Volume 61 - Number 1 - Spring 1995

M. Policies

Studies and documentary statements relating to governmental policy as it affects population.

M.1. General Population Policy and Legislation

Studies relating primarily to national and international population policies and development assistance for population activities. Studies of policies affecting the quality of populations that are not covered by L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics are classified under this heading.

61:10737 Banda, Greata P. A. Status of population policy in Africa with special emphasis on Zambia. Pub. Order No. DANN85984. ISBN 0-315-85984-9. 1993. 421 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This thesis examines population policies in Africa in general and Zambia in particular. Two theoretical approaches are used: the cross-national and the institutional approach." The study was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Manitoba, Canada.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 55(3).

61:10738 Gautam, Rudra P. The population policies of SAARC countries: an overview. Economic Journal of Nepal, Vol. 16, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1993. 231-48 pp. Katmandu, Nepal. In Eng.
The author reviews recent developments in population policy in the countries of South Asia. Separate consideration is given to policies designed to affect fertility, mortality, migration, spatial distribution, and urbanization.
Correspondence: R. P. Gautam, Tribhuvan University, Central Department of Economics, Kirtipur, Katmandu, Nepal. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

61:10739 Gille, Halvor. International co-operation in the field of population. In: European Population Conference, 1993. Proceedings. Volume 1. 1994. 377-444 pp. UN Economic Commission for Europe [ECE]: Geneva, Switzerland; Council of Europe: Strasbourg, France. In Eng.
The author discusses European and North American perspectives of international cooperation on population in the 1980s. Trends in cooperation are outlined, with a focus on the activities of selected organizations. Population cooperation sectors and target groups are described, and the impact of cooperation on developing countries is examined. Prospects for the 1990s are considered. Comments by Karoly Miltenyi are included (pp. 437-44).
Correspondence: H. Gille, 25 Schultz Hill Road, Rhinebeck, NY 12572. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10740 Grimes, Seamus. The ideology of population control in the UN draft plan for Cairo. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 13, No. 3, Sep 1994. 209-24 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper examines the influence of population control ideology on the draft plan for the UN Cairo Conference on Population and Development. It is argued that this draft plan can only be fully understood in the context of the recent history of the population control movement and of the empirical reality of population control in particular countries. The paper focuses on the origins of the ideology of population control in the eugenics movement initially, and more recently in organisations such as International Planned Parenthood Federation. The role of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), in promoting an incremental approach towards the wider acceptance of population control since the first intergovernmental conference on population in Bucharest in 1974, is outlined....This paper argues for the need to develop a more positive model of development, which acknowledges the complementarity between the lack of development of poorer countries and their potential for significant progress, and the overdevelopment of industrialised regions, whose future growth is increasingly based on intense competition for shrinking markets."
Correspondence: S. Grimes, University College Galway, Department of Geography, Galway, Ireland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10741 Gulhati, Kaval; Bates, Lisa M. Developing countries and the international population debate: politics and pragmatism. In: Population and development: old debates, new conclusions, edited by Robert Cassen. 1994. 47-77 pp. Transaction Publishers: New Brunswick, New Jersey/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This chapter discusses the evolution of developing-country approaches to population since the 1950s and leading up to [the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development in] Cairo. It describes evolving official positions at international fora and suggests the degree to which these at times have been inconsistent with national attention to population. It also outlines outstanding issues as represented by various nongovernmental constituencies that influence the policies and positions of both developing countries and donors. Actual policies and programmatic activity at the country level are illustrated with brief historical sketches of four countries--Brazil, Kenya, India, and China."
Correspondence: K. Gulhati, Centre for Policy Research, New Delhi, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10742 Hill, Allan G. Demographic research and population policy: how can we tighten the links? Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 19, No. 3, 1993-1994. 315-21 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Eng.
The author investigates two questions: "How can we, as quickly as possible, bridge the gap between the aims of the new rhetoric and politics of rights-based population policies and our knowledge of what such policies might achieve? Is it correct to abandon all reference to demographic goals and instead to express the aims of our policies entirely in welfare terms? Two major areas stand out where the research community could help donors answer such pressing questions."
Correspondence: A. G. Hill, Harvard University, School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10743 Jiang, Zhenghua; Zhang, Lingguang. China--an example for population and development policy. Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 19, No. 3, 1993-1994. 269-81 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Eng.
The authors discuss the example of China in establishing a population and development policy. Aspects considered include the background situations leading to such a policy; four stages of policy development; main achievements of the program; the immediate impact of a lower population growth rate on economic development; the effects on employment; consequences for women and the family; and poverty alleviation due to lower population growth.
Correspondence: Z. Jiang, State Family Planning Commission of China, 14 Zhichun Road, Beijing 100088, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10744 Johnson, Stanley P. World population--turning the tide. Three decades of progress. ISBN 1-85966-046-0. 1994. xvii, 387 pp. Graham and Trotman: London, England; Martinus Nijhoff: Norwell, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Progress in reducing rapid rates of population growth and high levels of fertility is one of the success stories of the late twentieth century. This book relates the development and implementation of national and international approaches to family-planning and the population questions from the 1960s to the present. It describes the evolution of national population policies by governments--their aims, successes and shortcomings--as well as the subsequent emergence of international agencies which sought to reinforce and underpin these commitments. The study draws heavily on documents, and carefully assesses the achievements of the 1974 Bucharest World Population Conference, the 1984 International Conference on Population in Mexico and the major international initiatives that followed them, up to the 1992 UN Conference on the Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro. Evolving perceptions and prospects for a new international consensus on population are also examined, together with preparations for the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in 1994. The text is supplemented by a wealth of demographic tables and graphs."
Correspondence: Kluwer Academic Publishers Group, P.O. Box 989, 3300 AZ Dordrecht, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10745 Kivu, Mircea. A retrospective study: population policy in Romania, 1945-1989. [Une retrospective: la politique demographique en Roumanie 1945-1989.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1993. 107-26 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The development of population policy in Romania during the communist regime is explored. The author suggests that it is wrong to study population policy developments in isolation from the political context, and that many of the apparent inequities in population policies were the natural corollaries of a fundamentally ruthless and inequitable political system.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10746 Sen, Gita. Women's empowerment and human rights: the challenge to policy. In: Population--the complex reality, edited by Francis Graham-Smith. 1994. 363-72 pp. Royal Society: London, England; North American Press: Golden, Colorado. In Eng.
"Population policy is at a major crossroads. Earlier agreement regarding fundamental aspects of policy has been eroding steadily over the last decade....This paper argues from the perspective of the women's health movement that, if a genuine consensus is to reemerge, at least among those who believe in the value of birth control technologies, then there will have to be rethinking along five critical dimensions: the ethical basis of policy, its objectives, the strategies espoused, the programme methods, and the technologies upon which it relies."
Correspondence: G. Sen, Institute of Management, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility

Government policies aimed at directly influencing fertility and nuptiality, and policies with an indirect effect on fertility such as family allowances, pregnancy and maternity benefits, infant welfare measures, and government regulation of fertility controls, including abortion.

61:10747 Aird, John S. Foreign assistance to coercive family planning in China. ISBN 0-646-10422-5. 1992. 72 pp. J. S. Aird: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
This is a contribution to the recent debate in Australia concerning foreign assistance to China for population-related activities. In this report, the author makes the case that Chinese official policies of population control violate individual human rights.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10748 Buvinic, Mayra. Population policy and family planning programmes: contributions from a focus on women. In: Population--the complex reality, edited by Francis Graham-Smith. 1994. 211-28 pp. Royal Society: London, England; North American Press: Golden, Colorado. In Eng.
"This paper [focuses]...on women in the understanding of population dynamics and the design of family planning programmes. It uses recent findings regarding women's poverty and work in developing countries to shed light on the appropriateness of two contradictory population policies: one that promotes employment opportunities for women to reduce fertility versus one that keeps women at home to ensure child welfare....The paper concludes by recommending complementary policies that 'protect' poor women by increasing their productivity in home and market production and their earnings. It also suggests that the findings on women's poverty offer additional insights to the design of population policies and family planning programmes."
Correspondence: M. Buvinic, International Center for Research on Women, Washington, D.C. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10749 Falbo, Toni; Poston, Dudley L. How and why the one-child policy works in China. Advances in Population: Psychosocial Perspectives, Vol. 2, 1994. 205-29 pp. Bristol, Pennsylvania/London, England. In Eng.
"The purpose of this chapter is to describe the implementation of China's one-child policy in terms of its embeddedness in the Confucian tradition of morality in government. To do this, we will describe the modern Chinese efforts to control its population. We will describe briefly how the one-child policy evolved from earlier family planning policies and how it has been implemented in ways consistent with Confucian views. Finally, we will describe key aspects of the implementation of this policy within four Chinese provinces from the perspective of the families who participated in a survey of schoolchildren in 1990."
Correspondence: T. Falbo, University of Texas, Population Research Center, 1800 Main Building, Austin, TX 78712. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10750 Greenhalgh, Susan. Controlling births and bodies in village China. American Ethnologist, Vol. 21, No. 1, Feb 1994. 3-30 pp. Arlington, Virginia. In Eng.
"This article seeks to deepen the understanding of reproductive politics by conjoining a feminist analytics of reproductive control with a demographic dissection of reproductive process and outcome, as well as a political-economic enquiry into state domination and accommodation. Focusing on China's one-child-per-family birth control program, it argues that women are not only victims but also agents in the practice of controlling births and making population policy in China's villages. In Shaanxi Province, peasants have contested policy elements they do not like, forcing local officials to negotiate the terms of policy implementation. Resistance to the policy has had contradictory effects, however: while increasing the number of children allowed, it has put women's bodies at risk and reinforced their social subordination. Ironically, resistance has worked to reproduce the very state control over childbearing that women have contested."
Correspondence: S. Greenhalgh, University of California, Irvine, CA 92717. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:10751 Livi-Bacci, M. Population policies: a comparative perspective. International Social Science Journal, Vol. 46, No. 3, Sep 1994. 317-30 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The article describes the nature of population policies during the last half-century, with focus mainly but not exclusively on what is defined as the 'hard' sector of the policies, in designing interventions--mainly the area of fertility control....The article describes the emergence of an international consensus on population issues, focuses on a few significant experiences, like those of China and India, and discusses some of the major controversies of the current debate, notably the role of 'demand' and 'supply' oriented policies."
Correspondence: M. Livi-Bacci, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, Dipartimento Statistico, Viale Morgagni 59, 50134 Florence, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:10752 Zurayk, Huda; Younis, Nabil; Khattab, Hind. Rethinking family planning policy in the light of reproductive health research. International Social Science Journal, Vol. 46, No. 3, Sep 1994. 423-38 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The article addresses the issue of rethinking family planning policy to better serve the interests of women, families and communities in developing countries. It is based on a study that was undertaken in two villages in the Giza governorate of Egypt to investigate the level of reproductive morbidity among women in this community. By revealing the heavy disease burden that women bear with silence and its interaction with their use of contraception, the article argues that family planning policy cannot ignore the health dimension."
Correspondence: H. Zurayk, Population Council, P.O. Box 115, Dokki, Giza, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

M.3. Measures Affecting Migration

Government policies relating to emigration, immigration, and population resettlement. See also the appropriate categories under H. Migration that include general studies also covering policy issues.

61:10753 Al-Najjar, Baquer S. Population policies in the countries of the Gulf Co-operation Council: politics and society. Immigrants and Minorities, Vol. 12, No. 2, Jul 1993. 200-18 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The Gulf Co-operation Council's countries have, over a number of years, developed comprehensive population policies. Much of the focus has been on the control and regulation of 'foreign' populations. This study traces the shifting policy patterns in various social, economic and political contexts. It also identifies the need for such labour and examines the internal pressures which have determined its recruitment and retention in the period under consideration."
Correspondence: B. S. Al-Najjar, University of Bahrain, Department of Sociology, P.O. Box 32038, Isa Town, Bahrain. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:10754 Aragon Bombin, Raimundo; Ruiz Baudrihaye, Jaime; Bartlett i Castella, Enric; Bayarri i Catalan, Victor; Perez Tortola, Ana; Santos i Arnau, Lidia. Regulation of workers and family reunification for foreign immigrants in Spain. [Regularizacion de trabajadores y reagrupacion familiar de inmigrantes extranjeros en Espana.] Itinera Cuaderno, No. 6, Aug 1994. 111 pp. Fundacion Paulino Torras Domenech: Barcelona, Spain. In Spa.
This volume covers two colloquia presented by the Fundacion Paulino Torras Domenech on aspects of migration policy in Spain implemented in 1991. The first, held in November of 1993, concerned migrant integration. The second discussed family reunification policy and was held in May 1994. Some consideration is given to family reunification issues within the context of the European Community.
Correspondence: Fundacion Paulino Torras Domenech, Paseo de Gracia, 58 2o 2a 08007 Barcelona, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10755 Balan, Jorge. Migration and development. Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 19, No. 3, 1993-1994. 291-6 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Eng.
The author discusses worldwide trends in international migration, with a focus on government policies and their impact on population movements. Determinants of labor migration are considered.
Correspondence: J. Balan, Centro de Estudios de Estado y Sociedad, Sanchez de Bustamente 27, 1173 Buenos Aires, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10756 Clad, James C. Slowing the wave. Foreign Policy, No. 95, Summer 1994. 139-50 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author describes growing concerns in the United States with current levels of immigration, fears of estimated future trends, and how migration issues are likely to become national political issues in the near future. He makes the case that "the United States has the sovereign right, if it constitutionally reflects the majority view, to exclude others from coming here."
For a related article by Jeffrey S. Passel and Michael Fix, also published in 1994, see elsewhere in this issue.
Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

61:10757 Fairchild, Amy L.; Tynan, Eileen A. Policies of containment: immigration in the era of AIDS. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 84, No. 12, Dec 1994. 2,011-22 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors review the history of the policies behind the medical examination of migrants to the United States from 1891 to the present day. The focus is on the changes in the criteria for the rejection of immigrants. The implications for both public health and social justice of current policies of medical controls over immigration are discussed, with a focus on the ethics of barring immigrants from countries where HIV infection is perceived to be epidemic. The authors find that "since the early 1980s, U.S. immigration policy has served to erect barriers against Caribbean and African immigrants, who are believed to threaten the blood supply of this nation with HIV."
Correspondence: A. L. Fairchild, AIDS Institute, Policy Unit, 5 Penn Plaza, 1st Floor, New York, NY 10001. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

61:10758 LeMay, Michael C. Anatomy of a public policy: the reform of contemporary American immigration law. ISBN 0-275-94902-8. LC 94-6376. 1994. xiv, 203 pp. Praeger: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
This study uses U.S. immigration policy in a case study of the policy process in the United States. Six stages of this policy process are identified and examined in the context of immigration policy: awareness, agenda, formulation, adoption, implementation, and evaluation. Particular attention is given to the role played by interest groups and political leadership. The focus is on the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 and the Immigration Act of 1990.
Correspondence: Praeger Publishers, 88 Post Road West, P.O. Box 5007, Westport, CT 06881. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10759 Lobo, Peter. Immigration policy and immigrant selection. Population Studies Center Research Report, No. 93-275, Apr 1993. 19 pp. University of Michigan, Population Studies Center: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This paper briefly reviewed recent U.S. immigration law and specifically examined the impact of the 1965 Immigration and Nationality Act." The focus is on "Chinese, Filipinos, Indians, Japanese, Koreans, Vietnamese, Cubans, Dominicans, and Mexicans."
Correspondence: University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1248. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10760 Passel, Jeffrey S.; Fix, Michael. Myths about immigrants. Foreign Policy, No. 95, Summer 1994. 151-60 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors present a critique of an article by James C. Clad concerning immigration to the United States and its consequences. The focus is on the effectiveness of current U.S. migration policy. The authors also suggest that most immigrants assimilate successfully into the U.S. population, and that the net economic results of immigration are positive.
For the article by Clad, also published in 1994, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: J. S. Passel, Urban Institute, Program for Research on Immigration Policy, 2100 M Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

61:10761 Russell, Sharon S.; Al-Ramadhan, Muhammad A. Kuwait's migration policy since the Gulf crisis. International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol. 26, No. 4, Nov 1994. 569-87 pp. New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
The impact of the 1990-1991 Gulf crisis on the characteristics of international migration to Kuwait and on its migration policies is assessed. Migration policies and trends are first reviewed for the periods 1961-1985 and 1986-1990. The authors note that by October 1990, an estimated 1.3 million people, about 60% of the total population, had fled the country, and subsequently a policy decision was implemented to limit the build-up of the non-Kuwati population. Aspects of post-war migration polices are examined, including the objective of increasing the diversity of the immigrant population. The fundamental conflict between the desire to limit the size of the immigrant population and the country's economic dependence on that population is noted.
Correspondence: S. S. Russell, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Center for International Studies, Cambridge, MA 02139. Location: Princeton University Library (SY).

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