Volume 61 - Number 1 - Spring 1995

J. Characteristics

Primarily references to descriptive studies. Official tabular material will be found under S. Official Statistical Publications . Items that are primarily analytical, but that also contain information on characteristics, will be found under K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations and Natural Resources or L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations , as appropriate.

J.1. General Demographic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to various demographic characteristics, including age, sex, sex ratios, and marital status. Studies on demographic aging are also included.

61:10560 Bercovich, Alicia; Madeira, Felicia. Demographic discontinuities in Brazil and the state of Sao Paulo. [Discontinuidades demograficas en Brasil y el estado de Sao Paulo.] Notas de Poblacion, Vol. 22, No. 59, Jun 1994. 121-53 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"Given the importance of information on the population age structure when planning short, medium and long-term needs within the different social strata, this paper is a proposal to deepen...the study of changes in the population pyramids....Based on the most recent methodologies a study of age discontinuities is carried out and a method of follow-up by cohorts is suggested, taking the 15-19 and 20-24 age groups as an example. The purpose is to show that, as a...cohort ascends in the age pyramid, new and different necessities arise and also different responses are demanded on the part of the social system." Data are for Brazil as a whole and for the state of Sao Paulo.
Correspondence: A. Bercovich, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Nucleo de Estudos de Populacao, Caixa Postal 6166, CEP 13081 Campinas, SP, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10561 Day, Alice T.; Day, Lincoln H. "The lay of its land". Older age structures, environment and social change: opportunities for Australia and the Netherlands in the 21st century. NIDI Hofstee Lecture Series, No. 2, Jun 13, 1994. 39 pp. Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute [NIDI]: The Hague, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The lecture examines various aspects of the trend toward older age structures in the Netherlands and Australia, looking in particular at how these evolved, the fears expressed about their social consequences, and the undesirability (and impossibility) of 'younging' the population by means of the only three alternatives: raising birth rates, encouraging the immigration of young people, or speeding the demise of seriously ill older people. Given the undesirability of the alternatives and the corresponding necessity of ecological sustainability and the cessation of population growth, the authors conclude that older age structures are to be welcomed rather than deplored. [The authors note that] as well as enabling movement toward demographic conditions suited to today's world (i.e., low mortality, a stable age and sex structure and a zero growth rate), older age structures offer both the opportunity and the incentive to achieve more 'supportive' conditions--not just for the elderly, but for all age groups--by fostering environments that encourage and maximize the likelihood of independent activity, social interaction, and ecologically-sustainable life styles."
Correspondence: Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute, Postbus 11650, 2502 AR the Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10562 Elliott, David L. Projecting the size, composition, and areal concentrations by race of the elderly population of substate regions for the year 2000 using STF1A file on CD-ROM: an example from the New York State Capital District. In: Studies in applied demography, edited by K. Vaninadha Rao and Jerry W. Wicks. 1994. 13-27 pp. Bowling Green State University, Department of Sociology, Population and Society Research Center: Bowling Green, Ohio. In Eng.
"The present paper utilizes a method...of projecting the size and composition of the elderly population of the New York State Capital District (NYSCD) by county, in the year 2000 using 1990 STF1A Census data available on CD-ROM technology along with 1980 census data in print....Findings suggest that the aged population, itself, is aging. The total NYSCD population aged 65+ should increase somewhat while the increase in the over 85 age group should increase disproportionately more. There is considerable racial segregation of the elderly. Black elderly are not likely to be well served by services and facilities sited on the basis of concentrations of nonblack or all elderly. The findings do not consistently hold for all NYSCD counties."
Correspondence: D. L. Elliott, State University of New York, Empire State College, Center for Distance Learning, 2 Union Avenue, Saratoga Springs, NY 12866. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10563 Estonian Interuniversity Population Research Centre (Tallinn, Estonia). Population age structure: counties 1970-1979. [Rhavastiku soovanuskoostis: maakonnad 1970-1979.] Eesti Rahvastikustatistika: Seeria C/Population Statistics of Estonia: Series C, No. 3, ISBN 9985-820-10-X. 1994. xxv, 166 pp. Tallinn, Estonia. In Eng; Est.
"The volume contains Estonian regional population age structure as of January 1 in the intercensal period 1970-1979. The data that were available prior to this volume, population age structure of total, urban and rural population of Estonia and the population Tallinn, have been recalculated; the county-specific data of the intercensal period as well as of resident population at the 1970 census are presented in this volume for the first time."
Correspondence: Estonian Interuniversity Population Research Centre, P.O. Box 3012, 0090 Tallinn, Estonia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10564 Estonian Interuniversity Population Research Centre (Tallinn, Estonia). Population age structure: counties 1979-1989. [Rahvastiku soovanuskoostis: maakonnad 1979-1989.] Eesti Rahvastikustatistika: Seeria C/Population Statistics of Estonia: Series C, No. 2, ISBN 9985-820-08-8. 1994. xxv, 166 pp. Tallinn, Estonia. In Eng; Est.
"The calculation of the 1979-1989 population age structure presented in this volume is based on the data of the censuses delimiting the period, and the vital statistics for that period. Age structure is calculated for urban and rural populations on county (maakond) level, and separately for [the] five biggest cities of Estonia."
Correspondence: Estonian Interuniversity Population Research Centre, P.O. Box 3012, 0090 Tallinn, Estonia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10565 Gist, Yvonne J. Aging trends--Fiji. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, Vol. 8, No. 4, Oct 1993. 463-72 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
An analysis of recent demographic trends in Fiji is presented using data from the International Data Base on Aging at the U.S. Bureau of the Census. The focus is on the aging of the population and its consequences. The author discusses such issues as increases in life expectancy, the residential characteristics of the elderly, elderly employment, marital status, and the health status of the elderly.
Correspondence: Y. J. Gist, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Center for International Research, Washington, D.C. 20233-3700. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10566 Gist, Yvonne J. Aging trends--southern Africa. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, Vol. 9, No. 2, Apr 1994. 255-76 pp. Boston, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
This is an overview of demographic aging in the six countries of southern Africa, which are Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, and Zimbabwe. The data are from various national and international sources that have been combined to form the U.S. Census Bureau's International Data Base on Aging. The author notes that the region has Africa's highest percentage of older inhabitants. Other topics explored include life expectancy and health, urban and rural population, marital status, education, living arrangements and social support, and employment and subsistence.
Correspondence: Y. J. Gist, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Center for International Research, Washington, D.C. 20233-3700. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10567 Gregson, Simon; Garnett, Geoffrey P.; Anderson, Roy M. Assessing the potential impact of the HIV-1 epidemic on orphanhood and the demographic structure of populations in Sub-Saharan Africa. Population Studies, Vol. 48, No. 3, Nov 1994. 435-58 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Much of the debate on the demographic consequences of the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa has so far centred around the plausibility of population declines in areas where [unprecedentedly] high rates of population growth have recently been in evidence. In this article, the authors use a mathematical model, which combines epidemiological and demographic processes, to illustrate how, under a broad range of impacts on population growth, major changes in demographic features, such as the extent of orphanhood within populations, are likely to occur. At the same time, HIV epidemics are liable to cause significant shifts in the age and sex composition of affected populations, which may have important implications for the ways in which they are best able to cope with the increases in orphanhood, as well as those in infant, early childhood and adult mortality."
Correspondence: S. Gregson, University of Oxford, Department of Zoology, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10568 Kumm, Jochen; Laland, Kevin N.; Feldman, Marcus W. Gene-culture coevolution and sex ratios: the effects of infanticide, sex-selective abortions, sex selection, and sex-biased parental investment on the evolution of sex ratios. Theoretical Population Biology, Vol. 46, No. 3, Dec 1994. 249-78 pp. Orlando, Florida/Brugge, Belgium. In Eng.
"The evolutionary consequences of culturally transmitted practices that cause differential mortality between the sexes, thereby distorting the sex ratio (e.g., female infanticide and sex-selective abortion), are explored using dynamic models of gene-culture coevolution. We investigate how a preference for the sex of offspring may affect the selection of genes distorting the primary sex ratio....We find that when a mating pair's behavior modifies mortality rates in favor of one sex, but does not change the number of offspring produced in the mating, the primary sex ratio will evolve a bias against the favored sex. However, when the total number of offspring of a mating pair is significantly reduced as a consequence of their prejudice, the primary sex ratio will evolve to favor the preferred sex."
Correspondence: J. Kumm, Stanford University, Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford, CA 94305. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

61:10569 Martin, John F. Changing sex ratios: the history of Havasupai fertility and its implications for human sex ratio variation. Current Anthropology, Vol. 35, No. 3, Jun 1994. 255-80 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
Data concerning the Havasupai Indians of Arizona from 1896 to 1988 are analyzed, with particular reference to factors affecting the sex ratio at birth. The results "suggest that sex ratios at birth may vary with birth order in a conjugal union, maternal age, form of marriage, and political relations between the sexes. The behavioral variable which appears to tie all these factors to sex ratio at birth is coital frequency." They also note that because the process that links the sex ratio at birth to fertility and mortality rates is recursive, "the process may generate systemic historic oscillations in the population's age/sex structure even when vital rates are stable."
Correspondence: J. F. Martin, Arizona State University, Department of Anthropology, Tempe, AZ 85287-2402. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:10570 Martin, Linda G.; Preston, Samuel H. Demography of aging. ISBN 0-309-05085-5. LC 94-66697. 1994. x, 411 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This volume presents revised versions of...nine papers, which were originally presented and discussed at a workshop at the National Research Council in Washington, D.C., on December 10-11, 1992. Also included as an appendix is a letter report to the National Institute on Aging from the committee that summarizes the committee's assessments of and recommendations for data collection and research that emerged from the papers and discussion." The volume "delineates the field of the demography of aging, highlights the contributions that the demography of aging can make to policy formulation, and summarizes what is known and promising areas for future research in specific subfields." The geographical focus is on the United States, with one paper on developing countries.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20418. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10571 Martin, Linda G.; Kinsella, Kevin. Research on the demography of aging in developing countries. In: Demography of aging, edited by Linda G. Martin and Samuel H. Preston. 1994. 356-403 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"In this chapter, we review research on the demography of aging in developing countries in several substantive areas, namely, basic demography, mortality and health, family demography, population distribution and migration, and economic activity and well-being. We conclude with a summary of data collection and research challenges and provide an appendix that highlights the current availability of different types of data--survey, census, vital statistic, and ethnographic--for research on these topics."
Correspondence: L. G. Martin, RAND, 1700 Main Street, P.O. Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10572 Miyajima, Hiroshi. Japan's aging society. Japanese Economic Studies, Vol. 21, No. 6, Winter 1993-1994. 3-23 pp. Armonk, New York. In Eng.
This article concerns the consequences of current demographic aging in Japan. The emphasis is on the responsibilities of government to deal with the problems posed by an aging society and the increasing social and economic needs of a growing number of elderly people.
Correspondence: H. Miyajima, University of Tokyo, Department of Economics, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

61:10573 Myers, George C. Population growth and age structure: implications and policy responses. In: European Population Conference, 1993. Proceedings. Volume 1. 1994. 207-80 pp. UN Economic Commission for Europe [ECE]: Geneva, Switzerland; Council of Europe: Strasbourg, France. In Eng.
"The intent of this report is to examine the broad consequences of two demographic aspects of populations--their rates of growth and their age structure....Our focus is on slow, zero or negative growth and an increasingly ageing population structure [in Europe and North America]." The author discusses population growth and structure, composition and distribution, demographic aging, and age groups, including school-age, working-age, and voting-age populations. Economic and social implications are analyzed, and policy responses are briefly considered. Comments by Josef Schmid are included (pp. 271-80).
Correspondence: G. C. Myers, Duke University, Center for Demographic Studies, 2117 Campus Drive, Durham, NC 27708-0088. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10574 Paul, Bimal K. Gender ratios in the SMAs of Bangladesh: is the gap declining? Urban Geography, Vol. 15, No. 4, Jun 1994. 345-61 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"This paper examines the gender ratios of the Statistical Metropolitan Areas (SMAs) of Bangladesh for the last intercensal period (1981-1991) and discusses the factors that are associated with the changing gender ratios of the SMAs. The latest population census of Bangladesh suggests that the gender ratios of its four SMAs declined markedly during the last decade. This decline is explained in terms of the decentralization of government administration, initiation of rural development programs, increased opportunities for overseas employment, and openings of employment for rural women in the garment industries of the SMAs."
Correspondence: B. K. Paul, Kansas State University, Department of Geography, Dickens Hall, Manhattan, KS 66506. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

61:10575 Schmertmann, Carl P.; Mathews, T. J.; Nam, Charles B. Demographic influences on the number of children at school entry ages, with examples from three states. Review of Regional Studies, Vol. 24, No. 2, Fall 1994. 177-94 pp. Knoxville, Tennessee. In Eng.
"This paper analyzes the effects of changes in fertility, mortality, and net migration patterns on the growth of school entry-age populations in three states (Florida, South Carolina, and West Virginia) over the period 1950-1990. Fertility changes have had the largest influence on growth of these young populations, as common sense suggests. Changing migration patterns have been quite important, however, in explaining intertemporal and interspatial variations in growth rates."
Correspondence: C. P. Schmertmann, Florida State University, Department of Economics, Tallahassee, FL 32306-2045. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

61:10576 Schmittroth, Linda. Statistical record of children. ISBN 0-8103-9196-1. 1994. xxxiv, 983 pp. Gale Research: Detroit, Michigan/London, England. In Eng.
This book contains "a compilation of easy-to-use statistical data on...topics relating to children [in the United States], gathered from a multitude of sources. Included are hard-to-get census data and data from nongovernment sources, both published and unpublished...." It includes chapters on general population; vital statistics; education; health, nutrition, and medical care; child care; income and expenditures; crimes, misdemeanors, and violence; domestic life; sports and recreation; and international comparisons.
Correspondence: Gale Research, 835 Penobscot Building, Detroit, MI 48226-4094. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10577 Srinivasan, K. Sex ratios: what they hide and what they reveal. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 29, No. 51-52, Dec 17-24, 1994. 3,233-4 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
The author analyzes Indian census data on the country's sex ratio and concludes that "the widespread large decline in the sex ratios in the country in the last decade in the context of an increasing trend in female life expectancy and such other factors raises the question of whether there was large scale under-enumeration of females in the 1991 Census."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

61:10578 United Nations. Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis. Population Division (New York, New York). The sex and age distribution of the world populations. The 1994 revision. No. ST/ESA/SER.A/144, Pub. Order No. E.95.XIII.2. ISBN 92-1-151274-3. 1994. ix, 858 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This volume presents results from the fourteenth round of global population estimates and projections prepared by the UN Population Division. "This report presents estimated sex and age distributions for the period 1950-1990 and projected figures, according to medium-, high-, and low-fertility variants for 1995-2050. Data are presented for countries with a population of at least 150,000 in 1990. The data for smaller countries are included in the regional population totals but are not presented separately....A magnetic tape and a set of diskettes containing the major results of the present estimates and projections are also available for purchase."
For the 1992 revision, see 59:30554.
Correspondence: UN Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, Population Division, United Nations, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10579 Wombold, Lynn B.; Ting, Edmond. ZIP+4 market segmentation systems: a critique. In: Studies in applied demography, edited by K. Vaninadha Rao and Jerry W. Wicks. 1994. 141-9 pp. Bowling Green State University, Department of Sociology, Population and Society Research Center: Bowling Green, Ohio. In Eng.
"This paper discusses the steps necessary to develop a ZIP+4 market segmentation system [in the United States] and provides an evaluation of the procedure, beginning with small area data analysis and the evolution of market segmentation systems....[The authors conclude that] ZIP Codes at any level are not ideal units of demographic analysis."
Correspondence: L. B. Wombold, CACI Marketing Systems, 1100 North Glebe Road, Arlington, VA 22201. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.2. Biological Characteristics

Descriptive studies of menarche and menopause, longevity, and increasing the life span, as well as other biological characteristics such as sex selection. Studies that are concerned with menarche and menopause as they specifically affect fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility .

61:10580 Tu, Edward J.-C.; Chen, Kuanjeng. Changes in active life expectancy in Taiwan: compression or expansion? Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 39, No. 12, Dec 1994. 1,657-65 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The 1986-1989 supplements on Elderly Living Conditions to the Monthly Surveys of Human Resources in the Taiwan area are used to estimate active life expectancy and to examine evidence for a compression of disability. Unlike recent results generated in Western countries in favour of the expansion of morbidity hypothesis, our findings tend to support the hypothesis that declining mortality leads to a compression of disability."
Correspondence: E. J.-C. Tu, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Division of Social Science, Room 3370, Academic Complex, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:10581 Ulizzi, L.; Zonta, L. A. Sex ratio and selection by early mortality in humans: fifty-year analysis in different ethnic groups. Human Biology, Vol. 66, No. 6, Dec 1994. 1,037-48 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
"In this study, to better understand the covariation of the sex ratio and time, we calculated M/F values at birth on data that covered a period of over 50 years in representative populations of the main human groups, namely, U.S. whites, U.S. Blacks, and Japanese. Data on Italians, who have been extensively studied in previous works...are presented for a comparison with U.S. whites, that is, a Caucasian population sharing similar living conditions....Our study also analyzes the relations between the sex ratio, the stillbirth rate, and mortality within the first year of life....[The results indicate that] sex-differential mortality is disappearing over time, with males drawing a greater advantage from the improved living conditions than females do. As a result, the 'correction' of the relatively high values for the sex ratio in live births determined by male extra mortality has been getting smaller over time, and nowadays the sex ratio in 1-year-old infants is similar to that observed at birth."
Correspondence: L. Ulizzi, Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Genetica e Biologia Molecolare, Piazzale A. Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.3. Economic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of income differentials, earnings, career mobility, and other economic characteristics if allocated according to demographic groups. Analytical studies are classified under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population , and studies concerned with employment and labor force are classified under K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation .

61:10582 Ahlburg, Dennis A. Population growth and poverty. In: Population and development: old debates, new conclusions, edited by Robert Cassen. 1994. 127-47 pp. Transaction Publishers: New Brunswick, New Jersey/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This chapter presents estimates of the number of people in poverty (including changes over time), identifies factors related to poverty, and evaluates the role of population growth in determining poverty. It demonstrates that, at the household level, additional children reduce the educational attainment and health of other children in the household but not to a significant extent....While it is not clear whether population growth causes poverty in the long run or not, it is clear that high fertility leading to a rapidly growing population will increase the number of people living in poverty in the short run, and at least in some cases make escape from poverty more difficult."
Correspondence: D. A. Ahlburg, University of Minnesota, Industrial Relations Center, Carlson School of Management, Minneapolis, MN 55455. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10583 Biblarz, Timothy J.; Raftery, Adrian E.; Bucur, Alexander. Family structure and social mobility. Seattle Population Research Center Working Paper, No. 94-10, Jun 1994. 38 pp. University of Washington, Seattle Population Research Center: Seattle, Washington; Battelle Seattle Research Center: Seattle, Washington. In Eng.
"Different types of family structures experienced during childhood have varying effects on [U.S.] men's socioeconomic attainment and social mobility. Holding origin occupation constant, men from a mother-headed family structure do as well as men from two-biological-parent families. In contrast, there is a negative effect of other types of family structures (e.g., father-headed, stepfamily) on socioeconomic attainment."
Correspondence: Seattle Population Research Center, c/o University of Washington, Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology Library, Department of Sociology DK-40, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10584 Bohare, Ramakant; Shrivastava, D. S. Income distribution in rural Sagar. Population Geography, Vol. 14, No. 1-2, Jun-Dec 1992. 53-6 pp. Chandigarh, India. In Eng.
"The study makes an attempt to identify the pattern of household income distribution in rural areas, based on the socio-economic surveys in Sagar district [in India]." Factors affecting family income include "occupational structure, distance from nearby urban centers and general accessibility....The rural settlements under urban influence or with proper accessibility have a greater percentage of high-income families. The major source of income for over a third of the rural families of the district is agricultural labour, while another third earns its living by other agricultural work and the rest are either petty businessmen or are engaged in services."
Correspondence: R. Bohare, University of Sagar, Department of Geography, Sagar, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10585 Chandler, Timothy D.; Kamo, Yoshinori; Werbel, James D. Do delays in marriage and childbirth affect earnings? Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 75, No. 4, Dec 1994. 838-53 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"Data from the [U.S.] National Survey of Families and Households are used to estimate the effects of delays in marriage and childbirth on wages of married women and men....The analysis reveals that delaying marriage significantly increases married women's wages but does not significantly effect married men's wages, and that delaying childbirth significantly increases married women's and men's wages. There is also evidence that the positive wage effects of delays in marriage and childbirth erode over time."
Correspondence: T. D. Chandler, Louisiana State University, Department of Management, Baton Rouge, LA 70803. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:10586 Dunton, Nancy; Leon, Seth. Experimental estimates of poverty in New York State counties. In: Studies in applied demography, edited by K. Vaninadha Rao and Jerry W. Wicks. 1994. 67-80 pp. Bowling Green State University, Department of Sociology, Population and Society Research Center: Bowling Green, Ohio. In Eng.
"The attached tables present intercensal estimates of poverty for New York State counties. These estimates are experimental and for review and comment. They do not represent official state estimates of the poverty population in New York State....These poverty estimates were developed at the request of the New York State Department of Health, Bureau of Nutrition for the purpose of distributing monies for the Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)."
Correspondence: N. Dunton, New York State Council on Children and Families, Mayor Erastus Corning 2nd Tower, 28th Floor, Empire State Plaza, Albany, NY 12223. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10587 Ganderton, Philip; Griffin, Peter. Impact of child quality on earnings: the productivity-of-schooling hypothesis. Contemporary Policy Issues, Vol. 11, No. 3, Jul 1993. 39-47 pp. Huntington Beach, California. In Eng.
"This paper investigates the relationship between average earnings, education (measured by years of schooling), and rates of return to education for major racial/ethnic groups in the United States. It considers the effect of including previously omitted 'productivity-of-schooling' (also referred to here as 'child quality') variables. An upward-sloping average education, rate-of-return-to-education profile exists for Hispanics, blacks, and whites. Productivity-of-schooling (i.e., child quality) measures--including family size, family composition, ability, and parental inputs--significantly affect earnings and rates of return to education."
Correspondence: P. Ganderton, University of New Mexico, Department of Economics, Albuquerque, NM 87131. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

61:10588 Higgins, Matthew D. The demographic determinants of savings, investments and international capital flows. Pub. Order No. DA9421953. 1994. 160 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This dissertation addresses the demographic determinants of national savings, the current account balance, government consumption and other elements of national income. It identifies the sources of demographic pressure on these variables by studying their response to changes in national age distributions, drawing on recently developed techniques for incorporating demographic information into macroeconomic equations." The study was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Harvard University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 55(3).

61:10589 Huang, Qi. The underclass and poverty concentration in New York City for the period 1970-1980-1990. In: Studies in applied demography, edited by K. Vaninadha Rao and Jerry W. Wicks. 1994. 385-424 pp. Bowling Green State University, Department of Sociology, Population and Society Research Center: Bowling Green, Ohio. In Eng.
"This paper first defines and measures the underclass in New York City, then analyzes its composition and growth over time....Of greater interest than the overall numbers are the detailed local changes from one census decade to the next. I study these changes through a transition probability table which compares levels of underclass behavior by census tract for different decades and determines the pattern of changes across decades. I have also developed social ecology maps of class, racial, and ethnic segregation of the city, and used them to show where the underclass, middle class and upper class actually live, how their distribution has changed over time, and how these changes relate to population distribution....Finally, the paper concludes by analyzing the determinants of the presence of the underclass in New York City."
Correspondence: Q. Huang, City University of New York, Graduate School and University Center, Center for Social Research, 33 West 42nd Street, New York, NY 10036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10590 Hussain, Athar; Lanjouw, Peter; Stern, Nicholas. Income inequalities in China: evidence from household survey data. World Development, Vol. 22, No. 12, Dec 1994. 1,947-57 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"On the basis of a household data set, this paper: compares household income inequality in urban and rural China; decomposes inequality into intra- and interprovincial components; and analyzes the contribution of various income sources to total income equality. The main findings of the paper are, first, that unlike in most developing economies, income inequality in urban areas is lower than in rural areas. Second, nationwide income inequality is due mostly to intraprovincial inequality. Third, components of income associated with economic reforms are more unequally distributed than the rest."
Correspondence: A. Hussain, London School of Economics and Political Science, Houghton Street, Aldwych, London WC2A 2AE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

61:10591 Lee, Ronald D.; Miller, Timothy. Population age structure, intergenerational transfer, and wealth. A new approach with applications to the United States. Journal of Human Resources, Vol. 29, No. 4, Fall 1994. 1,027-63 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
This article concerns flows and stocks of wealth in the United States in 1987. Specifically, "this paper has used synthetic cohort methods to explore how resource reallocation over the life cycle generates real wealth and transfer wealth through the family, the public sector, and financial markets....Taking the results at face value, however, it appears that transfer wealth in the United States is about two-thirds as great as real wealth. Social Security wealth, Medicare wealth, and government debt are the main positive forms of wealth, together exceeding the value of real wealth (excluding human capital.)"
Correspondence: R. D. Lee, University of California, Department of Demography, 2232 Piedmont Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

61:10592 Lichter, Daniel T.; McLaughlin, Diane K. Changing economic opportunities, family structure, and poverty in rural areas. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 94-24, Sep 1994. 26, [6] pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
Data from the 1980 and 1990 U.S. census summary tape files are used to examine the extent and etiology of changing spatial inequalities in rural areas. The results indicate that "First, poverty rates increased more rapidly in nonmetro than metro counties during the 1980s....Second, poverty rates tended to decline in nonmetro counties with traditionally high rates of poverty (e.g., predominantly black counties)....Third, spatial differences in poverty rates and relative increases in county poverty rates over the 1980s were most strongly associated with women's employment and headship status."
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6211. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10593 Lichter, Daniel T.; Landale, Nancy S. Parental work, family structure, and poverty among Latino children. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 94-22, Jul 1994. 27, [6] pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
The authors use data from the five percent Public Use Microdata Sample of the 1990 U.S. census to examine the effect of parental employment and family living arrangements on poverty among Latino children in the United States. "The results indicate that group differences in family structure undermine efforts to eliminate racial and ethnic inequality."
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6211. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10594 Rosenzweig, Mark R.; Wolpin, Kenneth I. Parental and public transfers to young women and their children. American Economic Review, Vol. 84, No. 5, Dec 1994. 1,195-212 pp. Nashville, Tennessee. In Eng.
"This paper presents estimates of how an increase in welfare benefits for the welfare-eligible affects the provision of parental support in the form of both financial transfers and shared residence based on an overlapping-generations framework incorporating game-theoretic interactions among parents, their adult children, and the government. The empirical results, obtained from two longitudinal data sets, indicate that the parents view a dollar of income earned by their daughters as equivalent to a dollar increase in welfare benefits. However, there exists only a small trade-off between the generosity of government aid and the incidence of parental aid." Data are for the United States and are from the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women for 1968-1984 and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth for 1979-1984.
Correspondence: M. R. Rosenzweig, University of Pennsylvania, Department of Economics, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6297. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

61:10595 Sundstrom, Marianne; Stafford, Frank. Time out for childcare and career wages of men and women. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 85, ISBN 91-7820-090-3. Aug 1994. 32 pp. Stockholm University, Demography Unit: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"The purpose of our paper is to examine the earnings effects of spells away from work or 'time out' to care for young children. We accomplish this by using company panel data for a large multibranch company in Sweden over the period 1983-1988."
Correspondence: Stockholm University, Demography Unit, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10596 Thomson, Elizabeth; Hanson, Thomas L.; McLanahan, Sara S. Family structure and child well-being: economic resources vs. parental behaviors. Social Forces, Vol. 73, No. 1, Sep 1994. 221-42 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"We used data from the [U.S.] National Survey of Families and Households to investigate economic resources and parental behavior explanations for family structure effects on children. The economic explanation received considerable support in terms of single-mother disadvantage and accounted for a smaller proportion of disadvantage associated with mother-partner families. Parental behaviors, particularly maternal and paternal support, accounted for much smaller proportions of disadvantages found in mother-stepfather as well as mother-partner families. Parental behaviors did not appear to mediate any of the economic resource effects on children."
Correspondence: E. Thomson, University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.4. Social Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to literacy and educational attainment, cultural background, religious affiliation, residential characteristics and segregation, and the like. Studies on social mobility are also coded under this heading.

61:10597 Astone, Nan M.; McLanahan, Sara S. Family structure, residential mobility, and school dropout: a research note. Demography, Vol. 31, No. 4, Nov 1994. 575-84 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper examines the hypothesis that high levels of residential mobility among nonintact [U.S.] families account for part of the well-known association between living in a nonintact family and dropping out of high school. Children from single-parent families and stepfamilies are more likely than children from two-parent families to move during the school year. As much as 30% of the difference in the risk of dropping out between children from stepfamilies and children from intact families can be explained by differences in residential mobility. Previously, mechanisms explaining school failure on the part of children in nonintact families were more plausible for children in single-parent families than for children in stepfamilies; high levels of residential mobility apply to both groups of children. In addition, residential mobility lends itself to manipulation by public policy, with potentially remedial effects for vulnerable children."
Correspondence: N. M. Astone, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Department of Population Dynamics, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10598 Klepinger, Daniel; Lundberg, Shelly; Plotnick, Robert. Adolescent fertility and the educational attainment of young women. Seattle Population Research Center Working Paper, No. 94-7, Jun 1994. 23 pp. University of Washington, Seattle Population Research Center: Seattle, Washington; Battelle Seattle Research Center: Seattle, Washington. In Eng.
"This article presents new estimates of the relationship between teenage childbearing and educational attainment....Because the fertility-education relationship may vary by race and ethnicity, we conduct separate analyses for non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks...,and Hispanics. Our data are from the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY)."
Correspondence: Seattle Population Research Center, c/o University of Washington, Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology Library, Department of Sociology DK-40, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10599 Manning, Wendy D.; Lichter, Daniel T. Cohabitation and children's economic well-being. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 94-25, Sep 1994. 33, [10] pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"Using data from the recently released 1990 decennial [U.S.] census Public Use Microdata Sample, we provide...national estimates of the percentage and socioeconomic characteristics of American children living with single parents and their unmarried partners. Our results reveal that 2.2 million children--roughly 3.5 percent--reside in cohabiting unions, and that racial differences are substantial....Moreover, roughly 1 in 7 children in single-parent families include an unmarried partner. Although these children have two potential caretakers and economic providers, our results indicate that parental resources (in the form of employment, education, and income) fall well short of their counterparts in married-couple families."
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6211. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10600 Marr, William; McCready, Douglas. Shelter expenditure in Canada: do the foreign-born spend more? In: Studies in applied demography, edited by K. Vaninadha Rao and Jerry W. Wicks. 1994. 307-32 pp. Bowling Green State University, Department of Sociology, Population and Society Research Center: Bowling Green, Ohio. In Eng.
"This study aims in general to bring together two important aspects of Canada's social and economic situations in the 1980s, namely changes in its demographic structures and changes in its expenditures on shelter. In particular, this study relates birthplace of the head of a household to spending on shelter in Canada....All of the data in this study come from the 1978, 1982, 1984 and 1986 Surveys of Family Expenditures by Statistics Canada."
Correspondence: W. Marr, Wilfrid Laurier University, Department of Economics, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3C5, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10601 Pastor, Karol. The value of statistical data on religiosity. [Vypovedna hodnota statistickych udajov o religiozite.] Demografie, Vol. 36, No. 3, 1994. 173-80 pp. Prague, Czech Republic. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author assesses the value of data on religiosity collected in the 1991 Czechoslovak census. Differences between the Czech Republic and Slovakia are examined.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10602 Pong, Suet-ling. Sibling size and children's educational attainment in Peninsular Malaysia. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 94-21, Jul 1994. 31, [6] pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"The study addresses three general questions: How important is sibling size as a determinant of educational attainment within each ethnic group? Do the effects of sibling size change over time? Are there ethnic differences in the over time changes of these effects?" Data are from the Second Malaysian Family Life Survey of 1988.
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6211. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10603 Ribar, David C. Teenage fertility and high school completion. Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 76, No. 3, Aug 1994. 413-24 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper uses 1979-85 data on women from the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine the economic, sociological, and institutional antecedents of adolescent childbearing and high school completion and to analyze the effect of early childbearing on school completion. Fertility and school completion are modeled as dichotomous outcomes, and their determinants are estimated using a bivariate probit specification. The paper finds evidence that adolescent childbearing is an endogenous determinant of high school completion and that failing to account for this endogeneity leads to an over-estimate of the schooling consequences of early childbearing."
Correspondence: D. C. Ribar, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

61:10604 Siegel, Jacob S. The role of demographers in public and private suits of racial discrimination in housing. In: Studies in applied demography, edited by K. Vaninadha Rao and Jerry W. Wicks. 1994. 237-51 pp. Bowling Green State University, Department of Sociology, Population and Society Research Center: Bowling Green, Ohio. In Eng.
"While I want to concentrate on private suits of racial discrimination in housing, my effort to elucidate this phase of a demographer's work will be aided by a discussion of public suits as well." The geographic focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: J. S. Siegel, Georgetown University, 37th and O Streets NW, Washington, D.C. 20057. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10605 Srb, Vladimir; Andrle, Alois. Religious affiliation of the Czech Republic's population on March 3, 1991. [Nabozenske vyznani obyvatelstva Ceske Republiky ke 3. breznu 1991.] Demografie, Vol. 36, No. 3, 1994. 181-8 pp. Prague, Czech Republic. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The authors analyze data from the 1991 Czech census concerning religious affiliation. They provide information on church denomination, sex and age distribution of church members, and characteristics of those who did not answer the religion question.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10606 Wilmoth, Janet M.; De Jong, Gordon F.; Himes, Christine L. Living arrangements among elderly immigrants in the United States. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 94-26, Aug 1994. 32 pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
The living arrangements of the immigrant elderly in the United States are analyzed using data from the 1990 Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS). "Standardization reveals that immigrants aged sixty or older upon their arrival have higher levels of living with others and lower levels of living with a spouse or alone than elderly who immigrated at younger ages and elderly non-immigrants."
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6211. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.5. Ethnic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations on the basis of race, ethnic group, language, and national origin.

61:10607 Breznik, Dusan; Raduski, Nada. Demographic characteristics of the population of FR Yugoslavia by nationality. Yugoslav Survey, Vol. 34, No. 4, 1993. 3-44 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Eng.
Changes in the ethnic composition of Yugoslavia as a whole are analyzed using data from censuses carried out between 1948 and 1991. "The subject matter of the analysis [was] the differences in natural movements (birth rate, death rate, natural increase) and migrations by nationalities, as well as marriages and divorces of people of different nationalities." Problems concerning the various ways of identifying ethnic groups by nationality or language are also reviewed.
Correspondence: D. Breznik, Social Sciences Institute, Demographic Research Centre, Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

61:10608 Census Applications (Sydney, Australia). Birthplace, language, religion 1971-86. Volume 4--statistical regions by birthplace, language and religion. Pub. Order No. 91 0103 8. ISBN 0-644-13789-4. 1991. xiv, 409 pp. Bureau of Immigration Research: South Carlton, Australia. In Eng.
This is one in "a series of five related volumes which provides data on population numbers, rates of change, and the birthplace, language and religion characteristics of people in Local Government areas, statistical regions, States and Territories of Australia. It is based on the results of the 1971, 1976, 1981 and 1986 Censuses...." This volume presents tables on the population of each statistical region by place of birth, language, or religion.
For related volumes, see 57:30605, 30606, and 30607, and elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: Bureau of Immigration Research, P.O. Box 649, South Carlton, Victoria 3053, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10609 Census Applications (Sydney, Australia). Birthplace, language, religion, 1971-86. Volume 1--birthplace and religion by local government areas. Pub. Order No. 91 0099 7. ISBN 0-644-13786-X. 1991. xviii, 885 pp. Bureau of Immigration Research: South Carlton, Australia. In Eng.
This is one in "a series of five related volumes which provides data on population numbers, rates of change and the birthplace, language and religion characteristics of people in Local Government areas, statistical regions, States and Territories of Australia. It is based on the results of the 1971, 1976, 1981 and 1986 Censuses...." In this volume each table contains data on the population of the same birthplace or religion in terms of local government areas.
For related volumes, see 57:30605, 30606, and 30607, and elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: Bureau of Immigration Research, P.O. Box 649, South Carlton, Victoria 3053, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10610 Dickinson, John A.; Grabowski, Jan. The North American Indian populations of the St. Lawrence valley, 1608-1765. [Les populations amerindiennes de la vallee laurentienne, 1608-1765.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1993. 51-65 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The dynamics of the North American Indian population of the St. Lawrence valley in Quebec, Canada, following French colonization in the early seventeenth century are described. Following an initial rapid population decline due to exposure to new diseases introduced by European settlers, the native population stabilized, and then grew through a combination of natural increase and migration to pre-contact levels by 1675.
Correspondence: J. A. Dickinson, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10611 Dragunskii, Denis V. Imposed ethnicity. Sociological Research, Vol. 33, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1994. 65-76 pp. Armonk, New York. In Eng.
The significance of ethnicity and of the definition of ethnic groups in the successor states of the former Soviet Union is examined. Particular attention is given to questions of ethnicity in Russia and to the problems resulting from the arbitrary assignment of people to one ethnic group or another.
This is a translation from the Russian article in Politicheskie Issledovaniia, No. 5, 1993, pp. 24-30.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:10612 Glosar, A. Ethnicity and geography. GeoJournal, Vol. 30, No. 3, Jul 1993. 199-364 pp. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
This special issue contains a selection of the papers presented at a symposium on ethnicity and geography held in Ljubljana, Slovenia, September 8-11, 1993.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Kluwer Academic Publishers Group, P.O. Box 322, 3300 AH Dordrecht, Netherlands. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

61:10613 Herman, Pini. A technique for estimating a small immigrant population in small areas: the case of Jewish Israelis in the United States. In: Studies in applied demography, edited by K. Vaninadha Rao and Jerry W. Wicks. 1994. 81-99 pp. Bowling Green State University, Department of Sociology, Population and Society Research Center: Bowling Green, Ohio. In Eng.
"Demographers are often asked to verify the community size of specific ethnic and nationality groups. Invariably, large population sizes are offered for verification and often while exact numbers cannot be estimated, some roughly logical upper bound estimates can be developed. This paper describes the experience of developing reasonable upper bound estimates for Jewish Israelis [in Los Angeles, California] and with some modifications may be used for some other selected ethnic or nationality groups."
Correspondence: P. Herman, University of Southern California, School of Social Work, University Park MC-RAN385, Los Angeles, CA 90007. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10614 Hsu, Mei-Ling. The growth of Chinese minority populations. GeoJournal, Vol. 30, No. 3, Jul 1993. 279-82 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
This is a review of recent demographic trends among the 55 recognized minority ethnic groups in China, which have a total population of 91.2 million. Reasons for the rapid growth among many of these populations since the 1960s are analyzed. They include "the significant improvement of public health in the 1950s and 1960s, the leniency in the implementation of the birth control policies in minority communities, the relatively high birth and fertility rates in these communities, and the reaffirmation of racial identity in the 1980s."
Correspondence: M.-L. Hsu, University of Minnesota, Department of Geography, 267 19th Avenue South, Minneapolis, MN 55455. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

61:10615 Klemencic, Vladimir. National minorities as an element of the demographic and spatial structure of the Alpine-Adriatic-Pannonian region. GeoJournal, Vol. 30, No. 3, Jul 1993. 207-14 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The paper discusses minorities and their problems along borders of post [World War II] Europe and of nation states formed in the early 1990s." The author notes that minority populations are frequently located in peripheral, less developed areas of the countries concerned, and in regions where the interests of minority and majority populations conflict.
Correspondence: V. Klemencic, University of Ljubljana, Department of Geography, Askerceva 12, 61000 Ljubljana, Slovenia. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

61:10616 Luther, Norman Y.; Gaminiratne, K. H. W.; Gray, Alan. Demographic estimates for the aboriginal populations of three regions of Australia: Northern Territory, South Australia and Western Australia--1986-91. Working Papers in Demography, No. 50, 1994. 50 pp. Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"A consistent correction procedure is used to determine improved, consistent estimates by sex of census age distributions, intercensal births, and intercensal deaths and net immigration by age of the Aboriginal populations of the Northern Territory, South Australia and Western Australia during the period 1986-91. Undercount estimates for the censuses, registered births and registered deaths, and life tables derived from the results show the Aboriginal populations to have lower coverage of censuses and of vital events and much higher death risks than the total Australian population."
Correspondence: Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10617 Meyer, Pierre-Andre. The demography of the Jews in Metz (1740-1789). [Demographie des juifs de Metz (1740-1789).] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1993. 127-60 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The demography of the Jewish population of Metz, in eastern France, over the course of the eighteenth century is analyzed using data from a register of births, marriages, and deaths kept by that community. The analysis shows that a period of growth earlier in the century was followed by one of demographic stagnation in the two decades prior to the French Revolution due primarily to declining economic conditions.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10618 Nadeau, Richard; Niemi, Richard G.; Levine, Jeffrey. Innumeracy about minority populations. Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol. 57, No. 3, Fall 1993. 332-47 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"We use a small but nationally representative sample to investigate the sources of innumeracy regarding the proportion of blacks, Hispanics, and Jews in the U.S. population. In addition to a number of standard demographic differences, we find that overestimates are closely related to region as well as to the density of the local black/Hispanic population. The extent to which minority populations are perceived as a kind of threat is also related to perceived proportions, though the direction of causality cannot be determined."
Correspondence: R. Nadeau, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:10619 Robitaille, Norbert; Guimond, Eric. Demographic trends among the indigenous populations of Quebec. [La situation demographique des groupes autochtones du Quebec.] Recherches Sociographiques, Vol. 35, No. 3, 1994. 433-54, 623 pp. Quebec, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Estimates of the native population in Quebec range from barely 50,000 to nearly 140,000. In spite of this lack of precision, we attempt to describe the age structure of this population and to identify its renewal mechanisms: fertility, mortality and ethnic mobility, which has...been quite high recently as indicated by the very strong growth in Native populations over the past decade."
Correspondence: N. Robitaille, Universite de Montreal, Departement de Demographie, C.P. 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10620 Tas, R. F. J. Suriname and Dutch Antillean population in the Netherlands, January 1, 1994. [Surinaamse en Antilliaanse bevolking in Nederland, 1 januari 1994.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 42, No. 10, Oct 1994. 6-10 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The author provides data on the Surinamese and Netherlands Antilles population living in the Netherlands on January 1, 1994. Data are provided on sex, age, total fertility rate, death rate, marriage rate, and nationality.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10621 Yusuf, Farhat; Byrnes, Monica. Ethnic mosaic of modern China: an analysis of fertility and mortality data for the twelve largest ethnic minorities. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 9, No. 2, Jun 1994. 25-46 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"Using data from the recently released 1990 census, this article presents preliminary findings regarding some aspects of demographic behaviour of the 12 largest minority groups in China. The size, growth rate and age structure of the groups are examined as well as their fertility and mortality patterns, using the total population of China as the standard. Where possible, comparisons are made with the results of the 1982 census. Overall, the ethnic minorities were found to have younger age structures and their levels of fertility and mortality (including infant mortality) were higher than those of the total population. Many of the minorities were found to be concentrated in relatively remote and mountainous areas which have not fully experienced the benefits of recent social and economic development efforts in China."
Correspondence: F. Yusuf, Macquarie University, Demographic Research Group, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10622 Zhang, Tianlu; Zhang, Mei. The present population of the Tibetan nationality in China. Social Sciences in China, Vol. 15, Spring 1994. 46-65 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
Recent population trends among the Tibetan population of China are analyzed using data from official Chinese sources. Chapters are included on changes in the spatial distribution of population and the reduction of the size of the Han population in Tibetan areas, marriage and the family, fertility and infant survival, mortality, age and sex composition, educational status, and quality of life.
Translated from the Chinese article in Zhongguo Shehui Kexue (Beijing, China), No. 5, 1993.
Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

61:10623 Zimmerman, Rick S.; Vega, William A.; Gil, Andres G.; Warheit, George J.; Apospori, Eleni; Biafora, Frank. Who is Hispanic? Definitions and their consequences. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 84, No. 12, Dec 1994. 1,985-7 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Data from the first wave of a longitudinal study of adolescents living in the greater Miami area of Florida are used to examine methodological issues involving the classification of Spanish-speaking-origin inhabitants of the United States. The authors conclude that "when policy makers are concerned about enumerating the entire Hispanic population, a definition broader than self-identification should be used; in estimating prevalence rates, however, the use of self-identification may be adequate."
Correspondence: R. S. Zimmerman, University of Kentucky, Department of Behavioral Science, 127 College of Medicine Office Building, Lexington, KY 40536-0086. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).


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