Tommy. Population, economy, and welfare in Sweden.
Population Economics, ISBN 3-540-58423-4. 1994. 186 pp.
Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
This work, which consists of eight studies by various authors, concerns the welfare system developed in Sweden during the 1960s and 1970s, and how it has been subsequently affected by economic and demographic trends. The focus of the studies is on providing "an insight into the way in which different social systems have emerged in Sweden during the twentieth century and what problems the country faces today in maintaining social security, problems that have come earlier and are more severe than in other countries." Chapters are included on the demographic transition, combining market work and family, internal migration, immigration and economic change, the pension system, social care for the elderly, and health care for the elderly. The general conclusion is that the social welfare system is dealing with adverse demographic conditions that are likely to worsen as demographic aging progresses.
Correspondence: Springer-Verlag, Heidelberger Platz 3, 1000 Berlin 33, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Ashish. Gender issues and population change: tradition,
technology and social turbulence. International Social Science
Journal, Vol. 46, No. 3, Sep 1994. 387-95 pp. Cambridge,
Massachusetts/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The purpose of this article is to enumerate some key gender issues in relation to population change in India in the wider context of the emancipation of women and social transformation....It is argued that the only way to promote sustainable women's development is to make a paradigm shift and focus attention on the new generation and in particular, girls in the 6-18 age group....The article also sums up the main arguments advanced by leading women's organizations in recent years to focus attention on gender issues."
Correspondence: A. Bose, Institute of Economic Growth, Population Research Centre, Delhi University Enclave, Delhi 110 007, India. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).
Robert J. Country estimates of social discount rates based
on changes in life expectancies. Kyklos, Vol. 46, No. 3, 1993.
399-409 pp. Basel, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"When time is the numeraire in a social evaluation of public projects, life expectancies are essentially the unit of account. Since different generations have different life expectancies, pursuing intergenerational equity requires discounting the extra time that future generations are likely to obtain. The result is a Social Discount Rate set by the growth rate in life expectancies. This is called the Life Expectancy Discount Rate (LEDR). After providing estimates of the LEDR for 120 countries, the paper discusses some of the implications of using this rate."
Correspondence: R. J. Brent, Fordham University, Department of Economics, Bronx, NY 10458. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.
Thierry; Loufir, Rahim. Retirement and demographic trends
in France. Part 2: the transition. [Retraites et evolutions
demographiques en France. Seconde partie: la transition.] Observations
et Diagnostics Economiques, No. 47, Oct 1993. 117-60 pp. Paris, France.
Using a general equilibrium model, the authors examine the relative impact of various measures designed to resolve problems the French national retirement pension scheme faces as the population ages. The authors suggest that the present system could be maintained, with difficulty, providing there is no economic recession. In order to make the system more fair, a postponement of the legal age for retirement seems to be the best solution, as long as employment levels stay high, particularly for workers aged 60-65. In any event, the decline of the population to below replacement levels poses serious problems for the system.
For Part 1, by Sandrine Cazes et al., published in 1992, see 59:10704.
Correspondence: T. Chauveau, Observatoire Francais des Conjonctures Economiques, 69 Quai d'Orsay, 75007 Paris, France. Location: Yale University, Sterling Library, New Haven, CT.
Senarclens, Pierre. Population and security.
International Social Science Journal, Vol. 46, No. 3, Sep 1994. 439-54
pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The erosion of modern and traditional social security schemes, the breakdown of traditional welfare systems, the rise of what appears to be structural unemployment, the widening rifts between the haves and the have-nots of this world and the increasing difficulty of access to the resources of the environment are not conducive to the harmony of the national societies or to international security." The author discusses the consequences of these changes for future social structure.
Correspondence: P. de Senarclens, Unesco, 1 rue Miollis, 75732 Paris Cedex 15, France. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).
Dharmalingam, A. Social relations of production
and fertility in a south Indian village. Pub. Order No. DA9419474.
1992. 504 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan.
"The pattern of population growth in India is studied in a historical perspective and through a detailed case study of a village in Tamil Nadu. The premise of the analysis is that population reproduction is part of the social reproduction of the whole society and thus inseparable from it." The study was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Australian National University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 55(3).
F. Public transfers and demographic transition in Belgium:
an approach using general equilibrium. [Transferts publics et
transition demographique en Belgique: une approche par l'equilibre
general.] Revue Belge de Securite Sociale, Vol. 35, No. 3, 1993. 365-85
pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Fre.
The consequences of demographic aging for the future of the system of old age security in Belgium are explored using the concept of general equilibrium for the transfer of resources between generations. Several alternatives to rectify the impending problem are considered, including raising the age at retirement, lowering pension levels, or the creation of a pension fund.
Correspondence: F. Docquier, Ministere de la Region Wallonne, Service des Etudes et de la Statistique, Namur, Belgium. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.
Feichtinger, G.; Novak, A. J. How stock dependent
flow rates may imply chaos in educational planning. Mathematical
Population Studies, Vol. 5, No. 1, 1994. 75-85, 121 pp. Langhorne,
Pennsylvania/Basel, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The aim of the present paper is to illustrate how extremely complex patterns may be generated in a simple model of educational planning. In particular, we will show that certain dependencies of the flow rates on the teacher/student ratio imply nonlinearities which are substantial enough to generate erratic behaviour of the time paths. The main message is that chaos in educational planning may result from assumptions which are indeed qualitatively realistic but which are quantitatively exaggerated."
Correspondence: G. Feichtinger, Vienna University of Technology, Institute for Econometrics, Operations Research and Systems Theory, Argentinierstrasse 8/119, 1040 Vienna, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
International. Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS] (Calverton,
Maryland). Women's lives and experiences. Aug 1994.
iii, 68 pp. Calverton, Maryland. In Eng.
This report summarizes the results of a decade of research in developing countries undertaken through the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) program. In particular, it "summarizes information on different dimensions of women's lives and experiences, including education, relationships, childbearing experiences, childbearing choices, children, and home life." DHS research has provided evidence of "increases in educational attainment among women in all regions; sharp fertility declines in many countries, including some in sub-Saharan Africa; decreases in desired family size and increases in modern contraceptive use; increases in age at first marriage and age at first birth; greater access to medical care during pregnancy; and improved survival of children."
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Suite 300, Calverton, MD 20705. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Catolica Andres Bello, Departamento de Estudios Demograficos (Caracas,
Venezuela). Venezuela seen through its socioeconomic
indicators. [Venezuela vista a traves de sus indicadores
socio-demograficos.] Feb 1994. xiii, 106 pp. Caracas, Venezuela. In
This report combines socio-demographic data from Venezuela's 1990 Census of Population and Housing with vital statistics compiled by the Central Statistical Office for the same year. To illustrate geographic variations in these indicators, the data are mainly presented as graphs and maps, and are broken down by state. Indicators covered include mortality, quality of life, housing, and maternal risk factors and infant and child mortality for mothers in three age groups: under age 20, ages 20-34, and age 35 and older.
Correspondence: Universidad Catolica Andres Bello, Departamento de Estudios Demograficos, Urb. Montalban, La Vega, Apartado 29068, Caracas 1021, Venezuela. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
61:10700 Chu, C. Y.
Cyrus; Lee, Ronald D. Famine, revolt, and the dynastic
cycle: population dynamics in historic China. Journal of
Population Economics, Vol. 7, No. 4, 1994. 351-78 pp. New York, New
York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"Historians have long noticed that population declines in ancient China often coincided with dynasty changes, and that most of these declines were the result of internecine wars which, in turn, were often initiated by famine or density pressure. Since the interactions between density pressure, internecine wars, and dynasty changes cannot be explained by the traditional age-specific density-dependent population structure, we propose to use a bandit/peasant/ruler occupation-specific population model to interpret the dynamic socio-economic transitions of ancient Chinese population, and provide econometric support to our model. We also highlight the rich dynamics of the composition of human population, a factor which was often neglected in previous research on general populations."
Correspondence: C. Y. C. Chu, Academia Sinica, Institute of Economics, 21 Hsu Chow Road, Nankang, Taipei 115, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Nicholas. Demographic shocks in Eastern Germany,
1989-93. Europe-Asia Studies, Vol. 46, No. 3, 1994. 519-33 pp.
Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"This article reviews recent demographic trends in a single post-communist region--Eastern Germany, or what was formerly the German Democratic Republic (GDR)." The author notes the significance of both rapid economic change and the transfer of statistical responsibilities to the Federal Statistical Office. Separate consideration is given to the demographic impact of these changes on statistics concerning fertility, marriage, and mortality.
Correspondence: N. Eberstadt, American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, 1150 17th Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.
Bernard. The demographic impact of the First World War:
an anthropometric perspective. Social History of Medicine, Vol. 6,
No. 3, Dec 1993. 343-66 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author reexamines arguments developed by Jay Winter that the First World War led to a dramatic increase in average living standards and increased life expectancy in the United Kingdom. "Section I examines the arguments which Winter himself put forward to support his view that the war led to unanticipated gains in the survival chances of older men, women, and infants. Section II focuses more directly on Winter's claim that the war led to a systematic erosion of pre-war differentials in infant mortality. Section III utilizes evidence relating to children's heights to examine the extent to which the war led to improvements in children's 'nutritional status'. The paper's overall conclusion is that the war did not lead to any dramatic improvements in civilian health; the overall impression to be gained from an analysis of wartime health statistics is one of continuity rather than change."
Correspondence: B. Harris, University of Southampton, Department of Sociology and Social Policy, Highfield, Southampton S09 5NH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Peter A. Congress and the year 2000: peering into the
demographic future. Business Horizons, Vol. 36, No. 6, Nov-Dec
1993. 55-63 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut. In Eng.
Some political implications of current U.S. demographic trends are explored. Five major areas of concern are identified, which are "the circumstances of children's families; the characteristics of the work force; the racial and ethnic makeup of local electorates; the aging of the population; and the population's geographic distribution."
For a related paper, published in 1991, see 57:30690.
Correspondence: P. A. Morrison, RAND, 1700 Main Street, P.O. Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.
Pawel; Petrow, Nikolaj; Gleser, Olga; Sajontschkowskaja,
Shanna. The population of Russia: recent trends and
changes. [Die Bevolkerung Russlands: neue Tendenzen und
Veranderungen.] Sonderveroffentlichung, May 1993. 67 pp. Bundesinstitut
fur Ostwissenschaftliche und Internationale Studien: Cologne, Germany.
In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
This publication contains four separate studies on the demographic impact of recent political changes in the former Soviet Union, with particular reference to Russia. The first, by Petrow, describes the political disintegration of the USSR in 1992. The second, by Gleser, describes recent demographic events associated with such changes, including declines in population in certain areas and their causes. The third, by Poljan, looks at recent migration trends, including refugee movements. The fourth paper, by Sajontschkowskaja, examines emigration from the former Soviet Union. The four scholars are associated with the laboratory for Population Geography and Settlement Problems at the Russian Academy of Science's Institute for Geography.
Correspondence: Bundesinstitut fur Ostwissenschaftliche und Internationale Studien, Lindenbornstrasse 22, 50823-5000 Cologne, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
61:10705 Samuel, T.
John. Quebec separatism is dead: demography is
destiny. 1994. iii, 83 pp. John Samuel and Associates: Ottawa,
Canada. In Eng.
This study analyzes the demographic factors affecting the issue of whether Quebec will remain part of Canada or become an independent state. "After an extensive analysis of the relationship between the economic, political, legal, social and moral/religious attitudes of people in different age groups, against the age distribution of Quebec voters, the study forecasts that the 1995 or later referendum in Quebec is unlikely to produce a mandate for separation."
Correspondence: John Samuel and Associates, 2060 Chalmers Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1H 6K5, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Peter. Violence and UN population data. Nature, Vol.
372, No. 6506, Dec 8, 1994. 495-6 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The author examines the reasons why the official UN population estimates for Burundi and Rwanda fail to show the demographic effect of the various massacres and mass emigrations that have occurred in the two countries since their independence in 1959. The reasons are found to be both technical, in that demographic data are deficient as for many African countries, and political, in that the governments of the countries concerned "have always refused to acknowledge the massive killings within their boundaries, executed largely by their military apparatus. Hence, it comes as no surprise that they would also seek to cover up these events in their population data."
Correspondence: P. Uvin, Brown University, Alan Shaw Feinstein World Hunger Program, Box 1831, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SG).
Guttmacher Institute (New York, New York). Uneven and
unequal: insurance coverage and reproductive health services.
ISBN 0-939253-35-6. . 36 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This report, based on the first large-scale, comprehensive study of private insurance coverage of reproductive health care services [carried out in the United States], addresses three issues critical to ensuring that people not only are insured for, but also are able to access, the care they need: whether specific reproductive health care services are covered, whether the dependents of insured individuals are covered for all services included in the plan and whether plans have provisions for patients to obtain confidential care."
Correspondence: Alan Guttmacher Institute, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Sulaiman M. Health care planning model for Africa based on
the dynamics of morbidity and mortality. Population Studies
Program Demographic Working Paper, No. DWP/003/94, 1994. 25 pp.
University of Zimbabwe, Department of Sociology, Population Studies
Program: Harare, Zimbabwe. In Eng.
"In the paper, a multistate model was used to investigate the implications of changes in risk factors and that of health care technology [in Africa]....In two hypothetical examples given in the paper, scenarios were constructed and the application of the dynamic model in aiding in decision making was outlined."
Correspondence: University of Zimbabwe, Department of Sociology, Population Studies Program, Harare, Zimbabwe. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Laurent; Brogan, Thomas; Keou, Francois-Xavier M.; Georges, Alain
J. Surveillance of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in
Africa: an analysis of evaluations of the World Health Organization and
other clinical definitions. Epidemiologic Reviews, Vol. 16, No. 2,
1994. 403-17 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
The problems related to the clinical definitions of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and their application to the measurement of the AIDS epidemic in Africa are discussed. Particular attention is given to the AIDS definition developed by the World Health Organization (WHO). Attention is also given to revision of the AIDS definition and its implications.
Correspondence: L. Belec, Hopital Brousais, Service de Microbiologie, 96 rue Didot, 75674 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).
61:10710 Brown, Tim;
Xenos, Peter. AIDS in Asia: the gathering storm.
Asia Pacific Issues, No. 16, Aug 1994. 15 pp. East-West Center:
Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
The authors review the current situation concerning AIDS in Asia, as well as likely future developments. They note that "WHO projects that by the turn of the century, more new HIV infections will occur in Asia than in all the rest of the world combined." They conclude that the threatened AIDS epidemic will become a major problem in Asia not only because of the region's population size, but also because of some specific characteristics the epidemic is likely to develop in this region.
Correspondence: East-West Center, Office of Public Programs, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
John T.; Hancock, John D.; Rogers, Carol A. A dynamic
aggregative model of the AIDS epidemic with possible policy
interventions. Journal of Policy Modeling, Vol. 16, No. 5, Oct
1994. 473-96 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The primary goal of this article is to analyze long-term growth in the presence of AIDS epidemic and its interaction with population dynamics and the macroeconomy. Health-sector policies for preventing the spread of HIV or helping AIDS patients to cope with the disease are considered. Policies aimed at reducing HIV transmission can significantly reduce the prevalence of AIDS and can even bring the economy to a no-AIDS steady state. Model simulations using parameters representing a typical sub-Saharan country show how powerful these policies could be: a rise in condom use from 0 to 10 percent cuts steady-state AIDS prevalence nearly in half, from 31 percent to 19 percent of the population."
Correspondence: J. T. Cuddington, Georgetown University, Department of Economics, Washington, D.C. 20057. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Claire. The role of demography in the evaluation of health
programs. [La place de la demographie dans l'evaluation des
programmes de sante.] Working Paper du CERPOD, No. 16, Mar 1994. 55 pp.
Centre d'Etudes et de Recherche sur la Population pour le Developpement
[CERPOD]: Bamako, Mali. In Fre.
The author presents a review of the literature in order to determine the role that demographers might play in the evaluation of health programs. The geographical focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: Centre d'Etudes et de Recherche sur la Population pour le Developpement, B.P. 1530, Bamako, Mali. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Noreen; Korenman, Sanders; Weinstein, Rachel. Marital
status and health among the elderly. OPR Working Paper, No. 94-3,
Apr 1994. 35 pp. Princeton University, Office of Population Research
[OPR]: Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
The primary goal of this study is to examine whether the beneficial effects of marital status continue to operate at the oldest ages. The data are from the Longitudinal Study of Aging and concern the population of the United States for the period 1984-1990. "Our results suggest that marital status is indeed associated with health and survival outcomes at the oldest ages."
This paper was presented at the 1994 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Edward C. AIDS and STDs in Africa: bridging the gap
between traditional healing and modern medicine. ISBN
0-8133-7847-8. 1994. xi, 276 pp. Westview Press: Boulder,
Colorado/Oxford, England; University of Natal Press: Pietermaritzburg,
South Africa. In Eng.
The author questions the value of the public health approach to the AIDS problem in Sub-Saharan Africa. The approach in question involves primarily the promotion of condom use and restriction of the number of sexual partners. "The present book will emphasize factors in the spread and control of AIDS that have thus far received insufficient (or no) attention in the literature or the international AIDS conferences, let alone in the AIDS control programs funded by high-resource donors....The risk factors and strategies for control of HIV infection that form the focus of this book are central, not marginal, in the understanding and control of AIDS, and I will draw upon empirical evidence from several disciplines to back this assertion. I believe much of the generally acknowledged failure of AIDS control programs in Africa to date stems from the failure to recognize and address some of the central facts of the epidemiology of AIDS in Africa. I argue in this book that some sort of collaborative action program involving traditional healers is necessary if we wish to significantly impact the spread of AIDS and other STDs in Africa."
Correspondence: Westview Press, 5500 Central Avenue, Boulder, CO 80301-2877. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Inge. Being pregnant in rural south India: nutrition of
women and well-being of children. PDOD Publications Series A:
Doctoral Dissertations, ISBN 90-5170-306-6. 1994. 229,  pp. Thesis
Publishers: Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The book documents the extent of dietary limitation during pregnancy in rural South India and assesses whether the limitation is indeed harmful...: for the mother, the child or for both. Besides nutritional intake, the book reports on the beliefs of Indian women about food behaviour and other proper behaviour during pregnancy. Their motives behind dietary limitation are different from the one mentioned above. Data are from fieldwork conducted in eleven villages in the area of Dharwad taluk, Karnataka, India, in the period December 1990 to August 1992. The study adopts an interdisciplinary perspective: medical, nutritional, sociological, demographic and anthropological aspects of pregnancy, delivery and the postnatal period are studied."
Correspondence: Thesis Publishers, P.O. Box 14791, 1001 LG Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Hisashi. The exponential phase of HIV/AIDS epidemic in
Japan. Institute of Population Problems Working Paper Series, No.
20, Aug 1994. 15 pp. Institute of Population Problems: Tokyo, Japan. In
"In this paper, our purpose is to develop a method to estimate the number of HIV infecteds in the exponential phase and to apply it to the Japanese AIDS data. First based on the Japanese AIDS surveillance data, we observe that the cumulated AIDS incidence in Japan has been growing exponentially. Using our calculation method, we conclude that the number of infected individuals is about from 10 times to 17 times as much as the size of cumulated AIDS incidence in Japan."
Correspondence: Institute of Population Problems, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-45, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Tara; Ramesh, B. M.; Roy, T. K.; Arnold, Fred; Retherford, Robert
D. National Family Health Survey (MCH and family
planning). India 1992-93: introductory report. Oct 1994. xv, 91
pp. International Institute for Population Sciences: Bombay, India. In
This is a report on the National Family Health Survey, carried out in India in 1992-1993, which included a nationally representative sample of 89,777 ever-married women aged 13-49. "This is an introductory report containing basic information on fertility, knowledge and practice of family planning, utilization of antenatal services, immunization, feeding practices and health of children, infant and child mortality, maternal mortality, and knowledge of AIDS. Interstate comparisons on key indicators are also provided in this report."
Correspondence: International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Bombay 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Robert A.; Dexter, Emily; Velasco, Patricia; LeVine, Sara; Joshi, Arun
R.; Stuebing, Kathleen W.; Tapia-Uribe, F. Medardo.
Maternal literacy and health care in three countries: a
preliminary report. Health Transition Review, Vol. 4, No. 2, Oct
1994. 186-91 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This report presents the first results of literacy assessment in three community-level studies, indicating that literacy skills acquired in schools of rural Mexico, rural Nepal and urban Zambia are retained to some extent into the childbearing years and may affect the reproductive and health behaviour of women with young children."
Correspondence: R. A. LeVine, Harvard Graduate School of Education, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Nyasha. The effect of adverse socio-economic factors and
disease on the nutritional status of children under five in
Zimbabwe. Population Studies Program Demographic Working Paper,
No. DWP/002/94, . 25 pp. University of Zimbabwe, Department of
Sociology, Population Studies Program: Harare, Zimbabwe. In Eng.
Factors affecting the health of children in Zimbabwe are analyzed using data from the 1988 Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey. "The results show that the nutritional status of a child is determined by a variety of interrelated factors that are biological, social, cultural and economic in nature. It is imperative to note therefore, that the roots of malnutrition extend beyond the reach and influence of health and nutrition into the environment, tradition and economy of the people."
Correspondence: University of Zimbabwe, Department of Sociology, Population Studies Program, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Deborah; Freedman, Lynn; Shaheed, Farida; Frautschi, Schuyler.
Risk, reproduction, and rights: the uses of reproductive health
data. In: Population and development: old debates, new
conclusions, edited by Robert Cassen. 1994. 203-27 pp. Transaction
Publishers: New Brunswick, New Jersey/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This chapter has attempted to illuminate the ways the results of epidemiological studies are used and misused as guides to policies and programs that affect women's reproductive health. It suggests that relative risk is usually not the appropriate measure of risk, since it reflects neither the client's perspective nor the possible public health implications. Policies and programs need to be guided first and foremost by respect for fundamental dignity and the rights of women as human beings....Programs that claim to promote reproductive health cannot be fully successful unless they supply women with the information and means to implement their own risk/benefit calculations."
Correspondence: D. Maine, Columbia University, Center for Population and Family Health, Prevention of Maternal Mortality, 60 Haven Avenue B-3, New York, NY 10032. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Kenneth G.; Stallard, Eric. Medical demography:
interaction of disability dynamics and mortality. In: Demography
of aging, edited by Linda G. Martin and Samuel H. Preston. 1994. 217-78
pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"In this chapter we seek to build a framework for examining the interactions among the health-related behavior of individuals, genetic predispositions, the incidence of disease and fatality, the aging of the population, and levels of mortality and morbidity [in the United States]....First, we review methodological issues in modeling chronic disease processes....Second, we examine processes for individuals, relating the interactions of the natural history of a chronic disease with life stage....Third, we discuss the relation of disability and mortality; the measurement of disability in elderly persons; and the effects on measurement of using duration-based indicators of disability such as 'active life expectancy.'...Finally, we examine the role of genetics in shaping health in old age...."
Correspondence: K. G. Manton, Duke University, Center for Demographic Studies, 2117 Campus Drive, Durham, NC 27708-0088. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Pradeep; Rastogi, S. R.; Kanitkar, Tara; Ramesh, B. M.; Roy, T. K.;
Arnold, Fred; Feeney, Griffith; Govindasamy, Pavalavalli; Retherford,
Robert. National Family Health Survey (MCH and family
planning): Uttar Pradesh, 1992-93. Oct 1994. xxi, 314 pp. Lucknow
University, Population Research Centre: Lucknow, India; International
Institute for Population Sciences: Bombay, India. In Eng.
Results are presented from the 1992-1993 National Family Health Survey of India for the state of Uttar Pradesh. The data for Uttar Pradesh involve 11,438 ever-married women aged 13-49 from 10,110 households, and 8,140 children of those women born during the four years prior to the survey. Following introductory chapters on the survey, chapters are included on nuptiality, fertility, family planning, fertility preferences, morbidity and mortality, maternal and child health, and infant feeding and child nutrition. A summary report of survey results is published separately.
Correspondence: International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Bombay 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Marie C. Diptheria in late-nineteenth-century Sweden:
policy and practice. Continuity and Change, Vol. 9, No. 2, Aug
1994. 213-42 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
Aspects of the rise in child mortality that occurred in Sweden during the nineteenth century are examined. Specifically, the author "presents the public health legislation relevant to infectious diseases and investigates how two Swedish towns, Sundsvall and Gotenburg, were struck by and dealt with diptheria in the late nineteenth century. Reporting to the State was an important feature of compliance with legislation. However, the provisions for epidemic hospitals, the possibilities for isolating infected patients, disinfection of infected homes and later the use of serum treatment had varying histories in the two towns. The paper also addresses the question of whether public debate showed concern about the rise in mortality among children."
Correspondence: M. C. Nelson, Institutionen for Kultur och Humaniora, Mitthogskolan, Harnosand, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Elizabeth A. C.; White, Franklin M. M.; Sokal, David C.; King, Timothy
D. N.; Forsythe, Steven S. Modeling the HIV/AIDS epidemic
in the English-speaking Caribbean. Bulletin of the Pan American
Health Organization, Vol. 28, No. 3, Sep 1994. 239-49 pp. Washington,
D.C. In Eng.
"The study reported here examines the past and potential future impact of HIV/AIDS in 19 nations of the primarily English-speaking Caribbean. The authors use DemProj, a demographic projection model, to explore two different HIV scenarios. In the low scenario adult HIV prevalence stabilizes at 2% in the year 2000, and in the high scenario adult HIV prevalence stabilizes at 5%. By the year 2010, annual AIDS incidence exceeds 11,000 cases in the low scenario and 28,000 in the high scenario. In both scenarios, 70% of the cases are in young adults 20-45 years old and 12% are in children 0-15."
Correspondence: F. M. M. White, Caribbean Epidemiology Center, P.O. Box 164, Port of Spain, Trinidad. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Thomas T. The oldest old. Scientific American, Vol.
272, No. 1, Jan 1995. 70-5 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Many people regard advancing age as an inevitable descent into worsening health. A survey of persons who are more than 95 years old, however, finds that their physical condition is often better than that of others 20 years their junior. The longevity secrets locked inside these centenarians' genes and behavior may point the way to a more pleasurable and active old age for the rest of us."
Correspondence: T. T. Perls, Harvard University, Harvard Medical School, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115. Location: Princeton University Library (SW).
Philippines. National Statistics Office (Manila, Philippines);
Macro International. Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS] (Calverton,
Maryland). Philippines National Safe Motherhood Survey,
1993. Oct 1994. xxii, 174 pp. Calverton, Maryland. In Eng.
The results of a survey carried out in the Philippines in 1993 as a follow-up to the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) program are presented. The survey included a national sample of 8,500 women aged 15-49 who have ever had a pregnancy outcome, and focuses on reproductive health. Chapters are included on reproductive history; maternal care; obstetric complications and treatment; general health, anthropometry, reproductive morbidity, and induced abortion; domestic violence and rape; and policy recommendations.
Correspondence: Macro International, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Calverton, MD 20705-3119. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Steven D.; Abramson, Paul R. An alternative model of the
reproductive rate of HIV infection: formulation, evaluation, and
implications for risk reduction interventions. Evaluation Review,
Vol. 18, No. 4, Aug 1994. 371-88 pp. Newbury Park, California/London,
England. In Eng.
"The future course of the HIV/AIDS epidemic depends on the ratio of secondary to primary infections early in the epidemic. If this ratio, here called the reproductive rate of infection, exceeds unity then the epidemic can be expected to flourish; otherwise it will eventually abate. Estimates of the reproductive rate of HIV infection, obtained via a Bernoulli process model of the sexual transmission of HIV, indicate that decreasing the infectivity of the virus, through the consistent use of condoms, for example, is more effective at reducing the reproductive rate of infection than is limiting the number of sexual partners, regardless of the initial prevalence of HIV infection in the population under consideration."
Correspondence: P. R. Abramson, University of California, Department of Psychology, Los Angeles, CA 90024-1563. Location: Princeton University Library (SW).
R. Mansell. Forced movements of population and health
hazards in tropical Africa. International Journal of Epidemiology,
Vol. 23, No. 4, Aug 1994. 657-64 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Significant interactions between disease and population mobility have been demonstrated in tropical Africa in recent decades....During the last two decades forced movements have become important. These are associated with refugees, coerced resettlement and victims of environmental catastrophe. The health hazards associated with them are reviewed from medical and social science literature for North East Africa (refugees and resettlement) and for West Africa (pastoralists affected by drought)....The health hazards arising from the forced movements considered here are more exaggerated versions of the health hazards experienced by most people in tropical Africa."
Correspondence: R. M. Prothero, Vine House, Parkgate Road, Neston, South Wirral L64 9XE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Ramalingaswami, V. Population and health. In:
Population--the complex reality, edited by Francis Graham-Smith. 1994.
71-6 pp. Royal Society: London, England; North American Press: Golden,
Colorado. In Eng.
"The rate of change of indicators of health is compared in developed and less developed countries and the effects on population growth are examined. The causes of maternal and child mortality are analysed and specific issues such as adolescent childbearing are addressed. Implications for policy-making are discussed with recommendations."
Correspondence: V. Ramalingaswami, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110 029, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Belgin; Oldham, Linda; Shorter, Frederic. A place to live:
families and child health in a Cairo neighborhood. ISBN
977-424-315-3. 1994. xi, 201 pp. American University in Cairo Press:
Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
This study, based on many sources including a 1984 representative household survey, examines living conditions in the rapidly growing third world city of Cairo, Egypt, and how those conditions result in poor health for some and good health for others. Chapters are included on household characteristics, infant and child mortality, child health, and on home management of health and illness.
Correspondence: American University in Cairo Press, 113 Sharia Kasr el Aini, Cairo, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Jean-Pierre; Bussiere, Yves; Pampalon, Robert; Chicoine,
Nathalie. Aging and functional limitations: a comparative
analysis of data from the HALS survey of the metropolitan region of
Montreal and the province of Quebec, 1986. [Vieillissement et
limitations fonctionnelles: analyse comparee des donnees de l'enquete
ESLA entre la region metropolitaine de Montreal et la province de
Quebec, 1986.] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 22, No. 1, Spring
1993. 45-62 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"In this article, an analysis of data from the Health and Activity Limitation Survey (HALS) for the metropolitan region of Montreal (MRM) and for the province of Quebec, conducted in 1986-87 by Statistics Canada, will show that the level of disabilities and the severity of handicaps are distinctly related to ageing. This raises central questions regarding the nature of the ageing process and on the pertinent policies to be adopted. Furthermore, significant spatial differences can be observed concerning the level of disabilities for various age groups. As such, the level of disabilities is generally lower in the MRM than in the rest of Quebec, except among those aged 75 and over and for the worst degree of disability."
Correspondence: J.-P. Thouez, Universite de Montreal, Departement de Geographie, C.P. 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Anne; Daly, Patricia; Green, Cynthia; Saxenian, Helen;
Lakshminarayanan, Rama; Gill, Kirrin. Women's health and
nutrition: making a difference. World Bank Discussion Paper, No.
256, ISBN 0-8213-2991-X. LC 94-28769. Jul 1994. xi, 124 pp. World Bank:
Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This paper spells out the arguments for investing in women's health and nutrition programs in developing countries. It provides an overview of women's health and nutrition issues over the entire life-cycle, including adolescence and post-reproductive ages. The paper provides guidance for policymakers and program planners on how to redirect scarce resources effectively. "The Essential Services for women's health described in the paper are interventions that have widespread benefits of sufficient importance to justify public funding, even in the poorest countries. The Expanded Services consist of additional interventions that can be implemented by middle income countries--and by poorer countries to the extent resources permit."
Correspondence: World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Jacques. Health, mortality and population growth.
Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 19, No. 3, 1993-1994.
308-14 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Eng.
The author considers whether health and mortality decline constitute a fundamental determinant of population growth, and whether population growth is a handicap to future health improvement and mortality decline.
Correspondence: J. Vallin, Centre Francais sur la Population et le Developpement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Medecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Julia S.; Rees, Philip H. A simulation of the transmission
of HIV and AIDS in regional populations within the United Kingdom.
Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, Vol. 19, No. 3,
1994. 311-30 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The spread of HIV-1 in the United Kingdom is simulated by a model which integrates behavioural and epidemiological processes within a multi-regional population projection framework and represents the spatial heterogeneities in the distribution of HIV which have significant effects on transmission patterns. Analyses determine the significance of different parameters in contributing to prediction uncertainty and highlight the importance of behavioural change and international population movements."
Correspondence: J. S. Williams, GMAP Limited, Cromer Terrace, Leeds LS2 9JU, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).
Louie A. The effects of maternal smoking on infant
health. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 13, No. 3, Sep
1994. 327-39 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Data from Alabama birth certificates for births occurring between 1988 and 1991 were analyzed using log linear methods to calculate relative risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes and infant death. Smoking by mothers during pregnancy is associated with an elevated risk of infant death, low birth weight, and prematurity, controlling for mother's educational attainment, age, marital status, race, and trimester prenatal care was initiated. Smoking was also associated with a higher rate of admission to neonatal intensive care and to deaths from SIDS and respiratory causes."
Correspondence: L. A. Woolbright, Alabama Department of Public Health, Center for Health Statistics, P.O. Box 5625, Montgomery, AL 36103. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Jiafang. An approximation of Downs Syndrome livebirths in
Japan, 1971-2000. In: Studies in applied demography, edited by K.
Vaninadha Rao and Jerry W. Wicks. 1994. 463-76 pp. Bowling Green State
University, Department of Sociology, Population and Society Research
Center: Bowling Green, Ohio. In Eng.
"This study attempts to combine recent demographic findings with the determinants found by biological and medical studies in regard to the incidence of Downs Syndrome to live births. The population of Japan is selected for this study since Japan has kept a relatively good record of census enumeration and vital statistics for a long time. In addition, the mortality and fertility behavior of the population is relatively stable over time, and the population by sex and the age structure were well approximated....The possible number of the live births with Downs Syndrome will be approximated by using the same population dynamics model which was adopted in approximation of Japanese population."
Correspondence: J. Chen, Mississippi State University, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, P.O. Drawer DB, Mississippi State, MS 39762. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).