Volume 61 - Number 1 - Spring 1995

K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations

Studies concerned with the relations between population factors as a whole and economic aspects. Relations affecting a single demographic variable and economic factors are coded under the variable concerned and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

K.1. Economic Development and Population

Studies concerned equally with economic and social development. Most studies on the microeconomics of the family will be found in G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population

Studies on economic and social development with a worldwide emphasis, together with those with no geographical emphasis.

61:10624 Bandarage, Asoka. Population and development: toward a social justice agenda. Monthly Review, Vol. 46, No. 4, Sep 1994. 40-50 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author develops the argument that "the fundamental reasons for population growth in the South and population decline in the North...lie in the evolution of industrial capitalism and Western imperialism. Contemporary international migration also has it origins in these historical developments." The need for greater social justice in international economic relations in order to create the necessary conditions in which individuals would choose to control their fertility is stressed.
Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

61:10625 Cassen, Robert. Population and development: old debates, new conclusions. U.S.-Third World Policy Perspectives, No. 19, ISBN 1-56000-165-8. LC 94-11399. 1994. x, 282 pp. Transaction Publishers: New Brunswick, New Jersey/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This volume is a collection of articles on "the consequences for development of rapid population growth. The authors address the complex issues that currently face both developed- and developing-country governments in the area of population: the relationship between population and economic growth; the relations of family planning and fertility reduction to women's reproductive health and women's rights; population growth consequences, at the family and societal level, for investments in human resource development; the impact of population growth on local ecosystems; and the rationale for population assistance programs."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Transaction Publishers, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08903. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10626 Dewulf, Geert; Becker, Henk A. Cohort replacement in industrialised and developing countries: a social impact assessment. Project Appraisal, Vol. 8, No. 4, Dec 1993. 225-30 pp. Guildford, England. In Eng.
"This paper tries to link the problem of over-population in developing countries and the greying of richer societies. It is argued that future western generations could profit from increasing actual development aid in the long run. Solidarity between the present labour force in the developed world and younger people in particular in less developed countries will favour both worlds."
Correspondence: G. Dewulf, Delft University of Technology, Real Estate and Project Management, P.O. Box 5043, 2600 GA Delft, Netherlands. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

61:10627 Hansen, Stein. Population: its challenge to economic and social scientists. International Social Science Journal, Vol. 46, No. 3, Sep 1994. 331-42 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The role of population growth in economic development, and more recently in sustainable development, is open to variable interpretations depending on the starting premises of the social scientists concerned. This article argues that it is fundamentally important in this perspective to distinguish between population growth and human capital growth. In particular, it finds a complex nexus between these variables--the policy regime and its stability, i.e. the incentives for a sustainable management of the resource base--and the resulting economic and social welfare."
Correspondence: S. Hansen, Nordic Consulting Group, Orneveien 46A, 1340 Bekkestua, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:10628 Kelley, Allen C.; McGreevey, William P. Population and development in historical perspective. In: Population and development: old debates, new conclusions, edited by Robert Cassen. 1994. 107-26 pp. Transaction Publishers: New Brunswick, New Jersey/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Since 1950, volumes have been written on the consequences of population growth, resulting in an active and somewhat contentious period in the long population debate between those who assess population growth to be significantly adverse to the pace of economic prosperity and those who see the impacts to be relatively modest, or even positive....This essay attempts a modest reconciliation of the debate by considering two historical themes. First, it examines the history of population ideas in the postwar period and interprets 'revisionism'--a 'non-alarmist' assessment of population consequences that is dominant among economists in the field. Second, it reviews how modern economic growth since the industrial revolution overcame the constraints posed by rapid population growth....These two doses of historical perspective will not cure the fundamental causes of contention, which lie mainly in the empirical uncertainties surrounding the consequences of demographic change. They can, however, soften the discord by pointing more clearly to important methodological sources of controversy, thereby placing the debate on a firmer footing."
Correspondence: A. C. Kelley, Duke University, Center for Demographic Studies, 2117 Campus Drive, Durham, NC 27708-0088. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10629 Kelley, Allen C.; Schmidt, Robert M. Population and income change: recent evidence. World Bank Discussion Paper, No. 249, ISBN 0-8213-2956-1. LC 94-27213. Aug 1994. xii, 116 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study undertakes a detailed empirical assessment, based on international cross-country data for the period from the 1960s, of the correlations between aggregate population and per capita output growth. Two notable findings are obtained. First, the correlations, which in earlier decades were not statistically significant, have turned strongly negative for the 1980s. Second, over the entire period from 1960, both the direction and the size of the correlations vary by the level of economic development: the correlation is most likely to be negative (positive) in relatively poor (wealthy) countries."
Correspondence: World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10630 Keyfitz, Nathan; Lindahl-Kiessling, Kerstin. The world population debate: urgency of the problem. In: Population--the complex reality, edited by Francis Graham-Smith. 1994. 21-51 pp. Royal Society: London, England; North American Press: Golden, Colorado. In Eng.
"What we present herein are efforts to illustrate, from different perspectives, and disentangle the population-environment-development complex and, thus, encourage the necessary scientific and political actions....We have examined the process and direction of changes in the world society and in environment issues. We have also examined what divergences are occurring between the direction in which we are now going and the target of our ambition. We discuss what can be done to bring the two into line, i.e. to reorient both our movement and our target in directions that make them consistent with one another."
Correspondence: N. Keyfitz, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Schlossplatz 1, 2361 Laxenburg, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10631 Lee, Bun Song; Lin, Shuanglin. Government size, demographic changes, and economic growth. International Economic Journal, Vol. 8, No. 1, Spring 1994. 91-108 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
"This paper examines the effect of government size on the growth rate of per capita output by incorporating demographic variables. Evidence from more than 86 countries suggests that the demographic variables not only affect economic growth, but also determine the size of government. Both the young and the old age dependency ratios were positively related to the size of government, while population density and population size were negatively related to the size of government. Moreover, when the demographic variables are included in the growth equations, the effect of government size on the growth rate of per capita output became insignificant rather than, as prior studies showed, significantly negative."
Correspondence: B. S. Lee, University of Nebraska, Department of Economics, Omaha, NE 68182. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

61:10632 Menken, Jane. Demographic-economic relationships and development. In: Population--the complex reality, edited by Francis Graham-Smith. 1994. 59-70 pp. Royal Society: London, England; North American Press: Golden, Colorado. In Eng.
"This paper summarises three reports prepared by committees of the National Research Council, the principal operating agency of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering....The first two volumes examined the effect of population growth on various aspects of development, while the third considered causation in the opposite direction, that is, the impact of a declining economy on basic population processes, namely fertility, mortality, and marriage. These reports, and related papers, find the linkages between population and the economy to be complex, difficult to elucidate, in many cases context-specific, and worthy of careful scientific research based on improved data availability."
Correspondence: J. Menken, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10633 Menken, Jane. Economists' view of population growth. Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 19, No. 3, 1993-1994. 297-307 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Eng.
The author discusses the relationship between population growth and economic development. She reviews "three reports that have been published in the last two decades by the National Research Council (NRC) of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and the Academy itself."
Correspondence: J. Menken, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10634 Orbeta, Aniceto C. Population growth, human capital expenditures and economic growth: a macroeconometric analysis. Philippine Review of Economics and Business, Vol. 29, No. 2, Dec 1992. 179-230 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"The paper presents an econometrically estimated model where economic and demographic variables are determined simultaneously. It is used to quantify the importance of human capital expenditures in socioeconomic and demographic development as well as analyze the effects of rapid population growth on human capital expenditures. The simulation results indicate that human capital expenditures are important determinants of economic development, have appreciable negative effects on both fertility and infant mortality, hence, have negligible net effects on population in human capital expenditures per capita which implies a deteriorating quality of human capital."
Correspondence: A. C. Orbeta, Philippine Institute for Development Studies, Neda Sa Makati Building, 106 Amorsolo Street, Lespagi Village, Makati 1200, Metro Manila, Philippines. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

61:10635 Sachs, Ignacy. Population, development and employment. International Social Science Journal, Vol. 46, No. 3, Sep 1994. 343-59 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The article examines the complex relationships between population, development and the configuration of the natural and social ecosystem, and within this context, inquires about demographic and socio-economic transition strategies." The situation with regard to employment is analyzed.
Correspondence: I. Sachs, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, 54 boulevard Raspail, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:10636 Sadik, Nafis. Population and development: preparing for the 21st century. A statement. In: Population--the complex reality, edited by Francis Graham-Smith. 1994. 77-81 pp. Royal Society: London, England; North American Press: Golden, Colorado. In Eng.
The author briefly discusses the world situation regarding population and development, with a focus on goals for the future and means of implementing population policies.
Correspondence: N. Sadik, United Nations Population Fund, 220 East 42nd Street, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.1.2. Developing Countries

General studies on the relations between population factors and economic development in developing countries. Includes studies on dependency as they relate to developing countries.

61:10637 Bajraj, Reynaldo F.; Bravo, Jorge H. An overview of economic adjustments and demographic responses in Latin America. [Una vision sintetica del ajuste economico y sus consecuencias demograficas en America Latina.] Notas de Poblacion, Vol. 22, No. 59, Jun 1994. 51-72 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"A brief examination is made of the economic changes [that] occurred in Latin America during the last few decades, especially those associated [with] adjustment processes during the [1980s]. Some conceptual problems and limitations inherent in the study of the relationships between adjustment and demographic variation are recognized, and the available evidence on medium and short term demographic reactions to economic changes is synthesized. The findings suggest that both nuptiality and fertility have responded noticeably to recent economic fluctuations....Short run variations in infant mortality and mortality due to selected causes have been very moderate by comparison with those of nuptiality and fertility."
Correspondence: R. F. Bajraj, UN Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia, Edificio Naciones Unidas, Avenida Dag Hammarskjold, Casilla 91, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10638 Bilsborrow, Richard E.; Geores, Martha. Rural population dynamics and agricultural development: issues and consequences observed in Latin America. Dec 1992. viii, 159 pp. Cornell University, Cornell International Institute for Food, Agriculture and Development [CIIFAD]: Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
This publication is a monograph which was presented at a one-day conference at Cornell University on the links between population and agriculture held on April 26, 1991. It "assesses the relationships between population change and long-term agricultural development in the context of contemporary developing countries. First, in Part I, recent trends in population, agriculture and land use practices, and environmental degradation in rural areas (deforestation, desertification and soil degradation) are reviewed for the 87 developing countries with populations over 1 million circa 1990....Second, the theoretical discussion reviews pertinent 'stimulus-response' approaches in which the stimulus is the increase in population density...and responses include land extensification, land-intensifying technological change, and out-migration...drawing upon earlier theoretical discussions of Malthus, Kingsley Davis and Esther Boserup....The major sections of the monograph then follow, in Part II, where the literature is gleaned for evidence of population-agriculture linkages, focusing on Latin America."
Correspondence: Cornell University, Cornell International Institute for Food, Agriculture and Development, Box 14, Kennedy Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-4203. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10639 Birdsall, Nancy. Government, population, and poverty: a win-win tale. In: Population and development: old debates, new conclusions, edited by Robert Cassen. 1994. 253-74 pp. Transaction Publishers: New Brunswick, New Jersey/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This chapter first summarizes the three principal concerns raised by rapid population growth in developing countries: slower economic development, greater environmental damage, and greater poverty and income inequality. It then links these concerns to specific rationales for government intervention to reduce rates of fertility, demonstrating the basis for these rationales in simple welfare theory....Finally, the chapter discusses the kinds of public policy interventions that these rationales justify."
Correspondence: N. Birdsall, Inter-American Development Bank, 1300 New York Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20577. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10640 Dasgupta, Partha. The population problem. In: Population--the complex reality, edited by Francis Graham-Smith. 1994. 151-80 pp. Royal Society: London, England; North American Press: Golden, Colorado. In Eng.
"This article applies economic analysis to rural households in poor countries to see what one may mean by a 'population problem'. It is argued by an appeal to evidence that there is a serious population problem in these parts, and that it is in varying degrees related synergistically to poverty, to communal sharing of child rearing, and possibly also to an erosion of the local environmental resource base....An argument is sketched to show how the cycle of poverty, low birth weight and stature, and high fertility rates can perpetuate within a dynasty. The one general policy conclusion that may be novel is that a population policy in these parts would not only contain such measures as family planning programmes and increased female education and employment opportunities, but also those measures that are directed at the alleviation of poverty, such as improved credit and savings markets, and a ready availability of basic household needs, such as water and fuel."
Correspondence: P. Dasgupta, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1TN, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10641 de Carvalho, Jose A. M. Population and development--the Brazilian example. Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 19, No. 3, 1993-1994. 258-62 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Eng.
The author explores trends in population and development in Brazil. "The peculiar economic, social and demographic evolution of Brazil during the last four decades is an interesting process that reveals both the complexity of the relationship between the economy and population and our rather limited capacity to foresee the path of the demographic dynamics in a country. On the other hand, the rapid and generalized fertility decline in Brazil without any governmental policy on population and/or birth control can teach us about determinants of fertility transition in a relatively underdeveloped country with huge social and regional inequalities."
Correspondence: J. A. M. de Carvalho, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Rua Curitiba 832-9o andar, 30170-120 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10642 Kambou, Gerard; Devarajan, Shantayanan; Over, Mead. The economic effects of the AIDS epidemic in Sub-Saharan Africa: a general equilibrium analysis. [Les effets economiques de l'epidemie du SIDA en Afrique subsaharienne: une analyse d'equilibre general.] Revue d'Economie du Developpement, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1993. 37-62 pp. Evry, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The authors attempt to estimate the economic impact of the spread of AIDS and the subsequent rise in adult mortality on the countries of Sub-Saharan Africa. In particular, they consider the extent to which spending on AIDS-related problems will absorb a large and growing portion of national savings and thus impede capital formation.
Correspondence: G. Kambou, Northeastern University, 360 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

61:10643 Maitra, Priyatosh. Technological change and the demographic transition model--India, a case study. Indian Journal of Social Science, Vol. 5, No. 2, Apr-Jun 1992. 159-86 pp. Newbury Park, California/New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The concept of the demographic transition is re-examined in the context of India with particular reference to the demographic impact of technological change. In particular, the author examines whether "the demographic effects of a developing capitalist economy are due to (a) the extent of capitalist transformation of an economy; and (b) the nature and level of imported technological change."
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

61:10644 Schultz, T. Paul. Sources of fertility decline in modern economic growth: is aggregate evidence on the demographic transition credible? IPR Working Paper Series, No. IPR58, May 1993. 37, [2] pp. Institute for Policy Reform: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper examines national data for 62 low income countries from 1972, 1982 and 1988 to test some of the most elementary hypotheses regarding the economic demand for children, first with regard to the differences across countries at different stages of development and then based on the changes occurring within countries over time. The conclusions are in one sense similar to other studies, both family planning and development are associated with lower levels of fertility. However, development may involve different sources of economic growth in a particular country, and economic theory suggests that some income sources will be associated with decreasing fertility, such as women's education and earnings, whereas others, such as men's education and nonlabor income, may be associated with increasing fertility." The effect of family planning programs on fertility is also assessed and found to be either small or insignificant.
Correspondence: Institute for Policy Reform, 1400 16th Street NW, Suite 350, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

61:10645 World Bank (Washington, D.C.). Averting the old age crisis: policies to protect the old and promote growth. World Bank Policy Research Report, ISBN 0-19-520996-6. LC 94-1661. 1994. xxiii, 402 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York; World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This study examines the potential demographic aging crisis in developing countries and attempts to answer questions concerning financial security for the aged, how to pay for it, the role of public and private sectors, and the impact on economic growth. "The study identifies three functions of old age security systems--redistribution, savings, and insurance--and evaluates the policy options for meeting these by two criteria: their impact on the aged and their impact on growth. It concludes that a mix of three systems, or 'pillars,' offers the strongest result. These are: a publicly managed system with mandatory participation and the limited goal of reducing poverty among the old; a privately managed, mandatory savings system; and voluntary savings. The first covers redistribution, the second and third cover savings, and all three coinsure against the many risks of old age."
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, 200 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.1.3. Developed Countries

Studies on the relations between population and economic factors as they affect the developed world. Also includes studies on the economic effects of a stationary or declining population, the effects of aging on the economy, retirement, and problems of economic dependency in developed countries.

61:10646 Carriere, Yves; Legare, Jacques. Population aging and institutionalization of elderly persons: some possible projections for Canada. [Vieillissement demographique et institutionnalisation des personnes agees: des projections nuancees pour le Canada.] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 22, No. 1, Spring 1993. 63-92 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The consequences of population ageing on the demand for institutional lodging will undoubtedly be considerable. We have estimated this future demand in relationship with the evolution of certain socio-demographic characteristics of tomorrow's elderly [in Canada]. Based on a multivariate analysis (logit model), our projections will demonstrate the need for an approach which takes into account the replacement of generations amongst the ranks of aged persons....Their socio-demographic characteristics will have an impact on the risk of living in an institution and, thus, on the proportion and the number of institutionalized elderly people."
Correspondence: Y. Carriere, Universite de Montreal, Departement de Demographie, C.P. 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10647 de Lange, Norbert. Regional development in the United States during the 1980s: population redistribution and economic restructuring. [Die regionale Entwicklung der USA in den achtziger Jahren: Bevolkerungsumverteilung und wirtschaftliche Umstrukturierung.] Erdkunde, Vol. 47, No. 1, 1993. 61-74 pp. Bonn, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
The author describes the major changes in economic growth and population trends that occurred in the United States over the course of the 1980s. The author notes a return to earlier patterns of urbanization, with population growth occurring primarily in major urban centers. He notes that this change is probably related to changes in the economy, and particularly to deindustrialization, growth in high technology industries, and growth in service industries.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:10648 Holtz-Eakin, Douglas; Smeeding, Timothy M. Income, wealth, and intergenerational economic relations of the aged. In: Demography of aging, edited by Linda G. Martin and Samuel H. Preston. 1994. 102-45 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This chapter summarizes what is known about the economics of the aged. In doing so, our goals are to review the relevant literature and to identify valuable new directions for research into the economic status of the aged in the United States....Three sections deal with income (and consumption) and poverty, wealth, and intergenerational economic relations, respectively. In the final section we turn to the implications of our results for additional research and data needs in this area."
Correspondence: D. Holtz-Eakin, Syracuse University, Maxwell School, Economics Department, Syracuse, NY 13244. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10649 Klose, Hans-Ulrich. Aging of society: answers to demographic change. [Altern der Gesellschaft: Antworten auf den demographischen Wandel.] ISBN 3-7663-2381-4. 1993. 339 pp. Bund-Verlag: Cologne, Germany. In Ger.
This collection of 15 papers by various authors deals with the problems of demographic aging in Germany. Topics discussed include the extent of demographic change, labor market implications of a shrinking and aging German population, the need for immigrants, economic and social implications, labor force participation among the elderly, old-age security, and policy aspects.
Correspondence: Bund-Verlag, Hansestrasse 63a, Postfach 900840, 5000 Cologne 90, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10650 Lee, Ronald D. The formal demography of population aging, transfers, and the economic life cycle. In: Demography of aging, edited by Linda G. Martin and Samuel H. Preston. 1994. 8-49 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This chapter develops an accounting framework for evaluating systems of interage transfers, and examines how such systems are affected by changing population age distributions....[The framework has] strong links to formal demography, as well as links to various models and themes in economics. These economic links include overlapping generations, optimal population growth, life-cycle saving, the bequest motive, generational accounting, and private responses to public transfer programs. I believe that further development of this interface of formal demography and macroeconomics holds promise for theory, measurement, empirical work, and policy-oriented research." The geographical focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: R. D. Lee, University of California, Department of Demography, 2232 Piedmont Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10651 Tu, Z. Darwin. Demographic approach to foodstore and restaurant sales--a preliminary county level analysis. In: Studies in applied demography, edited by K. Vaninadha Rao and Jerry W. Wicks. 1994. 223-34 pp. Bowling Green State University, Department of Sociology, Population and Society Research Center: Bowling Green, Ohio. In Eng.
"This paper is a demographic analysis about [U.S.] per capita foodstore and restaurant sales. A regression model is developed with population density, population crude growth rate, sex ratio, average personal money income and age distribution used as indicators. The results show that per capita foodstore and restaurant sales are positively related to population growth rate and money income, and are negatively influenced by population density and male to female ratio. Age distribution effects on per capita foodstore and restaurant sales are unclear."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.2. Population Growth and Natural Resources

Studies on the environment, quality of life, conservation, food production, etc., and their interrelations with population factors.

61:10652 Abernethy, Virginia. Optimism and overpopulation. Atlantic Monthly, Vol. 274, No. 6, Dec 1994. 84-91 pp. Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The author responds to an article by Matthew Connelly and Paul Kennedy concerning global overpopulation. She suggests that overpopulation will remain primarily a local problem, rather than a global one, because individuals will recognize when local resources are inadequate to support growing populations, and will limit their fertility in response. "In many countries and communities today, where social, economic, and environmental conditions are indubitably worsening, the demand for modern contraception is rising, marriage and sexual initiation are delayed, and family size is contracting. Individuals responding with low fertility to signs of limits are the local solution."
For the article by Connelly and Kennedy, published in 1994, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: V. Abernethy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 32735. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:10653 Arizpe, Lourdes; Stone, M. Priscilla; Major, David C. Population and environment: rethinking the debate. ISBN 0-8133-8843-0. LC 94-2805. 1994. viii, 352 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This volume draws on papers and discussions from a workshop held in Cocoyoc, Mexico, in 1992. "This...interdisciplinary volume places population processes in their social, political, and economic contexts while it considers their environmental impacts. The contributors...argue...that the impact of population on the environment involves not just absolute numbers of people--nor even just population densities--but also multifaceted social, political, and institutional factors. Examining the complex patterns of human relationships that overlay, alter, and distort our ties to urban and rural landscapes, the book includes a significant focus on the essential experiences and perspectives of poor Third World women. With its...varied views of the relationship between population and the environment, this book offers a more equitable view of development and its global ramifications."
Correspondence: Westview Press, 5500 Central Avenue, Boulder, CO 80301-2877. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10654 Chadwick, M. J. Visions of a sustainable world: ethical evaluations or political programmes? In: Population--the complex reality, edited by Francis Graham-Smith. 1994. 349-61 pp. Royal Society: London, England; North American Press: Golden, Colorado. In Eng.
"Not only population size, but per capita resource demand determines the load which population exerts on the natural resource base and the environmental carrying capacity....Because of the luxury levels of access by rich, developed countries, open access to resources is a cause of unsustainable development practices. Saving and sharing on a global scale, backed by an overall decrease in the use of renewable resources and the adoption of technologies that increase materials and energy intensity use, requires implementation. Political structures that have evolved to accept a shared sovereignty rather than narrow national interest are needed."
Correspondence: M. J. Chadwick, Stockholm Environment Institute, Box 2142, 103 14 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10655 Chung, Margaret. Population and sustainable development in Pacific island countries. 1993. vi, 21 pp. East-West Center, Pacific Islands Development Program [PIDP]: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
This paper looks at two main questions: "What is the relationship between population and the ecological carrying capacity of Pacific islands? [and] How do styles of development that are people-centered and committed to equity contribute in an important way to sustainable development?"
Correspondence: East-West Center, Pacific Islands Development Program, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10656 Cleaver, Kevin M.; Schreiber, Gotz A. Reversing the spiral: the population, agriculture, and environment nexus in Sub-Saharan Africa. Directions in Development, ISBN 0-8213-2769-0. 1994. xv, 293 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This study concerns the relationships among population growth, poor agricultural performance, and increasing environmental degradation in Sub-Saharan Africa. The authors conclude that "rapid population growth is the principal factor that has triggered and continues to stimulate the downward spiral in environmental resource degradation, contributing to agricultural stagnation and, in turn, impeding the onset of the demographic transition. The traditional land use, agricultural production, wood harvesting, and gender-specific labor allocation practices have not evolved and adapted rapidly enough on most of the continent to the dramatically intensifying pressure of more people on finite stocks of natural resources." A supplement, published separately, details the statistical analyses undertaken to test the study's main hypotheses.
Correspondence: World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10657 Dasgupta, Partha S. Population, poverty and the local environment. Scientific American, Vol. 272, No. 2, Feb 1995. 40-5 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The relationships among population growth, poverty, and the environment in developing countries are explored. The author points out that "in some settings...families gain a short-term economic advantage by having more children but unintentionally harm their community's prosperity by overtaxing the local resources. Household decisions--and the differing roles of men and women--stand out as potent forces in this perspective." The author concludes that the solution to the problem lies in identifying "policies that will change the options available to men and women so that couples choose to limit the number of offspring they produce."
Correspondence: P. S. Dasgupta, University of Cambridge, Faculty of Economics and Politics, Austin Robinson Building, Sidgwick Avenue, Cambridge CB3 9DD, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SW).

61:10658 Dillon, John L. Population, resources and food: the world between today and tomorrow. Quarterly Journal of International Agriculture/Zeitschrift fur Auslandische Landwirtschaft, Vol. 32, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1993. 336-50 pp. Frankfurt, Germany. In Eng. with sum. in Ger.
This is a general review of current and future trends concerning the relationship between global population growth, natural resources, and food supplies. "It is argued that, with good management, the resources and technology to sustain such a population at a reasonable standard of living and without the spectre of Malthusian misery and vice are available or achievable. What is far less certain is whether this technical capacity for sustenance will be matched by political capacity to ensure the institutional and policy frameworks necessary to achieve adequate wellbeing that is sustainable and equitable."
Correspondence: J. L. Dillon, University of New England, Department of Agricultural Economics and Business Management, Armidale, NSW 2351, Australia. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

61:10659 Dyson, Tim. World population growth and food supplies. International Social Science Journal, Vol. 46, No. 3, Sep 1994. 361-85 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This article surveys evidence on the current distribution of world hunger. It considers trends in [per capita] food production and shows that although at the global level food output has kept ahead of population growth, there is cause for concern about recent output trends in several world regions....The article proceeds to consider key factors which influence levels of food security. Finally, it examines the likely growth in world food demand over the next 30 years."
Correspondence: T. Dyson, London School of Economics and Political Science, Houghton Street, Aldwych, London WC2A 2AE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:10660 Engelman, Robert. Stabilizing the atmosphere: population, consumption and greenhouse gases. 1994. 48 pp. Population Action International, Population and Environment Program: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This study concerns the relationships among population, consumption, and greenhouse gases at the global level. It "begins with a brief overview of the human influence on climate change. It then considers recent examinations of population's role in the growth of [carbon dioxide] emissions before describing the model of atmospheric [carbon dioxide] stabilization and exploring its implications. A final chapter examines how population policies can contribute to efforts to slow climate change, efforts which must also sharply curb per capita consumption of fossil fuel and other resources if they are to succeed."
Correspondence: Population Action International, Population and Environment Program, 1120 19th Street NW, Suite 550, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10661 Falkenmark, Malin. Landscape as life support provider: water-related limitations. In: Population--the complex reality, edited by Francis Graham-Smith. 1994. 103-16 pp. Royal Society: London, England; North American Press: Golden, Colorado. In Eng.
"Some implications of the fact that life is based on the continuous circulation of water have been set out....The paper has clarified some roles of the circulating multifunctional freshwater as a crucial ingredient in the tropical and subtropical landscapes where the rapid population growth introduces severe sustainability problems....The paper has also suggested that development takes place by the interaction of two different worlds: the landscape reality, controlled by natural laws and managed by man; and the world of the human mind and its perceptions, focusing on attitudes and mechanisms of economy and administration."
Correspondence: M. Falkenmark, Swedish Natural Science Research Council, Box 6711, 113 85 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10662 Heilig, Gerhard K. The greenhouse gas methane (CH4): sources and sinks, the impact of population growth, possible interventions. Population and Environment, Vol. 16, No. 2, Nov 1994. 109-37 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author investigates the role of population growth and other human activities on the concentration of methane in the atmosphere. "The worldwide expansion of paddy rice cultivation, livestock production and fossil fuel exploration have increased the methane concentration....Recent methane projections of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) for 2025 and 2100 are discussed and used to estimate the contribution of population growth to future methane emission. Finally the paper discusses options and restrictions of reducing anthropogenic methane emissions to the atmosphere."
Correspondence: G. K. Heilig, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Schlossplatz 1, 2361 Laxenburg, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10663 Mabe, Jacob E. Population growth, technological development, and the meeting of energy needs in Africa: case studies using the example of the Republic of Cameroon. [Bevolkerungswachstum, technologische Entwicklung und Energiebedarfsdeckung in Afrika: Fallstudien am beispiel der Republik Kamerun.] Europaische Hochschulschriften, Reihe 31: Politikwissenschaft, Vol. 229, ISBN 3-631-45768-5. 1993. 309, [4] pp. Peter Lang: New York, New York/Frankfurt am Main, Germany. In Ger.
The global development of energy problems is reviewed, and a case study of energy problems and policies in Cameroon is then presented. The extent to which population growth and technological development have contributed to increased energy needs is analyzed. Population projections up to 2050 are examined, and the prospects of meeting future energy needs are discussed.
Correspondence: Peter Lang, Eschborner Landstrasse 42-50, Postfach 940225, 6000 Frankfurt am Main 90, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10664 Makhubu, Lydia P. The role of women in relation to the environment. In: Population--the complex reality, edited by Francis Graham-Smith. 1994. 199-209 pp. Royal Society: London, England; North American Press: Golden, Colorado. In Eng.
"This paper addresses the role of Third World women in relation to the environment and focuses on ways to develop their capacities and expertise in education, and in research in environment and sustainable development. This is seen not merely as a matter of equity but as a crucial means of building and strengthening scientific capacities in developing countries by mobilizing a group whose perceptions of the problems may add new dimensions and enhance ongoing efforts to find solutions. The paper will first address the traditional roles of women, and then consider the new roles they should play, and concludes with some suggestions for future action."
Correspondence: L. P. Makhubu, University of Swaziland, Private Bag 4, Kwaluseni, Swaziland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10665 Mazur, Laurie A. Beyond the numbers: a reader on population, consumption, and the environment. ISBN 1-55963-298-4. LC 94-75842. 1994. xvi, 444 pp. Island Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This volume contains a selection of essays, many of which have been previously published, on a variety of contemporary global population issues. The primary focus is on the relationships among population, consumption, and the environment. The 38 essays are divided into sections on population, consumption, development, and the environment; population growth and structure; history and analysis of population and family planning programs; population policy, reproductive health, and reproductive rights; population, gender, and culture; population and religion; population distribution, urbanization, and international migration; and population and national security.
Correspondence: Island Press, 1718 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 300, Washington, D.C. 20009. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10666 Mortimore, Michael. Population growth and land degradation. GeoJournal, Vol. 31, No. 1, Sep 1993. 15-21 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
The author examines the relationship between population growth and land degradation in the developing world. The focus is on the process of desertification in arid regions.
Correspondence: M. Mortimore, Cutters' Cottage, Glovers' Close, Milborne Port, Sherborne DT9 5ER, England. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

61:10667 Myers, Norman. Population and biodiversity. In: Population--the complex reality, edited by Francis Graham-Smith. 1994. 117-36 pp. Royal Society: London, England; North American Press: Golden, Colorado. In Eng.
"The paper opens with a brief account of the nature and extent of biodiversity, and some of its values to humankind, notably bio-ecological and economic values. It goes on to review the scope and scale of the biotic crisis unfolding, with its potential to precipitate a mass extinction of species....The paper engages in a detailed examination of the part played by human population in the crisis, differentiating between the role of developing and developed nations. It emphasises the fast-growing numbers of displaced peasants as the predominant cause of tropical deforestation, and of negligent and wasteful consumption in industrialised countries as the principal cause of pollution-derived degradation of wildland habitats. The paper concludes with a selective appraisal of policy responses to safeguard biodiversity."
Correspondence: N. Myers, Upper Meadow, Old Road, Headington, Oxford OX3 8SZ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10668 Myers, Norman. Population, environment, and development. Environmental Conservation, Vol. 20, No. 3, Autumn 1993. 205-16 pp. Lausanne, Switzerland. In Eng.
The author attempts a comprehensive review of the relationships among population, environment, and development in a paper intended as background to the International Conference on Population and Development held in Cairo, Egypt, in September, 1994. "The present paper reviews the principal factors and analyses relating to the three problems, with emphasis upon their interactive relationships. It concludes with an extended list of strategies to reduce both population growth and environmental degradation--twin challenges to be tackled within a framework of sustainable development, to which both will make critical contributions."
Correspondence: N. Myers, Upper Meadow, Old Road, Headington, Oxford OX3 8SZ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (ST).

61:10669 Ogutu, Z. A. Responding to population pressure in the rural Kenya. GeoJournal, Vol. 30, No. 4, Aug 1993. 409-19 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper reviews different historical and contemporary factors responsible for population pressure in the rural Kenya. It is argued that the process is not new, having its roots in the colonial administration. Cultural backgrounds, the economic setting of the rural population and the large moisture stricken areas are responsible for population pressure in the postindependence era. Different ways of mitigating population pressure such as (i) encouraging land use options that least stress the human ecology and natural environment; (ii) reducing the number of people; and (iii) diversifying sources of income to supplement earnings from agriculture so as to reduce direct dependence on land are discussed."
Correspondence: Z. A. Ogutu, Kenyatta University, Department of Geography, P.O. Box 43844, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

61:10670 Okoth-Ogendo, H. W. O. Population and natural resource use. In: Population--the complex reality, edited by Francis Graham-Smith. 1994. 53-7 pp. Royal Society: London, England; North American Press: Golden, Colorado. In Eng.
The author examines issues of population growth and natural resources in the context of Africa. "There are three questions that need to be resolved. The first is to assess the contribution that the African population can make to the generation of natural resources. The second has to do with the general and specific impact of demographic variables on the consumptive utilization of natural resources. The third question is...how to balance population size and growth with natural resource demands."
Correspondence: H. W. O. Okoth-Ogendo, Centre for African Family Studies, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10671 Panayotou, Theodore. The population, environment, and development nexus. In: Population and development: old debates, new conclusions, edited by Robert Cassen. 1994. 149-80 pp. Transaction Publishers: New Brunswick, New Jersey/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This chapter's focus...is on the impact of population growth on local ecosystems....The chapter begins with a discussion of how households, communities, and societies respond to population growth under conditions of natural resource depletion and scarcity. It examines the linkage between population growth and environmental degradation, looking particularly at the role of economic growth, poverty, and income distribution. It also presents an overview of the available evidence for the population-environment link with respect to specific environmental problems (deforestation, pollution)."
Correspondence: T. Panayotou, Harvard Institute for International Development, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10672 Preston, Samuel H. Population and the environment: the scientific evidence. In: Population--the complex reality, edited by Francis Graham-Smith. 1994. 85-92 pp. Royal Society: London, England; North American Press: Golden, Colorado. In Eng.
"Increasing food requirements are linked to contraction of forested land and to soil despoilation. The inadequacy of research design when describing the relationship of population growth and pollution is highlighted. Social models, e.g. of land tenure and their effects, are discussed, and obstacles to expansion of food production are noted."
Correspondence: S. H. Preston, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10673 Prskawetz, Alexia; Feichtinger, Gustav; Wirl, Franz. Endogenous population growth and the exploitation of renewable resources. Mathematical Population Studies, Vol. 5, No. 1, 1994. 87-106, 121 pp. Langhorne, Pennsylvania/Basel, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"We consider a demo-economic model where the economy consists of two sectors ('hunting and farming' and 'industry'), and both sectors depend directly or indirectly on the exploitation of a renewable resource. The primary sector harvests a renewable resource (fish, corn or wood) which is used as the input into industrial production, the secondary sector of our economy. Labour is divided up between these two sectors under the assumption of competitive labour markets. A system of two nonlinear differential equations for the resources and the population is studied by phase space analysis. Using the Hopf bifurcation theorem, we obtain two different routes to limit cycles and prove numerically the existence of a stable Malthusian limit cycle."
Correspondence: A. Prskawetz, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Demography, Vienna, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10674 Zamoun, Slimane; Tabutin, Dominique; Yaakoubd, Abdel-Ilah; Kouaouci, Ali. Population and environment in the Maghrib. [Population et environnement au Maghreb.] Reseau Population et Environnement en Mediterranee, No. 12, ISBN 2-87209-369-9. [1995]. 301 pp. Academia-Erasme: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; L'Harmattan: Paris, France. In Fre.
This collective work is the product of a seminar held in Rabat, Morocco, on May 10-25, 1993, concerning the relationship between population growth and the environment in Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia. Six major topics were examined at the seminar: the relationships among population, environment, and development; population dynamics and policies; problems and policies concerning environment and development; methodological issues; models; and cooperative approaches to tackling such problems.
Correspondence: Academia-Erasme, 25/115 Grand Rue, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10675 Zhao, Qiguo. Land degradation and improvement. In: Population--the complex reality, edited by Francis Graham-Smith. 1994. 137-48 pp. Royal Society: London, England; North American Press: Golden, Colorado. In Eng.
The author examines causes and consequences of land degradation, with a focus on the significance of "the experience of prevention and control of land degradation in China...." The contribution of human activities to land degradation is considered.
Correspondence: Q. Zhao, Institute of Soil Science, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation

Studies of employment and labor force statistics that are of demographic relevance. Includes studies of the labor force (employment status, occupation, and industry) and of the relations among employment, labor force participation, and population factors. Studies on the effect of female labor force participation on fertility are coded under F.1. General Fertility and cross-referenced here.

61:10676 Beaujot, Roderic; Maxim, Paul S.; Zhao, John Z. Self-employment among immigrants: a test of the blocked mobility hypothesis. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 21, No. 2, 1994. 81-96 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The blocked mobility or relative disadvantage thesis posits that because of relative disadvantages experienced by immigrants in the labour market in the host society, many will turn to self-employment as an alternative to wage-labour. Part of the difficulty with previous research in this area is the failure to distinguish between self-employment in professional and non-professional occupations. On the basis of the 1986 Canadian census data, our findings show that the blocked mobility thesis is supported in the case of immigrants with high educational credentials obtained from home countries, who have a higher likelihood of turning to self-employment in non-professional occupations, compared to those with similar education levels among either the native-born or immigrants with Canadian education."
Correspondence: R. Beaujot, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10677 Blau, David M. Labor force dynamics of older men. Econometrica, Vol. 62, No. 1, Jan 1994. 117-56 pp. Evanston, Illinois. In Eng.
"This paper describes and analyzes movements of older men among labor force states [in the United States] using quarterly observations derived from the Retirement History Survey (RHS)." The results indicate "substantial undercounts in the biannual data, indicating that the prevalence of labor force movements at older ages has been underestimated previously....The results show that labor force dynamics at older ages are important, including duration and spell occurrence dependence, and work experience effects. These effects are robust to nonparametric controls for unobserved heterogeneity. The estimates indicate that social security benefits have strong effects on the timing of labor force transitions at older ages, but that changes in social security benefit levels over time have not contributed much to the trend toward earlier labor force exit."
Correspondence: D. M. Blau, University of North Carolina, Department of Economics, CB 3305, Gardner Hall, Chapel Hill, NC 27599. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

61:10678 Devi, D. Radha. Anomaly in employment in some modern sector occupations. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 29, No. 51-52, Dec 17-24, 1994. 3,255-9 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"This study...is an attempt to find possible explanations for the observed decline in the employment in some modern sector occupations in 1961-71 and 1971-81 periods. The relevant information [is] taken from Census of India publications."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

61:10679 Devi, D. Radha; Parasuraman, Sulabha. Gender issues in 1991 census: Maharashtra. IIPS Research Report Series, No. 7, 1993-1994. xv, 72, [45] pp. International Institute for Population Sciences: Bombay, India. In Eng.
This study attempts to analyze changes in female labor force participation and employment in India over the period 1981-1991 and is based on census data for the state of Maharashtra. The results indicate that female employment has increased over time.
Correspondence: International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Bombay 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10680 Duncan, Kevin C.; Prus, Mark J.; Sandy, Jonathan G. Marital status, children and women's labor market choices. Journal of Socio-Economics, Vol. 22, No. 3, Fall 1993. 277-88 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut. In Eng.
"This article provides a test of the human capital prediction that women with more labor force intermittence hold occupations characterized by lower earnings penalties for intermittence. By using marital and family status as proxies of labor market commitment we find that, on average, married women with and without children spend more time out of the labor force than never-married, childless women. Results from earnings regressions fail to indicate that the occupations they hold are characterized by significantly lower penalties for time not working. However, results from a probit model indicate that a woman's marital status, the presence of children, and the level of the husband's education significantly affect the probability of working. The results reported here suggest that human capital theory explains a woman's decision to work, but does not necessarily explain her occupational choice." The geographical focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: K. C. Duncan, University of San Diego, School of Business Administration, Alcala Park, San Diego, CA 92110. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

61:10681 Goss, Ernest P.; Paul, Chris; Wilhite, Al. Duration on unemployment: geographic mobility and selectivity bias. Review of Regional Studies, Vol. 24, No. 2, Fall 1994. 127-42 pp. Knoxville, Tennessee. In Eng.
This study analyzes factors affecting the duration of unemployment in the United States. "The findings of this study indicate that past studies, by failing to include a variable to account for migration of the unemployed, have misspecified the duration equation. By correcting for selectivity bias and migration, this study casts doubt on past findings that nonwhite unemployed workers, ceteris paribus, take longer to find an acceptable job. Past studies have called for corrective labor market policies for nonwhites to reduce their longer unemployment duration. Findings from this study indicate that the policy should be directed to nonwhites' lack of geographic mobility."
Correspondence: E. P. Goss, Creighton University, Department of Regional Economics, Omaha, NE 68178. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

61:10682 Hooz, Istvan. Female labor force participation and bringing up children. [A nok gazdasagi aktivitasa es a gyermekneveles.] Statisztikai Szemle, Vol. 72, No. 11, Nov 1994. 833-50 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The literature on the problems involved in combining female employment and raising children is reviewed. Emphasis is on the demographic aspects of the subject. Both the international and Hungarian literature are considered.
Correspondence: I. Hooz, Janus Pannonius University, Faculty of Economics, Rakoczi U.80, 7622 Pecs, Hungary. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10683 International Labour Office [ILO] (Geneva, Switzerland). Employment and population: an inseparable duo. ISBN 92-2-109548-7. 1994. v, 25 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
This report, which is also available in French and Spanish, examines the links between population and employment. It considers the role of employment questions in population policy, the implications of population trends for employment goals, developing solutions to such problems, and the role of the ILO in helping solve them.
Correspondence: International Labour Office, 4 route des Morillons, 1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10684 Kulkarni, Sumati. Dependence on agricultural employment. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 29, No. 51-52, Dec 17-24, 1994. 3,260-3 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"This article, examining agricultural employment in rural India, brings out certain features which have serious implications. It finds little evidence of a substantial decline in the excessive dependence on agriculture in rural areas. In fact, in certain states, dependence on agriculture has actually shown an increase in the last decade."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

61:10685 Kumar, Rachel. Development and women's work in Kerala: interactions and paradoxes. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 29, No. 51-52, Dec 17-24, 1994. 3,249-54 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
Indian census data are used to examine various demographic factors that account for changes in population characteristics in the state of Kerala and the labor force implications of those changes. "Notwithstanding the various measurement shortcomings in existing secondary estimates, [the author concludes that] the pattern of falling female workforce participation rates in Kerala persists and may well be a reflection of the real situation."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

61:10686 Lu, Yu-hsia. Economic development and married women's employment in Taiwan: a study of female marginalization. Journal of Population Studies, No. 16, Jul 1994. 107-33 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Chi. with sum. in Eng.
"Industrial development in Taiwan seems to marginalize female workers. This study tried to examine [trends in] women's employment status, using both macro- and micro-level data....On the micro-level analysis the study examined the factors which led to the marginalization of women's labor force. The empirical analysis applied a multinomial logistic model [to a] 1980 KAP survey sample of 3,859 married women. The results suggested that...women's informal employment in Taiwan...is the result of the sexual division of labor in the family organization and the prevalence of the family business, rather than that of being excluded into the marginal forms of employment through the process of capitalistic production...."
Correspondence: Y.-h. Lu, Academia Sinica, Institute of Ethnology, Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10687 Maxim, Paul S. Self-employment vs. wage labour and the impact of ascribed/achieved characteristics on income among immigrants to Canada. In: Studies in applied demography, edited by K. Vaninadha Rao and Jerry W. Wicks. 1994. 333-43 pp. Bowling Green State University, Department of Sociology, Population and Society Research Center: Bowling Green, Ohio. In Eng.
"This study focuses on the impact of a selected number of ascribed and achieved characteristics on the earnings of immigrants to Canada....Data for the study are drawn from the 1986 quinquennial Census of Canada. Region of origin is found to be significantly related to earnings for wage earners but not for the self-employed thus supporting the conclusion that self-employment is a viable mechanism for avoiding employment discrimination. The analysis also indicates that years of residence had a significant positive impact on income levels for both groups."
Correspondence: P. S. Maxim, University of Western Ontario, Department of Sociology, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10688 Quinn, Joseph F.; Burkhauser, Richard V. Retirement and labor force behavior of the elderly. In: Demography of aging, edited by Linda G. Martin and Samuel H. Preston. 1994. 50-101 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"In this chapter, we review recent economic research on [changes in retirement and labor force behavior of the elderly in the United States] and outline the areas we think need additional research....We first document some worldwide trends in labor force participation at older ages and review the literature that has attempted to explain them. We find that although most workers have a choice with respect to retirement age, the choice is constrained by personal health factors, government retirement and disability policies, and employer pension plans....We end by suggesting how labor force behavior may change as new cohorts of older workers emerge in the next century, and outlining the research and data that will be needed to track this behavior."
Correspondence: J. F. Quinn, Boston College, Department of Economics, Chestnut Hill, MA 02167. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10689 Verkindt, Pierre-Yves; Wacongne, Mathilde. The aging worker. [Le travailleur vieillissant.] Droit Social, No. 12, Dec 1993. 932-41 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The authors examine the effects of the current aging of the French population on the labor force, and review current legislation designed to prevent age-based discrimination in employment.
Correspondence: P.-Y. Verkindt, Universite de Lille II, Centre de Recherches en Sante-Travail-Ergonomie, 42 rue Paul Duez, 59800 Lille, France. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

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