Volume 61 - Number 1 - Spring 1995

H. Migration

Studies that treat quantitative data on migration analytically. Methodological studies concerned primarily with migration are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , as appropriate. Includes some consideration of policy aspects, but studies relating primarily to policies designed to affect migration are coded under M.3. Measures Affecting Migration .

H.1. General Migration

Studies that concern both international and internal migration.

61:10436 Abellan Garcia, Antonio. The elderly's decision to migrate. [La decision de emigrar en las personas de edad.] Estudios Geograficos, Vol. 54, No. 210, Jan-Mar 1993. 5-17 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"This paper provides a conceptual framework of elderly migration according to the decision making process. The migration is presented as a complete spatial and social system related to migratory behaviours and residential strategies. A typology of movements in Spain is proposed; it emphasizes several topics (decision maker, personal characteristics, reasons for moving, destination, housing, etc.)."
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

61:10437 Ba, Amadou. A review of the literature on migration and health. [Revue de litterature sur le theme migration et sante.] Working Paper du CERPOD, No. 14, Jan 1994. 73 pp. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherche sur la Population pour le Developpement [CERPOD]: Bamako, Mali. In Fre.
This is a review of literature on migration and health. Topics covered include the psychological health of migrants during the process of acculturation; the problems faced by rural-urban migrants in settling into urban areas which are frequently unhealthy and underdeveloped, international migration involving differences in language and culture, rural migration, the use of health services by migrants, refugee migration, and the relationship between migration and the spread of sexually transmitted diseases including AIDS.
Correspondence: Centre d'Etudes et de Recherche sur la Population pour le Developpement, B.P. 1530, Bamako, Mali. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10438 Courgeau, Daniel. An attempt to analyse individual migration histories from data on place of usual residence at the time of certain vital events: France during the nineteenth century. In: Old and new methods in historical demography, edited by David S. Reher and Roger Schofield. 1993. 206-22 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
Data from birth, marriage, and death registers in nineteenth-century France are used to estimate migration probabilities for members of different cohorts. The method proposed is also tested on twentieth-century Belgian data. The results indicate that, under certain conditions, it is possible to estimate the hazard functions of migration using such data.
Correspondence: D. Courgeau, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10439 Crankshaw, Owen. A simple questionnaire survey method for studying migration and residential displacement in informal settlements in South Africa. South African Sociological Review, Vol. 6, No. 1, Oct 1993. 52-65 pp. Rondebosch, South Africa. In Eng.
"My aim in this article is to describe a cheap and reliable questionnaire survey method which can be used to identify patterns in migration and residential displacement." The method is described in the context of measuring migration in informal settlements in South Africa. "The merit of the method which I have described...lies in the fact that it allows questions of residential movement to be addressed in a routine manner, in much the same way that questions are used concerning, for example, household income."
Correspondence: O. Crankshaw, Centre for Policy Studies, P.O. Box 16488, Doornfontein 2028, Johannesburg, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10440 de Beer, Joop. Forecast intervals of net migration: the case of the Netherlands. Journal of Forecasting, Vol. 12, No. 7, Oct 1993. 585-99 pp. New York, New York/Chichester, England. In Eng.
This study addresses problems concerning the forecasting of net migration in the preparation of population forecasts. "As the width of forecast intervals for migration in single years differs strongly from that of an interval for average migration during the forecast period, it is important that the forecaster indicates which type of interval is presented. A comparison of forecast intervals for net migration obtained from an ARIMA model to intervals in official Dutch national population forecasts shows that the uncertainty on migration has been underestimated in past official forecasts."
Correspondence: J. de Beer, Central Bureau of Statistics, Prinses Beatrixlaan 428, P.O. Box 959, 2270 AZ Voorburg, Netherlands. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

61:10441 Horn, Gustav A. On regional convergence in a transitional economy: the roles of migration and wages. Jahrbucher fur Nationalokonomie und Statistik, Vol. 212, No. 3-4, Sep 1993. 325-40 pp. Stuttgart, Germany. In Eng. with sum. in Ger.
The role of migration in influencing convergence between regions at different levels of economic development is analyzed using the example of Germany following reunification, with particular reference to the impact of migration on wages. "Several ways of regional wage formation are investigated, among them a full employment wage mechanism as well as a fast regional convergence of wages which is independent of productivity movements. The conclusion is that the impact of wage mechanisms on the convergence of per capita output is ambiguous. However social costs in terms of unemployment are high in case of a wage adjustment which is regardless of productivity growth."
Correspondence: G. A. Horn, Deutsches Institut fur Wirtschaftsforschung, Konigin-Luise-Strasse 5, 14195 Berlin 33, Germany. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

61:10442 Hovy, Bela; Zlotnik, Hania. Europe without internal frontiers and international migration. Population Bulletin of the United Nations, No. 36, 1994. 19-42 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper documents the process by which the freedom of movement of workers has been established in the European Community and uses data on migrant flows and stocks to assess whether such freedom of movement has had a significant effect in increasing intra-Community migration. Although the evidence suggests that the presence of Community workers increased in newly admitted Community member States, such as the United Kingdom during the 1970s and, more recently, Greece, Portugal and Spain, the numbers involved are small in relative terms. In contrast, the enactment of freedom of movement provisions has not contributed to a noticeable increase in the outflow of workers from the poorer to the richer member States."
Correspondence: B. Hovy, UN High Commission for Refugees, Programme Coordination and Budget Section, 154 Rue de Lausanne, C.P. 2500, 1211 Geneva 2, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10443 Kintner, Hallie J.; Swanson, David. Confidence intervals for net migration estimates that incorporate measurement errors in census counts. In: Studies in applied demography, edited by K. Vaninadha Rao and Jerry W. Wicks. 1994. 121-39 pp. Bowling Green State University, Department of Sociology, Population and Society Research Center: Bowling Green, Ohio. In Eng.
"We present a method for generating confidence intervals around estimates of intercensal net migration, made using the life table survival method, that incorporate estimates of census measurement errors. The life table survival method applies a life table to a census count to project survivors at some past or future time points. Net migration is then estimated as the difference between the projected number of survivors and the enumerated population at the time. Confidence intervals are based on mean square error, the sum of the variance and squared bias. We assume that random variation in the number of net migrants in an age-sex group is due to random variation in mortality rates and to measurement errors in census counts. The technique is illustrated with data from the United States."
Correspondence: H. J. Kintner, University of Arkansas, Arkansas Institute for Economic Advancement, 2801 South University, Little Rock, AR 72204-1099. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10444 Morrill, R. Age-specific migration and regional diversity. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 26, No. 11, Nov 1994. 1,699-710 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This author examines patterns of age-specific migration between 1980 and 1990 for a small, growing region, the Pacific Northwest of the U.S.A., with the purpose of assessing the degree of geographic diversity in experience. A simple typology of the expected spatial and structural pattern of age-specific migration is proposed. Cluster analysis is used to group counties on the basis of age-specific rates of net migration. Even this fairly small region is found to exemplify most of the patterns that might be expected to occur in the nation as a whole."
Correspondence: R. Morrill, University of Washington, Department of Geography, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

61:10445 Oris, Michel. Changes in migration during the nineteenth century: the example of Huy-sur-Meuse (Belgium) between 1847 and 1900. [La transition de la mobilite au XIXe siecle: l'experience de Huy-sur-Meuse (Belgique) entre 1847 et 1900.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1993. 191-225 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Data on 58,394 migrants from the population register of the Belgian town of Huy-sur-Meuse are used to analyze migration trends during the second half of the nineteenth century. The focus is on changes in migration patterns over time.
Correspondence: M. Oris, Universite de Liege, Laboratoire de Demographie, Place du 20-Aout 7, 4000 Liege, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10446 Pasleau, Suzy. Labor migration to Seraing during the second half of the nineteenth century. [L'immigration des travailleurs a Seraing durant la seconde moitie du XIXe siecle.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1993. 227-50 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The development of the Belgian village of Seraing from having a population of 1,800 in 1800 to a town of over 40,000 inhabitants in 1910 is described. The author notes that Seraing evolved from being a migrant destination to being a transit center for migrants moving on to larger urban centers toward the end of the century.
Correspondence: S. Pasleau, Universite de Liege, Place du 20-Aout 7, 4000 Liege, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10447 Robinson, Sherman; Burfisher, Mary E.; Hinojosa-Ojeda, Raul; Thierfelder, Karen E. Agricultural policies and migration in a U.S.-Mexico free trade area: a computable general equilibrium analysis. Journal of Policy Modeling, Vol. 15, No. 5-6, Oct-Dec 1993. 673-701 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A United States-Mexico agreement to form a free trade area (FTA) is analyzed using an 11-sector, three-country, computable general equilibrium model that explicitly models farm programs and labor migration. The model incorporates both rural-urban migration within Mexico and international migration between Mexico and the United States....The results indicate a policy trade-off between rapidly achieving gains from trade liberalization and providing a transition period long enough to assimilate displaced labor in Mexico without undue strain."
Correspondence: S. Robinson, University of California, Department of Agriculture and Resource Economics, Berkeley, CA 94701. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

61:10448 Shanthi, K. Female mobility and gender dimensions in labour migration. IED Discussion Paper Series, No. 32, Nov 1993. 34 pp. Boston University, Institute for Economic Development: Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The increased migration of women in developing countries experiencing modernization is explored using the example of India. "This paper examines the labour force participation behaviour and earnings of women of migrant households....Labour participation is found to be high among women of such migrant households. While majority women are self employed, the others are wage earners. Education is found to be an important variable in the earnings function of females."
Correspondence: Boston University, Institute for Economic Development, 147 Bay State Road, Boston, MA 02215. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

61:10449 Zax, Jeffrey S. When is a move a migration? Regional Science and Urban Economics, Vol. 24, No. 3, Jun 1994. 341-60 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper extends the traditional theory of urban location to derive a consistent model of inter- and intra-regional mobility. It demonstrates that the two are behaviorally distinct. Workplace and residence relocations tend to be 'substitutes' in intra-regional mobility but are 'complements' in inter-regional mobility. Previous empirical papers have neglected the theoretical foundations of intra-regional mobility. In consequence, they have made four types of analytical compromises: defined 'migration' as any change in residence location, used job changes as proxies for workplace mobility, neglected commuting distances, and used estimation techniques that do not reveal the underlying behavior."
Correspondence: J. S. Zax, University of Colorado, Department of Economics, Campus Box 256, Boulder, CO 80309-0256. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

H.2. International Migration

Studies concerned with international migration, including the brain drain.

61:10450 Adepoju, Aderanti. Preliminary analysis of emigration dynamics in Sub-Saharan Africa. International Migration, Vol. 32, No. 2, 1994. 197-216 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
The author describes international migration trends in Sub-Saharan Africa. The focus is on analyzing movements within the context of prevailing economic, demographic, political, cultural, and ecological conditions.
Correspondence: A. Adepoju, African Institute for Economic Development and Planning, Dakar, Senegal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10451 Aktar, Cengiz; Ogelman, Nedim. Recent developments in East-West migration: Turkey and the petty traders. International Migration, Vol. 32, No. 2, 1994. 343-54 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The authors analyze contemporary migration movements in Turkey, with a focus on labor migrants and Turkey's status as a receiving country. Recent migration trends to Turkey are briefly reviewed, and implications within the context of emerging East-West migration policies are considered.
Correspondence: UN High Commission for Refugees, Palais des Nations, 1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10452 Appleyard, Reginald. IOM/UNFPA project on emigration dynamics in developing countries. International Migration, Vol. 32, No. 2, 1994. 179-95 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng; Fre; Spa.
The author briefly reviews a special section of papers in this issue of International Migration. The papers focus on aspects of a project on emigration dynamics in developing countries.
Correspondence: R. Appleyard, University of Western Australia, Graduate School of Management, Nedlands, Perth, WA 6009, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10453 Athukorala, Premachandra. International labour migration in the Asian-Pacific region: patterns, policies and economic implications. Asian-Pacific Economic Literature, Vol. 7, No. 2, Nov 1993. 28-57 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper reviews the literature on international labour migration from and within the Asian-Pacific region. It deals with patterns and characteristics of migration flows, government policies towards labour migration, and economic implications of labour migration for both labour-exporting and importing countries in the region. The indications are that, despite gradual slowing down of labour flows to the western industrial countries and the Middle East, labour migration will continue to be a major economic influence on surplus-labour countries in the region. As an integral part of the growth dynamism in the region, labour migration has now begun to take on a regional dimension, with immense implications for the process of industrial restructuring in high growth economies and the changing pattern of economic interdependence among countries."
Correspondence: P. Athukorala, La Trobe University, Department of Economics, Bundoora, Victoria 3083, Australia. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

61:10454 Attafi, Abdellatif. The brain drain: theoretical framework and hypotheses. [L'exode des cerveaux: cadre theorique et hypotheses.] Canadian Journal of Development Studies/Revue Canadienne d'Etudes du Developpement, Vol. 15, No. 1, 1994. 89-99 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"This article studies the 'brain drain' issue from the sociological perspective. It analyzes the various reasons why students from developing countries go to North American and European universities and why they decide either to return or not to return to their own country after graduation. The author...concludes that, although there are political, socioeconomic and academic factors, one's decision to return or not to return to one's country depends mainly on individual aspirations (personal and cultural development) and collective aspirations (perceived possibilities of playing a constructive role, political or otherwise, in one's native country)."
Correspondence: A. Attafi, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC 29424. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

61:10455 Barou, Jacques. African immigration in France: from pioneers to family reunion. [Les immigrations africaines en France: des "navigateurs" au regroupement familial.] Revue Francaise des Affaires Sociales, Vol. 47, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1993. 193-205 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
An attempt is made to analyze components of the main migration streams from Africa to France and their consequences for the destination country. The author estimates that there are currently about 300,000 immigrants of African origin in France. Three waves of migration are identified: pre-independence migration, which consisted mainly of manual workers moving to the major port cities; migration from 1960 to 1975, primarily from the Senegal River valley region; and a larger number of recent immigrants, some illegal, who consist mainly of students, asylum seekers, and those joining family members who migrated earlier. Social issues raised by certain migrant customs, such as polygamy, and the problems faced by the children of immigrants, are discussed.
Location: University of California Library, Berkeley, CA.

61:10456 Bodega Fernandez, M. Isabel; Cebrian de Miguel, Juan A.; Franchini Alonso, Teresa; Lora-Tamayo d'Ocon, Gloria; Martin Lou, M. Asuncion. Recent migration from the Maghreb to Spain. [Migraciones recientes de los paises magrebies a Espana.] Estudios Geograficos, Vol. 54, No. 210, Jan-Mar 1993. 19-49 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"During the last few years, Spain has become a host country for Maghreb emigrants that cross the Straits of Gibraltar hoping to find a better life. This article evaluates the importance of this migratory trend, its evolution, location and characteristics. At the same time, this paper sets forth new data about the recent Official Registration process of alien residents."
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

61:10457 Borjas, George J. The economics of immigration. Journal of Economic Literature, Vol. 32, No. 4, Dec 1994. 1,667-717 pp. Nashville, Tennessee. In Eng.
This literature review concerns the impact of immigration on the economy of the host country, focusing on the experience of the United States. The emphasis is on the period from the 1970s to the 1990s. The author shows that research earlier in this period generally concluded that the economic effects of immigration were positive, but that more recent research on later migrations have generally concluded that immigration may be having an adverse effect on the earnings of native unskilled workers and be placing an increased burden on welfare programs. The importance of such economic analysis for the formulation of appropriate migration policies is stressed.
Correspondence: G. J. Borjas, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0508. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

61:10458 Bratsberg, Bernt. Legal versus illegal U.S. immigration and source country characteristics. Southern Economic Journal, Vol. 61, No. 3, Jan 1995. 715-27 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"Based on micro data from the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) on legal immigrants as well as on legalization applications that followed the passage of IRCA [the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986], this study exploits the variation in legal and illegal immigration flows across seventy source countries to examine the sensitivity of immigration flows to underlying source country characteristics. The study finds that earnings in the source country and the distance from the United States form significant deterrents of both legal and illegal immigration flows. We also find that illegal immigration is more sensitive to such factors than is legal immigration." The impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement on U.S. immigration from Mexico is also assessed.
Correspondence: B. Bratsberg, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

61:10459 Buetow, Stephen A. International migration: some consequences for urban areas in Australia and New Zealand. International Migration, Vol. 32, No. 2, 1994. 307-28 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article provides a broad overview of literature on some of the consequences of international migration for urban and, in particular, metropolitan areas in Australia and New Zealand. The focus therefore is diverse; highlighting similarities in the experiences of each country...;and emphasizing long-term and permanent movements favoured by successive governments on both sides of the Tasman Sea....The four sets of impacts discussed in this article relate to the population, labour force, residential and settlement patterns and social and cultural factors."
Correspondence: S. A. Buetow, Australian National University, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10460 Cagiano de Azevedo, Raimondo. The difficulties in evaluating the integration of migrants. [Los problemas de evaluacion de la integracion de los migrantes.] Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos, Vol. 8, No. 25, Dec 1993. 363-98 pp. Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"Migrations in Europe have changed significantly in the last three decades, both in scope and nature, and involving new countries. It is therefore necessary to reconsider the concept of integration and the ways to measure it. It must also be taken into account that migration matters cannot be dealt with within national units, but require coordinated, agreed upon policies in countries (or even greater units) of origin and destination. The particular case of Italy with a large quantity of emigrants abroad and an important incoming flow of new immigrants is considered especially. Also the difficulties and possibilities of an accurate estimation of Italians abroad are analyzed."
Correspondence: R. Cagiano de Azevedo, Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Via Nomentana 41, Rome 00161, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10461 Carmichael, Gordon A. Trans-Tasman migration: a post-war overview with emphasis on the 1980s. Working Papers in Demography, No. 51, 1994. 36 pp. Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
The author reports on trends in migration between New Zealand and Australia. "[The] focus is [on] the period since World War 2, and in particular the decade of the 1980s....[The paper] examines in turn the major migration trends, the sociodemographic and labour force characteristics of the migrant streams in the 1980s, the distinctive attributes to the New Zealand-born population in Australia, and, given that the bulk of recent Australia to New Zealand migration has been return migration, the nature of the return migrant and Australia-born population in New Zealand."
Correspondence: Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10462 Castillo, Manuel A. A preliminary analysis of emigration determinants in Mexico, Central America, northern South America and the Caribbean. International Migration, Vol. 32, No. 2, 1994. 269-306 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
The author examines migratory movements and their causes in Mexico, Central and South America, and the Caribbean. Sections are included on migration trends, theoretical approaches, and methodological tools before the 1970s; the shift in migratory patterns after the 1980s; macrosocial variables as a general background of current international flows; and migration policies.
Correspondence: M. A. Castillo, El Colegio de Mexico, Centro de Estudios Demograficos y de Desarrollo Urbano, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10463 Charmes, Jacques; Daboussi, Raouf; Lebon, Andre. Migration and population. Population, employment, and migration in the Mediterranean basin. [Migration et population. Population, emploi et migrations dans le bassin mediterraneen.] Systeme d'Echange d'Informations sur les Migrations Internationales et l'Emploi dans la Region Mediterraneenne, No. 93/1, ISBN 92-2-208860-3. 1993. vi, 78 pp. International Labour Office [ILO]: Geneva, Switzerland. In Fre.
This is a general review of demographic trends affecting the labor force situation in the Mediterranean region. The focus is on factors affecting labor migration from the less-developed to the more-developed countries, and on policies designed to control that movement.
Correspondence: International Labour Office, 4 route des Morillons, 1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10464 Chiarelli, B. The use of family names in the study of human migration during the last two centuries. Mankind Quarterly, Vol. 33, No. 1, Fall 1992. 69-77 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Family names listed in telephone [books] were used to trace the regional origins of Italians who emigrated to Toronto, Canada. To date, only three regions (Tuscany, Abruzzi, and Campania) have been considered. This study indicates that the greatest flow of migration to Toronto has come from Campania. This approach appears to be capable of providing more detailed data concerning immigration than is customarily found."
Correspondence: B. Chiarelli, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, Piazza San Marco 4, 50121 Florence, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10465 Clarke, Harry R.; Ng, Yew-Kwang. Immigration and economic welfare: resource and environmental aspects. Economic Record, Vol. 69, No. 206, Sep 1993. 259-73 pp. Sydney, Australia. In Eng.
"The relation between immigration and the economic welfare of residents is analyzed for resource-rich economies (such as Australia) both under competitive conditions and when various distortions are present. Immigration provides efficiency gains for residents under distortion-free competition for standard 'gains from trade' reasons. Such reasons, however, tend to be ignored by immigration and 'optimal population' theorists who raise the issue of restricting immigration without explicitly referring to the distortions. In situations where distortions and externalities are present, we argue that it is generally preferable to devise policies which specifically target the distortions than to restrict immigration."
Correspondence: H. R. Clarke, La Trobe University, Department of Economics and Commerce, Bundoora, Victoria 3083, Australia. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

61:10466 Coleman, David A. The world on the move? International migration in 1992. In: European Population Conference, 1993. Proceedings. Volume 1. 1994. 281-375 pp. UN Economic Commission for Europe [ECE]: Geneva, Switzerland; Council of Europe: Strasbourg, France. In Eng.
"Western Europe is experiencing renewed growth of old migration pressures from the South and fears the rise of new ones from the East. In turn, Eastern Europe itself is under new immigration pressure from countries of the former USSR and the Third World. This chapter describes the scale of these movements and the diverse immigrant populations which they have already generated, it evaluates their costs and benefits and the policy responses which might be appropriate. In doing so it contrasts the European experience and attitudes with those [in North America], and the priorities of the receiving countries with those of sending countries in the area." Comments by Philip Muus are included (pp. 369-75).
Correspondence: D. A. Coleman, University of Oxford, Department of Applied Social Studies and Social Research, Barnett House, Wellington Square, Oxford OX1 2ER, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10467 Collinson, Sarah. Europe and international migration. Rev. ed. ISBN 1-85567-296-0. 1994. xiv, 210 pp. Pinter Publishers: New York, New York/London, England; Royal Institute of International Affairs: London, England. In Eng.
"Since the end of the Cold War, international migration has come to be seen as one of the most pressing issues facing Europe in the 1990s. This study places current migration issues within a comparative perspective, in their global and historical context. In this substantially revised and enlarged edition, the author assesses the significant changes that have taken place in Europe since the book was first published [in 1993]." Chapters are included on immigration policy in postwar Europe, the sending countries, immigrant minorities in Europe today, and the movement toward a common migration policy among receiving countries.
Correspondence: Pinter Publishers, 25 Floral Street, London WC2E 9DS, England. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

61:10468 Connelly, Matthew; Kennedy, Paul. Must it be the rest against the West? Atlantic Monthly, Vol. 274, No. 6, Dec 1994. 61-84 pp. Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
This article discusses the 1973 novel, The Camp of the Saints, by Jean Raspail, which involves a mass migration of poverty-stricken Indians from Calcutta to the French Riviera. The authors identify the key global problem of the final years of the twentieth century as the contrast between the developed and developing countries, specifically "unbalanced wealth and resources, unbalanced demographic trends, and the relationship between the two." They consider the consequences of this growing imbalance "in which the rich will have to fight and the poor will have to die if mass migration is not to overwhelm us all."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:10469 Costes, Laurence. Is the ethnic factor an explanation of migrants' economic behavior? [La dimension ethnique: une explication du comportement economique des migrants.] Revue Francaise de Sociologie, Vol. 35, No. 2, Apr-Jun 1994. 231-49, 345-6 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Ger; Spa.
The importance of ethnicity in the economic behavior of immigrants to France is examined, with particular reference to immigrant salesmen working in the underground corridors of the Paris metro. The results indicate that having the necessary business skills and initiatives required to survive in this environment are far more important than belonging to a particular ethnic group.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:10470 Dicke, Hugo; Glismann, Hans H. Migration: the economic calculus of immigrant countries. Kieler Arbeitspapiere/Kiel Working Papers, No. 583, Aug 1993. 28 pp. Universitat Kiel, Institut fur Weltwirtschaft: Kiel, Germany. In Eng.
"This paper is about the economic calculus of the immigrant developed country. It [analyzes] whether migration is detrimental to the welfare of a recipient country, or whether the divergencies between immigrants and native residents are rather a source of welfare increases. The analysis is based on neo-classic economic theory."
Correspondence: Universitat Kiel, Institut fur Weltwirtschaft, Dusternbrooker Weg 120, 24105 Kiel, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10471 Djajic, Slobodan. Minimum wage, unemployment and international migration. Journal of International Trade and Economic Development, Vol. 2, No. 2, Nov 1993. 133-50 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The link between immigration and unemployment among the native workers of the host country is examined within a model which distinguishes individuals in terms of their ability to perform services in the labor market. An inflow of foreign workers is found to have an ambiguous effect on the level of income received by the native factors of production. This is in sharp contrast to the findings that immigration improves welfare in a fully employed host country and that it unambiguously lowers welfare in a minimum-wage economy with homogeneous labor."
Correspondence: S. Djajic, Graduate Institute of International Studies, Geneva, Switzerland. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

61:10472 Donato, Katharine M. U.S. policy and Mexican migration to the United States, 1942-92. Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 75, No. 4, Dec 1994. 705-40 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
This paper examines the relationship between U.S. migration policy and Mexican immigration to the United States over the period 1942-1992. It uses data collected from migrants in 17 Mexican communities concerning their first migration to the United States. "The analysis reveals three patterns of migration. The first large-scale flow of Mexicans occurred between 1942 and 1964, when many men migrated for agricultural employment under a U.S.-sponsored temporary worker program. By the program's end, the second phase of migration emerged. Former braceros who obtained legal papers sponsored their relatives for entry, while others entered illegally. The third pattern of migration began in the late 1970s, when women migrated in large numbers without children, and the migration of men and women who entered on a first trip without legal documents soared." Comments are included from Thomas J. Espenshade (pp. 730-3) and Ricardo Romo (pp. 734-6), as well as a reply from the author (pp. 737-40).
Correspondence: K. M. Donato, Louisiana State University, Department of Sociology, 126 Stubbs Hall, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-5411. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:10473 Emmer, P. C. Intercontinental migration as a world historical process. European Review, Vol. 1, No. 1, Jan 1993. 67-74 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"Human migration has a long and complicated history. A survey of the various migration streams reveals that between 1492 and the present, Europeans have benefitted in much greater numbers from the 'migration escape hatch' than have Africans and Asians."
Correspondence: P. C. Emmer, University of Leiden, Institute for the History of European Expansion, P.O. Box 9515, 2300 RA Leiden, Netherlands. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

61:10474 Espenshade, Thomas J.; Fu, Haishan. A life-course analysis of English-language acquisition by immigrants to the United States. OPR Working Paper, No. 94-4, Feb 1994. 27, [22] pp. Princeton University, Office of Population Research [OPR]: Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
This study uses data from the November 1989 Current Population Survey to examine the process by which non-native English-speaking U.S. immigrants acquire English-language proficiency. The results confirm that each phase of an immigrant's life course contains elements associated with English-language proficiency.
Correspondence: Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10475 Espenshade, Thomas J.; King, Vanessa E. State and local fiscal impacts of U.S. immigrants: evidence from New Jersey. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 13, No. 3, Sep 1994. 225-56 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper uses a household-level estimation strategy to develop new evidence on the state and local fiscal impacts of U.S. immigration. The methodology is applied to 1980 census microdata for New Jersey, a state that now ranks fifth in the nation in the size of its foreign-born population. All New Jersey households combined in 1980 imposed a net fiscal burden on state government of more than U.S. $2.1 billion, and a net burden on the aggregate of all local governments totaling nearly $690 million. Both native- and immigrant-headed households received government benefits worth more than they paid in taxes....There are larger disparities among the foreign-born population than between native-headed and immigrant-headed households....Our findings illustrate the overriding importance of household income and number of school-age children as determinants of taxes paid, benefits received and, ultimately, of net fiscal impacts."
Correspondence: T. J. Espenshade, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10476 Greer, Alex. Canadian immigration: an earlier perspective. Journal of Social, Political and Economic Studies, Vol. 18, No. 4, Winter 1993. 467-89 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Some aspects of past immigration to Canada are examined. The author notes that "many young Canadians today believe that Canada has always been a multi-cultural and multi-ethnic country. This is true only in so far as it was formerly divided on fairly tight geographical lines between French and British-derived populations, with a small minority of American Indians and Inuit eskimoes. However, during the nineteenth century and first decades of this century it was regarded as comprising a nation of Caucasoids, or more precisely a nation of French and of British settlers, willingly accepting only immigrants from Northwestern Europe ethnically affiliated with those two main groups."
Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

61:10477 Heinelt, Hubert. Immigration and the welfare state in Germany. German Politics, Vol. 2, No. 1, Apr 1993. 78-96 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines the connection between the permission to immigrate and the rights to benefits in the welfare state. Drawing on the concept of 'status' as developed by Jellinek, the impact of status on the social position of immigrants is examined. Jellinek's definition of status lends itself well to determining different degrees of inclusion into the welfare state of different groups of immigrants. This is illustrated for the Federal Republic of Germany by a comparison between asylum seekers, newcomers who are entitled to asylum, migrant workers and Aussiedler, that is immigrants of German origin from eastern European countries."
Correspondence: H. Heinhelt, Universitat Hannover, Welfengarten 1, 30167 Hannover, Germany. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

61:10478 Hirschman, Charles. Problems and prospects of studying immigrant adaptation from the 1990 population census: from generational comparisons to the process of "becoming American" Seattle Population Research Center Working Paper, No. 94-5, Jun 1994. 40 pp. University of Washington, Seattle Population Research Center: Seattle, Washington; Battelle Seattle Research Center: Seattle, Washington. In Eng.
"In this paper, I review potential indirect methods to measure the status of the children of immigrants with data from the 1990 [U.S.] Census of Population....The first method relies on the assumption that the native-born of some ethnic and racial groups are largely the children of the new immigrants from Asia and Latin America....The second method is to examine the status of immigrants who arrived in the United States as children."
Correspondence: Seattle Population Research Center, c/o University of Washington, Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology Library, Department of Sociology DK-40, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10479 King, Russell. Recent immigration to Italy: character, causes and consequences. GeoJournal, Vol. 30, No. 3, Jul 1993. 283-92 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"During the 1970s Italy changed from being a country of mass emigration to one of mass immigration, taking over from Germany the role of Europe's main recipient of immigrants from less developed countries. By 1991 the officially registered foreign population in Italy stood at 860,000; however, clandestine migrants push the real figure above 1 million....Analysis of residence permit data show that the immigrants come increasingly from Third World, especially African, countries, and that there is a relative concentration in the north of Italy. One third of the immigrants are Moslem. Employment data are scarce but indicate that around two-thirds are involved in low-grade service sector activities (street-trading, domestic service, hotel work etc.)."
Correspondence: R. King, Trinity College, Department of Geography, Dublin 2, Ireland. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

61:10480 Liang, Zai. On the measurement of naturalization. Demography, Vol. 31, No. 3, Aug 1994. 525-48 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper proposes a new way of measuring naturalization, which takes into account both emigration and death. I argue that the new method corrects for underestimation and thus provides a more accurate measure of the concept. Using data from six groups of the 1973 immigrant cohort and multiple decrement life table techniques, I estimated and compared naturalization measures derived from new and old methods. The results show that failure to control for emigration has a significant effect on the measurement of naturalization, particularly if an immigrant group has [a] relatively high rate of emigration. Some further substantive implications of this new method are also explored."
Correspondence: Z. Liang, City University of New York, Queens College, Department of Sociology, Flushing, NY 11367-1597. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10481 Lin-Yuan, Yihua; Kosinski, Leszek A. Why emigration occurred: Chinese immigrants to Edmonton. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 21, No. 2, 1994. 97-116 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Findings from a 1991 sample survey of recent Chinese immigrants in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, are presented in this paper. Politics and children's education topped the list of various factors that had pushed the Chinese away from their home countries or regions. They were also the most important goals expected to be achieved through emigration. Canada's perceived multiculturalism, lower levels of racial discrimination, and good educational opportunities were reasons for more than 75% of the respondents who chose to migrate to Canada. The study also revealed the constraints and uncertainties that had been perceived by the immigrants in the process of deciding to emigrate."
Correspondence: Y. Lin-Yuan, University of Alberta, Department of Geography, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10482 Lindstrom, David P.; Massey, Douglas S. Selective emigration, cohort quality, and models of immigrant assimilation. Social Science Research, Vol. 23, No. 4, Dec 1994. 315-49 pp. Orlando, Florida. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to investigate how selective emigration, underenumeration, unmeasured heterogeneity, and changing cohort quality might affect the sort of cross-sectional regression models that are typically used to study wage assimilation and language acquisition among immigrants." Data are from the 1990 U.S. census and a unique binational data source developed by the authors covering the period 1989-1991. "Our results suggest that the underenumeration of temporary and undocumented migrants biases the estimated effects of human capital variables downward, but that selective emigration does not significantly affect cross-sectional models. We do find, however, that period of entry is a poor proxy for total migrant experience, and when we disentangle duration and cohort effects, we find some evidence for shifts in cohort quality over time, but not the systematic decline seen by others."
Correspondence: D. P. Lindstrom, University of Chicago, Population Research Center, 1155 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637-2799. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:10483 Lodigiani, Rosangela. Migrant women and informal networks. [Donne migranti e reti informali.] Studi Emigrazione/Etudes Migrations, Vol. 31, No. 115, Sep 1994. 494-506 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The role of women in the process of international migration is analyzed, with particular reference to immigrants in Italy. "The article emphasises the active role immigrant women often play especially in the social field. Many a time the women are the ones who make up family, friendship and community links in the receiving country. These informal networks, so important for single migrating women, encourage immigrant people to become part of the host society."
Correspondence: R. Lodigiani, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Largo A. Gemelli 1, 20123 Milan, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10484 Marie, Claude-Valentin. Immigration toward France in the 1990s: a new factor in the job market and new issues in society. [L'immigration en France dans les annees quatre-vingt-dix: nouvelle donne pour l'emploi et nouveaux enjeux de societe.] Sociologie du Travail, Vol. 36, No. 2, 1994. 143-63 pp. Montrouge, France. In Fre.
A review of trends in the employment of foreigners in France in the 1990s is presented. The author notes that the current economic crisis has resulted in a severe decline in the amount of salaried employment and a trend toward the service sector of the economy. In the second part of the article the author examines some of the issues concerning the dichotomy between labor migration and permanent immigration, and the problems involved in controlling migration flows with regard to the relative roles of international, national, and local authorities.
Correspondence: C.-V. Marie, 3 rue des Petites Ecuries, 75010 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (IR).

61:10485 Marr, William L.; Siklos, Pierre L. The link between immigration and unemployment in Canada. Journal of Policy Modeling, Vol. 16, No. 1, Feb 1994. 1-25 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this paper we consider the joint relationship between immigration and unemployment rates in Canada, conditional on aggregate demand and supply factors, using quarterly data for the period 1962-1990. The novelty of the study...consists first in applying time series methods that permit current immigration to be jointly determined by past, as well as current and future unemployment rates. Second, we present evidence about transitory versus permanent effects of unemployment on immigration in addition to performing tests based on relationships estimated for every possible subsample as opposed to some ad hoc subsample selection. Among the salient results of this study is that current increases in the unemployment rate reduced future immigration rates before 1978. After 1978, however, there is a positive association between past immigration and current unemployment."
Correspondence: P. L. Siklos, Wilfrid Laurier University, Department of Economics, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3C5, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10486 Martin, Philip; Midgley, Elizabeth. Immigration to the United States: journey to an uncertain destination. Population Bulletin, Vol. 49, No. 2, Sep 1994. 47 pp. Population Reference Bureau: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This study "examines recent trends in immigration in the light of laws designed to control the type and number of people entering the country. The authors discuss the major policy issues and public debates surrounding U.S. immigration. They also look at the projected demographic impact of current immigration patterns and review evidence of the economic costs of immigrants to native-born Americans. They examine how the foreign-born U.S. residents, especially those who entered in the 1980s, differ from U.S.-born residents."
Correspondence: Population Reference Bureau, 1875 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 520, Washington, D.C. 20009-5728. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10487 McKie, Craig. A history of emigration from Canada. Canadian Social Trends, No. 35, Winter 1994. 26-9 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
An analysis of trends in emigration from Canada from 1851 to 1991 is presented. "From 1851 to 1991, an estimated 7.9 million Canadian residents left Canada permanently to live in other countries. Immigration to Canada over that period, 12.5 million people, was not even double that total. Although most who emigrated to other countries were Canadian by birth, many had come to Canada as immigrants." The main migrant destination has been and remains the United States.
Correspondence: C. McKie, Carleton University, Department of Sociology, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:10488 Michalowski, Margaret. Temporary immigrants to Canada: numbers and characteristics in the 1980s. In: Studies in applied demography, edited by K. Vaninadha Rao and Jerry W. Wicks. 1994. 289-305 pp. Bowling Green State University, Department of Sociology, Population and Society Research Center: Bowling Green, Ohio. In Eng.
"Recently, Statistics Canada and Employment and Immigration Canada have undertaken research to develop estimates of migration and emigration which conform to the United Nations recommendations....This paper presents results of...research in the area of immigration. In particular, it examines estimates for two categories of foreigners who would be considered immigrants to Canada if the United Nations recommendations were followed: long-term residents with temporary status; and short-term residents with temporary status whose purpose of arrival is to work for remuneration....The paper consists of...a brief description of the methodological framework (definitions, data source, and estimation procedures); an analysis of the size of the two categories of immigrants for the period 1982-1990; an analysis of changes to their place of residence; a presentation of their demographic structure; and a discussion on the quality of estimates."
Correspondence: M. Michalowski, Statistics Canada, Demography Division, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10489 Mitchell, Christopher. International migration as an issue on today's inter-American agenda. Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs, Vol. 36, No. 3, Fall 1994. 93-110 pp. Coral Gables, Florida. In Eng.
"This essay will focus first on current migration issues in inter-American relations, emphasizing the U.S. dealings with Haiti and Cuba about politically-motivated migrants and with Mexico on the subject of labor migration. It will then outline the obstacles to framing migration as a subject of international negotiation. After describing migration-based frictions that may influence...inter-American relations, some suggestions will be advanced as to limited actions that Western Hemisphere governments might take, both individually and collectively, to help defuse migration as a source of political tension."
Correspondence: C. Mitchell, New York University, Center for Latin American and Caribbean Studies, Washington Square, New York, NY 10003. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:10490 Nicolaas, H. Slight increase of immigration in spite of substantial growth in the number of asylum seekers in 1993. [Geringe stijging immigratie ondanks flinke toename aantal asielzoekers in 1993.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 42, No. 9, Sep 1994. 6-18 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The author reviews immigration trends in the Netherlands in 1993. Aspects considered include the extent of migration into and out of the country; changes in migration since 1992; the number of immigrants who were Dutch nationals; origin and destination areas; reasons for migrating; and the number of asylum seekers.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10491 Nogle, June M. The systems approach to international migration: an application of network analysis methods. International Migration, Vol. 32, No. 2, 1994. 329-42 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The objective of this article is to apply formal network analysis to the systems approach [to the study of international migration]. Network analysis will allow two of the four methodological issues to be considered. First, clique and centrality analysis methods will be used to examine the definition and development of ties within an international migration system over time. Second, quadratic assignment procedure (QAP) regression techniques will be used to address the influence of macro factors on international migration flows....[We use] the European Union as a network of migration interest...."
Correspondence: J. M. Nogle, Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program, 134 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10492 Palazon Ferrando, Salvador. Spanish emigration to Latin America, 1946-1990: renewal and crisis in a traditional pattern. [La emigracion espanola a Latinoamerica (1946-1990): reanudacion y crisis de un flujo secular.] Estudios Geograficos, Vol. 54, No. 210, Jan-Mar 1993. 97-128 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
Trends in international migration from Spain to Latin America are analyzed over the period 1946-1990. Two distinct phases are identified. The first, lasting from 1946 to 1958, involved a revival of earlier trends disrupted by the Spanish Civil War and World War II. The second, beginning in 1959, was marked by the development of economic problems in Latin America, which caused a change toward Europe as a migrant destination. This ended in recent times, as Spain changed from a country of emigration to one of immigration.
Correspondence: S. Palazon Ferrando, Universitat d'Alicant, Departamento de Geografia Humana, Ap. de Correus 374, 03080 Alicante, Spain. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

61:10493 Poirine, Bernard. Rent, emigration and unemployment in small islands: the MIRAB model and the French overseas departments and territories. World Development, Vol. 22, No. 12, Dec 1994. 1,997-2,009 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Many small island economies depend heavily on rents coming from the outside: international aid from foreign or metropolitan governments, remittances from emigrants, or fishing rights. Some small islands have massive emigration and almost no unemployment, while others have no emigration (or even immigration), sometimes with high unemployment. The four-sector economic model proposed here tries to explain such differences in migration behavior and unemployment rates, for islands with unlimited legal emigration outlets." The geographical focus is on French departments and territories in the Pacific region.
Correspondence: B. Poirine, Universite Francaise du Pacifique, Centre Universitaire de Polynesie Francaise, B.P. 6570, Aeroport de Faaa, Tahiti, French Polynesia. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

61:10494 Rumbaut, Ruben G. Origins and destinies: immigration to the United States since World War II. Sociological Forum, Vol. 9, No. 4, 1994. 583-621 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Trends in immigration to the United States since World War II are reviewed. The author notes that "contemporary immigration to the United States and the formation of new ethnic groups are the complex and unintended social consequences of the expansion of the nation to its post-World War II position of global hegemony. Immigrant communities in the United States today are related to a history of American military, political, economic, and cultural involvement and intervention in the sending countries, especially in Asia and the Caribbean Basin, and to the linkages that are formed in the process that open a variety of legal and illegal migration pathways. The 19.8 million foreign-born persons counted in the 1990 U.S. census formed the largest immigrant population in the world, though in relative terms, only 7.9% of the U.S. population was foreign-born, a lower proportion than earlier in this century....This paper seeks to make sense of the new diversity. A typology of contemporary immigrants is presented, and their patterns of settlement, their distinctive social and economic characteristics compared to major native-born racial-ethnic groups, and their different modes of incorporation in--and consequences for--American society are considered."
Correspondence: R. G. Rumbaut, Michigan State University, Department of Sociology, East Lansing, MI 48824-1111. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:10495 Shah, Nasra M. An overview of present and future emigration dynamics in South Asia. International Migration, Vol. 32, No. 2, 1994. 217-68 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
"The objective of this overview paper is to provide some preliminary findings on selected aspects of the dynamics that govern emigration from and within the South Asia region. South Asia is defined to include Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. An attempt is made to outline some of the major reasons why observed migration flows are occurring, and how the future might be envisaged, especially in view of government programmes, policies and priorities."
Correspondence: N. M. Shah, Kuwait University, Faculty of Medicine, Safat, Kuwait. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10496 Sprangers, A. H. Family reunification and family-formation migration, 1987-1991. [Gezinsherenigende en gezinsvormende migratie, 1987-1991.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 42, No. 10, Oct 1994. 11-8 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"Indirect estimates were made of family reunification and family formation migration [in the Netherlands], based on such demographic characteristics as nationality, country of birth, age, marital status, year of marriage and family situation after the migration. The estimates are based on the 1992 enumeration from the municipal population registers."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10497 Strepetova, M. P. Migration processes: the problems of Russia. Studies on Russian Economic Development, Vol. 4, No. 3, Jun 1993. 252-6 pp. Moscow, Russia. In Eng.
The author reviews developments in the international migration of skilled personnel since the end of World War II. The primary focus is on the current and future brain drain from the countries that made up the former Soviet Union, and particularly Russia. Attention is given to migration among the successor states, primarily to Russia, as well as migration to Western countries. The need for Russia to develop appropriate policies to minimize the deleterious effects of such migration is noted.
Translated from the Russian article in Problemy Prognozirovaniya.
Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

61:10498 Sullivan, Gerard; Gunasekaran, S. The role of ethnic relations and education systems in migration from Southeast Asia to Australia. Sojourn, Vol. 8, No. 2, Aug 1993. 219-49 pp. Singapore. In Eng.
"After a brief discussion of the geographical, cultural, and historical characteristics of Southeast Asia [and Hong Kong], a review is provided of the evolution of Australian immigration policy which, in our view, is a strong pull factor. This is followed by stock and flow analyses of Asian-born residents in Australia. The motivations for emigration in countries which exhibit substantial emigration rates are considered next and the article ends with the conclusion that demand factors and social networks play a decisive role in the decision to emigrate." Factors affecting migration significantly include political conditions and ethnic relations in countries of origin, and educational and career opportunities in the country of destination.
Correspondence: G. Sullivan, University of Sydney, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:10499 Tapinos, Georges P. International migration and development. Population Bulletin of the United Nations, No. 36, 1994. 1-18 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article assesses the effects of migration on development, emphasizing the shift from a national to an international perspective. The issue of migration, trade and international cooperation is considered next. The last section of the article is devoted to policy with reference to development cooperation as an alternative to migration."
Correspondence: G. P. Tapinos, Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris, 27 rue Saint-Guillaume, 75337 Paris Cedex 07, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10500 Teitelbaum, Michael S.; Russell, Sharon S. International migration, fertility, and development. In: Population and development: old debates, new conclusions, edited by Robert Cassen. 1994. 229-52 pp. Transaction Publishers: New Brunswick, New Jersey/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This chapter explores the relationships among fertility, international population movements, and development. It reviews international migration patterns and trends and considers the range of forces creating increased potential for movement; discusses responses to these forces and trends; and examines the links among international migration, fertility, and underlying demographic change, as well as those between international population movements and economic development in emigration countries."
Correspondence: M. S. Teitelbaum, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, 630 Fifth Avenue, Suite 2550, New York, NY 10111-0242. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10501 Velling, Johannes. Immigration to Germany in the seventies and eighties: the role of family reunification. Labour Economics and Human Resources Series Discussion Paper, No. 93-18, Jul 1993. 33 pp. Zentrum fur Europaische Wirtschaftsforschung: Mannheim, Germany. In Eng.
"In the paper, the reunification of foreign families whose head lives in Germany is considered using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel 1984-1989. Family reunification is identified in two different ways....The relative size of family reunification in proportion to total immigration as well as the linkage to the business cycle fluctuations is determined. Family reunification is analyzed within the framework of a discrete hazard rate model....It turns out that besides nation-specific differences, years since migration, years since marriage, the degree of social integration in Germany, income and unemployment status by the individual and in the economy, as well as the family background are important determinants for the decision to reunite the family."
Correspondence: Zentrum fur Europaische Wirtschaftsforschung, Kaiserring 14-16, 6800 Mannheim 1, Germany. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

61:10502 Vicarelli, Giovanna. Emigration and the labor market: gender differences. [Emigrazioni e mercato del lavoro: differenze di genere.] Sociologia del Lavoro, No. 47-48, 1992. 56-77 pp. Milan, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng.
This study examines the dynamics of the international migration of women, focusing on female migration to the economically developed societies of Europe and North America. The author concludes that the work of immigrant women is becoming important to the economies of developed countries, and particularly to the functioning of their welfare systems. At the same time, the development of economic independence, the accumulation of personal resources, and emancipation from traditional family ties is leading to an improvement in the status of individual migrant women.
Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

H.3. Internal Migration

Studies concerned with internal migration.

61:10503 Belanger, Alain. Interprovincial migration among foreign-born Canadians, 1981-1986. [La migration interprovinciale des personnes nees a l'etranger, Canada, 1981-1986.] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 22, No. 1, Spring 1993. 153-78 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"This article analyzes the spatial distribution as well as interprovincial migration of foreign-born persons living in Canada, using data from the 1986 census. The focus is placed on differences observed in migratory behaviour between native-born Canadians and those born abroad. Net migration patterns as well as the propensity to migrate by place of origin and destination are presented for different population groups according to birthplace. Finally, multiregional life tables are used to evaluate the effect of these migratory differentials on the retentive force exerted by the various regions."
Correspondence: A. Belanger, Statistics Canada, Demography Division, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10504 Blanco Gutierrez, M. Agustina. Toward a reconstruction of interregional migration in Spain. [Hacia una reestructuracion de las migraciones interregionales en Espana.] Estudios Geograficos, Vol. 54, No. 210, Jan-Mar 1993. 51-74 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
Recent trends in internal migration in Spain are analyzed using data from the 1981 census and other official sources. The focus is on regional differences in the country's migration patterns. An overall decline in interregional migration is found.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

61:10505 Bover, Olympia; Antolin, Pablo. Regional migration in Spain. [Migraciones regionales en Espana.] Boletin Economico, May 1993. 61-7 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
An analysis of changes in internal migration in Spain over the course of the 1980s is presented. The focus is on the effect of regional economic factors on individual migration decisions. Data are from official migration surveys undertaken in 1987 and 1991. The main change noted was the conversion of economically underdeveloped regions from areas of out-migration to areas of in-migration, and a similar change in reverse for the more developed regions. The importance of individual factors such as marriage, educational choices, age, and job opportunities on migration is noted.
Correspondence: O. Bover, Banco de Espana, Servicio de Estudios, Alcala 50, 28014 Madrid, Spain. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

61:10506 Boyle, Paul. Metropolitan out-migration in England and Wales, 1980-81. Urban Studies, Vol. 31, No. 10, Dec 1994. 1,707-22 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"A Poisson regression approach is used to model the out-migration from metropolitan districts in England and Wales down the urban hierarchy using flow data extracted from the 1981 British Census. Particular attention is focused upon the counter-urbanisation debate and an original classification of districts is used to examine the extent to which migrants originating in metropolitan origins choose peripheral destinations. The study also distinguishes between origins and destinations in the north and south of England and Wales. It is shown that the extent of population decentralisation from metropolitan districts varies considerably between inner and outer metropolitan areas, that migration down the urban hierarchy is an important feature of population redistribution and that flows into the periphery are primarily a southern phenomenon emanating principally from outer London."
Correspondence: P. Boyle, University of Swansea, Department of Geography, Migration Unit, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP, Wales. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

61:10507 Cooper, Joyce M. R. Migration and market wage risk. Journal of Regional Science, Vol. 34, No. 4, Nov 1994. 563-82 pp. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
The author presents an approach to the analysis of labor migration that incorporates the role of market wage variability as a source of information in individual migration decisions. "The focus...is on quantifying the effects of the origin market acting through amenities and the share of market-specific wage variability as it affects forecasts of alternative wages and forecast precision. A subsample of employed males...from the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLS) age 16 to 22 years is used for estimation. The empirical results are consistent with the theoretically predicted relationship between migration propensities and regional differences in the information content of wages. In addition, the results provide evidence that risk aversion deters migration given uncertainty, measured by forecast precision, about alternative market wage levels."
Correspondence: J. M. R. Cooper, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Boston Research Data Center, 2 Copley Place, Suite 301, Boston, MA 02116. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

61:10508 Geyer, Hermanus S. African urbanization in metropolitan South Africa--differential urbanization perspectives. GeoJournal, Vol. 30, No. 3, Jul 1993. 301-8 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"As a potentially important urban development policy consideration, attention is focused in this paper on differential urbanization trends in South Africa at the metropolitan level. Recent informal urban settlement patterns of the African population within the major metropolitan areas are contrasted against these differential urbanization trends to determine the implications of both for residential development in the metropolitan areas during the post-apartheid era."
Correspondence: H. S. Geyer, University of Potchefstroom, Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

61:10509 Green, A. E. The role of migration in labour-market adjustment: the British experience in the 1980s. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 26, No. 10, Oct 1994. 1,563-77 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this paper the role of migration in bringing labour supply and demand into balance (or in mitigating imbalance) in Britain in the 1980s is investigated....The major trends in migration and unemployment at national and regional scales are outlined, and the key characteristics of job-related migrants are identified. In the main part of the paper the author is concerned with the operationalisation of two contrasting methodological approaches designed to promote a greater understanding of the influences acting on changing migration patterns and the role of migration, alongside other factors in labour-market changes. First, the results from a shift-share approach are discussed; and second, the output from an application of the labour market accounts technique is described."
Correspondence: A. E. Green, University of Warwick, Institute for Employment Research, Coventry CV4 7AL, England. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

61:10510 Hughes, Gordon; McCormick, Barry. Did migration in the 1980s narrow the north-south divide? Economica, Vol. 61, No. 244, Nov 1994. 509-27 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
This study uses data from the Labour Force Surveys for the period 1981-1986 to analyze how net migration in the United Kingdom is influenced by regional labor market circumstances. "The results suggest that relative regional wages rates, but not relative unemployment and vacancy rates, are effective in reallocating labour from regions experiencing adverse demand shocks. We find little evidence that manual labour is migrating from those regions with relatively high manual unemployment, but that migration plays a more conventional role in the regional adjustment process for non-manual workers."
Correspondence: G. Hughes, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9YL, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

61:10511 Knight, John. The temple, the town-office and the migrant: demographic pluralism in rural Japan. Archives Europeennes de Sociologie/European Journal of Sociology/Europaisches Archiv fur Soziologie, Vol. 35, No. 1, 1994. 21-47 pp. New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
The author analyzes internal migration patterns in Japan since World War II. The focus is on migrant selectivity and the continuation of ties with the place of migrant origin. The author also examines the changes in migration patterns that occurred in the 1970s, particularly the migration of first-born sons away from rural communities.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:10512 Kritz, Mary M.; Nogle, June M. Nativity concentration and internal migration among the foreign-born. Demography, Vol. 31, No. 3, Aug 1994. 509-24 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Are immigrants who live in states where large numbers of their compatriots reside more or less likely to migrate than those who live in other states? Using 1980 U.S. Census data to address that question, the analysis shows that nativity concentration deters interstate migration but not migration within the same state. Residing in a state where fellow nationals live is a more important determinant of internal migration than human capital, immigration status, or a state's unemployment rate. New York State residence in 1975 also promotes interstate migration. This research suggests that social dimensions should be taken into account in modeling internal migration of the foreign-born."
Correspondence: M. M. Kritz, Cornell University, Population and Development Program, 134 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10513 Lelievre, Eva; Bonvalet, Catherine. A compared cohort history of residential mobility, social change and home-ownership in Paris and the rest of France. Urban Studies, Vol. 31, No. 10, Dec 1994. 1,647-65 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"The joint analysis of two INED longitudinal surveys, one based on a national sample and the other on a sample of Parisians, presents a reconstruction of the residential history of a [French] cohort born between 1926 and 1935 and an evaluation of the role of the Paris region in the migration patterns of these generations....A comparison of the social as well as the residential histories of individuals confirms the close link between geographical and social mobility. The analysis of the social origin and the occupational characteristics of individuals in these categories exhibits the high social mobility in the Paris region which favours dynasties of professionals and provides better opportunities for the other occupations....Another characteristic of the post-1950s housing transformation is the diffusion of home-ownership."
Correspondence: E. Lelievre, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

61:10514 Longino, Charles F. From sunbelt to sunspots. American Demographics, Vol. 16, No. 11, Nov 1994. 22-31 pp. Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
Recent trends in internal migration by older migrants in the United States are reviewed, with the emphasis on the implications of such trends for business. Data are from Sample A of the Census Public Use Microdata files.
Correspondence: C. F. Longino, Wake Forest University, Department of Sociology, Winston-Salem, NC 27109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10515 Ma, Zhongdong; Liaw, Kao-Lee. Education selectivity in internal migration in mainland China. Journal of Population Studies, No. 16, Jul 1994. 135-59 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Eng. with sum. in Chi.
"The purpose of this paper is to study the selectivity in...internal migration in Mainland China with respect to the level of education, based on a sample of young adults (aged 17-29) taken from the micro data of the 1987 one-percent National Population Survey (NPS87)....[We focus first] on the education selectivity in migrations among the city, town and rural strata of the urban/rural hierarchy [and then examine] the education selectivity in migration among metropolitan, coastal and interior regions."
Correspondence: K.-L. Liaw, McMaster University, Department of Geography, 1280 Main Street, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10516 Massaar, J. Internal migration in the Marshall Islands: an explorative study. Groningen Demographic Reports, No. 16, 1993. 29 pp. University of Groningen, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, Population Research Centre: Groningen, Netherlands. In Eng.
An analysis of recent trends in internal migration in the Marshall Islands is presented using data from the 1988 census.
Correspondence: University of Groningen, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, Population Research Centre, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10517 Morrison, Andrew R. Unproductive migration reconsidered: a stochastic frontier production function framework for analyzing internal migration. Oxford Economic Papers, Vol. 45, Jul 1993. 501-18 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper measures the output gains and losses from migration by using stochastic frontier production functions to identify migrants' marginal revenue products in both origin and destination areas. After this output effect of migration has been calculated, adjustments are made for: (1) the negative externalities produced by migrants; and (2) distorted domestic relative prices. At least in the Peruvian case, internal migration is shown to have increased gross domestic product. This result is quite robust, and obtains both with and without the aforementioned adjustments."
Correspondence: A. R. Morrison, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

61:10518 Nishioka, Hachiro; Wakabayashi, Keiko; Inaba, Hisashi; Yamamoto, Chizuko. Migration trends in Japan: major findings from the Third Japanese National Survey on Migration, 1991. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 50, No. 1, Apr 1994. 1-28 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
The authors present some of the major findings from the Third Japanese National Survey on Migration, which was conducted in 1991 and covered a representative sample of 34,781 persons. Data are included on interregional migration, origins and destinations, urban migration, household characteristics, place of birth, return migration, and norms of family formation.
Correspondence: H. Nishioka, Kanamori 1793-526, Machida City, Tokyo, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10519 Partida Bush, Virgilio. Levels and trends in international migration in Mexico using census data, 1970-1990. [Niveles y tendencias de la migracion interna en Mexico a partir de las cifras censales, 1970-1990.] Revista Mexicana de Sociologia, Vol. 55, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1993. 155-76 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"The author presents estimates of interstate migration [in Mexico] by age and gender for the country's overall internal migration and for each of the states, without specifying age or gender, for the five years leading up to the censuses carried out in 1970, 1980 and 1990. Estimates are based directly on census figures. On the whole, internal migration was lowest in the 80s and slightly higher in the 90s than in the 70s."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:10520 Plane, D. A. The wax and wane of interstate migration patterns in the U.S.A. in the 1980s: a demographic effectiveness field perspective. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 26, No. 10, Oct 1994. 1,545-61 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The author analyzes the structure of temporal changes in U.S. internal migration over the period 1980-1988 using data from matched income tax returns. "A number of hypotheses are explored about how in-migration and out-migration fields wax and wane, thereby giving rise to the overall shifts in demographic effectiveness measured over the period. The results highlight the characteristics of recent (1980-88) shifts in U.S. internal migration patterns including net migration reversals from strong net in-migration to strong net out-migration for states with significant energy sectors, the stanching of net out-migration from many states of the American manufacturing belt, the turnaround to net in-migration for all of northern New England, and the continuance of highly effective net in-migration to the sunbelt states of Florida, Arizona, and Nevada."
Correspondence: D. A. Plane, University of Arizona, Department of Geography and Regional Development, Harvill Building, Box 2, Tucson, AZ 85721. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

61:10521 Rahman, M. Mizanur. National growth rate method with varying internal migration rate. Bangladesh Development Studies, Vol. 21, No. 2, Jun 1993. 67-74 pp. Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
"The assumption of 'uniform flow of internal migration' used in [the paper by] Rahman (1987) is generalised in this paper for cases when the flow of internal migration is increasing or even decreasing. In particular, the cases when the migration rate is proportional to the national population or to the regional population are analysed. Procedure for estimation of the migration rate and the pure migration are given. The formula for prediction of population is also provided. As an application of the procedure, migration to the Dhaka SMA is analysed with the help of Census data [for Bangladesh]."
For the study by Rahman, published in 1987, see 57:10546.
Correspondence: M. M. Rahman, Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies, E-17, Agargaon, Sher-e-Bangla Nagar, G.P.O. Box No. 3854, Dhaka 1207, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

61:10522 Sanchez, Dolores; Estrella Valenzuela, Gabriel. Baja California: the dynamics of migration and the labor force. [Baja California: dinamica migratoria y mercado de trabajo.] Comercio Exterior, Vol. 44, Mar 1994. 217-26 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
This study examines aspects of migration to the Mexican state of Baja California and its impact on the labor force. More specifically, the authors analyze the educational characteristics of migrants living in the cities of Tijuana and Mexicali, the effect of educational status on income and occupation of migrants as compared to natives, and how education affects insertion in the labor force and salary levels.
Correspondence: D. Sanchez, Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Escuela de Humanidades, Apartado Postal 459, Avenida Alvaro Obregon y Julian Carrillo s/n, 21100 Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

61:10523 Shivalingappa, B. N.; Mahadev, P. D. Spatial pattern of migration of plantation labour and its dynamics. Population Geography, Vol. 14, No. 1-2, Jun-Dec 1992. 45-52 pp. Chandigarh, India. In Eng.
"This study examines the issue of migration trends being witnessed by areas of plantation agriculture [in India]. The focus is on the linkages between structural changes in local economies, the overall development policy and people's responses to plantation agriculture both as an economic activity and as a way of life. Based on field data, it is a case study of Hassan district, Karnataka."
Correspondence: B. N. Shivalingappa, University of Mysore, Department of Geography, P.O. Box 407, Mysore 570 005, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10524 Stillwell, J. C. H. Monitoring intercensal migration in the United Kingdom. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 26, No. 11, Nov 1994. 1,711-30 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This author demonstrates the utility of the National Health Service Central Register of patient reregistrations for providing continuous information for monitoring changes over time in migration behaviour within the United Kingdom. An information system has been constructed that contains annual time-series data with which to illustrate trends in the volume, composition, and geographical distribution of migration during the 1980s. Issues of data reliability and system expansion are amongst those discussed."
Correspondence: J. C. H. Stillwell, University of Leeds, School of Geography, Leeds LS2 9JT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

61:10525 Szasz, Ivonne. Women in the labor force and migration. The female labor market between 1950 and 1990 and female migration to Santiago, Chile. [La mujer en el trabajo y la migration. El mercado laboral femenino entre 1950 y 1990 y la inmigracion de mujeres a la ciudad de Santiago de Chile.] Notas de Poblacion, Vol. 22, No. 59, Jun 1994. 9-50 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This article examines the relationships between changes in the volume, relative importance and growth rates of female migration to Santiago [Chile], and modifications in the structure of the female labour market during the past four decades. It also analyzes changes in the characteristics of occupational insertion of migrants as compared to non-migrant women." The author investigates the impact of modernization, education, access to contraceptives, rural labor markets, and development strategies.
Correspondence: I. Szasz, El Colegio de Mexico, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10526 Walters, William H. Climate and U.S. elderly migration rates. Papers in Regional Science, Vol. 73, No. 3, 1994. 309-29 pp. Urbana, Illinois. In Eng.
"This study investigates the impact of climate on [U.S.] metropolitan elderly migration rates. Factor analysis is used to identify six factors within a set of forty climatic variables. These six factors, along with eleven nonclimatic variables, are used to predict elderly in- and outmigration rates. Metropolitan areas with mild winters and low average incomes are attractive to elderly inmigrants, while those with high rents and clear, dry summers are likely to lose older residents through outmigration. These findings are consistent with the life course model of mobility, and with the distinction between conservative and innovating migrants."
Correspondence: W. H. Walters, Brown University, Department of Sociology, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10527 Yang, Xiushi. A sensitivity analysis of repeat migration attrition in the study of migrant adjustment: the case of Bangkok. Demography, Vol. 31, No. 4, Nov 1994. 585-92 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Studies of migrant adjustment often conclude that results apply only to remaining migrants. This paper examines the potential bias in using the difference between remaining migrants and natives as a measure of migrant adjustment. The results document that differences between remaining migrants and natives contain bias caused by attrition due to repeat migration. Such bias is small, however, and is unlikely to change migrant-native comparisons. Unless one is concerned with details of differences between migrants and natives, it is unnecessary to be concerned about migration attrition bias in drawing conclusions from the observed differences." Data are from a 1977 survey in Bangkok, Thailand.
Correspondence: X. Yang, Old Dominion University, Department of Sociology and Criminal Justice, Norfolk, VA 23529. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.4. Settlement and Resettlement

Studies on international and internal settlement and resettlement, including programs concerned with refugees and their settlement and with forced migrations.

61:10528 Carter, F. W. Ethnicity as a cause of migration in Eastern Europe. GeoJournal, Vol. 30, No. 3, Jul 1993. 241-8 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Migration within and from Eastern Europe [including Yugoslavia] has recently risen as a topic of significance on the European political agenda. One aspect of this complex migration matrix relates to ethnic unrest. This paper examines the scale and spatial ramifications of this movement....An attempt is made to divide the ethnic quilt of Eastern Europe into those countries with few such problems and those with many. It is possible then to define areas of active migration (hot spots) from those of potential migration ([flammable] spots) based on predictions from the current situation."
Correspondence: F. W. Carter, University of London, Department of Social Sciences, School of Slavonic and East European Studies, London WC1E 7HU, England. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

61:10529 Wood, William B. Forced migration: local conflicts and international dilemmas. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 84, No. 4, Dec 1994. 607-34 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Current patterns and trends in forced migration are increasingly a result of ethnic conflict, inequitable access to natural resources, declining living conditions, and chronic and pervasive human rights abuses. As a result of these overlapping causal factors and an international trend towards tighter immigration and asylum policies, many of those who have been forcibly uprooted, particularly those who remain within their country, are without adequate protection and assistance. This paper argues that legalistic distinctions between 'economic migrants' and 'political refugees' impedes multilateral efforts to prevent an increase in all types of forced migrations. Such efforts must focus on underlying conditions that prompt political and socioeconomic instability."
Correspondence: W. B. Wood, U.S Department of State, Office of the Geographer and Global Issues, Washington, D.C. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

H.5. Temporary Migration

Migration, both internal and international, in which the stay is temporary. Includes return migration, transit migration, commuting, and seasonal migration.

61:10530 Camstra, Ronald. Household relocation and commuting distance in a gender perspective. PDOD Paper, No. 26, Aug 1994. 19 pp. Universiteit van Amsterdam, Postdoctorale Onderzoekersopleiding Demografie [PDOD]: Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
Trends in commuting in the Netherlands are analyzed using the TelePanel data set collected in 1992-1993. The focus is on the relationship between commuting distance and residential mobility, and the differences between men and women in this respect.
Correspondence: R. Camstra, University of Amsterdam, Department of Planning and Demography, Nieuwe Prinsengracht 130, 1018 VZ Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.6. Rural-Urban Migration

Migration from rural to urban areas (the rural exodus), both internal and international. Reverse or turnaround migration is also included.

61:10531 Gawryszewski, Andrzej; Jerczynski, Marek. Recent demographic changes in Poland and their impact on the urban system. [Les recents changements demographiques en Pologne et leur impact sur le systeme urbain.] Bulletin de la Societe Languedocienne de Geographie, Vol. 26, No. 1-2, 1992. 15-33 pp. Montpellier, France. In Fre.
The authors note that trends in natural increase in Poland are becoming more uniform over time and that regional differences are becoming less pronounced. Following the major migrations that followed the end of World War II, the level of migration has declined, but remains significant. They estimate that between 1971 and 1980, 10 million rural-urban migrants were added to the urban population. Although this migration declined in importance after 1980, the major cities continue to attract migrants while smaller towns decline and the rural population ages.
Correspondence: A. Gawryszewski, Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization, Krakowskie Przedmiescie 30, 00-927 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Cornell University Library, NYSSILR Extension, Ithaca, NY.

61:10532 Lakshmanasamy, T. Intrafamily relations, migration and remittances. Artha Vijnana, Vol. 35, No. 1, Mar 1993. 86-94 pp. Pune, India. In Eng.
"This paper attempts to develop a formal model of interdependent decision making within the context of the family with regard to migration and remittances. The migration process is viewed as a deliberate strategy designed by the family for maximizing its total welfare. The interrelationships between the migrant and the rest of the family are modelled as a self-enforcing co-operative game and the remittances are an a priori requirement for the distribution of gains in an implicit co-insurance system. The migration decision and the remittances are determined by the bargaining strength of the migrant and the rest of the family, who act to promote their own self-interest." The focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: T. Lakshmanasamy, University of Madras, Madras 600 005, India. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

61:10533 Mariko, Soumaila. The economic integration of immigrants into urban areas in various regions of the world: a summary of research. [Insertion economique des immigrants en ville dans differentes regions du monde: bilan des travaux.] Working Paper du CERPOD, No. 15, Feb 1994. 56 pp. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherche sur la Population pour le Developpement [CERPOD]: Bamako, Mali. In Fre.
This is a review of the literature concerning the economic absorption of migrants into urban areas. The primary focus is on Africa, but the review includes such migrations throughout the world to supplement the few studies available concerning Africa itself.
Correspondence: Centre d'Etudes et de Recherche sur la Population pour le Developpement, B.P. 1530, Bamako, Mali. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10534 Nangia, Parveen; Gupta, Kamla. Socio-demographic profile on low income migrants in Thane. IIPS Research Report Series, No. 9, 1993-1994. viii, 55 pp. International Institute for Population Sciences: Bombay, India. In Eng.
Results of a survey of migrants to the Bombay satellite town of Thane, India, carried out in 1989-1990, are presented. The focus is on living conditions in the slums and the characteristics of slum-dwellers, and on the reasons why people migrate from rural areas to live in slum conditions.
Correspondence: International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Bombay 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10535 Piette, Christine; Ratcliffe, Barrie M. Migrants and the city: a new look at Paris in the first half of the nineteenth century. [Les migrants et la ville: un nouveau regard sur le Paris de la premiere moitie du XIXe siecle.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1993. 263-302 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
An analysis of migration to Paris, France, during the first half of the nineteenth century is presented using data from three main sources: hospital admissions records, marriage acts, and registers of beggars. The authors conclude that "immigrants constituted the majority of the city's population at this time, just as they did in preceding and following periods. The basin from which they were drawn can be clearly defined and can also be shown to be widening from the early century onward. Even if proportionally more immigrants encounter socioeconomic difficulties than do native-born Parisians, we suggest that, on the whole, their insertion into the urban economy and space was much less difficult than elite contemporaries and scholars have...believed."
Correspondence: C. Piette, Universite Laval, Quebec G1K 7P4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10536 Sebastian, A. Bombay and its in-migrants. IIPS Research Report Series, No. 3, 1993-1994. [viii], 74 pp. International Institute for Population Sciences: Bombay, India. In Eng.
This is an analysis of the characteristics of migrants to the Indian city of Bombay using data from a 1979 survey of some 3,000 households.
Correspondence: International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Bombay 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10537 Tati, Gabriel. Migration, urbanization, and development in the Congo. [Migration, urbanisation et developpement au Congo.] Les Cahiers de l'IFORD, No. 5, ISBN 3-905327-19-7. Jun 1993. 94 pp. Institut de Formation et de Recherche Demographiques [IFORD]: Yaounde, Cameroon; Centre Francais sur la Population et le Developpement [CEPED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is one in a series of studies that reviews the literature and summarizes current research on rural-urban migration and urbanization in selected African countries. This study concerns the Congo. Particular attention is given to actual and potential policy initiatives to deal with the consequences of migration to urban areas.
Correspondence: Institut de Formation et de Recherche Demographiques, B.P. 1556, Yaounde, Cameroon. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10538 Timnou, Joseph-Pierre. Migration, urbanization, and development in Cameroon. [Migration, urbanisation et developpement au Cameroun.] Les Cahiers de l'IFORD, No. 4, ISBN 3-905327-19-7. Jun 1993. 115 pp. Institut de Formation et de Recherche Demographiques [IFORD]: Yaounde, Cameroon; Centre Francais sur la Population et le Developpement [CEPED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is one in a series of studies that reviews the literature and summarizes current research on rural-urban migration and urbanization in selected African countries. This study concerns Cameroon. Particular attention is given to actual and potential policy initiatives to deal with the consequences of migration to urban areas.
Correspondence: Institut de Formation et de Recherche Demographiques, B.P. 1556, Yaounde, Cameroon. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10539 Wu, Harry Xiaoying. Rural to urban migration in the People's Republic of China. China Quarterly, No. 139, Sep 1994. 669-98 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Rural-urban migration in China since 1949 is examined. "This article has two aims. First, it will develop a new method, using available aggregate data, to estimate the 'real' size of Chinese urban population over the period 1949-90, and then derive urban net migration during the same period. Secondly, with these estimates, it will analyse the patterns of China's urbanization and migration in the process of industrialization in both pre-reform and post-reform periods."
Correspondence: H. X. Wu, University of Adelaide, Chinese Economy Research Unit, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:10540 Xu, Chenggang. Risk aversion, rural-urban wage differentiation and migration. Centre for Economic Performance Discussion Paper, No. 108, Dec 1992. 54 pp. London School of Economics and Political Science, Centre for Economic Performance: London, England. In Eng.
Evidence is presented that there is a labor-shortage problem in China due to insufficient rural-urban migration, and that people in poor rural areas migrate less than people in rich rural areas. The author suggests that migration "is regarded as an instrument of the income portfolio of a household: facing high risks of food price fluctuation, a geographically extended cooperative household which has land and has out-migrants regards city jobs as high-risk high-income opportunities, and regards agricultural production on its own land as low-risk low-income opportunities....If poorer households are more risk averse than rich households, then...a poor rural household will have fewer rural-urban migrants than a richer rural household. An important implication of this result is that the gap between the poor and rich is widened when there are opportunities for rural laborers to migrate to cities, and migration provides better chances to earn higher incomes."
Correspondence: London School of Economics and Political Science, Centre for Economic Performance, Houghton Street, London WC2A 2AE, England. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.


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