Volume 61 - Number 2 - Summer 1995

G. Nuptiality and the Family

Studies that quantitatively analyze aspects of nuptiality and the family. Studies concerned equally with marriage and the family are coded first under G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to G.1. Marriage and Divorce . Methodological studies on nuptiality and the family are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , as appropriate.

G.1. Marriage and Divorce

Studies of trends in marriage and divorce, nuptiality, duration of marriage, age at marriage, and demographic characteristics of marriage partners. Also includes studies of unmarried cohabitation and consensual unions.

61:20356 Andersson, Gunnar. Increasing divorce risks in Sweden 1971-1993. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 88, ISBN 91-7820-096-2. Nov 1994. 30 pp. Stockholm University, Demography Unit: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to introduce an updated system of annual indexes of divorce risks and to use the system to display divorce risks for Swedish women over the years since 1971. Divorce-risk trends turn out to have been quite different for women at different parities. Trends for women in their first marriage (the majority) are also somewhat different from trends in later marriages."
Correspondence: Stockholm University, Demography Unit, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20357 Antoine, Philippe; Djire, Mamadou; Laplante, Benoit. Socioeconomic determinants of age at marriage in Dakar. [Les determinants socio-economiques de la sortie du celibat a Dakar.] Population, Vol. 50, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1995. 95-117 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Using biographic data confronting matrimonial, residential and professional profiles, we have analyzed the delay in the age of first marriage in Dakar [Senegal] in three generation groups of men and women. The changes affecting matrimonial life have to be analysed dynamically and within the person's lifecycle as a whole, to show the interaction between matrimonial events, and economic and social changes affecting the person. The delay in the age of marriage is not much influenced by cultural factors (particularly for men) and seems to be largely determined by increasing economic difficulties (particularly employment and housing)."
Correspondence: P. Antoine, Centre Francais sur la Population et le Developpement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Medecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20358 Berrington, Ann. Marriage and family formation among the white and ethnic minority populations in Britain. Ethnic and Racial Studies, Vol. 17, No. 3, Jul 1994. 517-46 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Recent U.K. Labour Force Survey data are used to investigate marriage and family formation among the white and ethnic minority populations in Britain. The different age-sex structures of the white and ethnic minority groups are analysed and the increasing number of U.K.-born or 'second-generation' persons identified. Large differentials are seen between ethnic minority groups in the propensity to cohabit, marry and experience marital disruption. Average spousal age differences and the propensity to form interethnic unions are also distinctive. Resulting patterns of family and household composition are described."
Correspondence: A. Berrington, University of Southampton, Department of Social Statistics, Highfield, Southampton S09 5NH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:20359 Bonarini, Franco. On methods of analyzing divorce. [Sui metodi di analisi della divorzialita.] Genus, Vol. 49, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1993. 209-14 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita.
This is a note on the methodology of calculating divorce rates, which is illustrated using 1966 data for the United States.
Correspondence: F. Bonarini, Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Scienze Statistiche, via San Francesco 33, 35100 Padua, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20360 Denton, Trevor. Kinship, marriage and the family: eight time series, 35000 B.C. to 2000 A.D. International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Vol. 35, No. 3-4, Sep-Dec 1994. 240-51 pp. Leiden, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper presents long-range time series for eight concepts of marriage, family and kinship. Each time series is, respectively, a time series of the probability of living in a society where: 1) the ultimate sovereign group is a kinship unit; 2) the ultimate sovereign kinship group is an independent family; 3) the independent family is the predominant family form; 4) neolocal residence predominates; 5) bilateral kinship exists; 6) no consideration (or only bridal gifts) is given when obtaining a wife; 7) individuals have complete freedom to choose a spouse; and 8) where divorce occurs frequently....Uses for such time series are outlined."
Correspondence: T. Denton, Brandon University, Program in Anthropology, Brandon, Manitoba R7A 6A9, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:20361 Dyson-Hudson, Rada; Meekers, Dominique. The universality of African marriage reconsidered: evidence from Turkana males. Population Research Institute Working Paper in African Demography, No. AD95-02, Jan 1995. 38 pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"In this paper, we examine marriage patterns among male Turkana pastoralists of northwestern Kenya: the timing of first marriage, the proportion of males who never marry, and the factors that may affect these two variables. The data are from a sample of over 10,000 South Turkana pastoralists collected...between 1988 and 1993. These data demonstrate that among Turkana marriage is not, in fact, universal: some Turkana men who remain pastoralists choose not to marry; some leave the pastoral sector before marriage, thereby precluding traditional marriage; bridewealth requirements force many males to postpone marriage until they are middle-aged; and some men cannot yet marry because Turkana norms require their older brothers to marry first."
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6411. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20362 Farago, Tamas. Seasonality of marriages in Hungary from the eighteenth to the twentieth century. Journal of Family History, Vol. 19, No. 4, 1994. 333-50 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"In traditional Hungarian society the customary time for marriages and weddings was the late fall and the end of winter, according to earlier literature. But this picture does not correspond to the results of local studies in historical demography and does not fit the patterns identified through the analysis of official statistical data on marriage seasonality. There were at least half a dozen such regional patterns in traditional Hungarian society and these were defined much more strongly by religious denominations than by a connection to agriculture. The formation of regional seasonality patterns was also influenced by the level of urbanization and literacy, by the strength of traditional mentality, and of course by social and occupational stratification."
Correspondence: T. Farago, Miskolc University, 3515 Miskolc-Egyetemvaros, Hungary. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20363 Ferguson, Susan J. Marriage timing of Chinese American and Japanese American women. Journal of Family Issues, Vol. 16, No. 3, May 1995. 314-43 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"Using U.S. census data, this study examines the differences in marriage rates and timing among White, Chinese American, and Japanese American women. An accelerated time model estimates the duration until marriage for each racial-ethnic group while controlling for nativity, education, birth cohort, ancestry, and English proficiency. Results show that White women have the shortest duration until marriage, with a smaller percentage remaining never married. Chinese American and Japanese American women delay first marriage longer and have higher percentages of never married women."
Correspondence: S. J. Ferguson, Grinnell College, Grinnell, IA 50112. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:20364 Ganiger, S. B. Determinants of age at marriage in Karnataka during 1971-1981: a district level analysis. Journal of Institute of Economic Research, Vol. 27, No. 2, Jul 1992. 13-23 pp. Dharwad, India. In Eng.
"In this paper we examined the interdistrict variations in mean age at marriage of males and females in Karnataka [India] in two points of time, 1971 and 1981, and also the possible factors influencing this variation....A multivariate analysis of the determinants of mean age at marriage in Karnataka showed that literacy rate, sex ratio of the population and percentage of villages electrified are important in explaining the regional and time variation in age at marriage of both sexes....Our regression results indicated that a 10 per cent increase in female literacy rate is associated with approximately one-year increase in female age at marriage. However, neither the increase in female literacy nor the changes in the sex ratio of the population could explain all the increase in female age at marriage during 1971-81. This indirectly suggests that there was an increase in female age at marriage among all socio-economic groups."
Correspondence: S. B. Ganiger, Population Research Centre, Dharwad 580 004, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20365 Gariano, A. C. Religious identification and marriage. People and Place, Vol. 2, No. 1, 1994. 41-7 pp. Monash, Australia. In Eng.
"This study analyses religious intermix in Australia for both married and de facto couples. It uses 1991 Australian Bureau of Statistics customised matrix data purchased by the author....These data indicate that religious intermixing in Australia is only numerically significant amongst dominant religious groups....It seems that in de facto relationships religious adherence has little effect on choice of partner."
Correspondence: A. C. Gariano, University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW 2033, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20366 Goldscheider, Frances K. Divorce and remarriage: effects on the elderly population. PSTC Reprint Series, No. 94-06, Feb 1995. [7] pp. Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center [PSTC]: Providence, Rhode Island. In Eng.
The author discusses the consequences of divorce and remarriage among the elderly in the United States. Aspects considered include the rise in marital instability, recent trends in divorce and remarriage, and the effects of children's divorce and remarriage.
This article is reprinted from Reviews in Clinical Gerontology (Sevenoaks, England), Vol. 4, 1994, pp. 253-9.
Correspondence: Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20367 Guest, Philip; Tan, JooEan. Transformation of marriage patterns in Thailand. IPSR Publication, No. 176, ISBN 974-578-783-2. 1994. vi, 57 pp. Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research [IPSR]: Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. In Eng.
The authors use "microdata samples from the last three Thai censuses to describe an accelerating trend in Thai marriage patterns--increasing proportions never married at ages 30-44." The extent to which period changes in the proportion married is related to changes in the composition of the population is assessed.
Correspondence: Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research, 25/25 Putthamonthon 4 Road, Salaya, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20368 Gurak, Douglas T.; Falcon, Luis M.; Sandefur, Gary D.; Torrecilha, Ramon S. The stability of first informal and legal unions: Puerto Rican women in origin and destination contexts. Population and Development Program Working Paper Series, No. 94.03, 1994. 22, [2] pp. Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program: Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
"Using data from a probability sample of women residing in Puerto Rico and another of Puerto Rican women residing in the New York metropolitan area, the processes of disruption of first legal unions and of all first unions are examined using, as the principal analytic tool, piecewise exponential event history procedures. The results indicate that Puerto Rican patterns differ from those observed for the total U.S. population and other western societies, though the pattern found for residents of Puerto Rico is closer to the U.S. national pattern than is that of mainland Puerto Ricans."
This paper was prepared for presentation at the 1994 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program, 134 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20369 Hammes, Winfried. Divorces, 1993. [Ehescheidungen 1993.] Wirtschaft und Statistik, No. 12, Dec 1994. 978-84 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger.
Data are presented on divorces in Germany in 1993. Topics covered include duration of marriage, number of children involved, age of spouses, risk of divorce by age at marriage, and differences between the former East and West Germany and among states. Some comparative data for selected years since 1960 are also included.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

61:20370 Herlihy, David. Biology and history: the triumph of monogamy. Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Vol. 25, No. 4, Spring 1995. 571-83 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The author reviews recent theories concerning the history of marriage and the significance of differential reproduction in human groups. He argues "that historians should be sensitive to biological experience--more specifically, that they ought to consider the observations and the theories of those biologists who study how living species change through differential rates of reproduction and yet maintain a certain cultural stability." The reasons why monogamy became the dominant European form of marriage are revealed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SH).

61:20371 Hoffman, Saul D.; Duncan, Greg J. The effect of incomes, wages, and AFDC benefits on marital disruption. Journal of Human Resources, Vol. 30, No. 1, Winter 1995. 19-41 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"This paper uses a choice-based model to estimate the effects of a broad set of economic factors, including AFDC benefit levels, husband's earnings, and a woman's wage rate, on the probability of marital dissolution [in the United States]. We find that the probability of divorce is lower for marriages in which the husband's labor income is higher. We also find that while AFDC income has a substantial effect on welfare receipt by a divorced woman, it has a relatively small effect on the probability that a married woman will become divorced. Finally, we find no support for the hypothesis that rising wages for women have increased marital instability." Data are from the 1968-1987 cross-year family-individual file of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics.
Correspondence: S. D. Hoffman, University of Delaware, Department of Economics, Newark, DE 19716. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

61:20372 Ikenoue, Masako; Takahashi, Shigesato. Marital status life tables for Japan: 1975, 1980, 1985, and 1990. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 50, No. 2, Jul 1994. 73-96 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Marital status life tables are presented for Japan for the years 1975, 1980, 1985, and 1990. The tables show marital status by sex at each year of age up to age 90.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20373 Isiugo-Abanihe, Uche C. Nuptiality patterns, sexual activity and fertility in Nigeria. DHS Working Paper, No. 16, Dec 1994. 32 pp. Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Calverton, Maryland. In Eng.
"In this study we provide a detailed examination of the nuptiality patterns and differentials in Nigeria, with a focus mainly on age of entry into marital union, and marital stability among cultural groups in Nigeria....This study is particularly relevant against the background of the recent National Policy on Population which aims to achieve a drastic reduction in marital fertility in Nigeria, partly through programs that discourage early marriage and early initiation of childbearing." Data are primarily from the 1990-1991 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey.
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Calverton, MD 20705. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20374 Jaffee, Klaus; Chacon-Puignau, Grace. Assortative mating: sex differences in mate selection for married and unmarried couples. Human Biology, Vol. 67, No. 1, Feb 1995. 111-20 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
"We studied assortative mating for age, nationality, educational level, and occupational level in married and unmarried parents to test evolutionary models explaining mate selection among humans. We used the marriage and birth registers of the Venezuelan population to compare recently married, fertile married, and fertile unmarried couples. The results show significant assortative mating for all variables, but the results are strongest for age and education. These data suggest that (1) selection criteria based on age vary along the life cycle and differ between married and unmarried couples; (2) male's socioeconomic status is more related to the availability of younger females among unmarried couples compared with married couples, except for young couples; and (3) female selection for better (more educated and/or better employed) mates is stronger among married couples, whereas male selection for younger females or those showing actual reproductive potential is stronger among unmarried couples."
Correspondence: K. Jaffe, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Departamento de Biologia de Organismos, Apartado 89000, Caracas 1080, Venezuela. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20375 Japan. Institute of Population Problems (Tokyo, Japan). Changes in SMAM and proportions never married by region in Japan: 1920-1990. Institute of Population Problems Research Series, No. 277, Mar 3, 1993. 73 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
This report analyzes changes in marital status by age and region in Japan for the period 1920-1990.
Correspondence: Institute of Population Problems, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-45, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20376 Jones, Gavin W. Marriage and divorce in Islamic South-East Asia. South-East Asian Social Science Monographs, ISBN 967-65-3047-6. LC 93-38170. 1994. xvii, 348 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In Eng.
"The aim of this book is to examine marriage amongst the South-East Asian population of Malay stock....This population is an important one, constituting the main element in the populations of Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, and Southern Thailand, and an important element in Singapore and parts of the Philippines....Following a brief introduction to the Malay-Muslim world and some Islamic beliefs and practices pertaining to marriage and divorce in Chapter 1, Chapter 2 of this book goes on to look at the economic, social, and legal context in which the Muslim populations of South-East Asia live....Chapter 3 will then examine trends and differentials in age at first marriage, while Chapter 4 will assess what is known about the causes of these changes. In Chapters 5 and 6 attention turns to divorce, again focusing first on trends and differentials...and then on an assessment of causes....Polygamy is then discussed in Chapter 7, and in Chapter 8 the effect of changes in marriage and divorce on fertility. Chapter 9 draws the diverse strands together and reaches some conclusions."
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, 19-25 Jalan Kuchai Lama, 58200 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

61:20377 Kaneko, Ryuichi. Trends in demand and supply factors of marriage in the Japanese never-married population: findings from the Tenth Japanese National Fertility Survey. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 50, No. 2, Jul 1994. 1-24 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
"The purpose of the present paper is to describe findings from a survey on attitudes toward marriage and family among Japanese never-married youth from the point of view of the general framework of the demand and supply system. The survey was conducted as a part of the Tenth Japanese National Fertility Survey on the first of July in 1992....The results...indicate that never-married people in Japan are in a kind of paradoxical situation in which they complain about such difficulties...as insufficient availability of prospective spouses, while they have weaker motivation to get married....This situation can possibly be explained by [the] increasing level of expectation for marriage and spouse due to dynamic changes in [the perceived] function of marriage."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20378 Leete, Richard. The continuing flight from marriage and parenthood among the overseas Chinese in East and South-east Asia. In: Low fertility in East and Southeast Asia: issues and policies. Aug 1994. 3-27 pp. Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs [KIHASA]: Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
"By the mid-1980s it had become apparent that several countries in East and South-East Asia had not only completed the demographic transition at an historically unprecedented speed, but had entered a post-demographic transition phase largely unparalleled in the experiences of Western countries....Prominent in the East and South-East Asian post-demographic transition were the overseas Chinese, particularly but by no means exclusively, those in Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore and Taiwan....Although sharing the same traditional culture and similar customs, there are considerable sub-cultural differences between them, particularly with respect to the linguistic groups to which they belong....Yet despite these differences they have exhibited quite remarkable similarities in their patterns of demographic change. This chapter reviews their changed marriage and fertility behaviour in their historically unprecedented flight from marriage and parenthood, and assesses some of the policy considerations."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20379 Li, Nan; Feldman, M. W. Marriage squeeze and two-sex linear population model. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 6, No. 3, 1994. 303-10 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors describe a two-sex linear population model, with a focus on the marriage squeeze problem. "Marriage squeeze refers to the decline of female age-specific fertility rate as a result of women's difficulty in becoming married due to shortage of men."
Correspondence: N. Li, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Institute of Population Science, 26 Xianning Road, Xian 710049, Shaanxi, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20380 Li, Rongshi. A preliminary analysis of divorce in China. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1994. 189-99 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"With data from the 1982 and 1990 censuses and data of divorce from civil administration departments, it is possible to make a preliminary analysis on changes in the number of divorces and the population of divorcees in China since the 1980s." Aspects considered include regional differentials, sex differences, age patterns, and remarriage.
Correspondence: R. Li, Ministry of Civil Administration, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20381 Lichter, Daniel T.; Anderson, Robert N.; Hayward, Mark D. Marriage markets and marital choice. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 95-02, Oct 1994. 26, [5] pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"We test the hypothesis that demographic shortages of suitable marital partners [in the United States do] not lower the probability of marriage, but increase the likelihood that never-married women will: (1) marry men with characteristics dissimilar to their own; and (2) marry men with low socioeconomic status....We find that a favorable marriage market, measured in terms of the relative number of men to women, increases the odds of marrying a high-status man compared to a low-status man (as measured in terms of education and occupation). It also increases the chance of foregoing marriage rather than marrying low-status men."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1994 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6411. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20382 Locoh, Therese; Thiriat, Marie-Paule. Divorce and remarriage of women in West Africa: the situation in Togo. [Divorce et remariage des femmes en Afrique de l'Ouest: le cas du Togo.] Population, Vol. 50, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1995. 61-93 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The authors analyze trends in divorce and remarriage in Togo, using matrimonial data on women from the 1988 Demographic and Health Survey. The study "shows the fragility of couples during the first few years of marriage. Multivariance analysis measures the impact of the housing environment, level of education, matrimonial co-habitation, infertility and ethnic specificities on the risk of divorce. The last few years seem to have been marked by a rising trend in the probability of marriage breakups and remarriage."
Correspondence: T. Locoh, Centre Francais sur la Population et le Developpement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Medecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20383 Magnani, Robert J.; Bertrand, Jane T.; Makani, Bakutuvwidi; McDonald, Stacy W. Men, marriage and fatherhood in Kinshasa, Zaire. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 21, No. 1, Mar 1995. 19-25, 47 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The analysis described in this article uses data from a recent fertility and family planning survey in Kinshasa, Zaire....The primary objective of this article is to examine age at first sexual activity and marriage, numbers and types of conjugal unions, numbers of children fathered within and outside of formal unions, and socioeconomic differentials in these characteristics. We also assess the extent to which these patterns may be changing and the short-to-medium-term implications of these changes for men, women and children and for family planning program efforts." Results indicate that "age at first sexual activity has declined from 19.6 among men aged 50 or older to 16.6 among those aged 20-29 at the time of the survey. Age at first formal marriage, however, has remained stable over time at about 25 years. Although polygyny is illegal in Zaire, about 8% of currently married men in this study have more than one wife. Marital dissolution is common....Almost 66% of men have fathered a child...;those who have fathered a child have an average of 5.1 children."
Correspondence: R. J. Magnani, Tulane University, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112-2699. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20384 Martin, Claude. Differences in post-separation trajectories: between the risk of loneliness, defense of independence, and family recomposition. [Diversite des trajectoires post-desunion: entre le risque de solitude, la defense de son autonomie et la recomposition familiale.] Population, Vol. 49, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1994. 1,557-83 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Although the available data show that family recomposition [following separation] is commoner in lower income groups than in middle and upper income ones, particularly for economic reasons, account should also be taken of the participants' own logic and the conditions determining the type of family and couple formed. This article presents the range of post separation outcomes based on two mail surveys [in France], conducted at a 3-year interval (1987 and 90), of a cohort of 336 separated and divorced parents with children in their custody. The type of structure created and the difficulties caused by family breakdown are affected by age, sex and cultural background and whether the partners are employed or not before and after the breakdown. Differences in terms of social class are also found in solidarity expressed by close friends and kin."
Correspondence: C. Martin, Ecole National de la Sante Publique, Avenue du Professeur Leon Bernard, 35043 Rennes Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20385 McDonald, Peter. Marriage, family formation, living arrangements and household composition in low fertility countries. In: Low fertility in East and Southeast Asia: issues and policies. Aug 1994. 61-89 pp. Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs [KIHASA]: Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
"The paper has examined the extent to which family changes in East Asia (and to a lesser extent in Southeast Asia) have been related to improvements in the status of women. The analysis has been conducted in the general framework of Westernisation, manifest through individuals seeking solutions to their changing environment in terms of four, sometimes conflicting needs: autonomy, intimacy, aspiration and acceptance. It seems that the evidence is very strong that family changes across East Asia are highly related to increases in education levels and participation of women in the modern economy." Particular attention is paid to changing marriage patterns and living arrangements in the region.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20386 Meekers, Dominique; Franklin, Nadra. Women's perceptions of polygyny among the Kaguru of Tanzania. Population Research Institute Working Paper in African Demography, No. AD95-01, Nov 1994. 20 pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"This study examines women's perceptions of polygyny, using data from ethnographic interviews among a sample of Kaguru women [in Tanzania]. The results suggest that there appears to be a widespread rejection of polygynous unions among Kaguru women....In evaluating polygyny, Kaguru women are mostly concerned with the impact that a divergence of resources from the husband to the co-wife may have on their own welfare and that of their children."
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6411. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20387 Mina Valdes, Alejandro. Changes in nuptiality in Mexico: 1970-2000. [Cambios en la nupcialidad en Mexico: 1970-2000.] Estudios Demograficos y Urbanos, Vol. 8, No. 2, May-Aug 1993. 445-57 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The author estimates changes in nuptiality in Mexico between 1970 and 2000, using the model developed by Ansley Coale.
Correspondence: A. Mina Valdes, El Colegio de Mexico, Centro de Estudios Demograficos y de Desarrollo Urbano, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20388 Niraula, Bhanu B. Marriage changes in the central Nepali hills. Journal of Asian and African Studies, Vol. 29, No. 1-2, Jan-Apr 1994. 91-109 pp. Leiden, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper documents the age pattern of marriage and marriage practices in the central hills of Nepal. Socioeconomic differentials in age at marriage and marriage practices are identified and sources of variations are explained. Furthermore the paper concludes that age at marriage and the manner in which marriages are arranged are changing in the study area and probably are changing in other similar settings in Nepal. It is argued that changes in age at marriage and marriage practices are brought about by attitudinal changes which in turn are affected by the broader process of socioeconomic change in the society."
Correspondence: B. B. Niraula, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:20389 Nishida, Shigeki; Kimura, Masabumi. Marriage, divorce, and birth and stillbirth by legitimacy in Japan for the period between 1920 and 1940. Japanese Journal of Public Health and Human Ecology, Vol. 60, No. 3, 1994. 129-39 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
"The purpose of this study is a re-evaluation of population dynamics, especially of marriage, divorce, and stillbirth by legitimacy, in Japan...from 1920 to 1940. Marriage rates over this period were estimated to be around 60 to 80 per 1,000 unmarried women over age 15 and showed a decrease until the mid-1930s. Divorce rates were estimated to be around three to five per 1,000 married women and showed a clear decrease since 1920. Illegitimate birth rates also showed a clear decrease from 27 to eight per 1,000 unmarried women over age 15 in the study period. Ratios of illegitimate births to all births also showed a clear decrease."
Correspondence: S. Nishida, Institute of Public Health, Department of Demography and Health Statistics, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, 4-chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20390 Prioux, France. The law and unmarried families in France. [Le droit et les familles non mariees en France.] Population, Vol. 49, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1994. 1,347-73 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"In the eyes of French law at the start of the 1960s, only marriage and marital procreation were allowed to form a true family...and divorce was only authorised in serious cases. The legislation in the 1970s gave illegitimate children a family if they were recognised by both parents and authorised divorce by mutual consent....Having examined the main laws governing the relations between unmarried family members (status of illegitimate children, right to divorce, parental authority) and having placed the French reforms in a European context, the author analyses the demographic and legal statistics on such families: recognition of illegitimate children, legitimisation, filiation and parental rights suits, divorce and suits following the granting of divorce."
Correspondence: F. Prioux, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20391 Ronsin, Francis. War and nuptiality: some thoughts on the effects of World War II and two other wars on French marriage rates. [Guerre et nuptialite: reflexions sur l'influence de la seconde guerre mondiale, et de deux autres, sur la nuptialite des Francais.] Population, Vol. 50, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1995. 119-48 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Having shown the shortfalls in the literature on the Second World War period in France, F. Ronsin looks at two more recent events: the Algerian War and the Gulf War, to prove that the psychological effects of fighting and even the threat of conflict cannot be neglected. Thus the monthly marriage rate in 1956 cannot only be explained by French reservists being sent to Algeria. The British-French intervention in Egypt and that of the Warsaw pact troops in Hungary had observable effects. Although the Gulf War only mobilized an insignificant French contingent, which was not involved in any actual combat duty and which did not suffer any casualties, the invasive and alarming media coverage seems to have had some effect on marriage rates. The author then returns to the Second World War by emphasizing some effects of public morale on marriage statistics, and concludes by suggesting different research methods to better elucidate the relationships between war and marriage rates."
Correspondence: F. Ronsin, Universite de Dijon, Dijon, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20392 Sakai, Hiromichi. Influence of sibship structure on age at marriage. Jinkogaku Kenkyu/Journal of Population Studies, No. 15, May 1992. 57-61 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
The impact of sibship structure on age at marriage in Japan over the period 1955-1985 is examined.
Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

61:20393 South, Scott J.; Lloyd, Kim M. Spousal alternatives and marital dissolution. American Sociological Review, Vol. 60, No. 1, Feb 1995. 21-35 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Using three data sources we explore the effects of the quantity and quality of potential new marital partners available in local marriage markets on the risk of marital dissolution. Data from the [U.S.] National Survey of Families and Households demonstrate that, among recently-divorced men and women, a substantial percentage had been romantically involved with someone other than their spouse prior to divorcing. Merging microlevel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth with aggregated Public Use Microdata from the 1980 U.S. Census, we examine the impact of marriage market characteristics and other contextual variables on the risk of marital dissolution, net of individual-level predictors....Our results suggest that many persons remain open to alternative relationships even while married, and that the supply of spousal alternatives in the local marriage market significantly increases the risk of marital dissolution."
Correspondence: S. J. South, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12222. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20394 Todd, Barbara J. Demographic determinism and female agency: the remarrying widow reconsidered...again. Continuity and Change, Vol. 9, No. 3, Dec 1994. 421-50 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"This paper challenges the demographic explanation for declining remarriage rates amongst seventeenth-century English widows. Boulton's 1990 study of Stepney widows stressed the effects of a low sex ratio in late-seventeenth-century London, and assumed that poor widows' desire to remarry remained strong. This paper discusses the economic and cultural reasons why even poor widows were part of the one group of women for whom the married state was not automatically desirable. It queries whether sex-ratio differentials based on burials or estimates of emigration abroad are a useful index of opportunity for remarriage, and shows that remarriage also declined among widows in two Berkshire communities where sex ratios remained almost constant."
For the study by Jeremy Boulton, see 57:10394.
Correspondence: B. J. Todd, University of Toronto, Department of History, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20395 Toth, Olga; Robert, Peter. Sociological and historical aspects of entry into marriage. Journal of Family History, Vol. 19, No. 4, 1994. 351-68 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"This study analyses the timing of first entry into marriage of Hungarian men and women born between 1916 and 1967. Marriages take place at a considerably earlier age than the West European average, and at the same time show significant differences between cohorts. In the course of the analysis we consider the social and economic circumstances which affect the timing of entry into marriage, and we connect the variables of men and women's educational attainment with their age at marriage. In each cohort we examine the sociological characteristics of those who marry significantly earlier or later than the average for their generation, i.e. than the 'normal' age."
Correspondence: O. Toth, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Sociology, P.O. Box 527, Budapest 1538, Hungary. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20396 Toulemon, Laurent. The place of children in a couple's history. [La place des enfants dans l'histoire des couples.] Population, Vol. 49, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1994. 1,321-45 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The rise in the illegitimate birth rate [in France] has resulted from the desire of many cohabiting couples to have children without transforming their relationship into marriage. Since the 1960s, the risk of marital breakdown has risen almost as greatly in couples with and without children. Having a very young child strongly reduces the instantaneous risk of breakdown, but once he or she has reached the age of six without a brother or sister, the risk of breakdown is similar to that in childless couples. Unmarried couples are much more fragile than married ones whether they have children or not. The increased risk of breakdown in couples is due to factors unrelated to fertility behaviour."
Correspondence: L. Toulemon, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20397 van Hoorn, W. D. Single mothers relatively often did not grow up in a family. [Alleenstaande moeders zijn vaak buiten een gezin opgegroeid.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 42, No. 11, Nov 1994. 19-21 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"Since 1960 the marital status of single parents has shifted strongly in the Netherlands. Fewer single parents are widows or widowers and more are divorced. At the moment about half of single parents are divorced. The proportion of never-married single parents has grown only slightly."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20398 Waite, Linda J.; Sheps, Judith. The impact of religious upbringing and marriage markets on Jewish intermarriage. Population Research Center Discussion Paper Series, No. 94-15, Apr 1994. 21, [8] pp. University of Chicago, National Opinion Research Center [NORC], Population Research Center: Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"This paper uses data from the 1990 [U.S.] National Jewish Population Survey to examine determinants of intermarriage of Jewish men and women entering a first marriage between 1923 and 1990. We develop and test a series of hypotheses about the effect of religious upbringing, family background and personal characteristics on the probability of intermarriage. Our results show evidence of change in the determinants of intermarriage for cohorts marrying prior to and after 1970. Religious family background and religious education both have some effect on the chances of intermarriage. We also examine the effect of the size of the Jewish population in the metropolitan area of residence on intermarriage for very recent marriages; we find that the larger the Jewish population in the area the lower the chances that a Jewish man or woman marries someone of another religion."
Correspondence: University of Chicago, National Opinion Research Center, Population Research Center, 1155 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20399 Weiss, Yoram. Economists and the formation of couples: the working of marriage and the marriage market. [Les economistes et la formation des couples: le functionnement du mariage et du marche matrimonial.] Population, Vol. 49, No. 4-5, Jul-Oct 1994. 1,015-39 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"This survey summarizes the main ideas that economists bring to the analysis of marriage and divorce. The new perspective of economists is that marriage, when viewed as a voluntary union of rational individuals, is subject to the same tools of analysis as other economic phenomena....This survey does not enumerate individual contributions and does not summarize empirical findings. Instead, the reader is exposed to the main ideas in an integrated fashion, using simple models....The survey covers the following topics: gains from marriage, resource allocation within the family and the role of altruism, assortative matching and search for a mate."
Correspondence: Y. Weiss, Tel Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv, 69 978 Tel Aviv, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20400 Wood, Robert G. Marriage rates and marriageable men: a test of the Wilson hypothesis. Journal of Human Resources, Vol. 30, No. 1, Winter 1995. 163-93 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"This article examines the hypothesis that recent declines in [U.S.] black marriage rates have been driven by a declining pool of high-earning, young black men. Using 1970 and 1980 SMSA-level Census data to estimate a fixed effect model of black marriage rates, I find that declines in the pool of 'marriageable' black men are responsible for only a small fraction of the decline in black marriage rates. My estimates suggest that this decline in the number of high-earning, young black men explains only 3 to 4 percent of the decline in black marriage rates during the 1970s."
Correspondence: R. G. Wood, Mathematica Policy Research, P.O. Box 2393, Princeton, NJ 08543-2393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

61:20401 Wu, Zheng; Balakrishnan, T. R. Dissolution of premarital cohabitation in Canada. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 94-5, ISBN 0-7714-1687-3. Mar 1994. 44, [8] pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
"In this study we examine the two competing outcomes of cohabitation relationships [in Canada]: union separation and legalization through marriage. We find that the hazard rate of the union dissolution changes depending in particular on gender, age at cohabitation, year of cohabitation, fertility status, partner's marital status, religion and region. We discuss the implications of these results."
Correspondence: University of Western Ontario, Department of Sociology, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20402 Wu, Zheng. Premarital cohabitation and postmarital cohabiting union formation. Journal of Family Issues, Vol. 16, No. 2, Mar 1995. 212-32 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"Previous research has indicated that premarital cohabitation decreases marital stability. This study examined the role of premarital cohabitation as a determinant of cohabitation after marital disruption. The author proposed that people who cohabited with their first spouse prior to marriage have a greater propensity to cohabit after marital disruption than people who did not cohabit before their first marriage. Event history analysis of the postmarital union experiences of women and men from the Canadian 1990 Family and Friends Survey (FFS) supports this proposition. It was found that the hazard rate of postmarital cohabitation was over 50% higher for premarital cohabitants than for noncohabitants."
Correspondence: Z. Wu, University of Victoria, Department of Sociology, P.O. Box 3050, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 3P5, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:20403 Wu, Zheng. The stability of cohabitation relationships: the role of children. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 47, No. 1, Feb 1995. 231-6 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"Our review of the existing evidence on the effects of children on marital stability led us to propose that the presence of children in a cohabitation relationship is very likely to inhibit the cohabiting couple from terminating their relationship. Using [Canadian] event history data from the 1990 Family and Friends Survey on 3,015 cohabitation relationships, we found that while the presence of children has a strong and positive impact on stabilizing cohabitation relationships, charcteristics of children such as their number, sex, and age appear to have no significant effect. The implications of these results are discussed."
Correspondence: Z. Wu, University of Victoria, Department of Sociology, P.O. Box 3050, Victoria, British Columbia, V8W 3P5, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20404 Zeng, Yi; Vaupel, James W.; Wang, Zhenglian. Marriage and fertility in China: 1950-1989. Genus, Vol. 49, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1993. 17-34 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"This article presents a graphical and a life table analysis that summarizes some 14,000 values of data by single year of age and time on marriage and fertility in China up to 1989. In the 1970s, age at first marriage shifted upward by about four years, and fertility dramatically declined. The age at marriage and childbearing decreased in [the] 1980s, which are associated with some socio-economic factors. Fertility rates slightly increased in the second half of the 1980s, from their low level in 1984. The analysis also reveals that Chinese marriage and childbearing remain virtually universal and occurred at rather young ages." Data are from the 1988 2-in-1,000 fertility and contraceptive survey.
Correspondence: Y. Zeng, Peking University, Institute of Population Research, Hai Dian, Beijing 100871, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

G.2. Family and Household

Studies of household structure and of family composition and size and the factors influencing them. Includes the full range of family concepts from the one-parent to the extended family and includes studies on the life course of the family. Studies on attitudes toward family size are coded under F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control .

61:20405 Aytac, Isik A.; Waite, Linda J. The impact of employment and employment characteristics on men's and women's social support to family. Population Research Center Discussion Paper Series, No. 95-4, Jan 1995. 32 pp. University of Chicago, National Opinion Research Center [NORC], Population Research Center: Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"We use data from the [U.S.] National Survey of Families and Households to examine the extent to which employment and job characteristics facilitate or constrain emotional, instrumental, and financial support given by men and women to parents, adult children and siblings who do not live with them. The logistic regression results indicate that while resources gained through employment facilitate support, with very few exceptions the constraints imposed by employment do not substantially reduce the provision of support to near-relations, neither time spent commuting, hours of work, nor employment status--including retirement--affect social support given to family."
Correspondence: University of Chicago, National Opinion Research Center, Population Research Center, 1155 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20406 Bozon, Michel; Villeneuve-Gokalp, Catherine. The relations between generations at the end of adolescence. [Les enjeux des relations entre generations a la fin de l'adolescence.] Population, Vol. 49, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1994. 1,527-55 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"We have examined how compromises have been established between generations at the end of adolescence using a survey conducted by INED in 1993 on 3,000 young adults aged 25 to 34 [in France]. Boys and girls show a great difference in the degree of control on their going out, friends and love lives. Controls are much stricter for girls. The difference between the sexes varies with social class, being much greater in the working classes than in the upper classes. Where control is strictest, relations between parents and young people sometimes evolve into open conflict which can upset the transition into adulthood through leaving home earlier."
Correspondence: M. Bozon, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20407 Bozon, Michel; Villeneuve-Gokalp, Catherine. Ways of leaving the parental home. [L'art et la maniere de quitter ses parents.] Population et Societes, No. 297, Jan 1995. 4 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
The process of leaving home by young adults in France is described using recent census and survey data. Differences between the sexes in subsequent residence patterns and in tendencies to return to the parental home are noted.
Correspondence: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20408 Bumpass, Larry L.; Raley, R. Kelly. Redefining single-parent families: cohabitation and changing family reality. Demography, Vol. 32, No. 1, Feb 1995. 97-109 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper explores the implications, for the measured prevalence and duration of mother-only families, of marked changes in nonmarital fertility, unmarried cohabitation, and homeleaving and re-entry [in the United States]. Throughout, estimates are compared on the basis of marital definitions and definitions including cohabitation. The duration of the first single-parent spell appears to have increased under the marital definition, but declines substantially when cohabitations are taken into account. A substantial proportion of single mothers have spent some time as single parents while in their parents' household. Hence we argue that definitions of single-parent families must be based on living arrangements rather than on the parents' marital status."
This paper was originally presented at the 1993 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: L. L. Bumpass, University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20409 Condran, Gretchen A.; Furstenberg, Frank F. Trends in child welfare and transformations in the American family. [Evolution du bien-etre des enfants et transformations de la famille americaine.] Population, Vol. 49, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1994. 1,613-37 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Is there any detectable synchronism between [U.S.] trends in the number of working mothers and divorce rates or numbers of births out of wedlock and trends in the number of teenagers gaining secondary school qualifications or going into higher education, drug or alcohol consumption, committing suicide or murder and having children out of wedlock?...Some indicators show more or less continuous improvement in the welfare of young people (proportion with secondary school qualifications) while others show a deterioration now curbed (access to higher education, alcohol and drug consumption, etc.) while yet others are a sign of continuous deterioration (murder, suicide, illegitimate births). The latter are thus the only ones that could demonstrate a correlation with family transformations....Overall, the general idea of the harmful effects of changes in the family on the welfare of children should be treated with the strongest reservations."
Correspondence: G. A. Condran, Temple University, Broad Street and Montgomery Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19122. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20410 Duncan, Greg J.; Yeung, Jean W.; Rodgers, Willard. Single-parent families in the United States: dynamics, standard of living, and consequences for child development. [Les familles monoparentales aux Etats-Unis: dynamique, niveau de vie et consequences sur le developpement de l'enfant.] Population, Vol. 49, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1994. 1,419-35 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"More than one-third of all children born in the United States in the mid-1970s spent at least part of their childhoods living in female-headed families. Such family structures are found to be transitory in many cases, especially among whites. Family incomes are substantially reduced during the time children spend in female-headed families....Children in mother-only families do worse along a number of developmental dimensions. In the case of cognitive development but not behavior problems, economic differences account for the bulk of the family structure effects."
Correspondence: G. J. Duncan, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20411 Ekert-Jaffe, Olivia. Estimating the changing cost of children? A change in society, and a citicism of some concepts. [Chiffrer une evolution du cout de l'enfant? Changement de societe, mise en cause des concepts.] Population, Vol. 49, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1994. 1,389-418 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
This is a review of the literature on the costs of having and raising children. The author notes that "initially, when the aim was to fight against poverty and maintain family living standards, research was directed to setting nutritional and budget standards. Subsequent research methods were based on household behaviour which was decreasingly focused on satisfying their basic needs. From 1964, economic models were based on the welfare of parents who make both economic and fertility decisions. The latest research tests the compatibility of the models with observed consumer behaviour. It shows that household consumption does not give any information on welfare in different types of households at a point of time, but gives a full comparison of trends in these welfare levels after setting their value at a point by convention."
Correspondence: O. Ekert-Jaffe, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20412 Ermisch, John. Economics, politics, and changes in the family. [Economie, politique et changement familial.] Population, Vol. 49, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1994. 1,377-87 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Changes in marriage, divorce and fertility rates in Europe and other industrialised countries over the last twenty years have had deep repercussions on family structure. They have been accompanied by a large increase in the proportion of working women, particularly mothers....The changes in the job market and law affecting female employment have had repercussions on divorce and fertility as changes in divorce have had repercussions on fertility and female employment. Family structure has thus been transformed, increasing the risk of poverty, particularly because of the greater number of one-parent families."
Correspondence: J. Ermisch, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20413 Ermisch, John F.; Wright, Robert E. Entry to lone parenthood: an analysis of marital dissolution in Great Britain. Genus, Vol. 50, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1994. 75-95 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"This paper examines some...socio-economic determinants of lone parenthood in Great Britain, in an attempt to understand further the reasons behind the rapid growth in lone parenthood. Since divorce and separation are the major 'causes' of lone parenthood, this paper focuses on the determinants of marital dissolution among women with dependent children. The empirical analysis is guided by hypotheses suggested by the 'economic theory of marriage'. Hazard regression equations are estimated with data collected in the 1980 Women and Employment Survey...."
Correspondence: J. F. Ermisch, University of Essex, Economic and Social Research Council, Research Centre on Micro-Social Change, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester CO4 3SQ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20414 Festy, Patrick. Children in the families: twenty years of change in the family environment of children. [L'enfant dans la famille: vingt ans de changement dans l'environnement familial des enfants.] Population, Vol. 49, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1994. 1,245-96 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"A growing number of children [in France] are now born to unmarried parents: 6% around 1965 against 33% in 1992, although the proportion of children born to mothers living alone...has not increased and has remained marginal. There has, however, been enormous growth in the number of 'illegitimate children' recognised by their fathers...since birth. An increasing proportion of children born 'out of wedlock' come from couples already formed at the time of conception....In recent cohorts, one in four children under 18 will experience at least one period of separation from one of its parents, compared to one in six in the 1966-70 cohorts, due to divorce (18%), separation in unmarried couples (5%) or never having known their father (1 to 2%)."
Correspondence: P. Festy, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20415 Festy, Patrick. Children in the family: twenty years of change. [L'enfant dans la famille: vingt ans de changements.] Population, Vol. 49, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1994. 1,245-637 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
This is a special issue on children and the family, with a focus on changes over the past 20 years. Sections are included on changes in the family framework, quality of life of families and their children, and family configurations and the well-being of children.
Correspondence: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20416 Folbre, Nancy. Who pays for the kids? Gender and the structures of constraint. Economics as Social Theory Series, ISBN 0-415-07564-5. LC 93-17207. 1994. xi, 335 pp. Routledge: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
This study examines how the costs of caring for ourselves, our children, and other dependents are distributed among members of society. "The first purpose of this book is to show that economists have not paid sufficient attention to relationships between men and women or parents and children, and that, as a result, they have failed to provide a convincing analysis of economic development, political conflict, or social welfare....The second purpose of this book is to develop the...hypothesis [that] both production and social reproduction are shaped by diverse forms of collective action. Groups organized along lines of gender and age make particularly conspicuous efforts to reinforce the institutional arrangements that they find advantageous, and to change those they find burdensome....The third purpose of this book is to illustrate and substantiate its hypothesis through the use of historical narratives." These concepts are considered for three separate societies, northwestern Europe, the United States, and Latin America and the Caribbean.
Correspondence: Routledge, 11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

61:20417 Gauthier, Anne H. Effects of low fertility on child development. In: Low fertility in East and Southeast Asia: issues and policies. Aug 1994. 90-107 pp. Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs [KIHASA]: Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
The author analyzes the consequences of low fertility on child development, using data for the United States and discussing the relevance for Asia. "The first [part] discusses the effects of low fertility on child development at the theoretical level....The second part presents some empirical evidences of the relation between family size and child development. The third part focuses on the effect of non-demographic variables on child development....The final part concludes by examining the policy implications of these findings...."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20418 Harrop, Anne; Plewis, Ian. Two decades of family change: secondary analysis of continuous government surveys. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A: Statistics in Society, Vol. 158, No. 1, 1995. 91-106 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Secondary analysis of General Household Survey and Labour Force Survey data shows how the structure of families in Great Britain has changed over the last 20 years. Dependent children are now less likely to be living in a couple family and more likely to be living with a lone mother who is either single or divorced. Families in simple households with just two generations have become more common over time. Lone mothers are now more likely to be living in simple households. The paper also considers how the number and ages of dependent children are associated with family and household type. Log-linear models are used both to smooth the data and to predict family structure in the year 2000. Gaps in our knowledge about current family structures are discussed together with implications of the findings for social policy."
Correspondence: A. Harrop, University of London, Institute of Education, Tomas Coram Research Unit, 27-28 Woburn Square, London WC1H 0AA, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

61:20419 Haskey, John. Estimated numbers of one-parent families and their prevalence in Great Britain in 1991. Population Trends, No. 78, Winter 1994. 5-19 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This article gives the final estimate of the number of one-parent families in Great Britain in 1991--1.3 million--and a provisional estimate--of 1.4 million--for 1992....The article also examines the family sizes of one-parent families; the profiles by marital status of both lone mothers and lone fathers; the ages of lone parents and of their dependent children, and the geographical variation in the prevalence of lone parenthood within Great Britain in 1991. Finally, census data on the family composition of households are examined to investigate the extent to which lone parent families live in multi-family households, and the relationship between the lone parent and the head of the other main family in the household."
Correspondence: J. Haskey, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, Population Statistics Division, St. Catherine's House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20420 Hirosima, Kiyosi; Oe, Moriyuki; Yamanoto, Chizuko; Mita, Fusami; Kojima, Katsuhisa. Projection of household conditions of the elderly in Japan. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 50, No. 2, Jul 1994. 25-51 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
"The household condition of the elderly [in Japan]...was estimated for the years 1975, 1980, 1985 and 1990, and was projected for the years 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010, using the population census tabulations and the future population by age and sex projected in 1992....The population aged 65 and over belonging to a 'couple only household' (5,905 thousand) is projected to surpass the population belonging to a 'household with their child' (4,260 thousand) in 2010 for males, while the latter will be...more (6,812 thousand) than the former (5,115 thousand) for females in the same year. The elderly population aged 65 and over in one-person households is projected to increase more remarkably for males than females."
Correspondence: K. Hirosima, Institute of Population Problems, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-45, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20421 Horton, Hayward D.; Thomas, Melvin E.; Herring, Cedrick. Rural-urban differences in black family structure: an analysis of the 1990 census. Journal of Family Issues, Vol. 16, No. 3, May 1995. 298-313 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
This article examines the relationship between family structure and persisting disadvantage among U.S. blacks. The "article employs data from the 1990 Public Use Microdata Samples to compare the rural African American family to its urban counterpart. Results from the logistic regression analysis reveal that for rural Blacks, family structure is less important than community type and race relative to poverty status. These findings suggest a need for a refinement of the underclass debate."
Correspondence: H. D. Horton, Iowa State University, Department of Sociology, 217A East Hall, Ames, IA 50011. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:20422 Hotz, V. Joseph; Kilburn, M. Rebecca. Regulating child care: the effects of state regulations on child care demand and its cost. Population Research Center Discussion Paper Series, No. 94-10, Oct 1994. 65 pp. University of Chicago, National Opinion Research Center [NORC], Population Research Center: Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"In this paper, we examine the effects of existing [U.S.] state-level child care regulations on the cost, or price, of non-parental child care, the demand for (non-parental) child care by parents, and the mother's decision to enter the labor force....In our empirical analysis, we analyze the child care decisions of all parents with preschool age children, including households with working and non-working mothers, using child care data from the 1986 wave of the National Longitudinal Survey of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS72)....Our evidence indicates that state regulations both increase the cost of child care as well as have direct (non-price) effects on utilization but that their total effect tends to reduce the utilization of market-based child care, especially among households with non-working mothers. Since economically disadvantaged and black women are disproportionately represented in the latter group, it appears that one of the consequences of regulations [is] to deter the utilization of child care by households with children for whom the purported developmental benefits of organized day care might be most beneficial."
Correspondence: University of Chicago, National Opinion Research Center, Population Research Center, 1155 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20423 Japan. Institute of Population Problems (Tokyo, Japan). A study of the family function and its change. Concepts of the family function on the white paper. Institute of Population Problems Research Series, No. 279, Aug 31, 1993. 89 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
This report includes the text of two recent reports on the family in Japan.
Correspondence: Institute of Population Problems, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-45, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20424 Japan. Institute of Population Problems (Tokyo, Japan). The second demographic survey on changes in the family life course and household structure. Field Survey Series, Dec 25, 1992. 106 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
This report presents information from the second demographic survey on changes in the family life course and in household structure in Japan. It covers the period 1984-1989.
Correspondence: Institute of Population Problems, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-45, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20425 Kaufmann, Jean-Claude. One-person households in Europe. [Les menages d'une personne en Europe.] Population, Vol. 49, No. 4-5, Jul-Oct 1994. 935-58 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The paper is based on a review of European research and shows a series of important characteristics of single-person households. The prevalence of these households differs between social groups and they are commonest at either end of the social scale, particularly among men. Patterns of living alone during their life cycles differ for men and women. Finally, single-person households are rarely durable, except among the elderly, and often constitute a series of very brief experiments for the young."
Correspondence: J.-C. Kaufmann, Universite de Paris V, 28 rue Serpente, 75006 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20426 Klinger, Andras; Kamaras, Ferenc; Hablicsek, Laszlo. The family in Hungarian society today. A scientific conference on the occasion of the International Year of the Family, November 24-25, 1994. [Csalad a mai magyar tarsadalomban. Tudomanyos konferencia a Nemzetkozi Csaladev alkalmabol, 1994, November 24-25.] Demografia, Vol. 37, No. 3-4, 1994. 261-427 pp. Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia, Demografiai Bizottsaga: Budapest, Hungary. Distributed by Kultura: Hungarian Trading Company for Books, P.O. Box 149, Budapest 62, Hungary. In Hun.
This special issue contains papers presented at a 1994 conference on families in contemporary Hungary. The papers cover such topics as recent trends in nuptiality, economic aspects of families, divorce, child raising, and care of the elderly.
Correspondence: Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia, Demografiai Bizottsaga, Fenyes Elek u. 14/18, 1024 Budapest II, Hungary. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20427 Lam, David; Schoeni, Robert F. Family ties and labor markets in the United States and Brazil. Journal of Human Resources, Vol. 29, No. 4, Fall 1994. 1,235-58 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"We use comparable surveys from Brazil and the United States to examine 'vertical' and 'horizontal' connections between families. Motivated by a model of assortative mating and intergenerational transmission of schooling and earnings, we include the schooling of relatives in male wage equations. We find that the effect of father-in-law's schooling is larger than the effect of father's schooling in Brazil, while the opposite is observed in the United States. We interpret these effects as indicators of unobservable worker characteristics, with differences in assortative mating and female labor market activity explaining the differences in the apparent effect of fathers and fathers-in-law in the two countries."
Correspondence: D. Lam, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1248. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20428 Lefranc, Christophe; Thave, Suzanne. Changes in the family environment of children. [L'evolution de l'environnement familial des enfants.] Population, Vol. 49, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1994. 1,297-320 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Census data [have enabled us] to follow changes in children's family environments [in France] within households at seven to eight-year intervals. At the end of the 1960s, 93% of children under 16 lived with a couple of married parents. This largely dominant model has since declined significantly but still concerned 82% of children in 1990. The youngest children are most likely to have parents living as unmarried couples. Today there are more older children living in single-parent families produced by divorce....The last two decades have also been marked by a fall in the number of other persons living in the same household as the children, particularly through a reduction in the number of siblings....Young adults aged 16 to 24...are now less likely at a given age to have already founded a family and tend to live with their parents even longer. Employment rates are also lower for these young adults...."
Correspondence: C. Lefranc, Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, 18 boulevard Adolphe Pinard, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20429 Lesthaeghe, R.; Moors, G. Is there a new conservatism that will bring back the old family? Ideational trends and the stages of family formation in Germany, France, Belgium and the Netherlands, 1981-1990. IPD Working Paper, No. 1995-1, 1995. 18 pp. Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Interuniversity Programme in Demography: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
The evidence for a move toward more traditional family values in Europe is examined. The authors examine two issues in particular: "(i) the statistical association between the religious, ethical and political orientations of individuals on the one hand and life course events such as home leaving, cohabitation, parenthood and progression to higher parities on the other hand; [and] (ii) the trends in the ideational correlates themselves between 1981 and 1990...." Data are for Belgium, France, West Germany, and the Netherlands, and cover the period 1981-1990.
Correspondence: Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Centrum voor Sociologie, Interuniversity Programme in Demography, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20430 Lesthaeghe, Ron; Moors, Guy. Explaining the diversity of family and domestic types: economic theory or cultural influence. [Expliquer la diversite des formes familiales et domestiques: theories economiques ou dimensions culturelles.] Population, Vol. 49, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1994. 1,503-25 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Decisions on family formation (cohabiting or getting married, divorce, having children, leaving home) and domestic situations (having an outside job or staying at home) are explained reductively by contemporary theories such as those of G. Becker and R. Easterlin. The cultural dimension should be added. This is shown by analysing the European survey on values in 1990 in four countries (West Germany, France, Belgium and the Netherlands). From 30 indicators belonging to 11 scales of values, we have extracted three dimensions of conservatism which were found to be associated with family and domestic choices in men and women aged 20-29 and 30-50."
Correspondence: R. Lesthaeghe, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20431 Liu, Qiming. A comparative study and causal analysis of women's family status in contemporary China. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1994. 101-11 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper is [an] attempt to empirically analyze the family status of Chinese women at various levels and in different regions based on the original data from the [1991] 'Survey on Women's Status in Contemporary China'....Certain relevant definitions offered by Western scholars on women's status are borrowed in the analyses which focus on 'female gender' but use 'male gender' as a reference point. This paper also puts forth corresponding policy suggestions on the basis of analyses of key factors affecting Chinese women's status within a family."
Correspondence: Q. Liu, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Population Research Institute, 5 Jianguomen Nei Da Jie 5 Hao, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20432 Macunovich, Diane J.; Easterlin, Richard A.; Schaeffer, Christine M.; Crimmins, Eileen M. Echoes of the baby boom and bust: recent and prospective changes in living alone among elderly widows in the United States. Demography, Vol. 32, No. 1, Feb 1995. 17-28 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Today the great majority of noninstitutionalized elderly [U.S.] widows live alone, a striking increase from a quarter-century ago. A noticeable difference has occurred, however, in trends by age; the proportion of the young-old widows living alone is starting to decline, while that of the old-old continues to increase. We use a model suggested by earlier studies to explain the emergence of this difference, and assess the prospects of its continuing over the next three decades. We find that the recent differential change in the proportions of younger and older widows living alone is due primarily to a differential change in kin availability that has emerged as the baby boomers' parents have begun to reach retirement age. Over the next decade, the same type of differential change by age in kin availability will continue; living alone is likely to become less common among young-old than among old-old widows, in a reversal of the pattern of the last quarter-century. In the first two decades of the next century, as the baby boom affects kin availability among the old-old, and as the subsequent baby bust affects that among the young-old, the age pattern of living arrangements among elderly widows will reverse once again."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1992 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: D. J. Macunovich, Williams College, Department of Economics, Williamstown, MA 01267. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20433 McCaa, Robert. Child marriage and complex families among the Nahuas of ancient Mexico. Latin American Population History Bulletin, No. 26, Fall 1994. 2-11 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
The incidence of complex families and households in sixteenth-century Mexico is analyzed using data from the Nahuatl censuses, specifically the censuses of two villages in Morelos translated into English by S. L. Cline in 1993. The author concludes that high mortality was no obstacle to the formation of complex families in this population.
Correspondence: R. McCaa, University of Minnesota, Department of History, 614 Social Science Tower, Minneapolis, MN 55455. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20434 Miyajima, Hiroshi. The family structure in contemporary Japan. Japanese Economic Studies, Vol. 21, No. 6, Winter 1993-1994. 25-53 pp. Armonk, New York. In Eng.
The applicability of models of the family developed in the disciplines of sociology and cultural anthropology to the modern Japanese family is considered. "Our aim is to understand the contemporary Japanese family from two perspectives: the family as an economic unit and the family as a social security provider based on the arrangement and analysis of materials and statistics concerning current structure, form, type, and size of the contemporary Japanese family." Data are primarily from the annual survey undertaken by the Ministry of Health and Welfare on living conditions.
Correspondence: H. Miyajima, University of Tokyo, Department of Economics, Tokyo 113, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

61:20435 Mukhopadhyay, Sudhin K. Adapting household behavior to agricultural technology in West Bengal, India: wage labor, fertility, and child schooling determinants. Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 43, No. 1, Oct 1994. 91-115 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
This study examines the implications of changing agricultural technology on decisions concerning the allocation of resources within households, using data from West Bengal, India. "My objective...is to analyze rural households within a framework where adoption of a new technology, labor force participation, fertility, and child education are endogenously determined subject to physical, economic, demographic, and policy constraints. The model of the farm household assumes that utility is maximized subject to income and time constraints. The household coordinates production, consumption, health, nutrition, and issues relating to fertility, child education, and gender differences."
Correspondence: S. K. Mukopadhyay, Yale University, Box 208269, Yale Station, New Haven, CT 06520. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

61:20436 Ni Bhrolchain, Maire; Chappell, Roma; Diamond, Ian. Education and other socio-demographic characteristics among children from broken marriages. [Scolarite et autres caracteristiques socio-demographiques des enfants de mariages rompus.] Population, Vol. 49, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1994. 1,585-612 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"A series of successive surveys has been conducted on a sample of children born in 1958 in Great Britain, at the ages of 7, 16, 23 and 33, to determine their family status at these dates and to record information about their education, their lifestyle, parental attitudes, etc. This group consisted of 7,866 boys and girls living with both their parents at the age of seven, 9% of whose parents had separated or died in the nine ensuing years. We compared the prevalence of the different types of behaviour observed between the ages of 16 and 23 (leaving school, leaving the parental home, forming a couple, having children) according to whether these children stayed with both their parents or experienced their separation....There was no significant difference in the behaviour of teenagers according to the family history experienced during childhood. Thorough statistical analysis hence failed to confirm the previously held notion of the long-term effects of parental separation on the educational and socio-demographic behaviour of their children."
Correspondence: M. Ni Bhrolchain, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton S09 4XY, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20437 Parrish, William L.; Shen, Chonglin; Chang, Chi-hsiang. Family support networks in the Chinese countryside. Population Research Center Discussion Paper Series, No. 95-7, 1995. 22, [12] pp. University of Chicago, National Opinion Research Center [NORC], Population Research Center: Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"Using new survey data, this paper examines the nature of parent-child ties [in China's countryside], with an emphasis on how the shift to family farming, new economic opportunities, and migration reshape those ties. The examination includes not only coresidence patterns, visiting, and parental support, but also a particular emphasis on the changing nature of support from daughters."
Correspondence: University of Chicago, National Opinion Research Center, Population Research Center, 1155 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20438 Perez, Lisandro. The household structure of second-generation children: an exploratory study of extended family arrangements. International Migration Review, Vol. 28, No. 4, Winter 1994. 736-47 pp. Center for Migration Studies: Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"Using data from the Children of Immigrants Survey, the antecedents of extended family arrangements among [U.S.] immigrant households with children are examined. The incidence and form of such arrangements, especially the presence of grandparents, are analyzed in relation to single parenthood, national origin, cultural assimilation, and socioeconomic variables. The findings serve to underscore the complexity of the correlates of extended family arrangements. While there is a relationship with single parenthood, more research is needed on the economic basis for the presence of relatives in the household. The analysis uncovered the need to also treat presence of grandparents as an independent variable, especially in the cultural assimilation of children of immigrants."
Correspondence: L. Perez, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20439 Peters, John F. Canadian families into the year 2000. International Journal of Sociology of the Family, Vol. 25, No. 1, Spring 1995. 63-79 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"Canadian families are pluralistic and varied, with a mix of traditional, modern, and post-modern characteristics. This paper looks at families into the immediate future....Consideration is given to ethnicity, cohabitation, fertility, childrearing, sexuality, family policy, adolescence, and general family life. The state will continue to influence family life. Non-familial associations will affect family values and activity."
Correspondence: J. F. Peters, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3C5, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20440 Plotnick, Robert D.; Hoffman, Saul D. Fixed effect estimates of neighborhood effects. Seattle Population Research Center Working Paper, No. 95-3, Feb 1995. 19, [4] pp. University of Washington, Seattle Population Research Center: Seattle, Washington; Battelle Seattle Research Center: Seattle, Washington. In Eng.
This study examines factors affecting adolescents' and young adults' social and economic outcomes in the United States. "Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, we compare estimates from 'standard' neighborhood models with those from fixed-effect models to examine the extent to which unobservable family characteristics bias estimates of neighborhood effects. We examine three outcomes for young adult women: whether a woman had a nonmarital birth as a teenager, whether she obtained any post-secondary education, and whether she received AFDC at age 25."
Correspondence: R. Plotnick, University of Washington, Graduate School of Public Affairs, DC-13, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20441 Rainwater, Lee; Smeeding, Timothy M. The economic welfare of European children: a comparative perspective. [Le bien-etre economique des enfants europeens: une perspective comparative.] Population, Vol. 49, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1994. 1,437-49 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"A comparative survey of industrialised countries, the Luxembourg Income Study, has measured the economic welfare of children in the 1980s....The proportion of deprived children is higher in non-European countries (12 to 23%) than in Europe (3 to 13%). It is also much higher in single-parent families (6 to 64%) than in two-parent families (1 to 13%). At best, the economic status of children has stayed constant over time although it has deteriorated over the last 25 years in two major countries: the United Kingdom and the United States."
Correspondence: L. Rainwater, Russell Sage Foundation, 112 East 64th Street, New York, NY 10021. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20442 Richter, Kerry. Living separately as a child care strategy: implications for women's work and family in urban Thailand. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 94-28, Dec 1994. 37 pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"This paper examines the factors related to children living separately from their mother when they are less than five years old using data from a sample of ever-married metropolitan Bangkok women. It examines whether living separately is a common feature of the Thai kinship system or predominantly a child care choice for working women. Event history analysis in the form of a discrete time logistic regression is used to identify the factors related to a child living separately. The results are discussed in light of rapid changes in the Thai economy and possible impacts on women's roles, family structure and children's well being."
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6211. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20443 Thornton, Arland; Lin, Hui-Sheng. Social change and the family in Taiwan. Population and Development, ISBN 0-226-79858-5. LC 94-8973. 1994. ix, 456 pp. University of Chicago Press: Chicago, Illinois/London, England. In Eng.
This book consists of a number of studies by various authors on aspects of the complex changes in family relationships occurring in Taiwan during the island's transformation from a traditional to a socially and economically developed modern society. The study "explores the patterns and causes of change in various aspects of society, including education, work, income transfers, leisure time, marriage, living arrangements, and interactions with extended kin. Theoretical chapters enunciate a theory of family and social change centered on the life course and modes of social organization. Other chapters look at the shift from arranged marriages toward love matches, as well as changes in dating practices, premarital sex, fertility, and divorce. The authors bring together perspectives from sociology, demography, economics, anthropology, and history to provide a thorough and informative study of the many ways social and economic changes affect the family."
Correspondence: University of Chicago Press, 5801 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20444 Valero, Angeles. The prevalance of the nuclear family in the Spanish family system. [La prevalencia de la familia nuclear en el sistema familiar espanol.] Revista Internacional de Sociologia, No. 3, Sep-Dec 1992. 183-210 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
Preliminary results are presented from a research project on trends in family characteristics in modern Spain. "The goal of this research has been to know the grade of stability in the family institution and the influence of other alternative ways of living together apart from the traditional family. To sum up, we can regard the prevalence of the nuclear family in Spanish society as evident. In the same way, the responsibility of parenthood still is a marriage responsibility and has its place within the family. In spite of that, a transformation has taken place, as well as in other aspects, in relation to the concept and the reality of the family institution, which preserves its special character in the European context."
Correspondence: A. Valero, Centro de Investigaciones Sociologicas, Montalban 8, 28014 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

61:20445 Valetas, Marie-France. Maintenance payments after divorce in France and Russia. [Le paiement des pensions alimentaires en France et en Russie.] Population, Vol. 49, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1994. 1,451-71 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Analysis of maintenance payments in France and Russia shows the difference in relations between the ex-spouses, according to whether or not these relations are linked to the prevailing regulations. In Russia, unlike France, the amount and mode of payment of maintenance are set systematically. Payment is effective, constant over time and is virtually nondiscriminatory in terms of the social class of the creditor. The debtor has the initiative in France and full payment is much lower, changes little over time and is highly differentiated in terms of social class. The measures taken by creditors to recover maintenance payments that have fallen behind take greater account of social class in France."
Correspondence: M.-F. Valetas, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20446 Zhao, Zhongwei. Demographic influences and multi-generational households in Chinese history: results from genealogical research and computer micro-simulation. Institute of Population Research Working Paper, No. 18, Nov 1994. 38 pp. Peking University, Institute of Population Research: Beijing, China. In Eng.
"By comparing results of genealogical research and computer micro-simulation, [the author] tries first to investigate demographic influences on the formation of multi-generational households in Chinese history, and second to assess the reliability of genealogical records, especially when they are used in the study of social and demographic behaviour in the past....Computer micro-simulation has...been used to simulate the potential residential pattern."
Correspondence: Peking University, Institute of Population Research, Hai Dian, Beijing 100871, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20447 Zhao, Zhongwei. Rapid demographic transition and its influence on kinship networks, with particular reference to China. In: Low fertility in East and Southeast Asia: issues and policies. Aug 1994. 28-58 pp. Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs [KIHASA]: Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
"This chapter focuses on 'classical demographic transition' in East and Southeast Asia and its influence on kinship networks. It first summarises demographic changes and then examines the influence of these changes on the availability of kin, through a simulation study based on data from Mainland China."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20448 Zhao, Zhongwei. Rapid demographic transition in east and Southeast Asia and its influence on kinship networks, with a particular reference to China. Institute of Population Research Working Paper, No. 17, Oct 1994. 31, [10] pp. Peking University, Institute of Population Research: Beijing, China. In Eng.
"This paper is focused on the 'classical demographic transition'--primarily the fall in mortality and fertility--in East and Southeast Asia and its influence on kinship networks. It will first summarise demographic changes which have been observed, and will take place, in this area. The influence of these changes on the availability of kin will then be investigated through a simulation study which is based on data collected from Mainland China."
Correspondence: Peking University, Institute of Population Research, Hai Dian, Beijing 100871, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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