Volume 61 - Number 2 - Summer 1995

F. Fertility

Studies that treat quantitative fertility data analytically. References to crude data are coded under S. Official Statistical Publications . Methodological studies specifically concerned with fertility are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary.

F.1. General Fertility

Analytical studies of quantitative birth data and reproduction rates and studies of fertility and its concomitants. Studies of age at marriage, divorce, and factors influencing family size are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

61:20202 Alhabeeb, M. J. The pre-Becker exogenous models of fertility: an analytical overview. Population Review, Vol. 38, No. 1-2, Jan-Dec 1994. 77-83 pp. La Jolla, California. In Eng.
"The article surveys and critically analyzes the most significant models of fertility in the pre-Becker era, and presents the theoretical justifications for the development of Becker's model."
Correspondence: M. J. Alhabeeb, University of Massachusetts, Department of Consumer Studies, Amherst, MA 01003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20203 Avdeev, Alexandre; Monnier, Alain. A survey of modern Russian fertility. [A la decouverte de la fecondite russe contemporaine.] Population, Vol. 49, No. 4-5, Jul-Oct 1994. 859-901 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"This article based on unpublished data presents birth rate trends during this century [in Russia] and analyses in greater detail the fertility of cohorts born after 1910....The article also [describes] the family policy measures adopted in 1981 and attempts to assess their effects. Finally, it analyses the fall in fertility after 1987. Although this fall was, in the first instance, clearly a counter-effect of the expectations aroused by the measures of 1981, it is not possible to exclude the hypothesis that the recent fertility decline reflects a 'wait and see' attitude among couples faced by a complex situation in Russia."
Correspondence: A. Avdeev, University of Moscow, Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20204 Beauchamp, Guy. The functional analysis of human fertility decisions. Ethology and Sociobiology, Vol. 15, No. 1, 1994. 31-53 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The following analysis presents a dynamic stochastic model of fertility decisions in humans under the evolutionary framework. Human parents are assumed to favor decisions that maximize fitness, and the model elucidates the link between fertility choices and evolutionary success. Fertility choices include the number and quality of children as well as the timing and spacing of births over the entire reproductive career. Here, I investigate how such choices are affected by parental wealth and income, by the type of environment in which children are raised, and by uncertainty and expectation about future earnings."
Correspondence: G. Beauchamp, Concordia University, Department of Biology, 10455 Ouest Boulevard de Maisonneuve, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1M8, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20205 Bella, Nicole. Fertility in Cameroon: rates and trends. [Le fecondite au Cameroun: niveaux et tendances.] Population, Vol. 50, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1995. 35-60 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The latest fertility data for Cameroon are given in the Demographic and Health Survey of 1991. Estimated total fertility was 5.8 children per woman. If the results of the previous survey carried out in 1978 are reliable, total fertility at that time amounted to 6.5 children, so there has been a slight reduction (11 per cent)....In addition to fertility trends, the article also discusses the factors which determined fertility in 1991, and shows that fertility is almost 'natural', since it continues to be determined by post-partum insusceptibility characterized by breastfeeding and post-partum sexual abstinence....Primary sterility is also an important factor....The prevalence of contraception is low: only 4 per cent of women were users in 1991."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20206 Burch, Thomas K. Icons, strawmen and lack of precision: reflections on current demographic theorizing about fertility decline. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 94-4, ISBN 0-7714-1686-5. Aug 1994. 45 pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
"The...paper consists of two main parts: 1) some examples of imprecision and confusion in recent theoretical writing on fertility decline; [and] 2) an argument for greater rigour in the statement and manipulation of theoretical ideas, including the use of simulation as a tool for the development of fertility decline theory. Some illustrations of the need for and benefits of simulation are supplied from recent work on fertility and other demographic topics."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1994 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: University of Western Ontario, Department of Sociology, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20207 Centro de Estudios de Poblacion y Paternidad Responsable [CEPAR] (Quito, Ecuador); United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] (Atlanta, Georgia); United States. Agency for International Development [USAID] (Washington, D.C.). Ecuador: Demographic and Maternal and Child Health Survey, ENDEMAIN 94. Preliminary results. [Ecuador: Encuesta Demografica y de Salud Materna e Infantil, ENDEMAIN 94. Informe preliminar.] Nov 1994. [iv], 28, [30] pp. Quito, Ecuador. In Spa.
Results from a 1994 survey on demographic trends and maternal and child health in Ecuador are presented. The survey, the fifth in a series, involved a nationally representative sample of 13,582 women of fertile age. The report is divided into chapters on fertility, family planning, infant and child mortality, and maternal and child health.
Correspondence: Centro de Estudios de Poblacion y Paternidad Responsable, Toribio Montes 423 y Daniel Hidalgo, Casilla No. 17-01-2327, Quito, Ecuador. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20208 Chimere-Dan, Orieji. Maternal education and marital fertility in four African countries. Genus, Vol. 49, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1993. 87-100 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"This paper documents two gaps in current understanding of the relationship between maternal education and marital fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa using data from four countries in the region. First, the data do not show that there is always a negative relationship between maternal education and fertility at the poles of the education categories. Secondly, maternal education does not operate on the major proximate determinants to affect marital fertility in a uniform manner in different countries of Africa. These two situations call for improvements in the explanations of the exact mechanism by which maternal education [determines] marital fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa." The four countries considered are Cameroon, Ghana, Ivory Coast, and Nigeria.
Correspondence: O. Chimere-Dan, University of the Witwatersrand, Department of Sociology, Population Research Programme, 1 Jan Smuts Avenue, Johannesburg 2050, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20209 Chu, C. Y. Cyrus; Lu, Huei-Chung. Toward a general analysis of endogenous Easterlin cycles. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 8, No. 1, 1995. 35-57 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"Easterlin believed that there were two features associated with the birth cycles he observed: the cycles were related to the labor market, and they might be self-generating. This paper tries to set up a model that contains both of these two features. We suppose that the welfare of various age-specific cohorts [is] determined by their respective marginal productivity, and that the underlying technology which puts together labor force of various age-specific cohorts can be characterized by a general production function. Under these weak assumptions, we show that the well-analyzed cohort and period models along the lines of Lee (1974) are restricted versions of our general setting. Given that both the cohort model and the period model were rejected by statistical tests, we adopt the coefficient values obtained from the estimation of the unrestricted version to perform the bifurcation analysis. We...show that the U.S. fertility limit cycle solution is unstable."
Correspondence: C. Y. C. Chu, National Taiwan University, Department of Economics, 21 Hsu Chow Road, Taipei, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20210 Cleland, John. A regional review of fertility trends in developing countries: 1960 to 1990. In: The future population of the world. What can we assume today? edited by Wolfgang Lutz. 1994. 55-82 pp. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria; Earthscan Publications: London, England. In Eng.
Fertility trends in developing countries over the period 1960-1990 are reviewed using data published by the UN Population Division. The focus is on regional differences in the timing and rate of changes in fertility. The ability of governments to affect fertility through policies and programs of family planning is discussed. "Such a comparative case study approach shows that government policies can have and have had appreciable demographic impacts by changing reproductive attitudes, by legitimizing birth control, and by enhancing access to family-planning services. To the extent that this verdict is valid, the future course of fertility in regions where it is still high depends to some extent on political leadership. As a consequence, demographic forecasting becomes more uncertain but the politics of population and birth control become more important and exciting."
Correspondence: J. Cleland, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies, 99 Gower Street, London WC1E 6AZ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20211 Craig, John. Replacement level fertility and future population growth. Population Trends, No. 78, Winter 1994. 20-2 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"'Replacement level fertility' is a technical term which seems almost self-explanatory. However there are some important qualifications which make it a more difficult concept than might be supposed. Also, the relationship between replacement level fertility and zero population growth is complicated. The article explains why this is so and thus why, although the United Kingdom's current level of fertility is below replacement level, population is projected to grow for the next thirty years."
Correspondence: J. Craig, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, St. Catherine's House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20212 Cuellar, Oscar. Means of support, fertility, and social reproduction among peasants: three approaches. [Medios de vida, fecundidad y reproduccion social de los campesinos, tres enfoques.] Estudios Demograficos y Urbanos, Vol. 6, No. 3, Sep-Dec 1991. 521-43, 779-80 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This article examines interpretations regarding the relationship between means of support and fertility, taking into account views on social reproduction among peasants, with emphasis on the way they are expressed in terms of indicators. [The author] begins with a brief summary of theories put forth by Malthus, and then examines Neo-Malthusian models which use as an independent variable, the amount of land and as a dependent variable, the number of children....The paper ends with a discussion of assumptions about the rationality, motivations and guiding values the different approaches attribute to economic and demographic behavior among peasants."
Correspondence: O. Cuellar, Universidad Iberoamericana, Prolongacion Paseo de la Reforma 880, Col. Lomas de Santa Fe, 01210 Mexico, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20213 Delaunay, Valerie. Entry into reproductive life: demographic expression of socioeconomic change in rural Senegal. [L'entree en vie feconde: expression demographique des mutations socio-economiques d'un milieu rural senegalais.] Les Etudes du CEPED, No. 7, ISBN 2-87762-068-9. Dec 1994. xxii, 326 pp. Centre Francais sur la Population et le Developpement [CEPED]: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
This is an analysis of changes in the timing and nature of entry into reproductive life, in the primary determinants of fertility, and in the social and economic factors affecting fertility in Senegal. The data are from the Niakhar population laboratory, which covers a population of about 26,000 living in 30 villages, and were collected between 1983 and 1992. The author notes that social and economic conditions associated with the agricultural crisis have led to an increase in seasonal migration to urban areas, which affects the young in general and young women in particular. This has led in turn to a weakening of traditional social controls and an increase in decision-making by individuals. Age at marriage has increased, although age at first intercourse and first birth has remained stable, resulting in an increase in premarital conceptions. Marriage patterns are changing as a result of socioeconomic factors affecting the provision of dowries, the way marriage partners are chosen, and the non-coresidence of married partners.
Correspondence: Centre Francais sur la Population et le Developpement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Medecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20214 Feeney, Griffith. Fertility in China: past, present, prospects. In: The future population of the world. What can we assume today? edited by Wolfgang Lutz. 1994. 115-41 pp. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria; Earthscan Publications: London, England. In Eng.
"This chapter aims to give a reasonably comprehensive treatment of China's fertility decline at the national level, with emphasis on those factors relevant to a consideration of the future trajectory of fertility." In view of the success of policies designed to reduce fertility, the author also examines the prospects for rising fertility if less restrictive policies were to be adopted. "Our analysis of the Chinese situation suggests that fertility might rise as high as 3 children per woman over the next 20 years, an eventuality that could occur if the one-child family policy were relaxed to the point of allowing second children in essentially all families that wanted them. At the other extreme, a relatively successful implementation of the one-child policy in rural as well as urban areas might bring fertility down to between 1 and 1.5 children per woman. It should be emphasized that these are both improbable extremes. We would be very surprised to see fertility go outside of this range, and not at all surprised to see it fluctuate modestly around levels of 2 to 2.5 children per woman."
Correspondence: G. Feeney, East-West Center, Program on Population, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20215 Freedman, Ronald. Asia's recent fertility decline and prospects for future demographic change. Asia-Pacific Population Research Report, No. 1, Jan 1995. 27 pp. East-West Center, Program on Population [POP]: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
"This report surveys fertility trends in Asia since the mid-1960s, focusing on 24 countries that together account for 3.1 billion, or 56 percent, of the world's population. Asian fertility has declined overall by 39 percent, or 62 percent of the decline necessary for reaching the population-replacement level of 2.1 children per woman, and contraceptive use has risen sharply throughout much of the region....The report considers three factors usually believed to account for [the] astonishingly rapid changes in reproductive behavior: mortality decline, broad social and economic development, and effective national family planning programs. An assessment follows of the current demographic situation, the role of those three factors and of alternative plausible pathways for reducing fertility, and likely future fertility levels in individual countries and subregions."
Correspondence: East-West Center, Program on Population, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20216 Freedman, Ronald; Chang, Ming-Cheng; Sun, Te-Hsiung. Taiwan's transition from high fertility to below-replacement levels. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 25, No. 6, Pt. 1, Nov-Dec 1994. 317-31 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article compares the fertility experience of Taiwanese in the eight years since the total fertility rate reached 2.1 with that before fertility reached replacement levels. During the earlier period, two-thirds of the fertility decline resulted from falling marital fertility and one-third from higher age at marriage. The changing age distribution retarded this decline. Since 1983, the further decline to 1.7-1.8 has been entirely the result of the trend toward later marriage. Older age distributions now facilitate the decline. Births postponed by those marrying later make the conventional TFR misleading. Computation based on parity-progression ratios raise TFRs from 1.7 to 2.0, a number less alarming to policymakers. Contraceptive prevalence is at saturation levels in all major population strata."
Correspondence: R. Freedman, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1248. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20217 Giorgi, Piero. A reinterpretation of period fertility by birth order in Italy from 1950 to 1990, taking into consideration the parity structure. [Una rilettura della fecondita del momento per ordine di nascita in Italia nel periodo 1950-1990 considerando la struttura per parita.] Genus, Vol. 49, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1993. 177-204 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"A period analysis of fertility by birth order in Italy was performed using the probability of birth by age and parity. Period fertility indicators were recalculated regarding the probability of birth by age and parity and compared with those usually used derived from age specific fertility rates. The need for detailed data on the structure (by parity) of populations is overcome by applying a method to predict the probability of birth by age and parity beginning from age specific rates. Biases are limited and sufficiently regular so as not to invalidate the overall results of the analysis performed. This analysis shows the need for a combined use of both types of indicators and the potential contained in the indicators derived from the probability of birth by age and parity."
Correspondence: P. Giorgi, Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche, Via Nomentana 41, 00161 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20218 Gohmann, Stephan F.; Ohsfeldt, Robert L. The dependent tax exemption, abortion availability, and U.S. fertility rates. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 13, No. 4, Dec 1994. 367-81 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The impact of the personal income tax dependent exemption, abortion availability, and other factors on fertility rates is analyzed. U.S. time series data for 1915-88 are used in the empirical model. The results indicate that greater abortion availability in the U.S.A. is associated with lower fertility. A higher value of the dependent exemption generally is associated with higher fertility, but the magnitude and significance of the effect is sensitive to specification choice. The results suggest that restricting abortion availability in the U.S.A. will increase the fertility rate, but a change in the tax value of the dependent exemption will have a less predictable impact on fertility."
Correspondence: R. L. Ohsfeldt, University of Alabama, School of Public Health, Department of Health Care Organization and Policy, Birmingham, AL 35394-2010. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20219 Grassivaro Gallo, Pia; Florio, Allessandra. Female fertility in Algeria: biodemographic and psychosocial aspects. [La fecondita della donna ad Algeri: aspetti biodemografici e psicosociali.] Genus, Vol. 49, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1993. 115-34 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"A survey of female fertility was performed in 1988 on 239 clients of the Obstetrics and Gynaecology Ward, Mustafa Hospital, Algeria....Age at marriage is now taking place at a somewhat later age, on average at 20.8 years of age, while remaining universal and prevalently endogamic. Polygamy is less widely practiced when compared to other Muslim populations, although repudiation is quite common. The average number of live births per woman (6.1) is perceivably lower compared with 7.4 live births according to the ENSP survey (69/71). The psychosocial data show that women continue to profess a strongly pro-natalist attitude which is in contrast with the more pressing desire to have fewer children. The data obtained indicate a country which is heading for the second phase of the demographic transition, in keeping with most other Arab-Muslim countries."
Correspondence: P. Grassivaro Gallo, Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Psicologia Generale, Piazza Capitaniato 3, 35139 Padua, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20220 Greenhalgh, Susan. Anthropological contributions to fertility theory. Population Council Research Division Working Paper, No. 64, 1994. 49 pp. Population Council, Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"Drawing on three areas of contemporary anthropological theorizing--practice approaches, political economy, and feminism--this essay outlines a broad, synthetic agenda for an anthropology of fertility that highlights the roles of culture and history, gender and power in reproductive life....Rather than displacing conventional demographic methods and modes of explanation, it is argued that the anthropological tools should be used in conjunction with them so that the two fields can inform and build on the insights of each other."
Correspondence: Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20221 Grimes, Seamus. Causes and consequences of fertility decline in Western Europe. Administration, Vol. 41, No. 1, Spring 1993. 57-71 pp. Dublin, Ireland. In Eng.
"This paper examines...recent trends in the population of Western Europe, paying particular attention to the causes and consequences of fertility decline. Policy implications, including the likelihood of massive immigration into Western Europe, are also outlined." The author concludes that "a fundamental change in attitudes towards family policy is required before a significant impact [can be] made on fertility levels in Western Europe."
Correspondence: S. Grimes, University College Galway, Department of Geography, Galway, Ireland. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

61:20222 Hara, Toshihiko. A comparative study of birth rate declines: Germany and Japan. Jinkogaku Kenkyu/Journal of Population Studies, No. 15, May 1992. 69-75 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
The author presents a comparative analysis of the decline in the birth rate that has occurred in both Germany and Japan. The period covered is from 1947 to 1989, with emphasis on the period 1967-1988.
Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

61:20223 Japan. Institute of Population Problems (Tokyo, Japan). Indicators of population reproductivity for the Japanese population in 1985-1990. Institute of Population Problems Research Series, No. 272, Feb 17, 1992. 34 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Information is presented on fertility rates in Japan for the years 1985-1990 using data from official sources. Some retrospective data to 1925 are also included.
Correspondence: Institute of Population Problems, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-45, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20224 Japan. Institute of Population Problems (Tokyo, Japan). The Tenth Japanese National Fertility Survey in 1992. Volume 1: marriage and fertility in present-day Japan. Institute of Population Problems Survey Series, No. 7, Nov 1, 1993. 224 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Results are presented from the Tenth Japanese National Fertility Survey carried out in 1992. In this volume, data are presented concerning nuptiality and fertility.
For Volume 2, published in 1994, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: Institute of Population Problems, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-45, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20225 Kaneko, Takeharu; Shiraishi, Noriko. Regional fertility trends in the Kanto area. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 50, No. 2, Jul 1994. 61-72 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Age-specific fertility is analyzed in the Kanto region of Japan for the period 1975-1990.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20226 Kaplan, Hillard. Evolutionary and wealth flows theories of fertility: empirical tests and new models. Population and Development Review, Vol. 20, No. 4, Dec 1994. 753-91, 921, 923 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Caldwell's wealth flows theory of human family size predicts that children in high-fertility societies provide net economic wealth for parents. Models of fertility derived from evolutionary biology expect that all organisms will be designed to invest more resources in their offspring than they receive from them. These competing predictions were subjected to independent tests in three traditional societies in lowland South America. The results clearly showed that children produced no more than 25 percent of their total caloric needs between birth and 18 years of age and that grandparents worked hard to support their grandchildren rather than vice versa. No support for Caldwell's theory was found. A new theory of fertility decisions based upon evolutionary ecology is proposed, focusing on tradeoffs between fertility and the reproductive value of offspring, and between care of, and resource investment in, children."
Correspondence: H. Kaplan, University of New Mexico, Department of Anthropology, Albuquerque, NM 87131-1216. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20227 Kjellqvist, Tomas. The challenge of complexity: third world perspectives on population research. SAREC Conference Report 1994, No. 1, 1994. 181 pp. Swedish Agency for Research Cooperation with Developing Countries [SAREC]: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
This is a report from a conference held in Harare, Zimbabwe, December 6-10, 1993, on developing country perspectives on population research. The eight contributions are grouped under three headings, which are society and reproductive decisions, gender issues and reproductive decisions, and lessons on youth and sexuality. The volume "emphasizes that reproductive decisions are made within cobwebs of factors that constitute total life conditions. Population issues involve many sets of problems that are related to sexuality as well as survival. Many of these problems deserve attention in their own right...not only because they are related to fertility and population growth. No generally designed population policy can substitute the local efforts needed to scrutinize the situation of men, women, young girls and boys as regards their sexuality." The primary geographical focus is on Africa.
Correspondence: Swedish Agency for Research Cooperation with Developing Countries, P.O. Box 161 40, 103 23 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

61:20228 Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs [KIHASA] (Seoul, Korea, Republic of). Low fertility in East and Southeast Asia: issues and policies. KIHASA Seminar Report, No. 94-08, Aug 1994. xii, 380 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
This report contains an edited selection of papers presented at a seminar held in Seoul, South Korea, November 29-December 3, 1993, entitled The Consequences of Replacement and Below Replacement Fertility in East and Southeast Asia. The papers are grouped under five main headings. These concern new features of the demographic transition, such as the continuing flight from marriage and parenthood and the impact of these changes on kinship networks among Chinese throughout the region; the social consequences of low fertility; the economic consequences of low fertility; population policy; and the implications of those changes for family planning programs.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs, San 42-14, Bulgwang-dong, Eunpyung-ku, Seoul 122-040, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20229 Kouaouci, Ali. Fertility as the outcome of the length of exposure. Methodology and application to Sudan, Syria, and Tunisia. [La fecondite comme resultat de durees d'exposition. Methodologie et application au Soudan, a la Syrie et a la Tunisie.] Genus, Vol. 49, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1993. 71-86 pp. Rome, Italy. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Ita.
"The proposed model describes fertility as the outcome of the length of exposure which is affected by marriage customs, the duration of the period of reproduction and variables which ensure gaps or periods of time between births (breast feeding, contraception, sterility, sterilization and hyper-fertility). Tunisia, Sudan and Syria were compared using this model."
Correspondence: A. Kouaouci, Universite de Blida, Institut des Sciences Sociales, Route de Soumaa Blida, B.P. 270, Blida, Algeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20230 Lecaillon, Jean-Didier. The economic and social implications of the decline in fertility in Europe. [Les dimensions economique et sociale de la chute de la natalite en Europe.] Population et Avenir, No. 619, Sep-Oct 1994. 9-14 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The author reviews recent demographic trends in Europe, focusing on the general decline in fertility and its implications for the family and for society as a whole. He suggests that below-replacement fertility will lead to economic sclerosis and increased intergenerational conflict, and that economic health might be encouraged by an effective family policy encouraging large families.
Correspondence: J.-D. Lecaillon, Universite de Paris XII (Paris-Val-de-Marne), 61 avenue du General de Gaulle, 94010 Creteil Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20231 Leete, Richard. The continuing flight from marriage and parenthood among the overseas Chinese in East and Southeast Asia: dimensions and implications. Population and Development Review, Vol. 20, No. 4, Dec 1994. 811-29, 922, 924 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This analysis reviews the recent marital fertility behavior of the overseas Chinese--particularly in Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore, and Taiwan--and notes some policy considerations. The tendency toward delay of marriage has turned into a major flight from marriage, particularly among the most urbanized overseas Chinese. Economic factors, combined with increased education, appear to be the main determinants of the reluctance to marry and bear children. An important policy question is the extent to which governments in the region should merely adapt existing institutions to the changed behavior or, rather, attempt to directly influence marriage and childbearing through explicit pronatalist policies."
Correspondence: R. Leete, Economic Planning Unit, Prime Minister's Department, Jalan Dato' Onn, 50502 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20232 Lutz, Wolfgang. Future reproductive behavior in industrialized countries. In: The future population of the world. What can we assume today? edited by Wolfgang Lutz. 1994. 267-94 pp. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria; Earthscan Publications: London, England. In Eng.
"The chapter is guided by the goal of determining reasonable and defendable assumptions about alternative high and low paths of future fertility trends in modern industrialized countries. In doing this, we first look at unambiguous empirical evidence from the past years, and then list possible arguments that could be used to support the alternative assumptions of either further declining fertility or increasing fertility levels. The final section focuses on how these alternative assumed forces could work in a heterogeneous society and result in specific assumed fertility levels."
Correspondence: W. Lutz, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Schlossplatz 1, 2361 Laxenburg, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20233 Macunovich, Diane J. The Butz-Ward fertility model in the light of more recent data. Journal of Human Resources, Vol. 30, No. 2, Spring 1995. 229-55 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"In this study, the Butz and Ward (B-W) estimates from their article, 'The Emergence of Countercyclical U.S. Fertility' (1979), are updated using their original sources, and then compared against data drawn from the March Current Population Survey (CPS). The results indicate little similarity between the original B-W estimates of the female hourly wage, and the CPS time series. In particular, the CPS time series show that much of the 'dramatic increase' in the female hourly wage in the 1960s as estimated by B-W, resulted from the use of a sharply downward trending series in average hours worked in retail--which contradicts the actual pattern for married women....Even using the original B-W data their model no longer fits in the period after about 1954. These results, seen in the context of more recent work, suggest the need for a more general framework for testing the New Home Economics model of fertility--a framework which allows at least for a changing income effect of the female wage--and a need for more caution in assuming that we are witnessing an emergence of countercyclical fertility."
For the study by Butz and Ward, see 45:4294.
Correspondence: D. J. Macunovich, Williams College, Department of Economics, Williamstown, MA 01267. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

61:20234 Manning, Wendy D. Cohabitation, marriage, and entry into motherhood. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 57, No. 1, Feb 1995. 191-200 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"Prior research has neither explicitly compared the entry into motherhood of cohabiting with that of married women nor examined the impact of cohabitation on marital fertility in the United States. Subsamples of 2,056 women in first unions and 1,763 married women from the National Survey of Families and Households are used to address those questions. Entry into motherhood occurs more often and sooner in marriage than in cohabitation. Yet the transition from cohabitation to marriage does not appear to be influenced by desires to begin bearing children. Once nonpregnant cohabitors marry, the timing of the marital first birth is similar to that of women who never cohabited. Cohabitation accelerates the timing of marital first births only among White women who were pregnant when they married. Instead, the impact of cohabitation on marital first birth timing operates partly via duration of time spent coresiding (in marriage and cohabitation)."
Correspondence: W. D. Manning, Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6411. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20235 Neupert, Ricardo F. An application of a probabilistic fertility model to estimate some female family life cycle stages in Paraguay. Genus, Vol. 50, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1994. 97-115 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"This study examines, for the case of Paraguay and through the use of a probabilistic fertility model of a life table type, the impact of fertility and mortality on the following aspects of the female family life cycle: mean age at first and last birth, time spent in reproduction, and mean life after the birth of the last child. Past, recent, and projected data on fertility and mortality were used. The study includes a discussion of the possible implications of present and future changes in these aspects of the life cycle."
Correspondence: R. F. Neupert, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Demography Program, G.P.O. Box 4, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20236 Nishioka, Hachiro. Effects of the family formation norms on demographic behaviors: case of Okinawa in Japan. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 50, No. 2, Jul 1994. 52-60 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng. with sum. in Jpn.
This study attempts to analyze Okinawa's high birth rate mainly through gender-preference indexes....We...examine the relationships of marriage type and birth to...norms of family formation....Through...the process of family formation fertility behavior guided by son preference is found. Especially at the final stage of childbearing, the coordinative mechanism gives priority to son preference over the family size norm, resulting in a larger number of children than the ideal. As a consequence, this mechanism has contributed to the high level of fertility in this area."
Correspondence: H. Nishioka, Kanamori 1793-526, Machida City, Tokyo, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20237 Onuoha, Nelson C.; Timaeus, Ian M. Has a fertility transition begun in West Africa? Journal of International Development, Vol. 7, No. 1, 1995. 93-116 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines changing patterns of reproduction in two West African countries, Senegal and Ghana, which conducted both World Fertility Survey and Demographic and Health Survey enquiries. It aims to estimate fertility levels and trends in these countries, examine how changes in marriage, contraceptive use, breast-feeding and post-partum abstinence are affecting family building patterns and discuss whether a fertility transition has begun. While fertility remains high in both Senegal and Ghana, it has begun to decline. In Ghana, the drop in fertility commenced in the late 1960s but has slowed recently. In Senegal, fertility decline began a decade later but is now more rapid. With these declines, residential and educational differentials in fertility have widened, particularly in Senegal. Both rises in ages at marriage and increases in the use of contraception have contributed to the fall in fertility. However, most women of high socioeconomic status still want four or five children. Other women want even more. Although a transition to the control of fertility by contraceptive means has begun, the transition to low fertility may progress slowly."
Correspondence: I. M. Timaeus, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Center for Population Studies, 99 Gower Street, London WC1E 6AZ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20238 Peterson, Linda S. Birth expectations of women in the United States, 1973-88. Vital and Health Statistics, Series 23: Data from the National Survey of Family Growth, No. 17, Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 95-1993. ISBN 0-8406-0501-3. LC 94-33453. Feb 1995. iii, 36 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
"Statistics collected in 1973, 1982, and 1988 on children ever born [in the United States] and future births expected are presented. The statistics are shown for women 15-44 years of age at each survey date, by age, race, and parity. The data are also shown for birth cohorts of U.S. women, as surveyed in 1973, 1982, and 1988."
Correspondence: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20239 Petrovic, Mina. Insufficient fertility as observed from a multidisciplinary perspective. [Problem nedovoljnog radanja iz interdisciplinarne perspektive.] Stanovnistvo, Vol. 31-32, 1993-1994. 13-28 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
"The initial part of this paper gives a brief critical overview of the results obtained by applying the micro, [mezzo] and macro approach to the demographic analysis of [low] fertility....In view of the complexity of this demographic issue, the author argues in favor of applying a multidisciplinary approach. Particular attention is given to the combined approach from the sociological and demographic points of view."
Correspondence: M. Petrovic, Institut Drustvenih Nauka, Centar za Demografska Istrazivanja, Narodnog Fronta 45, Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20240 Raduski, Nada. The main features and significance of direct fertility determinants. [Karakteristike i znacaj neposrednih faktora fertiliteta stanovnistva.] Stanovnistvo, Vol. 31-32, 1993-1994. 29-43 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
The author discusses the significance of direct fertility determinants. Aspects considered include socioeconomic and cultural factors, biological characteristics, birth control and abortion, marriage age, and lactational infecundity.
Correspondence: N. Raduski, Institut Drustvenih Nauka, Centar za Demografska Istrazivanja, Narodnog Fronta 45, Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20241 Renne, Elisha P. Houses, fertility, and the Nigerian Land Use Act. Population and Development Review, Vol. 21, No. 1, Mar 1995. 113-26, 218, 220 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This case study discusses the cultural and economic aspects of family houses, rural land tenure, and fertility in one Ekiti Yoruba village in relation to the broader political economy of the contemporary Nigerian state. I consider how changes in rural houseplot transactions, traditional practices associated with houses, and household composition at the local level, together with federal land tenure policies, may affect fertility....I argue that the ambiguities of the Land Use Act tend to weaken the economic security associated with the commoditization of houseplot ownership and, as an unintended side effect, counter an emerging tendency to limit family size."
Correspondence: E. P. Renne, Ahmadu Bello University, Department of Sociology, Zaria, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20242 Reproductive Health Matters (London, England). Motherhood, fatherhood and fertility: for women who do and women who don't have children. Reproductive Health Matters, No. 4, Nov 1994. 132 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
This issue contains a selection of papers "about the meaning and consequences of fertility and reproduction--not only at the level of eggs and sperm, but at the point where women's income, food, housing and work are affected by children and vice versa. These papers put the concept of reproductive rights into a wider focus, situating the events surrounding pregnancy and fertility control into the lives of women, both women who do and those who do not have children."
Correspondence: Reproductive Health Matters, 29-35 Farringdon Road, London EC1M 3JB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20243 Schmelz, Uziel O.; Yaffe, Nurit. Fertility of married women according to the population and housing censuses of 1961, 1972 and 1983. Statistical tables. 1983 Census of Population and Housing Publications, No. 25, 1994. [xxxvi], 326, 41 pp. Central Bureau of Statistics: Jerusalem, Israel; Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Institute of Contemporary Jewry: Jerusalem, Israel. In Eng; Heb.
"This volume contains a set of statistical tables systematically comparing data on the fertility of Israel's population from the censuses of 1961, 1972 and 1983. In each of these censuses, a large sample (20 percent) of Israel's ever-married women were asked about the number of their live-born children. The data here presented relate to women in first marriage at the time of the respective census."
Correspondence: Central Bureau of Statistics, Hakirya, Romema, Jerusalem 91130, Israel. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

61:20244 Seniloli, Kesaia. Fertility and family planning in Fiji. Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 2, 1994. 237-44 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper...examines the socio-economic and cultural factors influencing fertility and family planning in Fiji. It first focuses on female education [and] women's work status which are important background variables, then examines the socio-cultural factors influencing fertility and family planning services in Fiji. Data presented in the discussion come from the 1956, 1966, 1976 and 1986 censuses and a micro-level study conducted in South-east Viti Levu in 1989-1990."
Correspondence: K. Seniloli, University of the South Pacific, School of Social and Economic Development, Population Studies Programme, P.O. Box 1168, Suva, Fiji. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20245 Sharif, Mohammed. Child participation, nature of work, and fertility demand: a theoretical analysis. Indian Economic Journal, Vol. 40, No. 4, Apr-Jun 1993. 30-48 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
The objective of this paper is to provide a theoretical analysis of the relationship between landholding and having children in developing countries, the emphasis being on the effect of this relationship on fertility. "To analyse the differential impact of child contribution, a model of fertility demand for a subsistence farming household is developed....The model derives alternative levels of optimal fertility demand for the household under the conditions of (1) no participation by children in market activities; (2) participation in family farm works only, when marginal value product is greater than market wage rate; (3) participation in family farm works only, when marginal value product is less than their market wage rate; and (4) participation in both family farm works and wage-labor....The results show that non-participation of children yields the lowest demand for fertility, and, when marginal value product is greater than market wage rate, participation in family farm works only generates the highest demand. The remaining two situations, when marginal value product on the family farm is less than the market wage rate, create intermediate levels of fertility demand."
Correspondence: M. Sharif, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

61:20246 Siegel, Judith M. Looking for Mr. Right? Older single women who become mothers. Journal of Family Issues, Vol. 16, No. 2, Mar 1995. 194-211 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"Between 1982 and 1992, the birthrate doubled among never married college-educated [U.S.] women and almost tripled among never married women who work in a professional or managerial capacity. This research examines why older, single women want to become mothers and how their premotherhood motivation and experience compare to those of married mothers. A snowball sampling technique was used to recruit 51 women who were single when they became mothers and 51 demographically similar married mothers....The composite picture that emerged from the single mothers was one of ambivalence toward marriage--a combination of an idealized image of what marriage should be with an unwilligness to accept compromise as an essential relationship strategy. Older, single women who become mothers are contributing to the trend in American society toward an increasing separation of marriage and childbearing."
Correspondence: J. M. Siegel, University of California, School of Public Health, Department of Community Health Sciences, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1772. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:20247 Turkey. Ministry of Health. General Directorate of Mother and Child Health and Family Planning (Ankara, Turkey); Hacettepe University. Institute of Population Studies (Ankara, Turkey); Macro International. Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS] (Calverton, Maryland). Turkish Demographic and Health Survey, 1993. Oct 1994. xviii, 247 pp. Calverton, Maryland. In Eng.
This report summarizes results from the 1993 Turkish Demographic and Health Survey, a nationally representative survey which included 8,619 households and 6,519 ever-married women less than 50 years old. Following an introductory chapter on demographic trends in Turkey, there are chapters on characteristics of households and respondents, fertility, family planning, abortions and stillbirths, proximate determinants of fertility, fertility preferences, infant and child mortality, maternal and child health, and infant feeding and maternal and child nutrition. There are appendixes on survey design, sampling errors, data quality, contraceptive discontinuation rates, and survey instruments.
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Calverton, MD 20705. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20248 Westley, Sidney B. New survey finds fertility decline in India. Asia-Pacific Population and Policy, No. 32, Jan-Feb 1995. 4 pp. East-West Center, Program on Population [POP]: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
"This issue...presents new information from the survey on fertility trends and family planning practices in India. The discussion focuses on the 17 most populous states plus Delhi....The households covered in the survey included 500,492 individuals." The survey is the National Family Health Survey, carried out in 1992-1993.
Correspondence: East-West Center, Program on Population, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20249 Wood, James W. Dynamics of human reproduction: biology, biometry, demography. Foundations of Human Behavior, ISBN 0-202-01179-8. LC 93-36613. 1994. xvi, 653 pp. Aldine de Gruyter: Hawthorne, New York. In Eng.
"This book is an attempt to weave together the physiological, demographic, and biometric approaches to human fertility in a way that will encourage future interdisciplinary research....The book aims at answering a single question: why does fertility, the number of live births, vary from couple to couple within any particular population, and from population to population across the human species as a whole?...The particular framework I have chosen for this book is structured in terms of birth interval components and the timing of reproductive events--the pace of childbearing, as it is often called. The task at hand is to learn how the proximate determinants of fertility...affect the pace of childbearing and thereby influence the total number of offspring produced over the course of an individual's reproductive life." The focus throughout is on natural fertility populations.
Correspondence: Aldine de Gruyter, 200 Saw Mill River Road, Hawthorne, NY 10532. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20250 Yadava, R. C.; Yadava, K. N. S.; Kushwaha, S. N. S.; Yadava, S. N. Estimation of fecundability of migrated couples: a birth interval approach. Demography India, Vol. 22, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1993. 11-8 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This paper aims to derive a simple procedure for the estimation of fecundability of migrated couples based on the data of closed birth intervals. A probability distribution for the closed birth interval of migrated couples is also proposed. The theoretical distribution is illustrated with an observed set of real data collected from the rural areas [of Uttar Pradesh, India]."
Correspondence: R. C. Yadava, Banaras Hindu University, Department of Statistics, Varanasi 221 005, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.2. Differential Fertility

Studies on differences in fertility patterns and levels in subgroups of a population. Also included are studies on age-specific fertility, such as teenage pregnancy.

61:20251 Adamchak, Donald J.; Mbizvo, Michael T. Structural and attitudinal change: fertility decline in Zimbabwe. Genus, Vol. 49, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1993. 101-13 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"This paper investigates the relationship of wife's and husband's education, gender equality, and place of residence with children ever born in Zimbabwe. Data come from the 1988 Zimbabwe Male Fertility Survey....Findings indicate that the three residence types (rural, urban high density, and urban middle class) show significant differences on selected variables. Multivariate analysis indicates that wife's education was a significant negative indicator of children ever born for the younger cohort. For the older cohort, the urban middle class residence, gender equality and husband's education were negative and significant predictors of children ever born."
Correspondence: D. J. Adamchak, Kansas State University, Department of Sociology, Waters Hall, Manhattan, KS 66506. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20252 Brockerhoff, Martin. Fertility and family planning in African cities: the impact of female migration. Population Council Research Division Working Paper, No. 68, 1994. 38 pp. Population Council, Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study assesses the impact of female migration from rural areas on fertility in African cities in the 1980s and early 1990s. More specifically, the objective is to illustrate how programmatic or proximate determinants of conception--marital status, cohabitation patterns, use of contraception, and breastfeeding and postpartum abstinence practices--change during the migration process, and thereby contribute to urban growth."
Correspondence: Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20253 Clegg, E. J.; Cross, J. F. Religion and fertility in the Outer Hebrides. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 27, No. 1, Jan 1995. 79-94 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Estimates of fertility in Protestant Barra and Catholic Harris, islands in the Outer Hebrides, over the period 1856-1985, show that in both islands fertility declined, although marital fertility was generally greater than in Scotland as a whole, and illegitimate fertility was less. However, in Barra during 1966-75 there were pronounced rises in all the indices; illegitimate fertility showed the smallest rise. The publication of the papal encyclical Humanae Vitae may have played a part in this change in fertility, although other, probably local, factors must have been acting, as the first rise in numbers of births occurred before the publication of the encyclical. Other than this transient rise, the religious difference between Harris and Barra had little effect on changes in fertility over the whole period."
Correspondence: E. J. Clegg, University of Aberdeen, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Aberdeen AB9 1FX, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20254 Freeman, Ellen W.; Rickels, Karl. Early childbearing: perspectives of black adolescents on pregnancy, abortion, and contraception. Sage Library of Social Research, Vol. 192, ISBN 0-8039-5282-1. LC 93-21682. 1993. xvi, 216 pp. Sage Publications: Newbury Park, California/London, England. In Eng.
This study examines the attitudes of U.S. African-American teenagers from disadvantaged backgrounds, living in poor urban areas, concerning pregnancy, abortion, and contraception. Data are from the Penn Study of Teenage Pregnancy involving black teenagers aged 13-17, living in Philadelphia, who enrolled in family planning or obstetric services, and who were followed-up over a two-year period in the early 1980s. "The authors show why these adolescents often wait until after their first sexual encounter to obtain contraception, and reveal the correlation between family involvement and the pregnancy or no-pregnancy decision. They also compare teenagers who terminated their first pregnancy with those who delivered babies."
Correspondence: Sage Publications, 2455 Teller Road, Newbury Park, CA 91320. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20255 Hoem, Britta. The social meaning of education for third-birth fertility: a methodological note on the need to sometimes respecify an intermediate variable. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 91, ISBN 91-7820-102-0. Jan 1995. 10 pp. Stockholm University, Demography Unit: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"In hazard regressions for a number of countries, including Sweden, more highly educated women have been found to have higher third-birth rates than other women, contrary to the prediction of current economic theory. In this paper we show that such a positive educational gradient disappears when age at second birth is respecified in order to better catch the social meaning of age at second birth for women at the various levels of education."
Correspondence: Stockholm University, Demography Unit, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20256 Hugo, Graeme. Recent trends in fertility differentials in Australia. People and Place, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1993. 1-5 pp. Monash, Australia. In Eng.
"The aim of this paper is not to examine broad trends in Australian fertility but to analyse the extent to which fertility patterns vary from one group to another within Australian society....In general, differences between groups have been converging as fertility overall has declined." Aspects considered include aboriginal fertility, immigrant fertility, and fertility by socioeconomic group.
Correspondence: G. Hugo, University of Adelaide, Department of Geography, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20257 Kohli, K. L.; Al-Omain, M. H. Fertility in Kuwait: 1970-1985. Genus, Vol. 49, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1993. 55-69 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"Changes in Kuwaitian indigenous and immigrant fertility levels and characteristics [for 1970-1985] are examined and determinants are discussed....In this period indigenous...fertility barely decreased while immigrant...fertility intensely reduced....Early marriage patterns and very low use and practice of birth control methods are responsible for persistent high fertility levels for Kuwaitian women. Both factors sharply change regarding immigrant women....Cultural and religious factors strongly affect marriage patterns and reproductive behaviour. Factors underlying the socio-economic modernisation process (diffusion of education, improved woman role) are relevant...in the demographic transition process."
Correspondence: K. L. Kohli, 401 East 34th Street, Apartment N-29-A, New York, NY 10016. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20258 Leland, Nancy L.; Petersen, Donna J.; Braddock, Mary; Alexander, Greg R. Variations in pregnancy outcomes by race among 10-14-year-old mothers in the United States. Public Health Reports, Vol. 110, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1995. 53-8 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study used 1983-86 U.S. Linked Live Birth-Infant Death Files to examine variations in pregnancy outcomes among 38,551 U.S. resident black and white adolescents ages 10 through 14....Logistic regression indicated that black mothers were at higher risk for having infants who were low birth weight, very low birth weight, small for gestational age, preterm, and very preterm. There were no differences by race for neonatal, postneonatal, and infant mortality. While the risk for poor pregnancy outcomes is great among young adolescents, young black adolescents appear to be particularly vulnerable."
Correspondence: N. L. Leland, Blue Cross Blue Shield Blue Plus, Center for Health Services Research and Evaluation, 3400 Yankee Drive, P.O. Box 64560, St. Paul, MN 55164-0560. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20259 Li, Shuqing; Wang, Wenlu. The difference in fertility between urban and rural areas and its impact on the process of urbanization. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1994. 201-10 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article attempts to probe into the question of imbalanced fertility rate and its impact on population urbanization [in China], and goes a step further to analyze the conditions necessary [to] alleviate such imbalance." Differences between rural and urban areas are analyzed.
Correspondence: S. Li, Hebei Provincial Academy of Social Sciences, Population Research Center, Hebei, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20260 Lo, Su Vui; Kaul, Surinder; Kaul, Ruby; Cooling, Sharon; Calvert, John P. Teenage pregnancy--contraceptive use and non-use. British Journal of Family Planning, Vol. 20, No. 3, Oct 1994. 79-83 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"A study, based on person-to-person interview with a cohort of sequential pregnant teenagers [in West Glamorgan, Wales] using a structured questionnaire, was undertaken to examine the sociodemographic characteristics of teenagers opting for childbirth and termination of pregnancy, to ascertain whether the pregnancy was intended, and to assess the pattern of contraceptive use and non-use....It was found that teenagers opting for termination differ significantly from those choosing childbirth....Teenagers opting for termination were also significantly more likely than those choosing childbirth to report that the pregnancy was unplanned, twice as likely to deny failure to use contraceptives around the time of conception, and three times as likely to attribute contraceptive method failure as the main reason for unplanned pregnancy."
Correspondence: S. V. Lo, West Glamorgan Health Authority, Cardiff, Wales. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20261 Rancic, Miroljub. Fertility of the female population of Serbia in 1981. [Fertilitet srpskog zenskog stanovnistva (po popisu stanovnistva SFR Jugoslavije iz 1981.).] Stanovnistvo, Vol. 31-32, 1993-1994. 45-72 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
"The author begins by relating the total number of women [in Serbia] over 15 (by five year age groups) to the number of women who had given birth, and analyses age distribution....Particular attention is given to the generation fertility of women from 15 to 75 and over, and the analysis focused on the average number of children per woman. First, fertility of Serb women is compared to that of women of different ethnic origin...resident in Serbia, and second, fertility of Serb women to that of women of different ethnic origin residing outside the territory of Serbia. The results obtained point to ethnic and regional differences as caused by historic, economic, cultural and other factors characterizing individual environments and phases of social development."
Correspondence: M. Rancic, Institut Drustvenih Nauka, Centar za Demografska Istrazivanja, Narodnog Fronta 45, Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20262 Ventura, Stephanie J. Recent trends in teenage childbearing in the United States. Statistical Bulletin, Vol. 75, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1994. 10-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author analyzes recent U.S. trends in adolescent childbearing. Information is included on trends by age, race, ethnicity, and marital status. Factors associated with rising teenage childbearing rates are considered.
Correspondence: S. J. Ventura, U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, Natality, Marriage and Divorce Statistics Branch, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology

Studies on infertility, as well as studies of spontaneous abortion, prematurity, and other relevant pathologies of pregnancy.

No citations in this issue.

F.4. Actions and Activities Directly Affecting Fertility

Studies concerning activities, including family planning programs, that are primarily designed to influence fertility.

F.4.1. General Fertility Control and Contraception

General aspects of fertility control, primarily those concerned with family planning and family planning programs.

61:20263 Agyei, William K. A.; Migadde, Micheal. Demographic and sociocultural factors influencing contraceptive use in Uganda. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 27, No. 1, Jan 1995. 47-60 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Bivariate and multivariate analyses of the influence of demographic and sociocultural factors on contraceptive knowledge, attitudes and practice among currently married respondents in Uganda show that: (1) contraceptive knowledge is widespread, even among women with no education; (2) the majority of the respondents have favourable attitudes towards contraceptive use; (3) the level of contraceptive use is low in comparison with knowledge and attitudes. Post-primary education, ethnicity, residence, the presence of the spouse in the household and discussion of family planning with spouse were strong predictors of knowledge and favourable attitudes towards contraception."
Correspondence: W. K. A. Agyei, Futures Group, 1050 17th Street NW, Suite 1000, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20264 Agyei, William K. A.; Mukiza-Gapere, Jackson; Epema, Elsbeth J. Sexual behaviour, reproductive health and contraceptive use among adolescents and young adults in Mbale District, Uganda. Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Vol. 97, 1994. 219-27 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
Results are presented from a 1990 survey of 502 adolescent males and 855 females in Uganda. "The incidence of adolescent pregnancy is generally high and slightly higher in rural than in urban areas. A relatively large proportion of pregnancies occur out of wedlock. The respondents' contraceptive knowledge was quite good but many still engaged in unprotected sexual relations. The most commonly used methods were the condom and the pill. The main reasons given for non-use were lack of knowledge about contraceptives, beliefs that they were not safe, and their non-availability."
Correspondence: W. K. A. Agyei, Futures Group, 1050 17th Street NW, Suite 1000, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20265 Ahmed, Tauseef. Unmet need for contraception in Pakistan: pattern and determinants. Demography India, Vol. 22, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1993. 31-51 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The focus of this paper is to update and reestimate the unmet need for contraception [in Pakistan]....The [author] elaborates the scheme of measurement of unmet need for contraception. This analysis also includes a multivariate analysis of the unmet need to see the factors that affect it."
Correspondence: T. Ahmed, National Institute of Population Studies, House No. 8, Street 70, F-8/3, P.O. Box 2197, Islamabad, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20266 Bollen, Kenneth A.; Guilkey, David K.; Mroz, Thomas A. Binary outcomes and endogenous explanatory variables: tests and solutions with an application to the demand for contraceptive use in Tunisia. Demography, Vol. 32, No. 1, Feb 1995. 111-31 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Many demographic studies examine discrete outcomes, and researchers often suspect that some of the explanatory variables may be influenced by the same unobserved factors that determine the discrete outcome under examination. In linear models, the standard solution to this potential endogeneity bias is an estimator such as two-stage least squares. These methods have been extended to models with limited dependent variables, but there is little information on the performance of the methods in the types of data sets typically used in demographic research....[This paper] describes a simple analytic framework for estimating the effects of explanatory variables on discrete outcomes, which controls for the potential endogeneity of explanatory variables. It also discusses tests for exogeneity and joint determination of the outcomes and the explanatory variables. It summarizes the results of a Monte Carlo study of the performance of these techniques and uses these results to suggest how researchers should approach these problems in practice. We apply these methods to the examination of the impact of fertility intentions on contraceptive use, based on data from the 1988 Tunisia Demographic and Health Surveys."
Correspondence: K. A. Bollen, University of North Carolina, Department of Sociology, CB 3210, Hamilton Hall, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3210. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20267 Bongaarts, John. Do reproductive intentions matter? International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 18, No. 3, Sep 1992. 102-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The main purpose of this article is to examine the impact of women's desire to stop childbearing on their levels of contraceptive use and fertility, and to determine whether this relationship varies systematically between countries at different stages of the transition from high to low desired fertility (the fertility preference transition)." The study uses data from 18 Demographic and Health Surveys. Results indicate that "the average fertility rate of married women who want no more children is 43% below the rate observed among women who have not yet completed their desired childbearing. These two groups of women also differ in their average level of contraceptive use--49% among the former and 24% among the latter....In societies where relatively few women want to limit childbearing, reproductive intentions have only a modest impact on contraceptive use and fertility; in countries where large proportions of married women want no more births, most of these women practice contraception to control their fertility."
Correspondence: J. Bongaarts, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20268 Bullough, Vern L. Science in the bedroom: a history of sex research. ISBN 0-456-03020-3. LC 93-46396. 1994. [viii], 376 pp. BasicBooks: New York, New York. In Eng.
This is a history of research into sex and the factors that affect it. The geographical focus is worldwide, with emphasis on the United States. Some consideration is given to the factors affecting research on contraception.
Correspondence: BasicBooks, 10 East 53rd Street, New York, NY 10022-5299. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

61:20269 Chang, Ming-Cheng. Demographic change and family planning in Taiwan. Jun 1994. 32 pp. Taiwan Provincial Institute of Family Planning: Taichung, Taiwan. In Eng.
"This paper traces major trends in the population of Taiwan's reproductive behavior from 1965 to 1992 and then examines how...Taiwan's family planning targets can be attained during the demographic transition and the changes in the family planning program after the end of the fertility transition." The author describes how the program has adapted to low fertility by concentrating on the quality of the population, including providing services and information on genetic health to the less privileged, sex and family life education, and services for young people.
Correspondence: Taiwan Provincial Institute of Family Planning, Taichung, Taiwan. Location: East-West Center Library, Honolulu, HI.

61:20270 Dang, Anh. Differentials in contraceptive use and method choice in Vietnam. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 21, No. 1, Mar 1995. 2-5 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The study described in this article is an attempt to examine the effects of factors that may have played roles in determining contraceptive use and method choice in Vietnam. Two questions guide the analysis: 1) Are there differentials in contraceptive use in Vietnam, and if so, what factor or combination of factors accounts for them? 2) Do current users choose modern or traditional methods, and what factors explain their choice?" Results indicate that "some 60% of currently married, nonpregnant Vietnamese women use a contraceptive method and two-thirds of these rely on a modern method, generally the IUD....The odds of method use among illiterate women are 34% lower than those among women with a secondary or higher education, but husband's education is a stronger predictor of contraceptive use....Couples with daughters only are 27% less likely to use a method than are those with children of both sexes, and are also less likely to use a modern method. Couples with three or more children are more likely to use a modern method than are those with fewer children. Northern Vietnamese are 37% more likely to use contraceptives than southern Vietnamese and are also more likely to use modern methods."
Correspondence: A. Dang, Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20271 Dodoo, F. Nii-Amoo. Contraceptive behavior in Ghana: a two-sex model. International Journal of Sociology of the Family, Vol. 25, No. 1, Spring 1995. 43-61 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"Survey data from Ghana is used to examine the impact of male intentions on fertility-related behavior....The findings are that, the reproductive preferences of male spouses are not significant determinants of current contraceptive use, although they may have some implications for future use. The results suggest that fertility may not have fallen in many parts of the region, because men have not yet adopted a low fertility norm."
Correspondence: F. N.-A. Dodoo, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20272 Donovan, Patricia. The politics of blame: family planning, abortion and the poor. ISBN 0-939253-37-2. 1995. 48 pp. Alan Guttmacher Institute: New York, New York. In Eng.
This report describes the consequences of the failure of government, at both federal and state levels, to provide the services needed so that poor women in the United States would be able to avoid unwanted preganacies and births. "Using national and state data and up-to-date policy analysis, the report documents: the diminution of the federal government's support of family planning services for poor women over the last decade and Congress' nearly total exclusion of abortion services for Medicaid recipients; contraceptive use, contraceptive failure and unintended pregnancy among poor women; how poor women deal with an accidental pregnancy, their reasons for having an abortion and the challenges they face in obtaining an abortion in the absence of public funding; and the financial and societal implications for states and for the federal government of denying or restoring public funding of abortions."
Correspondence: Alan Guttmacher Institute, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20273 Feyisetan, Bamikale J.; Ainsworth, Martha. Contraceptive use and the quality, price, and availability of family planning in Nigeria. Living Standards Measurement Study Working Paper, No. 108, ISBN 0-8213-3017-9. LC 94-31942. Dec 1994. xi, 47 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Using data from the 1990 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), this paper examines the relative impact of women's schooling, household income, and contraceptive availability, price and quality, on the demand for family planning and, ultimately, on fertility in Nigeria. The results indicate the importance of female schooling and access to services in promoting contraceptive use in Nigeria, where contraceptive services are still in relatively short supply."
Correspondence: World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20274 Guest, Philip; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat. Rural Thai social setting and family planning activity: effects on female sterilization. Journal of Population and Social Studies, Vol. 4, No. 1-2, Jul-Jan 1992-1993. 79-101, 123 pp. Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. In Eng. with sum. in Tha.
"This paper examines how social setting and family planning program activity affect the acceptance of female sterilization among a sample of Thai women. Family planning activity and social setting variables are measured at the community level while sterilization is measured at the individual level. The results demonstrate that the acceptance of female sterilization was not significantly related to variation in indexes of family planning activities, although social setting variables and individual characteristics both contributed to explaining variations in levels of recent female sterilization."
Correspondence: P. Guest, Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research, 25/25 Phutthamonthon 4 Road, Salaya, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20275 Guo, Youning; Lin, Deliang. A study on the discontinuation and failure of contraception among newly married couples in Shanghai. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 6, No. 3, 1994. 311-22 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors investigate contraceptive failure and discontinuation among newly married couples in Shanghai, China, with a focus on the questions, "What percentage of births is due to contraceptive failure? What socio-psychological and demographic characteristics of a couple are related to the discontinuation or failure of contraception? How do the continuation rate and failure rate of contraception among newly married couples reflect the acceptance and effectiveness of various forms of contraception?"
Correspondence: Y. Guo, Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research, Shanghai 200032, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20276 Hatcher, Robert A.; Trussell, James; Stewart, Felicia; Howells, Susan; Russell, Caroline R.; Kowal, Deborah. Emergency contraception: the nation's best-kept secret. ISBN 0-9638875-3-X. 1995. xiv, 237 pp. Bridging the Gap Communications: Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
This book is about emergency contraception, defined as contraception used after sexual intercourse but before a woman becomes pregnant. It "serves as both a practical guide--explaining how emergency contraception works and how to use it--and as a directory of providers. Listed, state-by-state, are the names of over 1,000 clinics and doctors' offices that provide emergency contraception [in the United States]."
Correspondence: Bridging the Gap Communications, P.O. Box 33218, Decatur, GA 30033. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20277 Hieu, Do Trong; Van, Hoang Ti; Donaldson, Peter J.; Nga, Quan Le. The pattern of IUD use in Vietnam. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 21, No. 1, Mar 1995. 6-10 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"A 1993 study to examine the pattern of IUD use in three provinces of Vietnam questioned 2,996 women who first used an IUD between 1981 and 1992. Results suggest a high continuation rate--81% at 12 months--and a low failure rate; about 3% of women experience accidental pregnancy after 12 months of use. Among reasons for termination, expulsion is the most common and is reported more frequently than in other countries; approximately 9% of users say they expel their IUD within 12 months. Health problems are the second most common reason, cited by about 7% of women who terminate use. No data were collected on the type of IUD used or on respondents' characteristics at the time of insertion."
Correspondence: D. T. Hieu, Ministry of Health, Maternal and Child Health and Family Planning Department, 138A Giangvo, Hanoi, Viet Nam. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20278 Issa, Mahmoud S. Regional and sub-regional population strategies for the Arab countries (1995-2004): a proposed framework. CST/Working Paper, No. 8, Jan 1995. 44, vii pp. United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], Regional Office of the Country Support Team for the Arab States: Amman, Jordan. In Eng.
The author first reviews population trends in the Arab countries of Western Asia and Northern Africa. Next, he analyzes progress in developing family planning programs in the region, as well as advances in such development indicators as female literacy, fertility, infant mortality, age at marriage, and desired family size. Finally, he reviews the objectives and strategies of population programs and policies that are needed in the region over the period 1994-2005.
Correspondence: United Nations Population Fund, Regional Office of the Country Support Team for the Arab States, P.O. Box 830824, Amman 11183, Jordan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20279 Janowitz, Barbara; Hubacher, David; Petrick, Thomas; Dighe, Nootan. Should the recommended number of IUD revisits be reduced? Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 25, No. 6, Pt. 1, Nov-Dec 1994. 362-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study uses data from clinical trials of intrauterine devices to examine the effect of reducing the recommended number of IUD follow-up visits. Over 11,000 follow-up forms were analyzed to estimate the number of health problems that would have escaped detection if women with no or mild symptoms had not made recommended revisits. Less than one percent of woman-visits with no or only mild symptoms had an underlying health risk that could have gone undetected if the follow-up visits that were made in the clinic trial setting had not been made. The results from this analysis suggest that a reduction in the number of recommended follow-up visits is safe, when measured according to selected conditions. Additional research is necessary to determine whether any revisits should be recommended in the absence of signs or symptoms."
Correspondence: B. Janowitz, Family Health International, One Triangle Drive, P.O. Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20280 Klufio, Cecil A.; Amoa, Apeawusu B.; Kariwiga, Grace. A survey of Papua New Guinean parturients at the Port Moresby General Hospital: family planning. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 27, No. 1, Jan 1995. 11-8 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"A survey of 673 consecutive Papua New Guinean parturients at the Port Moresby General Hospital, in May and June 1990, showed that 28% had ever used a family planning (FP) method, chiefly a hormonal method (93% of ever-users). Only seventeen of 239 (7.1%) nulliparae had ever used an FP method, compared with 170 of 434 (39.2%) parous subjects. Education of mother and of husband were independently and significantly associated with FP ever-use. Seventeen (4.9%) of 347 women who had a surviving child, had not breast-fed the child. The interval between the birth of the surviving child and the start of the index pregnancy was significantly associated with the duration of breast-feeding; the longer the duration of breast-feeding, the longer the inter birth interval."
Correspondence: C. A. Klufio, University of Papua New Guinea, Division of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Boroko, Papua New Guinea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20281 Knodel, John; Anh, Phan Thuc; Dung, Truong Viet; Vinh, Dao Xuan. Why is oral contraceptive use in Vietnam so low? International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 21, No. 1, Mar 1995. 11-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"An examination of reasons why oral contraceptives represent less than 5% of modern method use in Vietnam, based on structured discussions with program implementers and on interviews with women who are actual or potential pill users, indicates that promotion of the pill has been minimal and that demand is low. Many program implementers perceive the IUD to be a better method under most circumstances, and they lack accurate knowledge about the pill. For example, a large proportion believe that it is necessary for pill users to skip one or two cycles every year to restore their hormonal balance. In addition, most do not believe that rural women can remember to take the pill daily. In contrast, most current or former pill users report that they have not had serious difficulty in remembering to take the pill on a daily basis. The inadequate knowledge and negative attitudes toward the pill among program implementers can be traced to the structure of the family planning program and to the assumptions underlying population policy in Vietnam."
Correspondence: J. Knodel, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1248. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20282 Ku, Leighton; Sonenstein, Freya L.; Pleck, Joseph H. The dynamics of young men's condom use during and across relationships. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 26, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1994. 246-51 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this article, we propose a hypothesis...to explain some of the dynamics of condom use during and across relationships [in the United States]." The authors use data from the 1991 National Survey of Adolescent Males. Findings indicate that "condom use is likely to be highest at the beginning of relationships and to decline as the relationship continues....Condom use also decreases with age....However, the probability that the female partner used the pill the first time that the couple had sex increased with the man's age....Young men were more likely to have used a condom if they thought their partner was sexually inexperienced, and less likely to have done so if they suspected their partner was at high risk for an STD."
Correspondence: L. Ku, Urban Institute, Health Policy Center, 2100 M Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20283 Levine, Ruth E.; Bennett, Joanne. Sustainability of family planning programs and organizations: meeting tomorrow's challenges. Policy Paper Series, No. 6, Jan 1995. 38 pp. Options for Population Policy: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This paper looks at the problems of formulating and implementing sustainable family planning programs in developing countries at a time when services have to be expanded to support those who are the hardest and most expensive to reach, while the contributions of international donors are declining. "The paper examines the experiences of programs and private voluntary organizations...that have sustainable elements, and describes policy options and donor initiatives that can enhance the sustainability of family planning efforts. The paper also presents economic and organizational strategies that can help family planning programs and organizations respond to demand for information and services."
Correspondence: Options for Population Policy, 1050 17th Street NW, Suite 1000, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20284 Loaiza, Edilberto. Sterilization regret in the Dominican Republic: looking for quality-of-care issues. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 26, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1995. 39-48 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This report approaches the concept of quality of care by looking at the covariates of sterilization regret in the Dominican Republic according to the results from the 1991 Demographic and Health Survey. The main variables observed are the women's satisfaction with sterilization, their decisionmaking process, sterilization experience, use of family planning, and socioeconomic characteristics. The more detailed measurement and analysis of the outcomes of care point to a need for improvement in the public program effort with regard to sterilization. Substantial proportions of women were sterilized who were younger than 30, who had three or fewer living children, and who had the operation before they had used any other method of contraception."
Correspondence: E. Loaiza, Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Calverton, MD 20705-3119. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20285 Marquette, Catherine M.; Koonin, Lisa M.; Antarsh, Libby; Gargiullo, Paul M.; Smith, Jack C. Vasectomy in the United States, 1991. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 85, No. 5, May 1995. 644-9 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
An attempt is made to estimate the annual number, rate, and characteristics of vasectomies in the United States in 1991, using data from a survey of 1,685 physicians. The results indicate that "an estimated 493,487...vasectomies were performed in 1991, for a rate of 10.3 procedures per 1,000 men aged 25 through 49 years. Most vasectomies were performed by urologists, and most were done in physicians' offices with local anesthesia and ligation as the method of occlusion. The rate of vasectomies was highest in the Midwest."
Correspondence: L. Antarsh, AVSC International, 79 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

61:20286 McFarlane, Carmen P.; Friedman, Jay S.; Morris, Leo; Binzen, Susanna C. Contraceptive Prevalence Survey, Jamaica, 1993. Volume V: summary of results by health region. Dec 1994. [vi], 146, [4] pp. National Family Planning Board: Kingston, Jamaica; U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]: Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
This volume presents results from the 1993 Jamaica Contraceptive Prevalence Survey for the four health regions on the island. The data concern fertility, planning status of last pregnancy, knowledge of contraceptives, contraceptive usage, condom usage, attitudes toward contraception and fertility, sources of contraceptives, family planning service needs, and young adults.
For Volumes I, II, and III, also published in 1994, see 61:10797, 61:10357, and 61:10309 respectively.
Correspondence: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20287 McLaurin, Katie E.; Senanayake, Pramilla; Toubia, Nahid; Ladipo, O. A. Post-abortion family planning. World Health Forum, Vol. 16, No. 1, 1995. 52-5 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
"In many countries, reproductive health services do not actively include post-abortion family planning services for women who are treated for complications of unsafe abortion. This greatly increases the risk of further unintended pregnancies and unsafe abortions. The authors, drawing on the recommendations of a meeting of experts, make a plea for bridging the gap and dealing more realistically with this urgent need."
Correspondence: K. E. McLaurin, International Projects Assistance Service, P.O. Box 100, Carrboro, NC 27510. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20288 Mensch, Barbara; Arends-Kuenning, Mary; Jain, Anrudh. Assessing the impact of the quality of family planning services on contraceptive use in Peru: a case study linking situation analysis data to the DHS. Population Council Research Division Working Paper, No. 67, 1994. 50 pp. Population Council, Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"Through linkage of data from a Demographic and Health Survey to a Situation Analysis (a new type of survey of family planning service-delivery points, involving an inventory of facilities, exit interviews with staff and clients, and observation of client/provider interactions), this paper explores whether current contraceptive use in Peru is affected by the service environment in which a woman resides. The investigation explicitly focuses on the impact of the quality of family planning services...."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1994 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20289 Murphy, M. Sterilisation as a method of contraception: recent trends in Great Britain and their implication. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 27, No. 1, Jan 1995. 31-46 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Data on patterns and trends in sterilisation in Britain among women, men and couples are presented using life table approaches with data from a national survey, the General Household Survey. Among couples under age 50, sterilisation is the main method of contraception used, with slightly more women than men being sterilised, although this is reversed if only contraceptive sterilisation is considered. Trends in contraception have remained relatively constant in recent decades. Patterns of sterilisation differ following births of different orders. For example, the resort to sterilisation is much quicker after a third birth than after a second. The proportions of men and women who have been sterilised and then formed a subsequent partnership are very small, so the effect of sterilisation in preventing births in such unions is negligible."
Correspondence: M. Murphy, London School of Economics and Political Science, Houghton Street, Aldwych, London WC2A 2AE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20290 O'Donnell, Lydia; San Doval, Alexi; Duran, Richard; O'Donnell, Carl R. Predictors of condom acquisition after an STD clinic visit. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 27, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1995. 29-33 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Data from a [U.S.] survey of 691 men and women who made patient visits to an inner-city, sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic and were given coupons to redeem for condoms at a neighborhood pharmacy show that only 22% of the sample did so. Gender, ethnicity, marital status and education were not significant predictors of whether study participants redeemed their coupons. Factors that significantly predicted coupon redemption included the extent of acculturation and age, with those who were older and less acculturated more likely to do so. Other significant factors were having a primary sexual partner and having had more than one sexual partner in the last month; having ever had an STD was negatively associated with coupon redemption. A perception of being at high STD risk and a favorable attitude about condoms also significantly predicted condom acquisition."
Correspondence: L. O'Donnell, Education Development Center, Newton, MA. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20291 Peterson, Linda S. Contraceptive use in the United States: 1982-90. Advance Data from Vital and Health Statistics, No. 260, Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 95-1250. Feb 14, 1995. 16 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
Changes in contraceptive use in the United States, including changes in methods chosen, are analyzed over the period 1982-1990 using data from the National Survey of Family Growth. The results indicate that "in 1990, 59 percent of U.S. women 15-44 years of age were using contraception. The increase in the percent using contraception that occurred from 1982 to 1988 (from 56 to 60 percent of women) did not continue through 1990."
Correspondence: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20292 Remennick, Larissa I. Patterns of birth control. In: Sex and Russian society, edited by Igor Kon and James Riordan. ISBN 0-7453-0683-7. 1993. 45-63 pp. Pluto Press: London, England. In Eng.
The author notes that the decline in fertility that has occurred in Russia since the Revolution of 1917 has been brought about almost entirely by induced abortion rather than contraception. She attempts to bring together the scattered and incomplete data available on abortion trends in the USSR and its constituent republics. Available data on contraceptive practice are also reviewed.
Correspondence: L. I. Remennick, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology, Tel-Hashomer, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

61:20293 Robertson, John A. Children of choice: freedom and the new reproductive technologies. ISBN 0-691-03353-6. LC 93-35880. 1994. x, 281 pp. Princeton University Press: Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
"The goal of this book is to show the importance of procreative liberty--the freedom to decide whether or not to have offspring--in devising the framework for resolving the controversies that reproductive technology creates. It views the issues presented by reproductive technology as first and foremost a question of the scope and limits of procreative freedom and assesses reproductive technologies in that light." It includes chapters on abortion and on contraception, which examine issues such as Norplant, forced contraception, and irresponsible reproduction. The author concludes that "individuals should be free to use these [reproductive] techniques or not as they choose, without governmental restriction, unless strong justification for limiting them can be established."
Correspondence: Princeton University Press, 41 William Street, Princeton, NJ 08540. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

61:20294 Sinding, Steven W. Getting to replacement: bridging the gap between individual rights and demographic goals. Demography India, Vol. 22, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1993. 1-10 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The paper attempts to calculate what the demographic effect would be in [developing countries] if unmet need [for family planning] were satisfied immediately. For countries for which the information is available, this estimate is then compared with the targets stipulated by the government, converted where necessary to prevalence of contraceptive use (i.e., if targets are stated in terms of fertility or population growth rates, they are converted to the proportion of couples who would need to be practicing family planning in order to achieve those demographic outcomes). We then look at global estimates of unmet need as a measure of the total demand for family planning...."
Correspondence: S. W. Sinding, Rockefeller Foundation, Population Sciences, 1133 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10021-6399. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20295 Smith, Caroline; McElnay, Caroline. Measuring the need for contraceptive services: findings from a needs assessment survey. British Journal of Family Planning, Vol. 20, No. 3, Oct 1994. 88-91 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"A population survey was carried out to assess the need for contraceptive services in Tameside and Glossop Health Authority [England]. A self completion questionnaire was distributed to 1,312 women aged 16-49 years, to examine need in relation to awareness about family planning, contraceptive use, unplanned pregnancies and current use of and proposals to improve services."
Correspondence: C. Smith, CASPE Research, 22 Palace Court, Bayswater, London W2 4HU, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20296 Thapa, Shyam; Kumar, Sushil; Cushing, Jeanne; Kennedy, Kathy. Contraceptive use among postpartum women: recent patterns and programmatic implications. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 18, No. 3, Sep 1992. 83-92 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This study examines contraceptive behavior and needs among postpartum women in developing countries, and addresses three interrelated issues. First, what is the prevalence of contraceptive use among postpartum women and when do they begin using contraceptives after childbirth? Second, what are their preferences for future childbearing? Third, to what extent do women have contact with health care personnel before, during and after the delivery, who might help them initiate contraceptive use?" Results indicate that "the proportion of women who are exposed to the risk of pregnancy within two years after childbirth ranges from one-third in Sub-Saharan Africa to nearly two-thirds in Latin America and the Caribbean. More than half of postpartum women are current contraceptive users. Women exposed to the risk of pregnancy are more likely than unexposed women to be using reversible methods, usually the pill."
Correspondence: S. Thapa, Family Health International, One Triangle Drive, P.O. Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20297 Trussell, James; Leveque, Joseph A.; Koenig, Jacqueline D.; London, Robert; Borden, Spencer; Henneberry, Joan; LaGuardia, Katherine D.; Stewart, Felicia; Wilson, T. George; Wysocki, Susan; Strauss, Michael. The economic value of contraception: a comparison of 15 methods. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 85, No. 4, Apr 1995. 494-503 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
An economic model to compare the effectiveness and cost per person of 15 different contraceptive methods under current U.S. conditions is presented. The model includes such factors as the direct costs of method use, side effects, and unintended pregnancies, using data from a national claims database and Medi-Cal. "All 15 contraceptives were more effective and less costly than no method. Over 5 years, the copper-T IUD, vasectomy, the contraceptive implant, and the injectable contraceptive were the most cost-effective, saving $14,122, $13,899, $13,813, and $13,373, respectively, and preventing approximately the same number of pregnancies (4.2) per person. Because of their high failure rates, barrier methods, spermicides, withdrawal, and periodic abstinence were costly but still saved from $8,933 to $12,239 over 5 years. Oral contraceptives fell between these groups, costing $1,784 over 5 years, saving $12,879, and preventing 4.1 pregnancies."
Correspondence: J. Trussell, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

61:20298 Westfall, John M.; Main, Deborah S. The contraceptive implant and the injectable: a comparison of costs. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 27, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1995. 34-6 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A comparison of the relative costs of the injectable contraceptive (depo medroxyprogesterone acetate) and the hormonal implant (Norplant) [in the United States] indicates that the implant is a less costly contraceptive option when it is used for its full five-year lifespan. Over a five-year period, the implant costs $107 annually, compared with $140 per year for the injectable. However, if a woman discontinues the implant before she has used it for at least four years, the injectable becomes the less costly option. Relatively high continuation rates--around 95% annually--are necessary to make the implant the more cost-effective contraceptive method."
Correspondence: J. M. Westfall, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Department of Family Medicine, Denver, CO. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20299 Westoff, Charles F.; Rodriguez, German. The mass media and family planning in Kenya. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 21, No. 1, Mar 1995. 26-31, 36 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Analyses of data from the 1989 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey demonstrate a strong statistical association between women's reports of having heard or seen messages about family planning through various media outlets and their use of contraceptives and their reproductive preferences. While 15% of women who say they have neither seen nor heard media messages on family planning are currently using a contraceptive method, this proportion rises to 25% among those who have heard radio messages, to 40% among those exposed to both radio and print messages and to 50% among those exposed to radio, print and television messages. These associations persist even when a variety of life-cycle, residential and socioeconomic controls are imposed, so that women exposed to no messages report an average of 5.5 children as their ideal family size, while those exposed to three types of messages report 4.7 children as ideal. Given the persistence of these strong relationships, the results suggest that the mass media can have an important effect on reproductive behavior."
Correspondence: C. F. Westoff, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20300 Zatuchni, Gerald I. IX International Congress, Guatemala City, 7-10 March 1995. Advances in Contraception, Vol. 11, No. 1, Mar 1995. 78 pp. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
This issue contains abstracts of the papers presented at the Ninth International Congress of the Society for the Advancement of Contraception held in Guatemala City in March 1995.
Correspondence: Kluwer Academic Publishers Group, P.O. Box 322, 3300 AH Dordrecht, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.2. Clinical Aspects & Use-Effectiveness Studies

Selected studies on the medical aspects of fertility control methods, including studies on side effects and use-effectiveness.

61:20301 Auger, Jacques; Kunstmann, Jean M.; Czyglik, Francoise; Jouannet, Pierre. Decline in semen quality among fertile men in Paris during the past 20 years. New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 332, No. 5, Feb 2, 1995. 281-5 pp. Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The results of a study on semen quality conducted among 1,351 healthy fertile men who were donors to a sperm bank in Paris, France, between 1973 and 1992 are presented. The results indicate that "during the past 20 years, there has been a decline in the concentration and motility of sperm and in the percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa in fertile men that is independent of the age of the men."
Correspondence: P. Jouannet, CECOS Paris-Cochin, Groupe Hospitalier Cochin, 123 boulevard de Port-Royal, 75014 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

61:20302 Fotherby, K. Twelve years of clinical experience with an oral contraceptive containing 30 ug ethinyloestradiol and 150 ug desogestrel. Contraception, Vol. 51, No. 1, Jan 1995. 3-12 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The clinical experience with a combined oral contraceptive (COC) containing...desogestrel and...ethinylestradiol is reviewed. Fourteen clinical trials have been reported involving over 44,000 women for more than 190,000 cycles. None of the 17 pregnancies which occurred (overall Pearl Index 0.12) were due to method failure....In all trials, the COC was well accepted and the rates of discontinuation were similar to those in other COC trials....The findings from the various trials show the COC to be effective and acceptable with no adverse metabolic effects."
Correspondence: K. Fotherby, Royal Postgraduate Medical School, Ducane Road, London W12 0NN, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20303 Taitel, Haya F.; Kafrissen, Michael E. A review of oral contraceptive use and risk of HIV-transmission. British Journal of Family Planning, Vol. 20, No. 4, Jan 1995. 112-6 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The authors review recent literature in order to examine the role of oral contraceptives (OCs) in modifying the risk of transmission of HIV. They discuss the clinical issues and the limitations of study methods, pointing out that study design is difficult and interpretation is exceedingly complex. Despite this, some interesting work has already been done. They conclude that information to date does not support either an increase or decrease in HIV risk among OC users."
Correspondence: H. Taitel, Ortho-McNeil Pharmaceutical, Division of Clinical Affairs, Raritan, NJ 08869. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.3. Evaluation of Programs

Studies evaluating either the demographic impact or other criteria of effectiveness of family planning programs.

61:20304 Daley, Daniel. Reproductive health and AIDS-related services for women: how well are they integrated? Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 26, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1994. 264-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"To explore the relationship between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and AIDS services and reproductive health services, a survey was undertaken in 1994 of 30 [U.S.] health care facilities that are grantees under Title IIIb of the Ryan White Comprehensive AIDS Resource Emergency Act, 19 family planning clinics that offer at least some HIV services, and two family planning agencies that are also grantees under Title IIIb. The Title IIIb providers and the family planning agencies offer similar sets of services, but they tend to view reproductive health and HIV and STD services as distinctly different categories. Eliminating the perceptual distinctions between these services and viewing reproductive health services as key components of HIV and AIDS prevention could result in a more integrated system of helping women with HIV infection or AIDS as well as those at risk of HIV infection."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20305 Li, Jiali. China's family planning program: how, and how well, did it work? Population Council Research Division Working Paper, No. 65, 1994. 36 pp. Population Council, Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"Using data from the 1988 Two-per-Thousand National Fertility Survey in Hebei Province, which surrounds Beijing, this study addresses the question of how, and how well, the family planning program in China worked during 1979 to 1988, the first decade of the one-child policy." The author concludes that the program worked most effectively with Type 2 registrations, who came under strict government controls, but was less effective with Type 1 registrations, who continued frequently to have more than one child.
Correspondence: Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20306 Liang, Jimin; Wang, Hongchun. A comparison of efficiency of birth control input between China and India. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1994. 177-87 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article attempts to analyze birth control input and efficiency [in China and India], evaluate each country's birth control work, and make relevant comparisons between the two countries....In both China and India, birth control has not only yielded a tremendous achievement in controlling the size of the population and economic efficiencies, but also significant social development efficiency which cannot be fully estimated."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20307 Patil, R. L.; Bhat, Mari. Health and family welfare base-line survey in Gokak taluka, 1993: a brief report. Journal of Institute of Economic Research, Vol. 27, No. 2, Jul 1992. 25-40 pp. Dharwad, India. In Eng.
"The Institute of Economic Research undertook [a] base line survey in Gokak taluka [India]....The major objective was to provide a data base for evaluating programme efforts, and developing strategies and plans for the future....The main object of the study was to provide base-line information on the levels of fertility, family planning, and maternal [and] child health care for the project area...[and] aspects of mortality and morbidity."
Correspondence: R. L. Patil, Population Research Centre, Dharwad 580 004, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20308 Rahman, M. Mujibur; Islam, M. Nurul. Role of service providers, programme managers and family planning field workers in the sterilization procedure of Bangladesh. Genus, Vol. 50, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1994. 65-74 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"This study examines the role of service providers, programme managers and family planning field workers in different components of the [Bangladesh] Voluntary Surgical Contraception (VSC) services and...[identifies] the causes of depreciated quality of services if any. A total of 95 service providers, 33 programme managers and 190 field workers were interviewed for the purpose. The findings show that the quality of services provided in the clinics [is] reasonably satisfactory given the inadequacies of skilled service providers, beds, autoclaves, workable operation sets and operation related facilities in the clinics. Pronounced inadequacy in care during and after operations was also noted."
Correspondence: M. M. Rahman, University of Chittagong, Department of Statistics, University Post Office, Chittagong 4331, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20309 Ros, John; Antarsh, Libby. Programme management and future directions in low fertility countries. In: Low fertility in East and Southeast Asia: issues and policies. Aug 1994. 322-41 pp. Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs [KIHASA]: Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
"This chapter examines the family planning programme experience of the West, and what interest it may hold for the low fertility countries of East and Southeast Asia." Aspects considered include policy, program ratings, program functions in Europe, and the demographic context for policy choices.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20310 Rukanuddin, Abdul R.; Hardee-Cleaveland, Karen. Can family planning succeed in Pakistan? International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 18, No. 3, Sep 1992. 109-15, 121 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"We argue that the success of family planning in Pakistan must be evaluated in the context of the constraints--policy-related and programmatic as well as social and cultural--that have hindered program operation over the years. The frequent policy and strategy shifts that have occurred over three decades have not been conducive to fully developing the population program in Pakistan. In addition, the family planning program has yet to be expanded to reach even half of the country's population. Social and cultural considerations, while important, should not be used as an excuse for a lack of services."
Correspondence: A. R. Rukanuddin, Ministry of Population Welfare, Islamabad, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20311 Stupp, Paul W.; Samara, Renee. Using parity-progression ratios to estimate the effect of female sterilization on fertility. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 25, No. 6, Pt. 1, Nov-Dec 1994. 322-41 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this article, a new methodology that employs parity-progression ratios to estimate the effect of female sterilization on fertility is described, and results using data from Ecuador are compared to those obtained using a previously existing approach that classifies women by marital duration. The methods differ in how they disaggregate marital fertility and in the assumption they make about what the subsequent fertility of sterilized women would have been if they had not been sterilized. The analysis of the Ecuadoran data shows that the estimate of births averted by sterilization has diminished over time, even as sterilization prevalence has been increasing. This situation is attributed to a decline in the fertility of nonsterilized women resulting from increased use of reversible methods of contraception."
Correspondence: P. W. Stupp, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Mailstop K35, 4770 Buford Highway NE, Atlanta, GA 30341-3724. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20312 Thomas, Duncan; Maluccio, John. Contraceptive choice, fertility, and public policy in Zimbabwe. Living Standards Measurement Study Working Paper, No. 109, ISBN 0-8213-3018-7. LC 94-30390. 1995. xi, 43 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper examines the relative impact of women's schooling, household income, and the availability and quality of family planning services on contraceptive use and fertility in Zimbabwe....Multiple sources of data are used, including the 1988 Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), the 1989 Services Availability Survey, the 1992 Situation Analysis Study and the 1982 Census. Female education is found to have a powerful impact both on contraceptive use and fertility. The results indicate that the availability and quality of family planning and health services have raised contraceptive use, and that the impact has been greatest for less-educated women. However, the link between contraceptive use and fertility is weak."
Correspondence: World Bank, Publications Department, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20313 Townsend, John W.; Khan, M. E. Target setting in family planning programme: problems and potential alternatives. Demography India, Vol. 22, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1993. 113-25 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"Recently, there has been an increasing criticism of the target approach adopted by the family welfare programme [in India]....In the present paper a few alternatives...are presented for consideration and discussion. The paper has been divided in three sections. In the first section, the rationale for the target setting and its consequences in the Indian context are discussed. In the second section, potential alternatives are suggested. And thirdly, the directions for research on testing their efficacy are proposed."
Correspondence: J. W. Townsend, Population Council, 53 Lodi Estate, New Delhi 110 003, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20314 Tsai, Jeff. Future goals and directions of family planning programmes: a case study of Taiwan. In: Low fertility in East and Southeast Asia: issues and policies. Aug 1994. 307-21 pp. Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs [KIHASA]: Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
"Taiwan has completed its demographic transition with birth and death rates currently at very low levels....Where should Taiwan's official family planning programme go from here? Should family planning services be terminated, or shifted to the private sector? Should the national family planning organisation be abolished and its manpower dissolved? Should attempts be made to raise fertility, and if so, to what level? This chapter discusses these issues."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20315 Yoo, Ja Kyung. Information management for family planning programmes. In: Low fertility in East and Southeast Asia: issues and policies. Aug 1994. 350-64 pp. Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs [KIHASA]: Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
"This chapter examines the status and applications of information technologies to information management systems related to family planning programmes, including IEC, and considers possible future directions."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.4. Attitudes Toward Fertility & Fertility Control

Studies concerned with the interrelations between fertility control and attitudinal variables, including studies on wanted and unwanted pregnancy and children, motivation for parenthood, sex preference, and voluntary childlessness. Studies on knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of family planning and attitudes toward family size are classified under this heading.

61:20316 Arnold, Fred. Sex preference and its demographic and health implications. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 18, No. 3, Sep 1992. 93-101 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) show that parental preference for sons persists in some countries but may be declining in others. The most common preference pattern among parents in 26 DHS countries is for at least one daughter and one son. There is some preference for sons in North Africa and Sri Lanka, but even in those countries it is not consistently strong. Moreover, in most countries there is little evidence that prevalent sex preferences are translated into pronounced differentials in a society's contraceptive use or sex ratios. There are also few significant differences in the percentage of young boys and girls receiving immunizations, becoming ill, receiving medical assistance during an illness, being breastfed or showing signs of poor nutrition."
Correspondence: F. Arnold, Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Suite 300, Calverton, MD 20705. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20317 Bermudez Mendez, Alicia; Rosero Bixby, Luis. Reproductive goals and patterns of child rearing. [Metas reproductivas y patrones de crianza de los hijos.] Encuesta Nacional de Salud Reproductiva de 1993, Informe de Trabajo, No. 1, Dec 1994. 109 pp. Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social, Departamento de Medicina Preventiva: San Jose, Costa Rica; U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]: Atlanta, Georgia. In Spa.
The authors investigate aspects of reproductive preferences in Costa Rica, using data from the 1993 National Survey of Reproductive Health. Separate chapters focus on reproductive goals, including number of children desired, agreement between husband and wife, and birth spacing; means of achieving reproductive goals; unmet demand for family planning; unwanted fertility; and the effect of unwanted pregnancy on child-rearing practices, including prenatal care, prematurity and birth weight, breast-feeding, immunization, and child health care.
Correspondence: Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social, Departamento de Medicina Preventiva, Apartado 1434-1011 Y-Griega, San Jose, Costa Rica. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20318 Bracher, Michael; Santow, Gigi. Traditional families and fertility decline: lessons from Australia's Southern Europeans. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 90, ISBN 91-7820-100-4. Jan 1995. 35 pp. Stockholm University, Demography Unit: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"In this paper we question whether declining fertility necessarily reflects a corresponding decline in the value placed on children and the family. Our evidence comes from the behaviour of Southern-European immigrants to Australia....We argue that, in some circumstances, the most negotiable aspect of a family may be its size; and that, however paradoxical this may appear, reducing the size of one's family may be the most effective way to ensure its survival."
Correspondence: Stockholm University, Demography Unit, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20319 de Graaf, A. Women are less uncertain about their number of children. [Vrouwen zijn minder onzeker over hun kindertal.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 43, No. 1, Jan 1995. 14-20 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"The [Netherlands] fertility surveys of 1982, 1988 and 1993 contain information of birth expectations of women born in the period 1950-1974....According to data from the Netherlands Fertility Survey of 1993 it seems that in 1993 women are more certain of the additional expected number of children than five years ago. On the one hand women have fewer doubts about staying childless or not; on the other hand they are more certain about the exact number of additional children. Based on these findings it was decided not to change the long-term fertility assumptions in the 1994 based population forecasts: a stable level of 1.8 children of women born in the 1970s."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20320 Gonzalez Cervera, Alfonso S. Unwanted fertility in Mexico. [La fecundidad no deseada en Mexico.] Estudios Demograficos y Urbanos, Vol. 8, No. 2, May-Aug 1993. 287-306, 483-4 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This article uses data from [Mexico's] National Health and Fertility Survey [ENFES] conducted in 1987 to explore the relationship between certain variables (education, urban/rural residence, place of primary socialization, type of employment of head of household and employment background of female respondents) and unwanted pregnancy. The results indicate that education is the variable most closely related to preference for pregnancy. In contrast to the assumption that development increases the rate of unwanted pregnancy, the study found that women with employment backgrounds, higher education levels and urban-area residence registered the lowest levels of unwanted pregnancy."
Correspondence: A. S. Gonzalez Cervera, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Xochimilco, Calz. del Hueso 1100, Col. Villa Quietud, C.P. 04960, Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20321 Japan. Institute of Population Problems (Tokyo, Japan). The Tenth Japanese National Fertility Survey in 1992. Volume 2: attitudes toward marriage and the family among unmarried Japanese youth. Institute of Population Problems Survey Series, No. 8, Mar 1, 1994. 249 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
This is one of two volumes presenting results from the Tenth Japanese National Fertility Survey of 1992. This volume presents data concerning the attitude of Japanese youth toward marriage and the family.
For Volume 1, published in 1993, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: Institute of Population Problems, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-45, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20322 Kannae, Lawrence; Pendleton, Brian F. Fertility attitudes among male Ghanaian government employees. Journal of Asian and African Studies, Vol. 29, No. 1-2, Jan-Apr 1994. 65-76 pp. Leiden, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper examines the fertility attitudes of 484 Ghanaian male government employees....In general, the findings indicate that (1) the majority of the males believe that Ghana's population is too large; (2) they agree that abortion should be legalized and made accessible to any woman who wishes to have abortion, but on the other hand, disagree with government's interference with the number of children a couple should have; (3) they have a positive attitude toward child-bearing; (5) they believe in continued reproduction until the desired proportion of boys and girls are obtained; (6) they do not agree that there should be a relationship between the number of children a couple bear and available family resources; and (7) they believe that an educated man should have as many children as possible even though educational status is found to be inversely related to number of children, ideal number of children, and ideal number of female children."
Correspondence: L. Kannae, University of Akron, Department of Sociology, Akron, OH 44325-1905. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:20323 Kaufman, Gayle; Hirschl, Thomas A.; Poston, Dudley L.; Stycos, J. Mayone. Teenage sexual attitudes in China. Population and Development Program Working Paper Series, No. 94.06, 1994. 9, [6] pp. Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program: Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
The authors examine "the sexual attitudes of Chinese teenagers with survey data collected in Sichuan Province in 1988. Our analysis has two goals: first, to describe aggregate attitudes toward premarital sexual practices; and second, to identify the principal factors that influence these attitudes. To accomplish the second goal we estimate structural equations with predictor variables known to influence teen sexual attitudes in the United States."
Correspondence: Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program, 134 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20324 Kost, Kathryn; Forrest, Jacqueline D. Intention status of U.S. births in 1988: differences by mothers' socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 27, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1995. 11-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this article, we first compare estimates of unintended childbearing in the United States derived from the NMIHS [National Maternal and Infant Health Survey] and NSFG [National Survey of Family Growth] data and describe some of the differences between the two surveys that could account for the discrepancies between those estimates. We then use the NMIHS data to investigate the intention status of births among mothers in differing socioeconomic and demographic subgroups and, in a multivariate analysis, to identify characteristics of the mothers that are associated with a greater likelihood of having an unintended birth....Our findings present striking evidence of widely differing intentions and abilities to control childbearing among socioeconomic and demographic subgroups in the United States, particularly the marital status, age, poverty status, and racial and ethnic subgroups. Women who are young, unmarried, poor, black or less educated and those who already have children are most at risk of experiencing an unwanted or mistimed birth."
Correspondence: K. Kost, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20325 Kritz, Mary M.; Makinwa-Adebusoye, Paulina. Ethnic differences in demand for children in Nigeria: the role of women's control. Population and Development Program Working Paper Series, No. 94.07, 1994. 20 pp. Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program: Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
"In this paper, we look at variations in fertility preferences by ethnicity in Nigeria and examine how those preferences are determined. In particular, using survey data gathered in 1991, we measure the effects of women's control over selected economic and social affairs on fertility preferences in six Nigerian ethnic groups...."
Correspondence: Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program, 134 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20326 Kritz, Mary M.; Gurak, Douglas T.; Fapohunda, Bolaji M. Sex preferences, women's social control, and parity progression in Hausa, Ibo and Yoruba societies. Population and Development Program Working Paper Series, No. 94.09, 1994. 21 pp. Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program: Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
"Using survey data gathered in 1991, we explore how sex preferences vary in three societies or ethnic groups--the Hausa, Ibo, and Yoruba of Nigeria--and evaluate the effects of son composition on birth interval length and parity progression....We evaluate the importance of gender inequality at the aggregate level by looking at whether differences across the groups in birth intervals and parity progression remain after controlling for differences in son composition and other covariates. We also evaluate how individual-level differences in women's control of economic and social resources across the three groups affect those outcomes."
Correspondence: Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program, 134 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20327 Mita, Rezina; Simmons, Ruth. Diffusion of the culture of contraception: program effects on young women in rural Bangladesh. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 26, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1995. 1-13 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article describes a process of diffusion of family planning information, ideas, and technology among an unanticipated audience of young, unmarried women in rural Bangladesh. The data are derived from a focus-group study conducted in 1987-88 in the Maternal Child Health and Family Planning Project in Matlab, Bangladesh....Four focus-group sessions were held with newly married young women, and a set of questions about young women were incorporated into the sessions with other community women. The discussions showed that many young, unmarried women learn about family planning from an early age from the community-based family planning worker, from female relatives, peers, and the media. The findings of this exploratory study suggest that greater attention be paid to the contraceptive needs of young women and that continued research be conducted with this population of women."
Correspondence: R. Simmons, University of Michigan, School of Public Health, Department of Population Planning and International Health, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20328 Muhsam, Helmuth V. The selection by parents of the sex of children--feasible but not practised. Genus, Vol. 50, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1994. 197-203 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng.
The author discusses reasons for the relative lack of demand for a new sex selection technique. The focus is on the unwillingness of physicians to practice the technique.
Correspondence: H. V. Muhsam, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Faculty of Social Science, Department of Statistics, Mount Scopus, Jerusalem 91905, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20329 Park, Chai Bin; Cho, Nam Hoon. Gender preference and sex imbalance: implications for the future of nations. In: Low fertility in East and Southeast Asia: issues and policies. Aug 1994. 108-38 pp. Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs [KIHASA]: Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
"In some East Asian countries...fertility has declined to replacement level or below, in spite of a strong son preference. However, to accommodate both sex preference and small family desires, a new demographic phenomenon, namely a distortion of the sex ratio at birth (number of males per 100 females), is emerging at three different levels: in the general population, within the family, and in birth order....This chapter examines the empirical evidence of changes in the sex ratio, with particular reference to China and the Republic of Korea." The implications of unbalanced sex ratios in the family and in birth order levels are discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20330 Reed, Fred W.; McBroom, William H. The impact of marriage on fertility intentions and related values. International Journal of Sociology of the Family, Vol. 25, No. 1, Spring 1995. 91-8 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This study is based on a longitudinal [U.S.] project in which changes in fertility intentions and the importance of marriage and the family are examined among four subgroups--females who remained single, females who married, males who remained single, and males who married over a five-year period. Females, regardless of marital status, became less inclined to have children, males remaining single became more inclined and males who married over the interval changed little. When a control for value of marriage and the family was introduced, gender-based differences in fertility desires disappeared. There were substantial changes in the value domain according to sex and marital status...."
Correspondence: F. W. Reed, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20331 Rovi, Susan L. D. Taking "no" for an answer: using negative reproductive intentions to study the childless/childfree. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 13, No. 4, Dec 1994. 343-65 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"In this paper, I argue for an approach to the study of the childless/childfree based on negative reproductive intentions. To forward this argument, I present the theoretical justification for a concept based on taking 'no' for an answer, demonstrating that such an approach provides both a valid and reliable measure of intended childlessness....Using 11 years of the [U.S.] General Social Survey and Trichotomous Logit Analysis, the resulting model simultaneously assesses the effects of the independent variables on the probabilities that the married women in this sample are childless/childfree. This analysis is generally consistent with hypotheses generated from earlier studies and their findings on the correlates of childlessness, thereby supporting the literature that says the voluntarily childless are a distinct group. In effect, the viability of the concept is substantiated, enabling its use in future research. Because this conceptualization recognizes the dynamics of reproductive intentions, it provides a way to better understand the current social milieu of individuals who say they do not intend to parent."
Correspondence: S. L. D. Rovi, Rutgers University, Department of Sociology, Lucy Stone Hall, New Brunswick, NJ 08903-5072. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20332 Tang, Zongli. Confucianism, Chinese culture, and reproductive behavior. Population and Environment, Vol. 16, No. 3, Jan 1995. 269-84 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Confucianism is not a religion but plays a religious role in Chinese life and society. The tendency to encourage reproduction exists throughout the Confucian system, including the cosmology, ontology, value system, and ethics, and therefore greatly helps to formulate the strongly pronatalist culture. This analysis examines the impacts of Confucianism on Chinese reproductive behavior, and shows that there is an obvious relationship between China's large population and Confucianism."
Correspondence: Z. Tang, University of Alberta, Department of Sociology, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20333 Thomson, Elizabeth; Brandreth, Yvonne. Measuring fertility demand. Demography, Vol. 32, No. 1, Feb 1995. 81-96 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"We propose a multidimensional conceptualization of fertility demand and evaluate potential measures of each dimension, using data from a telephone survey of Wisconsin residents age 18-34. Most of the measures met tests for interval-level measurement; all produced high estimates of test-retest reliability. We found support for only two dimensions of demand, intensity and certainty; potential measures of centrality had relatively low associations with any of the latent dimensions. Demand certainty improved prediction of fertility expectations beyond a trichotomous (yes, no, don't know) measure, but demand intensity did not. We found mixed evidence for the conceptualization of fertility demand as a single continuum on which desire to avoid pregnancy is the opposite of desire to have a child."
Correspondence: E. Thomson, University of Wisconsin, Department of Sociology, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20334 Weller, Robert; Sly, David F.; Sukamdi, A.; Ekawati, Rindang. Number and timing failures among births in Indonesia. Genus, Vol. 49, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1993. 35-54 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"In this paper we use 1987 Demographic and Health Survey data to examine how much unwanted childbearing there is in Indonesia, and the extent to which retrospective questions on the wantedness status of pregnancies are consistent with other indicators of the failure to realize one's family size desires. Then we examine the factors which are related to having an unwanted birth. For the five-year interval preceding the survey, 6.8 percent of the live births were regarded as unwanted at the time of conception, 21 percent were reported as timing failures....Birth wantedness status is associated with differences in birth regulation behavior. Mothers of number failures were more likely than mothers of timing failures to have practiced birth prevention in the interval preceding birth. Only a small proportion of mothers of births classified as 'wanted then' ever practiced any method of birth prevention."
Correspondence: R. Weller, U.S. National Institutes of Health, Division of Research Grants, 5333 Westbard Avenue, Room 307, Westwood Building, Bethesda, MD 20892. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20335 Westoff, Charles F. Reproductive preferences and future fertility in developing countries. In: The future population of the world. What can we assume today? edited by Wolfgang Lutz. 1994. 83-97 pp. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria; Earthscan Publications: London, England. In Eng.
The author examines the evidence available from recent surveys such as the World Fertility Survey and the Demographic and Health Survey projects on the number of children desired and intentions to terminate fertility in developing countries. He concludes that "dramatic changes toward the small family norm are under way in Latin America, much of Asia, and North Africa, but only in a few sub-Saharan African countries (where spacing rather than limiting preferences and behavior predominate). Reproductive preferences are highly correlated (in the aggregate) with the fertility rate, operating mainly, though not exclusively, through contraceptive prevalence. At the regional or provincial level, the main determinants of reproductive preferences are those typically associated with modernization: residence in cities or in rural areas, education of women, occupational status of men, and age at marriage and at first birth. Our knowledge of determinants at the level of the individual woman remains very limited...."
Correspondence: C. F. Westoff, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20336 Wijsen, Cecile. Motherhood motivations in fertility decision making. PDOD Paper, No. 27, Nov 1994. 15 pp. Universiteit van Amsterdam, Postdoctorale Onderzoekersopleiding Demografie [PDOD]: Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"In this paper the concept of motherhood motivations has been operationalised with 25 beliefs about the consequences of having a (next) child....A strong emphasis lies on the social psychological decision making perspective for the study of the relationship of motherhood motivation and aspects of timing the fertility life course." Data are for 351 women in the Netherlands who were interviewed in 1993.
Correspondence: C. Wijsen, University of Amsterdam, Department of Physical Planning and Demography, Nieuwe Prinsengracht 130, 1081 VZ Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.5. Induced Abortion

Studies on induced abortion, including those on attitudes, with the exception of studies primarily concerned with government regulation of abortion, which are coded under M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility . Studies of spontaneous abortion appear under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology .

61:20337 Avdeev, Alexandre; Blum, Alain; Troitskaja, Irina. The history of abortion statistics in Russia and the USSR up to 1991. [Histoire de la statistique de l'avortement en Russie et en URSS jusqu'en 1991.] Population, Vol. 49, No. 4-5, Jul-Oct 1994. 903-33 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The history of abortion and abortion statistics in the USSR between 1917 and 1991 is [described]....This article is concerned with the relationships between laws, abortion trends, ideological changes, and statistics. It uses the abundant Russian and Soviet literature on abortion, as well as statistics from the archives of the Ministry of Health. Finally, the article analyses the recent decline in abortion and the development of modern contraception, mainly IUDs."
Correspondence: A. Avdeev, University of Moscow, Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20338 Ford, Nicholas J.; Manlagnit, Alicia B. Social factors associated with abortion-related morbidity in the Philippines. British Journal of Family Planning, Vol. 20, No. 3, Oct 1994. 92-5 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper reports on findings from a study which investigated the social factors associated with abortion-related morbidity in Manila, in the Philippines. The study involved a comparison of the characteristics and experience of 200 women being treated in hospitals for complications of abortion with 250 hospital, and 250 community controls, who had no history of abortion or miscarriage....The study investigated the women's fertility and contraceptive history, family and marital situation and attitudes and feelings concerning contraception and abortion. Particular aspects of relations between spouses were found to be especially strongly associated with abortion related morbidity."
Correspondence: N. J. Ford, University of Exeter, Institute of Population Studies, Hoopern House, 101 Pennsylvania Road, Exeter EX4 6DT, Devon, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20339 Goodkind, Daniel. Abortion in Vietnam: measurements, puzzles, and concerns. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 25, No. 6, Pt. 1, Nov-Dec 1994. 342-52 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This report summarizes current knowledge about abortion in Vietnam, drawing upon government statistics, survey data, and fieldwork undertaken by the author in Vietnam throughout 1993 and part of 1994. The official total abortion rate in Vietnam in 1992 was about 2.5 per woman, the highest in Asia and worrisome for a country with a still-high total fertility rate of 3.7 children per woman. Vietnamese provinces exhibited substantial variation in both the rate of abortion and the type of procedures performed. Among the hypotheses explored to explain Vietnam's high rate of abortion are the borrowing of family planning strategies from other poor socialist states where abortion is common; current antinatal population policies that interact with a lack of contraceptive alternatives; and a rise in pregnancies among young and unmarried women in the wake of recent free-market reforms."
Correspondence: D. Goodkind, Brown University, Department of Sociology, P.O. Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20340 Hong, Sung Bong. Abortion as a programme measure: relevance and future policy directions. In: Low fertility in East and Southeast Asia: issues and policies. Aug 1994. 342-9 pp. Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs [KIHASA]: Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
The author discusses the status of induced abortion in East and Southeast Asia. Aspects considered include the legal status of abortion, the role of abortion in demographic transition, and problems arising from abortion.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20341 LaFleur, William R. Liquid life: abortion and Buddhism in Japan. ISBN 0-691-07405-4. LC 92-13258. 1992. xviii, 257 pp. Princeton University Press: Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
This is a study of how Japanese attitudes and practices concerning induced abortion have evolved in the context of a Buddhist tradition. Part 1 examines how the Japanese have developed ways to deal with fetal and infant death. Part 2 analyzes how the Japanese have evolved solutions to the problems posed by abortion. Part 3 describes the range of contemporary attitudes to abortion in Japan.
Correspondence: Princeton University Press, 41 William Street, Princeton, NJ 08540. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

61:20342 Lamur, Humphrey E. Characteristics of Caribbean-born women having abortions in an Amsterdam clinic. Genus, Vol. 49, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1993. 135-45 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"Various studies show that the level of abortion among Caribbean women in the Netherlands is quite high. In the early 1990s, the abortion ratio for Caribbean women was 4 to 5 times higher than for Dutch women. The analysis of a group of 230 Caribbean clients of an Amsterdam clinic points to the following characteristics. It concerns a group of single, young, predominantly low-educated women, with few children. The relation with the partner is unstable, since periods of living together and living separately succeeded each other frequently but irregularly."
Correspondence: H. E. Lamur, University of Amsterdam, Section of Demographic Anthropology, Oudezijds Achterburgwal 185, 1012 DK Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20343 Luo, Lin; Wu, Shi-Zhong; Chen, Xiao-Qing; Li, Min-Xiang; Pullum, Thomas W. Induced abortion among unmarried women in Sichuan province China. Contraception, Vol. 51, No. 1, Jan 1995. 59-63 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This report describes the social and demographic characteristics of 457 unmarried women who underwent a first trimester induced abortion at hospitals and family planning clinics in Sichuan province, China. The data show a very low level of medical complications. However, improved access to contraception for unmarried women is needed in order to reduce the incidence of unintended pregnancies and induced abortion."
Correspondence: L. Luo, Sichuan Family Planning Research Institute, No. 15, Section 4, South People's Road, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20344 Mundigo, Axel I. Mortality and morbidity due to induced abortion. In: Measurement of maternal and child mortality, morbidity and health care: interdisciplinary approaches, edited by J. Ties Boerma. [1994]. 201-23 pp. Ordina Editions: Liege, Belgium; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The author examines mortality and morbidity due to induced abortion, with a focus on differences between developed and developing countries and between legal and illegal abortion. The difficulty of collecting data on abortion-related mortality is discussed, and the situation regarding abortion among adolescents is outlined. A case study on induced abortion in Chile is included.
Correspondence: A. I. Mundigo, World Health Organization, Special Programme of Research on Human Reproduction, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20345 Rasevic, Mirjana. Women's knowledge and induced abortion: a survey in metropolitan Belgrade, 1990. Stanovnistvo, Vol. 31-32, 1993-1994. 1-12 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Eng. with sum. in Scr.
The author reports on an abortion survey conducted in Belgrade, Yugoslavia, in 1990. The aim of the study was "to establish whether lack of knowledge about anatomy and physiology of reproduction, advantages and disadvantages of different contraceptive methods and devices, mechanism of effects of modern contraceptives and noxiousness of induced abortions [were] important reasons for [the] high number of abortions in Central Serbia....From several findings of this research we can see not only insufficient and inaccurate knowledge about contraception and abortion but also a belief that modern contraception is harmful to health. [In addition,] those findings show a number of psychological barriers, insufficient cultural level (general, health, sex) of the population and lack of institutionalized contemporary concept of family planning as the main causes of a large number of abortions in Central Serbia."
Correspondence: M. Rasevic, Institut Drustvenih Nauka, Centar za Demografska Istrazivanja, Narodnog Fronta 45, Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20346 Remez, Lisa C. Confronting the reality of abortion in Latin America. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 21, No. 1, Mar 1995. 32-6 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The author reports on a 1994 international conference held in Bogota, Colombia, to discuss induced abortion in Latin America and the Caribbean. Aspects considered include incidence, religious attitudes, the link between contraception and abortion, and illegality and punishment.
Correspondence: L. C. Remez, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20347 Symth, Ailbhe. The abortion papers: Ireland. ISBN 1-855940-45-0. 1992. 207 pp. Attic Press: Dublin, Ireland. In Eng.
"In these essays, Irish feminist scholars and activists explore the politics of abortion in one of the most profoundly Catholic and traditional countries in Europe. Writing from a wide range of historical and contemporary perspectives, the authors consider the social, ethical and political dimensions of the abortion debate and its implications for women's freedom and life-choices."
Correspondence: Attic Press, 4 Upper Mount Street, Dublin 2, Ireland. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

61:20348 Wadhera, Surinder; Millar, Wayne J. Second trimester abortions: trends and medical complications. [Avortements du deuxieme trimestre: tendances et complications medicales.] Health Reports/Rapports sur la Sante, Vol. 6, No. 4, 1994. 441-54 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
An analysis of legal induced abortions performed in Canada during the second trimester of pregnancy is presented. The authors note that "as a proportion of total abortions, those performed in the second trimester declined from 21% in 1974 to 10% in 1991. Second trimester (13 to 24 weeks) abortions were more frequent among women who were single, under age 20, and without prior deliveries or abortions." The relationships between late abortion and method used and risk of medical complications are also discussed.
Correspondence: S. Wadhera, Statistics Canada, Health Statistics Division, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility

Studies on lactation, nutrition, fecundability, sex behavior, menarche and menopause, and other biological factors or social customs as they affect fertility directly. Factors affecting contraceptive practice and factors affecting fertility indirectly are not included here.

61:20349 Garcia, Cathalina; Gomez, Victor M. Postpartum reproductive behavior: lactation, amenorrhea, sexual activity, and contraception. [Comportamiento reproductivo postparto: lactancia, amenorrea, actividad sexual y anticoncepcion.] Informe de Trabajo, No. 2, Dec 1994. vii, 41 pp. Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social, Departamento de Medicina Preventiva: San Jose, Costa Rica; U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]: Atlanta, Georgia. In Spa.
The authors examine patterns of postpartum reproductive behavior in Costa Rica, using data from the 1993 National Survey of Reproductive Health. The focus is on breast-feeding as a determinant of duration of amenorrhea. The duration of the period of postpartum sexual abstinence and the length of time before resumption of contraception are also investigated.
Correspondence: Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social, Departamento de Medicina Preventiva, Apartado 1434-1011 Y-Griega, San Jose, Costa Rica. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20350 Lockwood, Matthew. Structure and behavior in the social demography of Africa. Population and Development Review, Vol. 21, No. 1, Mar 1995. 1-32, 216-7, 219 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The role of culture in determining demographic behavior in sub-Saharan Africa has attracted increasing attention....The author argues for a...micro-level approach that emphasizes the meaning of norms to actors in society. Examples based on existing ethnographic material from Sierra Leone and the Gambia are used to show how different people deploy different normative notions and how discrepancies between norms and behavior are dealt with. This material is then placed within a wider setting to provide an alternative hypothesis relating social structure and changing behavior." Particular attention is given to the example of postpartum abstinence.
Correspondence: M. Lockwood, University of Sussex, School of African and Asian Studies, Falmer, Brighton, Sussex BN1 9QN, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.6. Fertility Outside Marriage

Studies on nonmarital fertility, including illegitimacy. Studies of common-law marriage and other forms of cohabitation or voluntary single parenthood are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

61:20351 Ajus, Ferenc; Henye, Istvan. Illegitimacy in Hungary 1880-1910. Journal of Family History, Vol. 19, No. 4, 1994. 369-88 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"The present study describes illegitimacy in Hungary between 1880 and 1910 in terms of trends and regional patterns, and seeks to find the reasons for variation in time and space. The trends are shown in their historical context, and are compared with trends of illegitimacy in Europe. The regional differences are analyzed using the Princeton indices, and it is concluded that although there is a consistent pattern that is evidently related to socio-economic differences between regions, no single factor explains the pattern."
Correspondence: F. Ajus, Budapest University of Economic Sciences, 1093 Budapest IX, Hungary. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20352 Bennett, Neil G.; Bloom, David E.; Miller, Cynthia K. The influence of nonmarital childbearing on the formation of first marriages. Demography, Vol. 32, No. 1, Feb 1995. 47-62 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"We document a negative association between nonmarital childbearing and the subsequent likelihood of first marriage in the United States, controlling for a variety of potentially confounding influences. Nonmarital childbearing does not appear to be driven by low expectations of future marriage. Rather, it tends to be an unexpected and unwanted event, whose effects on a woman's subsequent likelihood of first marriage are negative on balance. We find that women who bear a child outside marriage and who receive welfare have a particularly low probability of marrying subsequently, although there is no evidence that AFDC recipients have lower expectations of marriage. In addition, we find no evidence that stigma associated with nonmarital childbearing plays an important role in this process or that the demands of children significantly reduce unmarried mothers' time for marriage market activities."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1991 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: N. G. Bennett, Yale University, Department of Sociology, P.O. Box 208265, Yale Station, New Haven, CT 06520. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20353 Kertzer, David I. Sacrificed for honor: Italian infant abandonment and the politics of reproductive control. ISBN 0-8070-5604-9. LC 92-35169. 1993. xiii, 252 pp. Beacon Press: Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
This study is about the infant abandonment system in nineteenth-century Italy, and the efforts made by the Catholic Church and the state to regulate families, reproduction, and sexuality. The focus is on a system that obliged unmarried women to give up their children to foundling homes which had high levels of infant mortality. The system thus exercised a significant level of control over the lives of women but allowed men to bear little or no responsibility for the children they fathered outside of marriage. The data are from a number of sources, particularly from the city of Bologna.
Correspondence: Beacon Press, 25 Beacon Street, Boston, MA 02108-2892. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20354 Oladosu, Muyiwa. Factors influencing adolescent sexual activity in Nigeria: analysis of the 1990 Demographic and Health Survey. Journal of Population and Social Studies, Vol. 4, No. 1-2, Jul-Jan 1992-1993. 103-19, 124 pp. Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. In Eng. with sum. in Tha.
"This study examines factors influencing adolescent sexual activity in Nigeria using data collected on 1,678 adolescents aged 15 to 19 interviewed for the Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey of 1990. Sexual activity was measured as whether an adolescent had sexual intercourse in the month prior to the time of survey and whether that activity was protected or not. Age, source of contraceptive information, knowledge and attitudes toward the use of contraceptives were significantly associated with sexual intercourse in the multivariate analysis. The same variables, except age, were significant when use of contraception was treated as the dependent variable."
Correspondence: M. Oladosu, Ministry of Health and Human Services, Lagos, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20355 Parr, Nicholas J. Pre-marital fertility in Liberia. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 27, No. 1, Jan 1995. 1-10 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This present study uses data from the 1986 LDHS [Liberia Demographic and Health Survey] to provide a nationwide picture of fertility, sexual activity and contraceptive use of 15-49-year-old single women (i.e. women who have never married or lived with a man) in the West African republic....This study finds remarkably high levels of fertility among women in Liberia who have never married or lived with a man. This finding reflects the widespread sexual activity and low levels of contraceptive use among this group. In Liberia, as in most of Africa, fertility is greatly valued and unmarried women with children, generally, are considered to be better off than childless women...."
Correspondence: N. J. Parr, Macquarie University, School of Economic and Financial Studies, Demographic Research Group, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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