gandhigram, India; International Institute for Population Sciences: Bombay, India. In Eng.
This is the report for the state of Tamil Nadu from the 1992-1993 National Family Health Survey of India. The Tamil Nadu survey, carried out in 1992, included a representative sample of 3,948 ever-married women aged 13-49 from 4,287 households, as well as 1,709 children born to these women during the 4 years prior to the survey. Following introductory chapters on survey design and methodology, the report has chapters on household and respondent characteristics, nuptiality, fertility, family planning, fertility preferences, morbidity and mortality, maternal and child health, infant feeding and child nutrition, village profiles, and knowledge of AIDS.
Correspondence: International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Bombay 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20737 Rosenzweig, Mark R.; Wolpin, Kenneth I. Sisters, siblings, and mothers: the effect of teen-age childbearing on birth outcomes in a dynamic family context. Econometrica, Vol. 63, No. 2, Mar 1995. 303-26 pp. Evanston, Illinois. In Eng.
"In this paper, we formulate a statistical model of dynamic intrafamily investment behavior incorporating endowment heterogeneity and heritability. We use the model's estimates to evaluate alternative estimation procedures that have exploited family and kinship data to obtain estimates of the determinants of human capital." The sequential decision-making framework developed is applied to data on birthweight and gestation of children born to mothers surveyed in the U.S. National Survey of Labor Market Experience youth cohort. "The empirical results imply that the least restrictive statistical formulation, consistent with dynamic behavior and heterogeneity among siblings, fits the data best. All of the estimation procedures that control for a family-specific endowment indicate, however, that the biological effect of having a birth at younger ages is to marginally increase birthweight and to increase fetal growth."
Correspondence: M. R. Rosenzweig, University of Pennsylvania, Department of Economics, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6297. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

61:20738 Serow, William J. Demographic dimensions of health care access in the United States: 1990 to 2020. Kansas Journal of Law and Public Policy, Vol. 3, No. 2, Winter 1993-1994. 53-76 pp. Lawrence, Kansas. In Eng.
"This paper will illustrate some of the facets of population change over the coming thirty years and will seek to integrate them into their probable consequences for the health care system....This paper begins with a review of the most recent population projections prepared by the U.S. Bureau of the Census....The remainder...will be divided into four sections. The first section will present current demographic trends. The second section will address the role of demography in levels of mortality and morbidity. The third section will discuss the role that demographic variables currently play in health care access and utilization patterns. The final section will attempt to put all this information into the context of health care access in the United States."
Correspondence: W. J. Serow, Florida State University, Center for the Study of Population, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4063. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20739 Shannon, Gary W.; Pyle, Gerald F.; Bashshur, Rashid L. The geography of AIDS: origins and course of an epidemic. ISBN 0-89862-445-2. LC 90-14112. 1991. vii, 192 pp. Guilford Press: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
"We begin this volume by describing the structure of the HIV, its life-cycle process, mode of transmission, and impact on the human immune system and other parts of the body. From there we proceed to a discussion of the major theories pertaining to the geographic origin of the HIV. Of the regions to be considered, Central Africa is the first, since it appears to be especially important as a possible index location for the HIV as well as the potential for human and economic disaster. Chapters on the progression of AIDS in Europe and in the United States follow. We then focus on the implications of AIDS for health care systems generally and particularly those of the United States. Following these discussions, we focus on models that replicate and forecast the spatial and temporal diffusion of HIV infection and suggest revisions thereof."
Correspondence: Guilford Press, 72 Spring Street, New York, NY 10012. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20740 Tolley, H. Dennis; Manton, Kenneth G.; Bumgarner, J. Richard. Risk factors affecting multiple-disease efficacy and effectiveness of intervention programs. In: Forecasting the health of elderly populations, edited by Kenneth G. Manton, Burton H. Singer, and Richard M. Suzman. 1993. 183-203 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"In this chapter, we use stochastic compartment modeling techniques to illustrate methods for evaluating both the efficacy and effectiveness of health interventions. We first present the compartment model. Then we discuss how this model is used to predict health outcomes. The model provides separate estimates of program efficacy and effectiveness." The methodology is illustrated using the example of a program to reduce cigarette smoking among a hypothetical group of men in a developing country situation.
Correspondence: H. D. Tolley, Brigham Young University, Center for Statistical and Computing Research, Talmage Math/Computer Building 226, Provo, UT 84602. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20741 Vernon, Andrew A.; Stroh, George. Experience with sentinel surveillance systems in Sub-Saharan Africa. In: Measurement of maternal and child mortality, morbidity and health care: interdisciplinary approaches, edited by J. Ties Boerma. [1994]. 333-52 pp. Ordina Editions: Liege, Belgium; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"While most public health programs use surveillance systems to monitor their activities or impact, these systems vary in complexity and sophistication. In this paper, we describe the basic characteristics of surveillance systems and describe the advantages and disadvantages of sentinel surveillance approaches. We illustrate the use of sentinel surveillance with examples from sub-Saharan African countries that have collaborated with the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in the Combatting Childhood Communicable Diseases (CCCD) project."
Correspondence: A. A. Vernon, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, International Health Program Office, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20742 Victora, Cesar G. Case-control studies in maternal and child health. In: Measurement of maternal and child mortality, morbidity and health care: interdisciplinary approaches, edited by J. Ties Boerma. [1994]. 85-107 pp. Ordina Editions: Liege, Belgium; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"The objective of this paper is to provide non-epidemiologists with an outline of the case-control design, with particular emphasis on its applicability to investigating maternal and child health issues in less developed countries. I will argue that case-control studies should be more often used for this purpose and that they have an important role to play not only in etiological investigations but also for evaluating health interventions."
Correspondence: C. G. Victora, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Epidemiologia, C.P. 464, 96001 Pelotas, RS, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20743 Wilcox, Lynne S.; Marks, James S.; Becerra, Jose E.; Kiely, John L.; Cordero, Jose F.; Stroup, Donna F.; Johnson, Valerie R.; Churchill, R. Elliott; Knighton, Mescal J.; Huckaby, Patricia S. From data to action: CDC's public health surveillance for women, infants, and children. CDC Monograph, No. 3, [1994?]. xvi, 412 pp. U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]: Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
"This monograph is the first comprehensive description of the Centers for Disease Control's (CDC) many surveillance and data system activities related to the health of women and children [in the United States]." It includes chapters on the reproductive health of women, including contraception, sexually transmitted diseases, HIV infections, infertility, unintended pregnancy and childbearing, and induced abortion; birth outcomes, including fetal deaths, infant mortality, and neonatal and postneonatal mortality; child health; and adolescent health.
Correspondence: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20744 Wolff, Mark C. Lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) to determine service quality. In: Measurement of maternal and child mortality, morbidity and health care: interdisciplinary approaches, edited by J. Ties Boerma. [1994]. 409-18 pp. Ordina Editions: Liege, Belgium; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"In recent years, there has been growing interest in applying statistical quality control techniques developed in industry to the evaluation of health care delivery in the developing world. This paper examines such a technique termed Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS). It lists the basic steps in an LQAS, provides illustrative applications in health care, and comments on possible future applications. A computer program which can assist in setting up an LQAS is available on request."
Correspondence: M. C. Wolff, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Center for American Indian and Alaskan Native Health, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20745 Zurayk, Huda; Khattab, Hind; Younis, Nabil; El-Mouelhy, Mawaheb; Fadle, Mohamad. Reproductive health and reproductive morbidity: concepts and measures with relevance to Middle Eastern society. In: Measurement of maternal and child mortality, morbidity and health care: interdisciplinary approaches, edited by J. Ties Boerma. [1994]. 225-59 pp. Ordina Editions: Liege, Belgium; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"This paper presents the work of a subgroup of researchers...who are studying the physical manifestations of reproductive health referred to as reproductive morbidity [in Middle Eastern societies]....First, we present the definition derived for reproductive morbidity and describe how it was operationalized in a community context. Then we analyze the health and social context underlying the determination of reproductive morbidity in the community. The following section assesses the research framework in the light of our experience in the field and our exposure to the larger, multi-disciplinary professional community while presenting preliminary results."
Correspondence: H. Zurayk, Population Council, Regional Office, P.O. Box 115, Dokki, Giza, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics

Studies on consanguinity and isolates, inbreeding, and twinning.

No citations in this issue.


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