Volume 61 - Number 1 - Spring 1995

G. Nuptiality and the Family

Studies that quantitatively analyze aspects of nuptiality and the family. Studies concerned equally with marriage and the family are coded first under G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to G.1. Marriage and Divorce . Methodological studies on nuptiality and the family are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , as appropriate.

G.1. Marriage and Divorce

Studies of trends in marriage and divorce, nuptiality, duration of marriage, age at marriage, and demographic characteristics of marriage partners. Also includes studies of unmarried cohabitation and consensual unions.

61:10381 Atoh, Makoto; Takahashi, Shigesato; Nakano, Eiko; Watanabe, Yoshikazu; Kojima, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Ryuichi; Mita, Fusami. Attitudes toward marriage and family among unmarried Japanese youth. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 50, No. 1, Apr 1994. 29-49 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
The authors report principal findings from a survey on attitudes toward marriage and family in Japan. Data are from interviews with 9,636 unmarried men and women aged 18-49 who were interviewed in 1992. Information is provided on marriage intentions, costs and benefits of marriage, obstacles to marriage, desired marriage types (love match or arranged), attitudes toward residing with parents after marriage, friends of the opposite sex, desired number of children, and timing of first marriage.
Correspondence: M. Atoh, 7-606 Kuzugaya, Midori-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kangawa, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10382 Brien, Michael J.; Lillard, Lee A. Education, marriage, and first conception in Malaysia. Journal of Human Resources, Vol. 29, No. 4, Fall 1994. 1,167-204 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"This paper examines cohort and ethnic differences in education, the timing of marriage, and the timing of first conception for women in Peninsular Malaysia. We examine the roles of education and enrollment in delaying marriage and first conception and the role of marriage in delayed first conception and dropping out of school. We focus on the joint nature of these decisions by controlling for the endogeneity of one outcome as it affects the others. Changes in education and enrollment account for a substantial portion of the cohort trend toward later marriage in Malaysia. Further, most of the rise in the age at first conception across cohorts and ethnic groups is fully accounted for by cohort and ethnic differences in the age at marriage."
Correspondence: L. A. Lillard, RAND, 1700 Main Street, Santa Monica, CA 90401. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

61:10383 Fu, Haishan; Goldman, Noreen. Are healthier people more likely to marry? An event history analysis based on the NLSY. OPR Working Paper, No. 94-5, Jul 1994. 32, [12] pp. Princeton University, Office of Population Research [OPR]: Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
The authors use data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) for the period 1979-1991 to examine whether the better health enjoyed by married people is primarily due to the fact that healthier people are more likely to marry. "Our findings support the hypothesis that health-related selection mechanisms into first marriage are indeed operative in the United States. By and large, these mechanisms result in lower marriage probabilities for persons with unhealthy behaviors (such as high levels of alcohol consumption and use of hard drugs) and with physical characteristics that are typically associated with poorer past and future health statuses (obesity and short stature). In contrast, there is only a modest and statistically insignificant association between the presence of health limitations and first marriage rates."
An earlier version of this paper was presented at the 1994 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10384 Gentleman, Jane F.; Park, Evelyn. Age differences of married and divorcing couples. [Differences d'age dans les couples maries et qui divorcent.] Health Reports/Rapports sur la Sante, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1994. 225-40 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
"This paper analyzes the probability of a married couple getting divorced, based on the age difference between the husband and wife. To calculate such probabilities, the distribution of age differences of married couples was derived from [Canada's] 1991 Census and the 1990 General Social Survey, and the distribution of age differences of divorcing couples was obtained from 1991 divorce data provided by the Department of Justice Canada. These distributions...are also analyzed in this paper....A model is developed that shows that divorce rates are lowest when the husband is two to ten years older than the wife or when the magnitude of their age difference is extremely large. Furthermore, the chance of divorce is much higher when the wife is older than the husband than vice versa."
Correspondence: J. F. Gentleman, Statistics Canada, Health Statistics Division, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10385 Givens, Benjamin P.; Hirschman, Charles. Modernization and consanguineous marriage in Iran. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 56, No. 4, Nov 1994. 820-34 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"Using data on 4,667 women from the 1976-77 Iran Fertility Survey, we examine the trend and social correlates of consanguineous marriage in Iran....We hypothesize a declining trend in consanguineous marriage over time and negative relationships between consanguinity and measures of social status. Contrary to our expectations, there was a modest increase in the proportion of marriages between cousins in Iran from the 1940s to 1970s. Results from multivariate logistic regressions, however, indicate that many of the measures of individual social status had the expected negative relationships with consanguinity. Overall, the results of this analysis suggest that forces of modernization may be slowly eroding the social bases of consanguinity, while the increased availability of cousins may lead to an increase in consanguinity in the near term."
Correspondence: B. P. Givens, University of Washington, Department of Sociology, Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology, DK-40, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10386 Goodkind, Daniel. The Vietnamese double marriage squeeze. Working Papers in Demography, No. 47, 1994. 22, [2] pp. Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper examines gender imbalances among young Vietnamese and their implications for marriage squeeze in Vietnam and abroad. In Vietnam, a combination of rapid population growth, excess male mortality owing to sequential military conflicts, and excess male migration after the war of reunification have led to one of the world's greatest shortages of men at primary marriageable ages....In contrast, young Vietnamese males residing abroad face an even stronger deficit of Vietnamese women. The consequences for overseas men have included delayed marriage and an increasing tendency to marry a non-Vietnamese...."
Correspondence: Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Division of Demography and Sociology, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10387 Hendrix, Nancy; Hayes, Terrell. Divorce rates: causes of regional differences and implications for purchasing behavior. In: Studies in applied demography, edited by K. Vaninadha Rao and Jerry W. Wicks. 1994. 165-82 pp. Bowling Green State University, Department of Sociology, Population and Society Research Center: Bowling Green, Ohio. In Eng.
"To those who are interested in applied demography, both antecedents and consequences of state and regional variation in divorce rates are legitimate concerns....Our discussion will be divided into two principal parts. The first will focus on an exploration of theoretical and empirical issues used in explaining the rates and include a brief update on rates. The second will focus on how retailers, wholesalers, manufacturers, marketers, and managers of international and local businesses may profitably use the information about the spatial patterning of marital dissolution rates. The data on divorce and marriage rates are from the [U.S.] National Center for Health Statistics."
Correspondence: N. Hendrix, Demographic Data Consultants, Nashville, TN 37235. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10388 Kaufmann, Jean-Claude. Nuptiality or conjugality? Data analysis and the present state of conjugal evolution in Europe. [Nuptialite ou conjugalite? Critique d'un indicateur et etat des evolutions conjugales en Europe.] Archives Europeennes de Sociologie/European Journal of Sociology/Europaisches Archiv fur Soziologie, Vol. 35, No. 1, 1994. 3-20 pp. New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Fre.
This study analyzes recent changes in nuptiality in Europe using data from a recent survey on loneliness. Topics covered include the unmarried, couple formation, marriage age, consensual unions, and divorce. In particular, the author attempts to develop a new theory of contemporary marriage to replace that developed by Hajnal in the 1960s.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:10389 Kojima, Hiroshi. Determinants of first marital formation in Japan: does the sibling configuration matter? Institute of Population Problems Reprint Series, No. 21, Sep 1994. 23 pp. Institute of Population Problems: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng. with sum. in Jpn.
"This study attempts to clarify the effects of sib size, birth order and the possession of older brothers, older sisters, younger brothers, or younger sisters on first marriage formation in Japan." Data are from the 1982 National Fertility Survey. The importance of the parental control, acquaintance opportunity, and normative order factors on first marriage is established. Factors such as household crowding and demand for children have only a limited impact.
Correspondence: Institute of Population Problems, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-45, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10390 Lee, Mei-Lin. Changes in marital status in Taiwan during the twentieth century. Journal of Population Studies, No. 16, Jul 1994. 1-15 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Chi. with sum. in Eng.
"This study describes...changes in marital status during [the twentieth] century, by analyzing each census result conducted during the time of Japanese occupation and after the war in Taiwan. Taking the age specific statistics, which include sex ratio, proportion...ever married, the widowed, and the divorced, as well as rates of divorce and remarriage, this study presents the marriage patterns in terms of formation, dissolution and reformation in Taiwan of this century."
Correspondence: M.-L. Lee, National Chung Cheng University, Department of Social Welfare, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10391 Li, Jiang Hong; Wojtkiewicz, Roger A. Childhood family structure and entry into first marriage. Sociological Quarterly, Vol. 35, No. 2, May 1994. 247-68 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"The present study uses data from the [U.S.] National Survey of Families and Households to examine socialization and stress hypotheses which link family structure during childhood with entry into first marriage. Results from logistic regressions show evidence for both hypotheses. The findings show that years lived with mother only during early childhood and change from both biological parents to mother-only families significantly increase chances for delayed marriage for whites. One other factor, being born into a mother-only family, increased chances for early marriage. Thus, for whites, we found counteracting influences of family structure during childhood on marriage. For blacks, the family structure measures, overall, show little effect on entry into marriage."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1991 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: R. A. Wojtkiewicz, Louisiana State University, Department of Sociology, 126 Stubbs Hall, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-5411. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:10392 Loomis, Laura S.; Landale, Nancy S. Nonmarital cohabitation and childbearing among black and white American women. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 56, No. 4, Nov 1994. 949-62 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"Previous studies have suggested that there are racial differences in the role of cohabitation in the family-formation process. This study provides an empirical analysis of this issue by examining the childbearing behavior of approximately 733 black and 2,986 white cohabiting and married [U.S.] women at two stages in the marital life course. The results indicate that, for both first unions and first postmarital unions, the rate of childbearing within cohabitation more closely approximates the rate of childbearing within legal marriage among black women than white women. In fact, among black women in first postmarital unions, cohabitors and the legally married are equally likely to have a birth. In addition, among white women, the likelihood of a birth among relatively disadvantaged cohabitors is closer to that of legally married women than is the likelihood of a birth among more advantaged cohabitors. Overall, it appears that cohabitation is most similar to legal marriage as a setting for childbearing among black women and relatively disadvantaged white women."
Correspondence: L. S. Loomis, Westat Inc., 1650 Research Boulevard, Rockville, MD 20850-3129. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10393 Manting, Dorien. Dynamics in marriage and cohabitation. An inter-temporal, life course analysis of first union formation and dissolution. PDOD Publications Series A: Doctoral Dissertations, ISBN 90-5170-295-7. 1994. 223 pp. Thesis Publishers: Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Dut.
"This book gives insight into historic and life-course specific influences on the formation and dissolution of first unions of women in the Netherlands. It demonstrates the influence of early life course experiences on union formation and dissolution, the principle of later life course experiences replacing earlier ones and the competition of the educational, occupational and fertility career with union formation and dissolution. The multivariate event history analyses cover entry into a first union, either by cohabitation or by marriage, the transition from cohabitation to marriage, and the disruption of first unions. The analyses were made with data from the Netherlands Fertility and Family Survey 1988 on nearly six thousand women born between 1950 and 1969." The study was conducted as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Amsterdam.
Correspondence: Thesis Publishers, Bickersgracht 60, 1013 LG Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10394 Mishra, Vinod; Singh, Vinod. Regional variations in the female age at marriage in India: an analysis by agro-climatic zones. Population Geography, Vol. 14, No. 1-2, Jun-Dec 1992. 1-26 pp. Chandigarh, India. In Eng.
"The effect of agro-climatic factors on female age at marriage [in India] is studied by carrying out areal analysis of the 1981 Census data. The study found a close association between agricultural and climatic conditions in an area and corresponding female age at marriage. In general, women in Himalayan regions and coastal areas have higher age at marriage than most hinterland regions. Rainfall, altitude, forest area, land availability and productivity are observed to be associated with female age at marriage. In addition, female age at marriage in rural areas is found to be more sensitive to the agro-climatic conditions. It is hypothesized that with socio-economic and technological development, the agricultural and climatic factors are losing their grip on female age at marriage in India."
Correspondence: V. Mishra, East-West Center, Program on Population, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10395 Niemeyer, Frank. Nonmarital cohabitation and married couples--forms of partnership yesterday and today. [Nichteheliche Lebensgemeinschaften und Ehepaare--Formen der Partnerschaft gestern und heute.] Wirtschaft und Statistik, No. 7, Jul 1994. 504-17 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger.
Estimates of the extent of nonmarital cohabitation in Germany are presented using data from the 1992 microcensus. Topics covered include age and marital status of partners, number of children in the household, differences between unmarried and married couples, differences between the former East and West Germany, and labor force participation. Comparisons are also made with West German data for 1972 and 1982 and with international data.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

61:10396 Oropesa, R. S.; Lichter, Daniel T.; Anderson, Robert N. Marriage markets and the paradox of Mexican American nuptiality. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 56, No. 4, Nov 1994. 889-907 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"The paradox of Mexican American nuptiality is that first marriage rates among Mexican Americans are similar to those among Anglos, despite economic circumstances that closely approximate those of African Americans. Using event histories constructed from the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this study extends previous analyses by investigating the roles of both structural (e.g., pool of marriageable men) and cultural (e.g., familism) factors in the marriage transitions of 3,853 Mexican American, African American, and Anglo women. The results support three main conclusions. First, similarities are outweighed by differences in the marriage process across these groups. Second, cultural indicators do not explain group differences. Third, the unique aspects of the marriage process among Mexican Americans cannot be fully understood without taking their generational heterogeneity into account."
Correspondence: R. S. Oropesa, Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 206 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10397 Oropesa, R. S. The internalization of marriage and cohabitation norms: a comparison of non-Hispanic whites, Mexican Americans, and Puerto Ricans. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 94-23, 1994. 27, [5] pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"Using the 1988 [U.S.] National Survey of Families and Households, this research examines the internalization of norms regarding marriage and cohabitation among non-Hispanic whites, Mexican Americans, and mainland Puerto Ricans. The results indicate that Mexican Americans tend to be more pronuptial than non-Hispanic whites. They more positively evaluate marriage relative to singlehood and information on marriage intentions significantly boosts their approval of cohabitation."
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6211. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10398 Oropesa, R. S.; Hogan, Dennis. The status of women in Mexico: an analysis of marital power dynamics. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 94-20, 1994. 33, [5] pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"Using a 1992 survey, this paper explores several issues related to marital power dynamics in Mexico. First, are issues surrounding the accuracy of various portraits of husbands' use of force (domestic violence) and husband-wife power imbalances. Second, power dynamics are linked to the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of women. Third, is the role of the economic development of local communities."
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6211. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10399 Perusse, Daniel. Mate choice in modern societies: testing evolutionary hypotheses with behavioral data. Human Nature, Vol. 5, No. 3, 1994. 255-78 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Mate selection in a modern society is analyzed using data collected in 1988-1989 for a sample of 1,133 French Canadians in Montreal. "These data were used to test an evolutionary model in which mate choice is hypothesized to depend on resources potentially contributed to reproduction by each sex. Consistent with the model, it was found that (a) men...of higher social status acquire more mating partners, suggesting that male status is an important criterion in female choice; (b) women's...number of partners decreases linearly with age, suggesting that female reproductive potential is an important criterion in male choice; and (c) women...display a significant relationship between marital dissolution and promiscuity, suggesting that female sexual exclusivity is an important criterion in male choice."
Correspondence: D. Perusse, Universite de Montreal, Departement de Anthropologie, C.P. 6128, Succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SW).

61:10400 Ramsoy, Natalie R. Non-marital cohabitation and change in norms: the case of Norway. Acta Sociologica, Vol. 37, No. 1, Jun 1994. 23-37 pp. Oslo, Norway. In Eng.
A review of trends in consensual unions over time in Norway is presented. "The first part of this paper compares rates of premarital conception in several countries and adds a new explanation as to why these were so high in Norway in the 1960s and early 1970s. The remainder of the paper discusses the rise of a new type of non-marital sexual union, namely cohabitation outside of marriage."
Correspondence: N. R. Ramsoy, Institute of Applied Social Research, Muntesgate 31, 0260 Oslo, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:10401 Saenz, Rogelio; Hwang, Sean-Shong; Aguirre, Benigno E. In search of Asian war brides. Demography, Vol. 31, No. 3, Aug 1994. 549-59 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Because of the long presence of U.S. soldiers in Asia, war-bride marriages involving [U.S.] servicemen and Asian women have been formed throughout the century. The literature, however, contains little empirically sound information on Asian war brides. This analysis develops a methodology to identify war brides and applies it to estimate the number of war brides from the six major Asian groups, using the national 1980 Public Use Microdata Sample. Further analysis comparing Asian war brides with other groups of Asian wives tends to support the traditional and lower socioeconomic images commonly associated with Asian war brides."
Correspondence: R. Saenz, Texas A & M University, Department of Rural Sociology, College Station, TX 77843-2125. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10402 Saito, Yasuhiko. Trends and differentials in marital and family formation preferences of American youth, 1967-1989. 1993. University of Southern California, Doheny Library, Micrographics Department: Los Angeles, California. In Eng.
"The main purpose of the study is to examine the nature and determinants of trends and differentials in attitudes toward marriage and family formation of American youth since the mid 1960s. Time trend analysis indicates that relative preferences for marriage and family formation of American youth decreased over the last couple of decades."
Correspondence: University of Southern California, Doheny Library, Micrographics Department, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0182. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 55(3).

61:10403 Sanchez-Andres, A.; Mesa, M. S. Assortative mating in a Spanish population: effects of social factors and cohabitation time. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 26, No. 4, Oct 1994. 441-50 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Assortative mating for 22 anthropometric and body composition characteristics and social indicators was studied in a Spanish sample of 114 married couples. Significant spousal similarity was found for occupation, educational level and number of siblings. Sex-age adjusted spouse correlations were significant for stature, ileospinal height, total arm length, and biacromial breadth. Spouse correlations were not altered after allowance for socioeconomic effects. When couples were grouped according to marriage duration, differences in mate correlations for fatness were detected, suggesting a cohabitational effect on spouse resemblance."
Correspondence: A. Sanchez-Andres, Universidad de Alcala de Henares, Departamento de Biologia Animal, Plaza de San Diego, s/n, 28801 Alcala de Henares, Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10404 Santow, Gigi; Bracher, Michael. Change and continuity in the formation of first marital unions in Australia. Population Studies, Vol. 48, No. 3, Nov 1994. 475-96 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"We [apply] hazards models to a rich set of retrospective event-history data that comprises histories not just of marital unions, but of other relevant aspects of women's lives. We incorporate into our models dynamic representations of important types of behaviour and experience, such as region of residence, education, pregnancy, and cohabitation. By so doing we seek to identify factors that have contributed to the considerable diversity of marriage patterns in Australia over the last generation, and some of the forces that have affected the recent marriage decline. Finally, after examining the similarities and differences between cohabitation and marriage, we seek to determine whether present marriage patterns are better characterized as a break with the past, or as a logical continuation of previous trends." Data are from the 1986 national survey of the Australian Family Project.
Correspondence: G. Santow, Stockholm University, Demography Unit, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10405 Smock, Pamela J. Gender and the short-run economic consequences of marital disruption. Social Forces, Vol. 73, No. 1, Sep 1994. 243-62 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"This article examines sources of gender differences in the economic ramifications of marital disruption for young non-Hispanic white, black, and Hispanic adults separating or divorcing in the 1980s. Using data from the 1979-88 waves of the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the results show that even among a less-advantaged subgroup, marital disruption has more serious consequences for women than men. Although young men, particularly minority men, are not faring well economically in absolute terms, women's postdisruption economic welfare is significantly lower than men's for all race-ethnic groups. Multivariate analyses reveal that this disparity stems, either directly or indirectly, from women's roles as primary child caretakers."
Correspondence: P. J. Smock, University of Michigan, Department of Sociology, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10406 Stier, Haya; Shavit, Yossi. Age at marriage, sex-ratios, and ethnic heterogamy. European Sociological Review, Vol. 10, No. 1, May 1994. 79-87 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper focuses on the effects of age at marriage and the sex-ratio on patterns of ethnic homogamy among Israeli women. We hypothesize that later marriages are more likely than early marriages to be heterogamous as the 'marriage market' shifts from school to the work-place. By the same token, when facing severe marriage squeezes women will be forced to out-marry. Employing data from the 1983 census, we model mate selection of women from Afro-Asian and Euro-American origin in various birth-cohorts. The results do not fully support our hypotheses: we find that in and of itself, age at marriage does not enhance ethnic heterogamy."
Correspondence: H. Stier, University of Haifa, Department of Sociology, Mount Carmel, 31905 Haifa, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:10407 Tas, R. F. J. Continuing drop in marriage rates of non-Dutch nationals in 1993. [De huwelijksgeneigdheid van niet-Nederlanders is in 1993 weer verder gedaald.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 42, No. 9, Sep 1994. 29-31 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The author examines changes in the marriage rates of non-Dutch nationals in the Netherlands in 1993. Aspects considered include nationality, place of marriage, marriage rates by sex and nationality, and a comparison with 1992 rates.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10408 Tu, Edward J.-C.; Lee, Mei-Lin. Changes in marital life cycle in Taiwan: 1976 and 1989. Journal of Population Studies, No. 16, Jul 1994. 17-28 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Eng. with sum. in Chi.
"To improve...understanding of recent developments and thus gain a better appreciation of the likely future course of marital events, we apply a marital status life table model...to describe the differential risks for persons moving from one marital status to another over time....The findings...point to the trends and patterns of marital formation, marital dissolution, and mortality experience of Taiwan in 1976 and 1989. The findings indicate declines in the proportion ever marrying and increases in the average age at marriage. The average duration of a marriage and the proportion of cohort life lived in [the] married state have been [declining]. The proportion of marriages ending in divorce has been rising steadily....The level, however, is still relatively low by international standards."
Correspondence: E. J.-C. Tu, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Division of Social Sciences, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10409 Tuncbilek, E.; Koc, I. Consanguineous marriage in Turkey and its impact on fertility and mortality. Annals of Human Genetics, Vol. 58, No. 4, Oct 1994. 321-9 pp. New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Turkey has a high rate of consanguineous marriage (21.1%), indicating strong preference for this traditional form of marital union. Social and cultural factors are especially important in marriages between first and second cousins. Fertility is high, the closed birth interval is long, and the sterility rate is low among these couples. Post-neonatal, infant and under-5 mortalities are high in first cousin unions by comparison with non-consanguineous marriages. According to the results of the study, first cousin marriage is a significant determinant underlying the high total fertility and infant mortality rates in Turkey." Data are from the 1988 Turkish Population and Health Survey.
Correspondence: E. Tuncbilek, Hacettepe University, Institute of Population Studies, Hacettepe Parki, 06100 Ankara, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

61:10410 Yamamoto, Chizuko; Kojima, Katsuhisa. Nuptiality and divorce in Japan: 1992. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 50, No. 1, Apr 1994. 67-82 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Trends in marriage and divorce in Japan in 1992 are analyzed. Topics covered include marriage by nationality of bride and groom, marriage rates by age, first marriage and remarriage rates, and divorces and divorce rates by age.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10411 Yin, Chan Wai; Yoke, Alice Tan Kar. Marriage trends in Singapore. Statistics Singapore Newsletter, Vol. 17, No. 1, Jul 1994. 2-7 pp. Singapore. In Eng.
Recent marriage trends in Singapore are described using official data. The authors examine differences in remaining single and timing marriage by educational status and ethnic group, as well as reasons for delaying marriage.
Correspondence: C. W. Yin, Department of Statistics, Population Planning Unit, 5th Story, Fullerton Building, Singapore 0104. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

G.2. Family and Household

Studies of household structure and of family composition and size and the factors influencing them. Includes the full range of family concepts from the one-parent to the extended family and includes studies on the life course of the family. Studies on attitudes toward family size are coded under F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control .

61:10412 Bianchi, Suzanne M. The changing demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of single parent families. Marriage and Family Review, Vol. 20, No. 1-2, 1995. 71-97 pp. Binghamton, New York. In Eng.
This study is about the changing demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of single-parent families in the United States over the past three decades. Data are primarily from the census and the March supplement to the Current Population Survey. The "second section of the paper assesses the growth in single-parent households during the post-World War II period....The third section of the paper focuses on components of the increase in single parent families--factors such as divorce and childbearing outside marriage. Research on the relative importance of each component is reviewed and racial differences are highlighted. A fourth section of the paper discusses the limits of the cross-sectional counts of single parent families and reviews the evidence on 'life time experience' in single parent families....A fifth section of the paper provides a demographic and socioeconomic overview of single parent families and offers comparisons with the situation in two-parent families. A final section summarizes the overall statistics on single parent families."
Correspondence: S. M. Bianchi, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Housing and Household Economic Statistics Division, Iverson Room 302, Washington, D.C. 20233-3300. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10413 Bledsoe, Caroline. The social construction of reproductive outcomes: social marginalization in Sub-Saharan Africa. In: The onset of fertility transition in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Therese Locoh and Veronique Hertrich. 1994. 221-34 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium; Derouaux Ordina Editions: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"Most parents [in Sub-Saharan Africa] cannot pay all their children's costs all the time. People therefore try to avoid the drastic step of actually reducing births, finding instead ways to spread out the costs of children in more manageable ways. This paper elaborates one such way: social marginalization. It points out that while people who are not parents may sometimes provide support for children, children may also face shortfalls on the basis of their mothers' status in the household, their fosterage status, or their promise for future success. Implications of these marginalization processes are drawn for fertility research."
Correspondence: C. Bledsoe, Northwestern University, Department of Anthropology, 1810 Hinman Avenue, Evanston, IL 60208-1310. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10414 Chen, Chaonan. The determinants of satisfaction with living arrangements for the elderly in Taiwan. Journal of Population Studies, No. 16, Jul 1994. 29-52 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Eng. with sum. in Chi.
The author analyzes "the determinants of the elderly's living arrangements [in Taiwan], and consequences both for individuals and the country as a whole....We find that when the elderly are asked about their response to their current living arrangements, their evaluation is not limited to their housing needs. Rather, the criteria of evaluation include those basic living needs such as economic security, health status, and kin companionship....The elderly are content with economic support from either their children or themselves. However, mere co-residence with their children does not meet the needs of the elderly."
Correspondence: C. Chen, Academia Sinica, Institute of Economics, Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10415 De Vos, Susan. A preliminary analysis of unmarried mothers who were heads of households in Brazil during 1970 and 1980. [Analisis preliminar acerca de las madres solteras, jefas de hogar, en Brasil durante 1970 y 1980.] Notas de Poblacion, Vol. 22, No. 59, Jun 1994. 155-81 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper reports on an attempt to use census data from Brazil in 1970 and 1980 to investigate a rise in household headship by unmarried mothers 15-49....Demographic analysis can be useful in decomposing the change into that due to a changed propensity of women 15-49 years of age to be unmarried, to have children if unmarried, and to head their own household if an unmarried mother. This was further analyzed in terms of age, marital status (whether single, divorced/separated or widowed), region of residence, and urban-rural status....However, the research encountered data problems that make firm conclusions impossible...."
This is a translation of a paper originally presented at the 1992 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: S. De Vos, University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10416 Heath, Suzanne; Dale, Angela. Household and family formation in Great Britain: the ethnic dimension. Population Trends, No. 77, Autumn 1994. 5-13 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Using microdata from the Samples of Anonymised Records (SARs) from the 1991 Census, this article explores the extent to which patterns of household composition and family formation among young people in Great Britain aged 16-35 vary, not only with gender but also in relation to ethnicity, higher educational qualifications, and whether born in the U.K. The article also explains the unique contribution of the SARs to social research."
Correspondence: S. Heath, University of Manchester, Census Microdata Unit, Sackville Street, Manchester M60 1QD, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10417 Hirschman, Charles; Vu, Manh Loi. Family and household structure in Vietnam: some glimpses from a recent survey. Seattle Population Research Center Working Paper, No. 94-3, Jun 1994. 24, [4] pp. University of Washington, Seattle Population Research Center: Seattle, Washington; Battelle Seattle Research Center: Seattle, Washington. In Eng.
The authors investigate family and household structure in Viet Nam, using data from the 1991 Viet Nam Life History Survey. "In this study, we emphasize several aspects of household structure (who lives with whom) and frequency of visits between parents and their grown children. These features present some important insights about the social and cultural bases of contemporary Vietnamese society."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1994 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Seattle Population Research Center, c/o University of Washington, Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology Library, Department of Sociology DK-40, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10418 Huang, Shih-Tsun. Demographic foundations of elderly living arrangements: a simulation study of intergenerational coresidence. Journal of Population Studies, No. 16, Jul 1994. 53-77 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Chi. with sum. in Eng.
"In this paper we employ family status life tables to assess the effects of demographic processes on family composition and to reveal trends in elderly living arrangements [in Taiwan]. We found that further declining fertility and changing nuptiality are responsible for the prevalence of nuclear family composition. [The] increasing proportion of nuclear families indicates a decreasing probability [of] elderly parents living with their married children. In addition, according to the current nuptiality trends, the increasing proportion of women of all ages who remain [unmarried] will strengthen its effects on family composition in the near future."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10419 Kapteyn, Arie. The measurement of household cost functions: revealed preference versus subjective measures. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 7, No. 4, 1994. 333-50 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
The author examines how household cost functions depend on the composition of a household. "In the paper I formally establish the connection between subjective measures and the cost function underlying the AID [Almost Ideal Demand] system. The subjective measures fully identify cost functions and the expenditure data do this partly. This makes it possible to test the null hypothesis that both types of data are consistent with one another, i.e. that they measure the same thing. I use two separate data sets to set up a test of this equivalence. The outcomes are somewhat mixed and indicate the need for further specification search. Finally, I discuss some implications of the outcomes."
Correspondence: A. Kapteyn, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research, P.O. Box 90153, 5000 LE Tilburg, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10420 Lavertu, Jacques. 1990 population census. Household structure by region and department. Results from the 25 percent sample. [Recensement de la population de 1990. Structure des menages par region et departement. Resultats du sondage au quart.] INSEE Resultats: Demographie-Societe, No. 35, ISBN 2-11-066203-4. Sep 1994. 155 pp. Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques [INSEE]: Paris, France. In Fre.
This report presents data on household characteristics from the 1990 census of France. The data are presented separately for demographic characteristics, socioeconomic characteristics, and one-person households. In many cases the data are also presented separately by the former and revised definitions of the family. Data are also included for overseas departments.
Correspondence: Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, 18 boulevard Adolphe Pinard, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10421 Leridon, Henri; Villeneuve-Gokalp, Catherine. Family continuities and discontinuities. Family life histories of couples and children. [Constance et inconstances de la famille. Biographies familiales des couples et des enfants.] INED Travaux et Documents Cahier, No. 134, ISBN 2-7332-0134-4. 1994. ix, 341 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
This work presents a selection of analytical studies on the family in France based not only on data from traditional sources such as vital statistics, but also on a series of specific surveys carried out by INED since 1985. Particular attention is given to new forms of marital union and how these are adopted between generations and among social classes, and to the histories of unions formed outside of marriage, including risk of separation, marriage, and the birth of children. The authors note that the increased diversity of family life histories obliges both adults and children to develop new types of family ties, including relationships with absent parents, half-siblings, and various members of their step-families.
Correspondence: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10422 Lesthaeghe, R.; Moors, G. Living arrangements and parenthood: do values matter? IPD Working Paper, No. 1994-2, 1994. 18, [8] pp. Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Interuniversity Programme in Demography: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
Data from the 1990 European Values Surveys concerning West Germany, France, Belgium, and the Netherlands, are used to examine how various factors affect living arrangements and family building patterns. The factors considered include religion, educational and socioeconomic status, and the cultural components of conservatism.
Correspondence: Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Centrum Sociologie, Interuniversity Programme in Demography, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10423 Li, Peter S. Labour reproduction and the family under advanced capitalism: female labour force participation and fertility in twentieth century Canada. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 24, No. 3, Autumn 1993. 367-85 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
This study examines the impact of modern capitalism on the family in Canada. "As corporate capitalism expands, an increasing segment of domestic female labour is being converted into wage labour, and along with it, the rising dependency of the family on the wage economy. In this process, the family finds it necessary to increase its capacity to earn wages as a means to maintain the labour power of its members on a daily basis; in so doing, the process of labour maintenance becomes contradictory to that of labour renewal since the two compete on the same financial resources and since the continuation of [the] wage labour relationship does not rely on generational labour renewal. The strategies followed by Canadian families in expanding on the earning capacity and reducing fertility and family size may be seen as adaptive mechanisms in response to the contradictions created by the wage economy."
Correspondence: P. S. Li, University of Saskatchewan, Department of Sociology, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 0W0, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:10424 Li, Zong. Agricultural reform and its impact on Chinese rural families, 1978-1989. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 24, No. 3, Autumn 1993. 277-90 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This paper analyzes changes in the Chinese rural family since the agricultural reform of 1978, with respect to production relations, income distribution, marriage, and occupational pattern. It is argued that although the agricultural reform has improved the rural economy and the living standard of rural families, it has also produced economic disparities among rural families. The emphasis on economic incentives and the reliance on market forces have resulted in a restructuring of the rural labour force and rural family relationships. There are indications of patriarchal values being strengthened, feudal practices of mercenary marriages being reinstated, and fertility policy being disregarded."
Correspondence: Z. Li, University of Saskatchewan, Department of Sociology, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 0W0, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:10425 Liberati, Paolo. The composition of the nuclear family and equivalence scales. [Composizione del nucleo familiare e scale di equivalenza.] Studi Economici, Vol. 48, No. 51, 1993. 95-124 pp. Milan, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng.
This study concerns the use of equivalence scales to examine how differences in household composition can affect the impact of social policy. Specifically, the author "is interested in estimating equivalence scales using complete demand systems on households' budget data and to compare the performance of two alternative models. In particular, the use of quadratic models can give rise to estimation of both sufficiently flexible price and budget elasticities and the cost of specific demographic characteristics. These latter include a general effect, through a deflator of the nominal household's expenditure, and several specific effects, acting as signals of the reallocation of the household's expenditures within a given budget. The knowledge of these parameters can improve the assessment of income redistribution, social security provisions and/or horizontal equity."
Correspondence: P. Liberati, Centro Europa Ricerche, Rome, Italy. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

61:10426 Lloyd, Cynthia B. Investing in the next generation: the implications of high fertility at the level of the family. In: Population and development: old debates, new conclusions, edited by Robert Cassen. 1994. 181-202 pp. Transaction Publishers: New Brunswick, New Jersey/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper, written with the interests of the next generation in mind, provides an up-to-date review of the evidence, primarily from developing countries, on families' experiences with fertility and family size and their implications for investments in young people....It goes beyond the more familiar effects of high fertility on children's health and educational opportunities...to explore its implications for children's access to opportunities beyond the home and for the socialization into adult roles. The links between fertility, the extent to which children are wanted, and equity among siblings are also explored."
Correspondence: C. B. Lloyd, Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10427 McDonald, Peter. Household and family trends in Australia. In: Year Book Australia, 1994. 1993. 149-65 pp. Australian Bureau of Statistics: Belconnen, Australia. In Eng.
The author describes recent household and family trends in Australia using data from official sources, surveys, and other sources. He examines such aspects as household size and type, family characteristics, one-parent families, consensual unions, leaving home, family formation, families in the labor force, having children, separation and divorce, and remarriage.
Correspondence: P. McDonald, Australian Institute of Family Studies, 300 Queen Street, Melbourne, Victoria 3000, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SSRC).

61:10428 Park, Young Jin. The rise of one-person households and their recent characteristics in Korea. Korea Journal of Population and Development, Vol. 23, No. 1, Jul 1994. 117-29 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
"This paper explores the rise in the proportion of one-person households [in South Korea] which since 1960 was attributable largely to rural-to-urban migration of young people. The heavy migration of young people from rural to urban cities actually brought about the rural household division which contributed to the fall in household size, and contributed to the increase in one-person households of urban young singles, on the one hand, and the increase in one-person households of rural elderly widows, on the other. The rise in the aggregate propensity to live alone was also evident....Although the rise in one-person households was evident and by 1990 about one out of every ten households was a one-person household, the findings on the recent characteristics of one-person households do not indicate any big change in the traditional family norms."
Correspondence: Y. J. Park, Seoul National University, Population and Development Studies Center, Sinlim-dong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10429 Sanchez Vera, Pedro. Methodological considerations for the study of the family in Spain. [Consideraciones metodologicas sobre investigacion de la familia en Espana.] Revista Internacional de Sociologia, No. 6, Sep-Dec 1993. 103-25 pp. Cordoba, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
This article begins with a review of the available literature on studies of family sociology in Spain, with a focus on the difficulty of conducting such research under the Franco regime. A selection of official statistical sources is reviewed in an attempt to stimulate more current research.
Correspondence: P. Sanchez Vera, Universidad de Murcia, Avenida Teniente Flomesta s/n, Edificio Convalecencia, 30071 Murcia, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:10430 Soldo, Beth J.; Freedman, Vicki A. Care of the elderly: division of labor among the family, market, and state. In: Demography of aging, edited by Linda G. Martin and Samuel H. Preston. 1994. 195-216 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"In this chapter we explore the alliance of the three major sources of personal care in the U.S.: the family, the marketplace, and the state....Of particular interest in this chapter are how the volume and type of care and support received by older persons is distributed across these sectors, and the range of factors that affect this distribution."
Correspondence: B. J. Soldo, Georgetown University, Department of Demography, 37th and O Streets NW, Washington, D.C. 20057. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10431 Steen, Todd P. The economic and demographic determinants of child care choice. In: Studies in applied demography, edited by K. Vaninadha Rao and Jerry W. Wicks. 1994. 353-74 pp. Bowling Green State University, Department of Sociology, Population and Society Research Center: Bowling Green, Ohio. In Eng.
"This paper analyzes the economic and demographic determinants of child care choice [in the United States]....This paper uses some of the most recent data available (from the National Longitudinal Survey Youth Cohort) to analyze both past and recent patterns of child care mode choice, and to suggest reasons for the changes that have occurred in these choices over the past ten years. [It also] examines several different possible classifications of modal choice and determines how sensitive the analysis is to these different classifications. The paper concludes that economic factors such as the mother's wage and hours worked, along with marital status and the age of the child, are the major factors that determine the choice of care to be used."
Correspondence: T. P. Steen, Hope College, Department of Economics and Business Administration, Holland, MI 49423. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10432 van Hoom, W. D. Different types of young single persons. [Alleenwonen: uit vrije wil of tegen wil en dank.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 42, No. 9, Sep 1994. 19-28 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The author examines living arrangements among single persons in the Netherlands, using data from the 1993 Fertility and Family Survey. The focus is on the number of people who want to stay alone versus those who do so unwillingly. Reasons for living alone are investigated, including education, religion, size of town, and personal circumstances.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10433 Winkler, Anne E. The determinants of a mother's choice of family structure: labor market conditions, AFDC policy or community mores? Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 13, No. 3, Sep 1994. 283-303 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This study attempts to clarify the effect of welfare generosity on [U.S.] family structure while controlling for community mores, local labor market conditions, and other sociodemographic characteristics....The empirical analysis is conducted by linking individual-level data from the 1987 National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH) with information on county-level unemployment rates, state AFDC benefits, and proxies of community mores. In particular, the detailed nature of the NSFH data set provides a unique opportunity to investigate the social and economic determinants of cohabitation, among other family structures. Local labor market conditions are found to significantly affect marriage and single-motherhood, while community conservatism is found to discourage the least conventional family structure--cohabitation. Finally, this study raises some question about the effect of AFDC [Aid to Families with Dependent Children] policy on marriage and related events. Specifically, AFDC's statistical impact is found to be sensitive to the inclusion of an explicit measure of community conservatism in the empirical model specification."
Correspondence: A. E. Winkler, University of Missouri, Department of Economics, 8001 Natural Bridge Road, St. Louis, MO 63121. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10434 Wolf, Douglas A. The elderly and their kin: patterns of availability and access. In: Demography of aging, edited by Linda G. Martin and Samuel H. Preston. 1994. 146-94 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This chapter addresses issues in what might be called the 'family demography of the elderly.' First, and most fundamental, we consider the composition of families containing elderly....Household structure (or 'living arrangements') is...in part a consequence of patterns of kin availability and is the second major topic addressed in this chapter. The third and final topic addressed is the spatial proximity of elderly and their kin, especially their adult children. Throughout, an effort is made to survey, albeit selectively, theoretical, methodological, and empirical contributions to the relevant literature. Some attention is also devoted to enumerating existing data sources that figure prominently in actual (or potential) research." The primary geographical focus is on the United States, with comparative data for selected other countries.
Correspondence: D. A. Wolf, Syracuse University, Maxwell School, Center for Policy Research, Syracuse, NY 13244. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10435 Zhao, Zhongwei. Demographic conditions and multi-generation households in Chinese history. Results from genealogical research and microsimulation. Population Studies, Vol. 48, No. 3, Nov 1994. 413-25 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The large multi-generation household has been a popular subject in the study of Chinese social history. This study compares outcomes of computer micro-simulation with results from genealogical research, and is particularly concentrated on the potential pattern of multi-generation co-residence in the past. On the basis of such a comparison, questions concerning the impact of demographic conditions on the formation and composition of large multi-generation households, the change in lifetime residential experiences of each individual, and the use of genealogical records in the study of Chinese social demographic history are also examined."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

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