Volume 61 - Number 1 - Spring 1995

F. Fertility

Studies that treat quantitative fertility data analytically. References to crude data are coded under S. Official Statistical Publications . Methodological studies specifically concerned with fertility are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary.

F.1. General Fertility

Analytical studies of quantitative birth data and reproduction rates and studies of fertility and its concomitants. Studies of age at marriage, divorce, and factors influencing family size are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

61:10212 Adamchak, Donald J.; Mbizvo, Michael T. The impact of husband's and wife's education and occupation on family size in Zimbabwe. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 26, No. 4, Oct 1994. 553-8 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper assesses the impact of husband's and wife's education and occupation on family size in Zimbabwe. Results from the 1988 Male Fertility Survey indicate that husband's education had a strong negative effect, and wife's education had a moderate negative effect on the number of children ever born. Contrary to the literature, wives who were not employed had significantly fewer children than those who work in agriculture, and fewer, but not significantly, than those in non-agricultural occupations. Findings show the importance of husband's education and the changing dynamics of wife's occupation in fertility decline."
Correspondence: D. J. Adamchak, Kansas State University, Department of Sociology, Manhattan, KS 66506. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10213 Barbieri, Magali. Is the current decline in infant and child mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa a sign of future fertility changes? In: The onset of fertility transition in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Therese Locoh and Veronique Hertrich. 1994. 21-42 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium; Derouaux Ordina Editions: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"Is it legitimate to believe that sub-Saharan Africa will follow in the footsteps of other regions of the developing world and conform to the pattern predicted by the theory of demographic transition? An analysis of the Demographic and Health Surveys available for eleven countries in sub-Saharan Africa provides a partial answer. All eleven countries have seen an improvement in childhood mortality over the last ten years....The faster mortality has declined the greater the ensuing drop in fertility....Several of the mechanisms that can affect the mortality-fertility relationship are examined in this analysis without showing any significant effect."
Correspondence: M. Barbieri, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10214 Batliwala, Srilatha; Reddy, Amulya K. N. Energy consumption and population. In: Population--the complex reality, edited by Francis Graham-Smith. 1994. 93-102 pp. Royal Society: London, England; North American Press: Golden, Colorado. In Eng.
"The central hypothesis of the paper is that energy consumption patterns influence the rate of population growth through their effect on the relative benefits of fertility. The hypothesis is tested by exploring the influence of energy consumption on factors that affect population growth. This exploration is carried out at two levels--the micro, village level [using data for six villages in South India] and the macro, global level. The gender dimension of energy consumption patterns and dependence on human labour of poor households is also brought out....The paper concludes that changes in energy strategies are a necessary, though not sufficient, condition for reducing the desired number of births and perceptions of the relative benefits of fertility...."
Correspondence: S. Batliwala, Development Alternatives with Women for a New Era, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10215 Behar, Cem. Recent demographic trends in Turkey. [Tendances recentes de la population de la Turquie.] Cahiers d'Etudes sur la Mediterranee Orientale et le Monde Turco-Iranien, No. 16, Jul-Dec 1993. 297-314 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
Recent demographic trends in Turkey are analyzed using data from the 1990 census and a national demographic survey undertaken in 1989. Specific attention is given to trends in fertility, the demographic transition, and to regional differences in this process of change.
Correspondence: C. Behar, Bogazici University, Department of Economics, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, 80815 Babek, Istanbul, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

61:10216 Bhat, P. N. Mari. Levels and trends in Indian fertility: a reassessment. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 29, No. 51-52, Dec 17-24, 1994. 3,273-80 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"Using the 1991 Census data on the number of children in the age group 0-6 years, this paper attempts to assess the trends in birth rate [in India] in the 1980s. For purposes of comparison similar estimates have also been made from the 1981 Census data. Overall the demographic scenario revealed by the 1991 Census is one of dynamism rather than stagnation of levels."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

61:10217 Bideau, Alain; Burmester, Ana-Maria; Brunet, Guy. Families in Curitiba (Brazil) in the eighteenth century: a look at fertility. [Les familles de Curitiba (Bresil) au XVIIIe siecle: approche de la fecondite.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1993. 7-24 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Fertility trends in Curitiba, a town in southern Brazil, are analyzed using the application of family reconstitution methods to data from church records for the period 1731-1798. The results indicate that, for the white population, "the number of children is over 10 for women married between the ages of 20 and 24. Age at last birth is advanced, but a rather significant percentage of couples become sterile once the wife is past thirty."
Correspondence: A. Bideau, Universite Lumiere Lyon 2, Centre Pierre Leon, UA CNRS 223, 86 rue Pasteur, 69365 Lyon Cedex 07, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10218 Bolivia. Instituto Nacional de Estadistica [INE] (La Paz, Bolivia); Macro International. Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS] (Calverton, Maryland). National Survey of Population and Health, 1994. [Encuesta Nacional de Demografia y Salud, 1994.] Oct 1994. xxxiv, 252 pp. La Paz, Bolivia. In Spa.
This report concerns the survey carried out in Bolivia in 1993-1994 as part of the DHS program. The survey included four questionnaires that dealt with households, maternal mortality, individual women aged 15-49, and availability of services, and to which there were 26,144, 50,215, 8,603, and 610 respondents, respectively. Following introductory chapters on survey methodology, the report has chapters on fertility, family planning, nuptiality, fertility preferences, infant and child mortality, maternal and child health, lactation and nutrition, maternal mortality, and health issues such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and rabies.
Correspondence: Instituto Nacional de Estadistica, Plaza Mario Guzman Aspiazu No. 1, La Paz, Bolivia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10219 Bonneux, Luc. Rwanda: a case of demographic entrapment. Lancet, Vol. 344, No. 8938, Dec 17, 1994. 1,689-90 pp. New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
The author examines the argument that primary health care services in overpopulated developing countries should not concentrate their efforts on reducing levels of child mortality. He uses the example of Rwanda to argue that population growth in such circumstances is determined mainly by birth rates, not death rates. While doctors can still focus on reducing levels of child mortality, the author asserts that every effort should be made to convince and help religious and governmental authorities to tackle the problem of high fertility.
Correspondence: L. Bonneux, Erasmus University, Department of Public Health, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

61:10220 Brunborg, Helge; Mamelund, Svenn-Erik. Cohort and period fertility for Norway, 1820-1993. [Kohort- og periodefruktbarhet i Norge 1820-1993.] Rapporter fra Statistisk Sentralbyra, No. 94/27, ISBN 82-537-4070-0. 1994. 75 pp. Statistisk Sentralbyra: Oslo-Kongsvinger, Norway. In Nor. with sum. in Eng.
Fertility data are presented for Norway for the calendar years 1845-1993 and the birth cohorts 1820-1978. "Both one-year and five-year age-specific rates are presented, in addition to total fertility rate (TFR), net reproduction rate, mean age and standard deviation of the fertility distribution, etc. All data are given for both single-year periods/cohorts and for five-year periods/cohorts." Special attention is given to fertility trends over the most recent 10-year period.
Correspondence: Statistisk Sentralbyra, P.B. 8131 Dep., 0033 Oslo 1, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10221 Caldwell, Gary; Frechet, Guy; Thibault, Normand. The recent evolution of fertility in Quebec: demographic and socioeconomic determinants. [L'evolution recente de la fecondite au Quebec: facteurs demographiques, economiques et sociaux.] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 22, No. 1, Spring 1993. 93-132 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The purpose of this study is to assess the factors which have influenced the evolution of fertility in Quebec between 1960 and 1990, in order to have a better focus on short and middle term fertility's determining factors. A Whittaker-Henderson filter is applied to...variables presumably linked to the total fertility index in order to retrieve and isolate the trend, which then enables [us] to concentrate on residuals' co-variations. A regression analysis then enables [us] to assess the factors' weights and the short term influence ('business cycle'). Governmental incentives, notably between 1988 and 1990, appear as having contributed, as well as the overall economic conjuncture, to the observed total fertility index raise in the course of this period."
Correspondence: G. Frechet, Universite Laval, Departement de Sociologie, Cite Universitaire, Quebec, Quebec G1K 7P4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10222 Caldwell, John C. Determinants of demographic transition. Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 19, No. 3, 1993-1994. 252-7 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Eng.
The author discusses the possible pace and characteristics of the demographic transition in developing countries. Factors that have contributed to declining fertility rates over the past 30 years are discussed. The impact of government population policy, contraception, child mortality, education, economic conditions, and national family planning programs is considered.
Correspondence: J. C. Caldwell, Australian National University, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Health Transition Centre, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10223 Casterline, John B. Fertility transition in Asia. In: The onset of fertility transition in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Therese Locoh and Veronique Hertrich. 1994. 69-86 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium; Derouaux Ordina Editions: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"My principal objective in this paper is...to describe the broad contours of the fertility declines to date in Asian countries and to sketch rather crudely the societal settings for these declines....The declines are due chiefly to the use of modern contraceptives by married couples. Nuptiality change has also made a substantial contribution in many Asian countries, particularly in the early stages of transition....The underlying motivation for fertility decline in Asia has been the conviction that children have become costly in economic terms....National family planning programs appear to have made a distinct contribution to the timing and pace of fertility decline in many Asian countries. Comparisons with Sub-Saharan Africa suggest that fundamental features of the demographic system (e.g. mortality rates) and of the economic system (e.g. income level, urbanization) need not present obstacles to fertility change in Africa."
Correspondence: J. B. Casterline, Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10224 Clarke, Sally C.; Ventura, Stephanie J. Birth and fertility rates for states: United States, 1990. Vital and Health Statistics, Series 21: Data on Natality, Marriage, and Divorce, No. 52, Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 95-1930. ISBN 0-8406-0502-1. LC 94-24746. Dec 1994. iv, 53 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
"Birth and fertility rates for geographic divisions and States are presented for 1990 [for the United States]. Rates are shown by place of residence according to maternal characteristics, including race, Hispanic origin, age, and marital status of mother, and by live-birth order of child." The data are from birth certificates.
Correspondence: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10225 Cleland, John. Different pathways to demographic transition. In: Population--the complex reality, edited by Francis Graham-Smith. 1994. 229-47 pp. Royal Society: London, England; North American Press: Golden, Colorado. In Eng.
"The main aim of this paper is to identify the conditions that have facilitated or impeded demographic transition in developing countries. The emphasis will be on fertility rather than mortality, although the relationships between these two components of transition will be discussed. Before entering the arena of determinants, or pathways, it will...present a brief statistical overview of fertility trends in the last 30 years....The reason for the apparent contradiction between global population growth and declining fertility has much to do with the age structure of populations; as a result of past high fertility, the proportion of population in the reproductive age span is increasing in most developing countries and this factor acts to sustain high crude birth rates, even in the context of falling rates per woman. Mortality decline further contributes to the persistence of high growth rates."
Correspondence: J. Cleland, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10226 Cleland, John; Onuoha, Nelson; Timaeus, Ian. Fertility change in Sub-Saharan Africa: a review of the evidence. In: The onset of fertility transition in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Therese Locoh and Veronique Hertrich. 1994. 1-20 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium; Derouaux Ordina Editions: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"Fertility trends in sub-Saharan Africa are assessed by a review of published data and by the application of standard diagnostic tests to data tabulations specially prepared for the analysis. The more detailed analysis concentrates on those countries that have conducted one or more fertility surveys. Estimates of the total fertility rate are compiled for 17 African countries for the period 1985-1990 and compared with earlier estimates....Comparison of WFS and DHS birth histories reveals that, while the overall impression from the WFS is of constant fertility and modest increases in ages at first birth, the DHS apparently provides evidence of both widespread fertility decline and postponement of first births in the 1980s."
Correspondence: J. Cleland, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies, Department of Epidemiology and Population Sciences, 99 Gower Street, London WC1E 6AZ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10227 Cohen, Joel E. Fertility incentives and participation in localities with limited means: a dynamic model of per capita resources. Mathematical Population Studies, Vol. 5, No. 1, 1994. 3-24, 121 pp. Langhorne, Pennsylvania/Basel, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Several countries have attempted to change human fertility through economic incentives. This paper presents simple mathematical models of the participation of couples in a locally funded program of economic incentives. The models take as a springboard China's one-child program. Localities with low per capita incentives attract few couples to the program, while localities with high incentives attract many couples at first but the value of the benefits is then watered down. The models show that participation in the program may persistently oscillate or may decay to a stationary level."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1991 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: J. E. Cohen, Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021-6399. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10228 Desjardins, Bertrand; Bideau, Alain; Brunet, Guy. Age of mother at last birth in two historical populations. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 26, No. 4, Oct 1994. 509-16 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This study uses sets of historical family reconstitutions from all of Quebec and from four villages of the Haut-Jura, France--first marriages of 2,226 and 994 women, respectively--to investigate the physiological and social factors affecting age of mother at last birth before and during fertility transition. Age remained high throughout the period covered in Quebec, under 'natural' conditions, but showed a steady decline in the French material which extends to late 19th century generations practising family limitation. Age at marriage had no influence in Quebec; in France, however, women with the most surviving children at age 35 continued childbearing the latest....The variability in age at last birth...appears to be random under natural conditions; with the onset of controls, social differences seem to influence not only the end of childbearing, but all aspects of behaviour governing final family size and child survival."
Correspondence: B. Desjardins, Universite de Montreal, Departement de Demographie, C.P. 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10229 Donadje, Florentin; Tabutin, Dominique. Male nuptiality and fertility in southern Benin. In: The onset of fertility transition in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Therese Locoh and Veronique Hertrich. 1994. 135-62 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium; Derouaux Ordina Editions: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"This research is based on a specific survey conducted among a random sample of 2,400 men aged 20 and above in the city of Cotonou [Benin] and the rural area surrounding the economic capital. The analysis of the matrimonial and fertility history of men has enabled [us] to build a detailed typology of male unions which takes into account the type of union (monogamy or polygamy) as well as conjugal mobility (stability or instability). We have also built an individual index of male fertility which takes into account the contribution to fertility of each of the man's spouses....We also give some results concerning opinions and behaviours among men."
Correspondence: D. Tabutin, United Nations Population Fund, B.P. 506, Cotonou, Benin. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10230 Ermisch, John; Ogawa, Naohiro. Age at motherhood in Japan. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 7, No. 4, 1994. 393-420 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"The paper analyzes factors influencing the age of motherhood in Japan, using both cross-sectional and time-series data. Both hazard rate and time series analyses support the hypothesis that better women's earning opportunities, as indicated by their educational attainments and relative pay, encourage Japanese women to marry and become mothers later in their lives. But both these analyses indicate that the trend toward later marriage and motherhood in Japan cannot be fully accounted for by improvements in women's educational attainments and earning opportunities, and the hazard analysis indicates that the strength of the trend increases with a woman's educational attainment."
Correspondence: J. Ermisch, University of Essex, Economic and Social Research Council Research Centre on Micro-Social Change, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester CO4 3SQ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10231 Ewbank, Douglas. Coarse and refined methods for studying the fertility transition in historical populations. In: Old and new methods in historical demography, edited by David S. Reher and Roger Schofield. 1993. 345-60 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
Some aspects concerning the study of fertility among historical populations are explored. "The first section of this chapter examines the criticisms of two basic methods for documenting parity-specific control: age at last birth, and Coale and Trussell's parameters M and m. While these criticisms are often technically correct, it appears that the methods are sufficiently robust to be useful for many applications. However, as researchers have focused on fertility patterns before the start of the transition, these methods have proved to be too coarse. The second half of the paper reviews more refined statistical approaches to studying the determinants of fertility by examining birth intervals. While these methods show some promise for unravelling the biological from the behavioural determinants of fertility, we will see that ultimately they are limited by some of the same problems that led Henry to focus on parity-specific control."
Correspondence: D. Ewbank, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6297. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10232 Feeney, Griffith; Yuan, Jianhua. Below replacement fertility in China? A close look at recent evidence. Population Studies, Vol. 48, No. 3, Nov 1994. 381-94 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper presents detailed evidence on fertility levels and trends in China from a survey conducted in 1992 by the State Family Planning Commission. The evidence is analyzed internally and by comparison with evidence from the Census of Population of 1990 and from two previous surveys. The results of the 1992 survey, which indicated fertility levels far below replacement during the early 1990s, have been greeted with considerable scepticism. Close attention has therefore been paid to evidence and argument bearing on the completeness of reporting of births in the survey. While the survey data probably understate fertility levels after 1990, the results for 1990 and before appear to be generally reliable. Even allowing for substantial underreporting of births during 1991-92, it appears likely that Chinese fertility did, in fact, fall to replacement level during the early 1990s."
Correspondence: G. Feeney, East-West Center, Program on Population, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10233 Feeney, Griffith. Fertility decline in East Asia. Science, Vol. 266, No. 5190, Dec 2, 1994. 1,518-23 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"With the fall of fertility in China to near or below replacement levels in the early 1990s, the whole of East Asia may now be said to have completed a demographic transition. Its experience lies between that of the West and the many developing countries in which demographic transition is now under way. The main features and possible underlying causes of the fertility declines in Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, and China during this century are discussed. Fertility decline in East Asia is interesting both in its own right, as a chapter in the history of human reproduction, and for the light it may shed on fertility decline in the rest of the world."
Correspondence: G. Feeney, East-West Center, Program on Population, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SQ).

61:10234 Friedman, Debra; Hechter, Michael; Kanazawa, Satoshi. A theory of the value of children. Demography, Vol. 31, No. 3, Aug 1994. 375-401 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper uses a non-standard value assumption--uncertainty reduction--to explain parenthood. We begin by reviewing the inadequacies of normative and standard rational choice explanations of shifts in fertility behavior. Then we propose a theory of the value of children based on the uncertainty-reduction assumption. Next we generate a range of hypotheses that follow both from this assumption and from a subsidiary assumption of marital solidarity enhancement. Finally, we explore the extent to which implications based on these new ideas are supported by the relevant empirical literature."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1992 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: D. Friedman, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10235 Frigole Reixach, Joan. A model of procreation, gender, and marriage: a proposed methodology based on European and Mediterranean ethnography. [Modelo de procreacion, genero y matrimonio: una propuesta metodologica basada en etnografia europea y mediterranea.] Revista Internacional de Sociologia, No. 6, Sep-Dec 1993. 127-53 pp. Cordoba, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The author proposes a methodology for modeling procreation that takes the concepts of gender, marriage, and family formation into account. "An attempt is made to document ethnographically a model of monogenetic procreation and its relationship with gender, marriage and family in European and Mediterranean ethnography. The use of certain categories, such as sex and sexuality, used in the study of procreation is criticised, and some ethnographic interpretations based on them are reviewed."
Correspondence: J. Frigole Reixach, Universitat de Barcelona, Gran via de Les Cortes Catalanes 585, 08007 Barcelona, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:10236 Guzman, Jose M. The onset of fertility decline in Latin America. In: The onset of fertility transition in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Therese Locoh and Veronique Hertrich. 1994. 43-67 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium; Derouaux Ordina Editions: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"This document focuses on the analysis of the moment in which fertility transition began in Latin America. What is observed is that in most countries of Latin America a general process of fertility decline began in the sixties. This radical change originated in an important shift in the reproductive behaviour: a new family size ideal took root among an increasing part of the population, leading to a more or less generalized practice of birth control, that was previously confined to very limited sectors....The indexes of the educational level and the proportion of population earning wages and salaries seem to be the two major factors influencing the quickness of fertility decline in the region."
Correspondence: J. M. Guzman, UN Office for Latin America and the Caribbean, UNFPA Support Team, Tomas de Figueroa 2451, Vitacura, Casilla 197-D, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10237 Hirschman, Charles. Why fertility changes. Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 20, 1994. 203-33 pp. Palo Alto, California. In Eng.
"This essay is a critical review of some of the recent research and the theoretical debates on fertility transitions in different social, economic, and cultural contexts....[It] begins with issues of measurement of fertility and fertility change. Next, I summarize the recent evidence on fertility levels and trends in historical and contemporary populations. The core of the essay consists of a comparison of classical and contemporary theories of fertility transitions and a discussion of unresolved issues in current research. Although I offer my own evaluation of the relative merits of different approaches in the field, I do not attempt to provide closure to current debates. In lieu of a conclusion, I suggest an alternative model for the field that implies a question very different from the one posed in the title of this essay."
Correspondence: C. Hirschman, University of Washington, Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology, Department of Sociology, DK-40, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SSRC).

61:10238 Isiugo-Abanihe, Uche C. Parenthood in Sub-Saharan Africa: child fostering and its relationship with fertility. In: The onset of fertility transition in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Therese Locoh and Veronique Hertrich. 1994. 163-74 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium; Derouaux Ordina Editions: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"The subject matter of this paper is [Sub-Saharan] African parenthood and widespread fostering, and their relationship to fertility....Our analysis suggests that fertility and child fostering are mutually reinforcing, or jointly dependent within the context of a simultaneous system of equations. Parents faced with a large family size adjust by sending some children elsewhere, thereby reducing the family to a more manageable size. Also, the institution of child fosterage affects fertility positively; since parents know beforehand that any surplus children could be sent out, there may be little need or urgency to curtail fertility....We speculate that as modern development takes root both the demand and supply of fosters will decline."
Correspondence: U. C. Isiugo-Abanihe, University of Ibadan, Department of Sociology, Ibadan, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10239 Joffe, Michael; Li, Zhimin. Male and female factors in fertility. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 140, No. 10, Nov 15, 1994. 921-9 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"As part of a longitudinal study representative of all people born in Britain in 1958, 11,407 people were interviewed in 1991, of whom 3,132 female and 2,576 male cohort members had had or fathered at least one pregnancy....Unadjusted analysis demonstrated that both the time to pregnancy and clinical subfertility were associated with higher maternal but not paternal age and with the smoking habits and educational levels of both parents. Multivariate analysis showed that paternal smoking failed to enter the model if the educational variables were also included....Maternal smoking affects fertility, but earlier reports of an apparent effect of paternal smoking may be due to confounding with socioeconomic status."
Correspondence: M. Joffe, St. Mary's Hospital Medical School, Department of Public Health, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

61:10240 Kravdal, Oystein. How many children? [Hvor mange barn?] ISBN 82-00-21221-1. LC 91-165158. 1991. 111 pp. Universitetsforlaget: Oslo, Norway. In Nor.
The author analyzes changes in fertility patterns in Norway since 1960. He looks at the changes in mean age at childbearing and in parity distribution among female birth generations, and the impact of these changes for annual numbers of live births. Attention is given to a possible increase in childlessness and to the recent rising popularity of the three-child family. Differential fertility is analyzed by looking at regional differences in fertility, the link between educational level and family size, and the importance of economic factors for further childbearing among mothers with two children. The data concern almost complete birth and marriage histories taken from the Central Population Register for all women in Norway born after World War II, to which information from the censuses of 1960, 1970, and 1980 has been linked.
Correspondence: Universitetsforlaget, Postboks 2959, Toyen, 0608 Oslo 6, Norway. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

61:10241 Le Bras, Herve. Simulation of change to validate demographic analysis. In: Old and new methods in historical demography, edited by David S. Reher and Roger Schofield. 1993. 259-79 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In this chapter I shall demonstrate the use of a Monte Carlo simulation model to describe changes in fertility by simulating a demographic situation that is changing. The object is not to represent the course of fertility in detail, but rather to achieve a better understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the change by comparing the results of the model with observation, and to study the repercussions of changes in reproductive behaviour on the different classical indices of fertility." The concepts are illustrated using twentieth-century French data on fertility and contraceptive usage.
Correspondence: H. Le Bras, Ecole de Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, 44 rue de la Tour, 75116 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10242 Lee, Ronald D. Modeling and forecasting the time series of U.S. fertility: age distribution, range, and ultimate level. International Journal of Forecasting, Vol. 9, No. 2, Aug 1993. 187-202 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper develops methods for using time series methods to make constrained long term forecasts of fertility. Specifically, age-time variations in fertility are modeled with a single time-varying parameter, or fertility index; upper and lower bounds on the total fertility rate are imposed by forecasting an inverse logistic transform of the fertility index; the long run level of the fertility forecast is also constrained to equal a prespecified level. The principal interest is in the variance and the autocorrelation structure of the forecast errors." The method is used to forecast the probable range of U.S. fertility trends up to the year 2065.
Correspondence: R. D. Lee, University of California, Graduate Group in Demography, 2232 Piedmont Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10243 Lee, Sea-Baick. An analysis of Korean women's reproduction. Journal of Population, Health and Social Welfare, Vol. 14, No. 1, Summer 1994. 153-62 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Kor. with sum. in Eng.
"The present study examined current trends of Korean women's reproductivity interpreting general reproduction and net reproduction rates, intrinsic rate of natural increase and mean length of generation. The data used for this analysis were drawn from the national fertility surveys from 1970 through 1990 conducted by the Korea Institute for Population and Health. The figures of the present study revealed that the reproduction rates of Korea during the last 20 years decreased from 2.22 in 1970 to 0.71 in 1990 and net reproduction rates also dropped from 1.9 to 0.69 during the same period of time. Furthermore, from this study, it is noticed that the replacement level of fertility [was] reached [in] the early 1980s."
Correspondence: S.-B. Lee, Seoul National University, School of Public Health, Sinlim-dong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10244 Locoh, Therese; Hertrich, Veronique. The onset of fertility transition in Sub-Saharan Africa. ISBN 2-87040-050-0. 1994. x, 308 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium; Derouaux Ordina Editions: Liege Belgium. In Eng.
This is a collection of some of the papers presented at a 1991 IUSSP seminar held in Harare, Zimbabwe. The seminar focus was the onset of fertility transition in Sub-Saharan Africa. The book "is divided into four parts: Has sustained fertility decline begun in sub-Saharan Africa? African fertility patterns: similarities and paradoxes; the cost of children: family strategies and fertility behaviour; [and] fertility control: collective goals and individual expectations."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, rue des Augustins 34, 4000 Liege, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10245 Locoh, Therese. Will the decline in fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa last? A time of uncertainty. In: The onset of fertility transition in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Therese Locoh and Veronique Hertrich. 1994. 105-33 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium; Derouaux Ordina Editions: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"Although some countries in sub-Saharan Africa seem to be well on the way to demographic transition, in most countries fertility levels have remained stable. Why this persistence of high fertility levels when fertility has declined in most other developing countries? The article attempts to provide an answer to this question by analyzing the data available for three African countries still characterized by an overall stability in their fertility levels: Rwanda, Togo and Ghana....Analysis of data for these three countries does show that fertility levels that are stable on average can mask differences that may exist both between and within countries....Certain social groups are already showing signs of limiting their fertility even in those countries where fertility appears not to have budged."
Correspondence: T. Locoh, Centre Francais sur la Population et le Developpement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Medicine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10246 McNicoll, Geoffrey. Population and institutional change. International Social Science Journal, Vol. 46, No. 3, Sep 1994. 307-15 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Popular views of the world's population problems, in particular the problem of rapid population growth, often neglect the institutional settings in which they are embedded. In the case of high fertility, this setting includes the immediate institutions of social control such as the family and local structures of authority, and more distant institutions of the state. Taking explicit account of this context gives both greater understanding of demographic change (and absence of change) and a better-informed base for the task of influencing it as a matter of public policy. Some analogous institutional considerations arise in the case of the low-fertility regimes of societies that have completed the demographic transition."
Correspondence: G. McNicoll, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Department of Demography, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:10247 Mhloyi, Marvellous M. Fertility levels and trends in Zimbabwe. Zambezia, Vol. 19, No. 2, 1992. 79-97 pp. Harare, Zimbabwe. In Eng.
A number of indirect methods are used to estimate fertility levels in Zimbabwe between 1982 and 1984, using data from the 1982 census and a reproductive health survey undertaken in 1984. Trends in fertility since 1969 are also reviewed. The results suggest that there has been a decline in fertility over this period, although evidence on the magnitude and timing of the decline is still lacking.
Correspondence: M. M. Mhloyi, University of Zimbabwe, Department of Sociology, Mt. Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:10248 Mhloyi, Marvellous M. Fertility transition in Zimbabwe. In: The onset of fertility transition in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Therese Locoh and Veronique Hertrich. 1994. 87-104 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium; Derouaux Ordina Editions: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"The objective of this paper is to understand factors underlying fertility decline in Zimbabwe during the 20 year period, 1969-1988....A brief discussion of the relevant changes in the socioeconomic and cultural context will clarify changes in fertility trends....Improvements in education and in legislation have contributed to enhancing the status of women and to weakening traditional marriage patterns....The decline in fertility has been caused by changes in both marriage patterns (rising ages at marriage and, though to a lesser extent, increases in rates of marital disruption) and in contraceptive use (women resort increasingly to modern contraception while traditional methods become less popular). On the other hand, the effect of post-partum infecundability has remained constant, reflecting persistent high levels of breastfeeding."
Correspondence: M. M. Mhloyi, University of Zimbabwe, P.O. Box MP 167, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10249 Mturi, Akim J.; Hinde, P. R. Andrew. Fertility decline in Tanzania. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 26, No. 4, Oct 1994. 529-38 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"According to the 1991/92 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey, a Tanzanian woman has, on average, 6.1 births before she reaches age 50, a decline of about one birth per woman since the early 1980s. The major proximate determinant of fertility is universal and prolonged breast-feeding. An analysis of the social and demographic correlates of fertility shows that infant and child mortality, level of education and age at first marriage are among the factors which significantly influence fertility in Tanzania."
Correspondence: A. J. Mturi, University of Southampton, Department of Social Statistics, Southampton S09 5NH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10250 Nath, Dilip C.; Land, Kenneth C.; Singh, Kaushalendra K.; Talukdar, Pijush K. Most recent birth intervals in a traditional society: a life table and hazards regression analysis. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 21, No. 2, 1994. 149-64 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"In this paper, we examine the structure of the most recent (last closed) birth interval, irrespective of parity, after subtracting the actual length of PPA [postpartum amenorrhea] in a traditional Indian society. Life tables of birth intervals and median birth intervals are reported for several subgroups of the study populations. Multivariate hazards regression techniques are used to estimate the net effect of each explanatory variable and interactions among the variables." Data are from a retrospective survey conducted in 1988-1989 in the Karimganj district of southern Assam, India.
Correspondence: D. C. Nath, Duke University, Durham, NC 27706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10251 Pathak, K. B.; Pandey, Arvind. Stochastic models of human reproduction. ISBN 81-7040-671-4. 1993. vi, 160 pp. Himalaya Publishing House: Bombay, India. In Eng.
This textbook concerns the application of stochastic models to the study of fertility determinants using data from field surveys. Separate chapters are included on the application of such models to data on waiting time to first conception, lactational amenorrhea, number of births, family planning strategies and stopping rules, closed birth intervals, and open birth intervals. The primary geographical focus is on India.
Correspondence: Himalaya Publishing House, Ramdoot, Dr. Bhalerao Marg, Girgaon, Bombay 400 004, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10252 Prakasam, C. P.; Sinha, U. P.; Khan, A. G.; Reddy, Hanimi. Influence of loss of child on mother's reproduction. IIPS Research Report Series, No. 4, 1993-1994. [iv], 53, [8] pp. International Institute for Population Sciences: Bombay, India. In Eng.
The results of a survey of 1,306 women of reproductive age in the Anantapur district of Andhra Pradesh, India, in 1991 are presented. The "analysis clearly demonstrates that the infant and child loss (previous child loss) increases the desire to replace the loss as early as possible. This replacement with shorter birth interval affects the mothers health and...that of the child also. Further, mothers who had assurance of survival of their child...accepted permanent family planning methods."
Correspondence: International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Bombay 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10253 Renne, Elisha P. An anthropological approach to fertility change. Working Papers in Demography, No. 48, 1994. 30 pp. Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
The author attempts to develop an anthropological approach to the study of fertility change worldwide. "Specifically, I suggest an ethnographic focus on culture as beliefs, practices, and things that not only structure individuals' and groups' sense of their world but also provide the means for individual strategies of reinterpretation."
Correspondence: Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Division of Demography and Sociology, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10254 Richter, Kerry; Podhisita, Chai; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Soonthorndhada, Kusol. The impact of child care on fertility in urban Thailand. Demography, Vol. 31, No. 4, Nov 1994. 651-62 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Women's labor force participation in Thailand, particularly in the modern sector, recently has increased in conjunction with rapid declines in fertility. This paper examines whether a relationship exists between child care considerations and fertility decision making among Bangkok women. Although the two-child family has become the norm in recent years, and although most respondents said that ideally they would like to have two children, a high proportion of women surveyed said they planned to only have one child. Women's work status and type of employment is found to strongly affect the likelihood of having a second birth: those who work at jobs that not only are low-paying but are located in a formal setting are least likely to have a second child. The type of child care for the first child also has an impact: those whose first child is in a less preferred situation are less likely to have a second. Variables measuring the need for and type of child care are found to have greater consequences for fertility than do usual measures of socioeconomic status."
An earlier version of this paper was presented at the 1993 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: K. Richter, Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6411. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10255 Rosero-Bixby, Luis; Casterline, John B. Interaction diffusion and fertility transition in Costa Rica. Social Forces, Vol. 73, No. 2, Dec 1994. 435-62 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"A long-standing concern of sociologists is the contribution of diffusion processes to social change. This article considers the contribution of social interaction diffusion to the fertility transition in Costa Rica, focusing on person-to-person contagion. Several prominent features of the Costa Rican transition suggest the existence of interaction diffusion effects, notably its pervasiveness toward all socioeconomic strata and the lack of evidence of a downward shift in family size preferences. Maps of the timing of fertility transition show an ordered spatial pattern suggestive of contagion between neighboring areas. A dynamic regression model estimated from pooled time series data for 100 counties reveals inter- and within-county diffusion effects on birth control adoption net of socioeconomic and family-planning program effects."
Correspondence: L. Rosero-Bixby, Apartado 833-2050, San Pedro, Costa Rica. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10256 Roussel, Louis. Fertility and family. In: European Population Conference, 1993. Proceedings. Volume 1. 1994. 35-118 pp. UN Economic Commission for Europe [ECE]: Geneva, Switzerland; Council of Europe: Strasbourg, France. In Eng.
"The purpose of the report is to stress the influence of the family model on the level of fertility and, in particular, to show the importance of that relationship in fertility trends in Europe over the last thirty years....The main analysis covers 28 countries (26 in Europe and the United States and Canada in North America)....I deal first with current population data and their trend since 1965, with special attention to an analysis of fertility. The significance of the changes observed leads us to ask why they occurred, and the answer to this question will enable us to formulate hypotheses for the next decade. Finally, we shall consider whether these projections do not entail certain risks which a pertinent policy could help to overcome." Comments by Anatoly Vishnevsky are included (pp. 111-8).
Correspondence: L. Roussel, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10257 Roux, Maryse. Cuba: population and development. A study of fertility. [Cuba: population et developpement. Essai sur la fecondite.] Cahiers des Ameriques Latines, No. 11, 1991. 83-101 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Spa.
Fertility trends in Cuba are analyzed from the 1950s to the present. The author notes a significant decline in fertility that began around 1965, particularly among women over 25, which preceded significant improvements in maternal health and reductions in infant mortality. The consequent demographic aging is probably unique in a developing country and is a serious concern of the Cuban authorities.
Correspondence: M. Roux, Universite de Paris VIII, Departement de Geographie, 2 rue de la Liberte, 93526 St. Denis Cedex 02, France. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

61:10258 Sabatello, Eitan F. Continuity and change in reproductive and abortion patterns of Soviet immigrants in Israel. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 40, No. 1, Jan 1995. 117-24 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The abortion and fertility patterns of old-timer and new immigrants from the former Soviet Union in Israel are compared with those prevalent among the receiving population, where a different system of services, free-choice contraceptive means and outlooks on family size exist. High frequency of abortion in the U.S.S.R. looks adaptive to local circumstances rather than cultural, yet higher-than-average patterns of induced abortion and lower-than-average number of children persist after almost two decades. In the short range, new immigrants seem also to be exposed to very low fertility rates and to [significantly higher] rates of legal and illegal abortion...."
Correspondence: E. F. Sabatello, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Braun School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Jerusalem 91120, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:10259 Sarkar, Birendra N. Education and family welfare planning. Rural areas around Calcutta. ISBN 81-7035-104-9. 1992. viii, 446 pp. Daya Publishing House: Delhi, India. In Eng.
This study presents results from a 1978 survey of 1,553 households in rural areas around the city of Calcutta, India. The primary focus is on the relationship between educational status and fertility. Chapters are also included on marriage patterns, sterilization, and migration. Consideration is given to differences between Hindus and Muslims.
Correspondence: Daya Publishing House, 1123/74 Deva Ram Park, Tri Nagar, Delhi 110 035, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10260 Shah, Ajay N. A life cycle model of fertility choice. 1993. University of Southern California, Doheny Library, Micrographics Department: Los Angeles, California. In Eng.
"This dissertation implements a dynamic model of fertility, where households make the contraception decision at time t, using information at time t, so as to maximise the expected discounted value of lifetime utility....In the empirical implementation, we use micro data from Malaysia from 1976 to roughly 1988."
Correspondence: University of Southern California, Doheny Library, Micrographics Department, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0182. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 55(3).

61:10261 Singh, Ram D. Fertility-mortality variations across LDCs: women's education, labor force participation, and contraceptive-use. Kyklos, Vol. 47, No. 2, 1994. 209-29 pp. Basel, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"Using cross-country data, this study evaluated the effects of women's education, labor force participation, contraceptive-use and the availability and use of health services to mothers at births on fertility and mortality variations in LDCs. Following basically an extended version of the Schultz-Becker framework, a regression model was formulated, and the coefficients on the variables were estimated using the ordinary least squares....The empirical results revealed that the women's human capital variable measured by literacy, school enrollments and/or the completed school years had a deterrent effect on both the fertility and mortality rates in LDCs. Similarly, the effect of the contraceptive-use was to significantly reduce fertility rates, as was the effect of the supply of health services to mothers at birth on child mortality. Countries with the higher participation of women in wage-paid jobs experienced significantly lower fertility and mortality rates."
Correspondence: R. D. Singh, Illinois State University, Department of Economics, Normal, IL 61761. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

61:10262 Sonko, Sheriff. Fertility and culture in Sub-Saharan Africa: a review. International Social Science Journal, Vol. 46, No. 3, Sep 1994. 397-411 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest levels of fertility in the world. The reasons for the high and persistent fertility are cultural....It is argued here that fertility decline in this region will take several more generations unless the perceptions, belief systems and traditions undergo radical changes coupled with improvements in the status of women."
Correspondence: S. Sonko, Australian National University, G.P.O. Box 4, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:10263 Srinivasan, K. Critical factors affecting population growth in developing countries. In: Population--the complex reality, edited by Francis Graham-Smith. 1994. 181-97 pp. Royal Society: London, England; North American Press: Golden, Colorado. In Eng.
The author analyzes "the factors that have contributed to the substantial reductions in the fertility and mortality levels of the population in developing countries during the past four decades and the lessons they hold for policy and programme implications for the future." A model of the influence of selected predictors of contraceptive use is developed, and direct and indirect effects of predictors on contraceptive use and fertility levels are computed.
Correspondence: K. Srinivasan, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square, CB 8120, 143 West Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10264 Thomas, Duncan; Muvandi, Ityai. How fast is fertility declining in Botswana and Zimbabwe? World Bank Discussion Paper, No. 258, ISBN 0-8213-2993-6. LC 94-29584. Sep 1994. x, 31 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This study examines the evidence of fertility decline in Botswana and Zimbabwe, which is primarily based on data from the Contraceptive Prevalence Surveys and the Demographic and Health Surveys. "This paper examines the comparability of these data sources and finds that at least part of the observed decline in aggregate fertility rates in both countries can be attributed to differences in sample composition. In Botswana and Zimbabwe, women of the same cohort are better educated in the second survey relative to the first. Since education and fertility are negatively correlated, this fact explains part--but not all--of the observed fertility decline across the surveys."
Correspondence: World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10265 Uitto, Juha. Fertility transition and socio-economic change in the developing world: overview and assessment of interlinkages. Svensk Geografisk Aarsbok/Swedish Geographical Yearbook, Vol. 68, 1992. 156-69 pp. Lund, Sweden. In Eng.
"The first part of the present paper gives an overview of the fertility transition that has taken place in the developing sphere of the world over the past two or so decades. Second, the effects of population increase and age-structure on the provision of social services, such as education and health, are discussed. The third main part of the paper looks at the impact of poverty on the fertility behavior of the people."
Correspondence: J. Uitto, United Nations University, 53-70 Jingumae 5-chome, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10266 United Nations. Economic Commission for Africa [ECA]. Population Division (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia). Correlation of changing infant and child mortality and fertility in relation to development programmes in selected ECA member states. No. ECA/POP/TP/93/4/2bv, Nov 1993. 50 pp. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. In Eng.
This study examines the links between changes in infant and child mortality and fertility in Africa. Separate consideration is given to the determinants of infant and child mortality and to fertility determinants. The relationship between these two factors is then analyzed in the context of socioeconomic development programs in the region. The importance of educational status and residence in urban areas for fertility reduction is emphasized.
Correspondence: UN Economic Commission for Africa, Population Division, P.O. Box 3001, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10267 Vimard, Patrice; Guillaume, Agnes; Quesnel, Andre. Singular fertility patterns in rural Africa: socio-economic differentiations and transformation of fertility models in West Africa. In: The onset of fertility transition in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Therese Locoh and Veronique Hertrich. 1994. 193-220 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium; Derouaux Ordina Editions: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"The aim of this article is to [analyze]...the different ways in which...cash-crop producing systems have affected fertility...[in west Africa]....In the first part the socio-economic context of changing fertility patterns in the cash-crop economies of sub-Saharan Africa will be described....The second part will attempt to show how diverging patterns of integration in, and contribution to, the cash-crop economy are expressed in terms of the reproductive behaviour of each population....The third part of this article will examine the case of an indigenous matrilinear population, the Akye of South-East Ivory Coast....The fourth part will focus on the Sassandra area of South-East Ivory Coast, which differs from other regions in that it was integrated into the cash-crop production system at a much later date, and because the area was settled fairly recently and by a large number of different groups."
Correspondence: P. Vimard, Institut Francais de Recherche Scientifique pour le Developpement en Cooperation, 213 rue Lafayette, 75010 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10268 Visaria, Pravin; Visaria, Leela. Demographic transition: accelerating fertility decline in 1980s. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 29, No. 51-52, Dec 17-24, 1994. 3,281-92 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"Recent population data suggest that there has been a clear decline in fertility almost throughout the country together with a continuing decline in mortality rates. This article highlights interesting developments in the Indian demographic scene in the last two decades focusing on changes in processes relevant to demographic transition, particularly fertility decline." Data are from official sources, including the census and the Sample Registration System.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

61:10269 Weir, David R. Family reconstitution and population reconstruction: two approaches to the fertility transition in France, 1740-1911. In: Old and new methods in historical demography, edited by David S. Reher and Roger Schofield. 1993. 145-58 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Family reconstitution and population reconstruction can be used together to verify and reinforce results obtained separately. In this paper I have reported annual estimates of [the Princeton marital fertility index] from the INED family reconstitutions for 1740-1819 and from population reconstructions based in large part on the INED enquete anonyme for 1740-1911. Thus, for the first time these two monumental research projects could be directly compared in terms of their evidence on the fertility transition in France." The results show that both approaches are in agreement on the history of marital fertility in France.
Correspondence: D. R. Weir, Yale University, Department of Economics, New Haven, CT 06520. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10270 Wolf, Arthur P.; Chuang, Ying-Chang. Fertility and women's labour: two negative (but instructive) findings. Population Studies, Vol. 48, No. 3, Nov 1994. 427-33 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In northern Taiwan (as in many other places in South China) two Chinese populations with distinct traditions lived side by side. In one group, the Hokkien, women bound their feet and never worked in the fields; in the other, the Hakka, they did not bind their feet and worked in the fields as men did. Data drawn from household registers for the period 1905-1980 are used to test two hypotheses which argued that women's participation in productive labour reduced their fertility. Both are rejected."
Correspondence: A. P. Wolf, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10271 Yamamoto, Chizuko; Kojima, Katsuhisa. Fertility in Japan: 1992. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 50, No. 1, Apr 1994. 60-6 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
This study concerns fertility in Japan in 1992. It includes data on births by nationality, changes in fertility and marriage rates from 1970 to 1992, and births and birth rates in 1991 and 1992 by age and sex.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.2. Differential Fertility

Studies on differences in fertility patterns and levels in subgroups of a population. Also included are studies on age-specific fertility, such as teenage pregnancy.

61:10272 Astone, Nan M.; Washington, Mary L. The association between grandparental coresidence and adolescent childbearing. Journal of Family Issues, Vol. 15, No. 4, Dec 1994. 574-89 pp. Newbury Park, California. In Eng.
"The topic of this article is the association between grandparental coresidence with adolescent women and early childbearing. The conceptual model is based on that used in social demographic studies of the effect of family structure on children and is expanded to include the presence of extended kin in the household. Grandparental coresidence is associated with a delay of first birth beyond the teenage years among young women from two-parent and stepparent families as well as among those who live with neither birth parent. Grandparental coresidence has no association with early childbearing--positive or negative--among young women from single-parent families." Data are from the High School and Beyond study carried out in the United States during the 1980s.
Correspondence: N. M. Astone, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Department of Population Dynamics, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:10273 Boyd, Robert L. Educational mobility and the fertility of black and white women: a research note. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 13, No. 3, Sep 1994. 275-81 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"In a test of the minority group status hypothesis, this study examines the effect of intergenerational educational mobility on the fertility of black and white women. Regression analysis of data from the [U.S.] National Survey of Family Growth provides only limited support for the hypothesis that upwardly mobile black women have lower fertility than their white counterparts. The main finding is that the parity of upwardly mobile black women is influenced more strongly by educational origins (parents' education) than is the parity of upwardly mobile white women. Thus, future studies should consider the effects of social origins of racial differences in fertility."
Correspondence: R. L. Boyd, State University of New York, Department of Sociology, 430 Park Hall, Buffalo, NY 14260-4140. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10274 Brewster, Karin L. Neighborhood context and the transition to sexual activity among young black women. Demography, Vol. 31, No. 4, Nov 1994. 603-14 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"In this study I examine the effects of neighborhood characteristics on the risk of nonmarital first intercourse and on contraceptive use among black female adolescents [in the United States]. The results suggest that neighborhood socioeconomic status, female employment and marital dissolution rates, and peers' departure from mainstream lifecourse trajectories influence young black women's sexual and contraceptive behavior. The effects of female employment and socioeconomic status are greater for teens in urban neighborhoods than for teens living elsewhere."
An earlier version of this paper was presented at the 1991 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: K. L. Brewster, Florida State University, Center for the Study of Population, 659-C Bellamy Building, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4063. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10275 Chowdhury, Mridul K. Mother's education and effect of son preference on fertility in Matlab, Bangladesh. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 13, No. 3, Sep 1994. 257-73 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This analysis follows earlier research that hypothesized and substantiated that, in a society with strong son preference, its effect on fertility would be conditional on the level of contraceptive use. Present analysis of the prospective fertility experience of 22,819 women of reproductive age during 3.5 years in Matlab, Bangladesh, shows that this effect is higher among mothers with postprimary schooling versus those with primary or no education. The higher effect conforms with the known positive relationship of contraceptive use with maternal schooling. However, this increase when contrasted with the idea that education promotes modern values, including gender equality, suggests that education in Matlab, with its traditional slant, is not resistant to son preference."
Correspondence: M. K. Chowdhury, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square, CB 8120, 143 West Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10276 Kasun, Jacqueline R. Condom nation: government sex education promotes teen pregnancy. Policy Review, No. 68, Spring 1994. 79-82 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author argues that there is a direct relationship between the provision of sex education and school-based family planning in the United States and premarital sexual activity and adolescent pregnancy. She states that "after almost three decades of experience and study, the promoters of government birth control have failed to produce any evidence of its salutary effects. On the contrary, the weight of the evidence, much of it published by its own proponents, shows it to be associated with increases in premarital sex, teenage pregnancy, births out-of-wedlock, welfare dependency and abortion."
Correspondence: J. R. Kasun, Humboldt State University, Department of Economics, Arcata, CA 95521. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

61:10277 Kollehlon, Konia T. Religious affiliation and fertility in Liberia. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 26, No. 4, Oct 1994. 493-507 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This study examines fertility differentials by religious affiliation in Liberia, within the context of two competing hypotheses: the characteristic and particularised theology. Using a subsample of currently married women from the 1986 Liberian Demographic and Health Survey, the study examines the fertility of five religious groups: Catholic, Protestant, Moslem, traditional, and other women. Overall, the findings are more consistent with the characteristic hypothesis, because the small fertility differentials by religious affiliation are largely accounted for by differences in the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of these women."
Correspondence: K. T. Kollehlon, University of Maryland Eastern Shore, Department of Social Sciences, Princess Anne, MD 21853. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10278 Krishnan, Vijaya. Differences in homeowner's and renter's fertility: evidence from Canada. International Review of Modern Sociology, Vol. 23, No. 1, Spring 1993. 107-16 pp. De Kalb, Illinois. In Eng.
"The fertility of Canadian women is investigated using data from the 1984 Canadian Fertility Survey (CFS). Attention is focused on several socio-demographic factors (e.g., age, education, religion, nativity, number of siblings, income, and homeownership) that are associated with fertility of couples. Multivariate analysis of the data indicate that homeownership is the most important factor explaining fertility of Canadian women. Fertility determinants are found to differ between homeowners and renters; nativity has a significant effect on the fertility of renters, but not on the fertility of homeowners. The results suggest that Canadian-born couples in rented houses/apartments are more likely to report a larger family size than their foreign-born counterparts."
Correspondence: V. Krishnan, Family and Social Services, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

61:10279 Ladier, Marie. The fertility of the major ethnic groups of Iran. [La fecondite des ethnies principales d'Iran.] Cahiers d'Etudes sur la Mediterranee Orientale et le Monde Turco-Iranien, No. 16, Jul-Dec 1993. 315-34 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
This study of ethnic fertility differentials in Iran is based primarily on data from the 1986 census. The analysis includes differences between rural and urban areas as well as among provinces, and the relationship between literacy and fertility.
Location: Princeton University Library (SY).

61:10280 Low, Bobbi S. Men in the demographic transition. Human Nature, Vol. 5, No. 3, 1994. 223-53 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This study uses data from nineteenth-century Sweden to examine male reproductive ecology. The results show that male fertility responded to changes in locally available resources, and that richer men had more children than poorer men. "Men's fertility also interacted with local and historical factors in complex ways to have significant impact on population growth. As a result, 'the' demographic transition was local, and locally reversible, in Sweden."
Correspondence: B. S. Low, University of Michigan, Evolution and Human Behavior Program, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1115. Location: Princeton University Library (SW).

61:10281 Newcomer, Susan. Research on adolescent fertility. Advances in Population: Psychosocial Perspectives, Vol. 2, 1994. 75-88 pp. Bristol, Pennsylvania/London, England. In Eng.
The author provides a review of research on adolescent sexual behavior, pregnancy, and parenthood in the United States.
Correspondence: S. Newcomer, U.S. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Center for Population Research, Demographic and Behavioral Sciences Branch, Bethesda, MD 20892. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10282 Tolnay, Stewart E.; Glynn, Patricia J. The persistence of high fertility in the American South on the eve of the baby boom. Demography, Vol. 31, No. 4, Nov 1994. 615-31 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"In this paper we attempt to identify the factors that account for the presistently high fertility in some southern [U.S.] regions. We use county-level data for 1940 to assess the utility of three theoretical models of fertility: structural, diffusion-innovation, and health. Differences by race are also considered, in view of the distinctly different histories of whites and African-Americans in the south. Our findings suggest that unicausal explanations for the persistence of high fertility are too simplistic; all three theoretical perspectives receive empirical support. Considerable similarity is observed in the findings for blacks and for whites. Yet important differences also emerge, especially the more powerful effects of structural variables on white fertility."
Correspondence: S. E. Tolnay, State University of New York, Department of Sociology, 1400 Washington Avenue, Albany, NY 12222. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10283 Verdugo Lazo, Aida. Marital fertility in Brazil: differential by type of union and its importance in the fertility transition, 1976-1991. DHS Working Paper, No. 15, Aug 1994. 17 pp. Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Calverton, Maryland. In Eng.
"The main objective of this project is to explore the differentials and tendencies of marital fertility in Brazil, by type of union, during three periods of the fertility transition, 1976, 1984 and 1991, in three main regions: Northeast, Sao Paulo and South. Levels of education and place of residence are also considered as important covariates in the analysis. The data used in this project originated in the National Household Surveys (Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicilios-PNAD) conducted in 1976 and 1984 in Brazil and the DHS program conducted in 1986 and 1991."
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Calverton, MD 20705. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10284 Zabin, Laurie S.; Sedivy, Valerie; Emerson, Mark R. Subsequent risk of childbearing among adolescents with a negative pregnancy test. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 26, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1994. 212-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this article, we test the hypothesis that young women's negative pregnancy tests could be evidence of cautious or protective behavior, and that adolescents with negative pregnancy tests might differ on certain strategic behavioral variables from women who delay obtaining a pregnancy test until they are certain that they have conceived. We will explore the topic using data from a longitudinal study of inner-city clinic patients who came to a facility seeking a pregnancy test [in Baltimore, Maryland]....We then consider the correlates of the level of pregnancy risk we observe in this easily identifiable group and the programmatic implications of our findings." Results indicate that "the risk of unintended pregnancy is high among those in the negative-test group; for example, they initiate intercourse earlier and are exposed to the risk of pregnancy for longer than the other subgroups....They are much more likely to carry a pregnancy to term in the 18 months subsequent to the test than are the other two groups in the 18 months following their birth or their abortion; those in the negative-test group are also significantly less likely than the others to practice contraception always or most of the time."
Correspondence: L. S. Zabin, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Department of Population Dynamics, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology

Studies on infertility, as well as studies of spontaneous abortion, prematurity, and other relevant pathologies of pregnancy.

61:10285 Evina, Akam. Infertility in Sub-Saharan Africa. In: The onset of fertility transition in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Therese Locoh and Veronique Hertrich. 1994. 251-66 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium; Derouaux Ordina Editions: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"This article develops several methodological approaches to the analysis of infertility. It is concerned in particular with the signs, determinants and definitions of infertility. Furthermore, it addresses the influence of certain behaviors on the incidence of infertility. Finally, it discusses current levels and regional variations in sub-Saharan Africa based on the most recent available data for the region."
Correspondence: A. Evina, Institut de Formation et de Recherche Demographiques, B.P. 1556, Yaounde, Cameroon. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10286 Larsen, Ulla. Sterility in Sub-Saharan Africa. Population Studies, Vol. 48, No. 3, Nov 1994. 459-74 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper [estimates] levels and age patterns of sterility in [Sub-Saharan] African populations, and [evaluates] the potential bias in population estimates of sterility measured under conditions other than natural fertility....We have used simulations to assess the size of the bias in sterility estimates obtained by the 'subsequently infertile' and 'childlessness' estimators in 17 African countries. Contraception was found to bias age-specific sterility rates obtained from 'subsequently infertile' measures in only three countries in which prevalence of contraception was highest (Botswana, Kenya in 1989, and Zimbabwe). Primary sterility estimated from childlessness measures, however, was unaffected by contraception in all of the 17 countries for which data are available."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1992 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: U. Larsen, Harvard University, School of Public Health, Department of Population and International Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10287 Mooney, Graham. Still-births and the measurement of urban infant mortality rates c. 1890-1930. Local Population Studies, No. 53, Autumn 1994. 42-52 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to assess the possible extent of still-births in a selection of towns and cities in England towards the end of the nineteenth century." Consideration is given to differences in infant mortality and fetal deaths among various urban areas and to the reliability of the data sources available.
Correspondence: G. Mooney, University of Liverpool, Liverpool Public Health Observatory, Liverpool L69 3BX, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10288 Wasser, Samuel K. Psychosocial stress and infertility: cause or effect? Human Nature, Vol. 5, No. 3, 1994. 293-306 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Experimental, theoretical, psychological, and economic barriers have caused physicians to rely on biomedical treatments for infertility at the exclusion of more environmentally oriented ones (e.g., psychosocial stress therapy). An evolutionary model is described for the origin of reproductive failure, suggesting why mammals evolved to be reproductively responsive to the environment and why psychosocial stress should have an especially strong impact on fertility problems. A study of the causal role of psychosocial stress in infertility is then summarized. The paper concludes with implications for future directions for the treatment of infertility and related human reproductive problems."
Correspondence: S. K. Wasser, University of Washington, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Reproductive Endocrinology, XD-44, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SW).

61:10289 Wilcox, Lynne S.; Mosher, William D. Characteristics associated with impaired fecundity in the United States. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 26, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1994. 218-21 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article uses data from Cycle IV of the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), a population-based, nationally representative sample of over 8,000 women, to examine the characteristics of U.S. women who have reported impaired fecundity (defined as difficulty in conceiving or carrying a pregnancy to term), regardless of whether they have ever sought medical help or advice for these problems." Results indicate that "about 15% of nonsterilized, sexually experienced women aged 15-44 (or 8% of all women of reproductive age) report impaired fecundity....Multivariate logistic regressions found that older women, childless women and married women are significantly more likely to report impaired fecundity, but differences by race or ethnicity are not statistically significant. Women with a history of treatment for pelvic inflammatory disease or a history of diabetes, hypertension or endometriosis are all significantly more likely than those without to report that they have impaired fecundity. Women who have never used a contraceptive method are more likely than users of the pill, condom or IUD to report impaired fecundity."
Correspondence: L. S. Wilcox, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Reproductive Health, Program Services and Development Branch, Atlanta, GA 30341. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10290 Wood, James W.; Holman, Darryl J.; Yashin, Anatoli I.; Peterson, Raymond J.; Weinstein, Maxine; Chang, Ming-Cheng. A multistate model of fecundability and sterility. Demography, Vol. 31, No. 3, Aug 1994. 403-26 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper develops a multistate hazards model for estimating fecundability and sterility from data on waiting times to conception. Important features of the model include separate sterile and nonsterile states, a distinction between preexisting sterility and sterility that begins after initiation of exposure, and log-normally distributed fecundability among nonsterile couples. Application of the model to data on first birth intervals from Taiwan, Sri Lanka, and the Amish [in the United States] shows that heterogeneity in fecundability is statistically significant at most ages, but that preexisting sterility and new sterility are unimportant before age 40. These results suggest that sterility may not be an important determinant of natural fertility until later reproductive ages."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1990 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: J. W. Wood, Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6211. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4. Actions and Activities Directly Affecting Fertility

Studies concerning activities, including family planning programs, that are primarily designed to influence fertility.

F.4.1. General Fertility Control and Contraception

General aspects of fertility control, primarily those concerned with family planning and family planning programs.

61:10291 Adeokun, Lawrence A. Service quality and family planning outreach in Sub-Saharan Africa. In: The onset of fertility transition in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Therese Locoh and Veronique Hertrich. 1994. 235-49 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium; Derouaux Ordina Editions: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"This paper [explored] six elements of family planning service quality [in Sub-Saharan Africa] in order to discuss service delivery in the wider societal context that contains health care seeking behaviour (of which family planning forms a part). Also briefly discussed were the implications of taking service delivery beyond the confines of health institutions, and assessing national family planning programmes, instead of individual projects."
Correspondence: L. A. Adeokun, Makerere University, Institute of Statistics and Applied Economics, P.O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10292 Askew, Ian. Future directions for family planning operations research: towards a greater appreciation of psychosocial issues. Advances in Population: Psychosocial Perspectives, Vol. 2, 1994. 141-69 pp. Bristol, Pennsylvania/London, England. In Eng.
"The aim of this chapter is to review some of the directions in which [family planning] operations research is expanding in order to better address the research questions emerging from greater concerns with the quality of service offered, with the efficient management and functioning of service delivery sub-systems, and with the introduction of new and underutilized methods into a program....Although discussions in this chapter will refer to operations research in general, most of the examples are drawn from experience with The Population Council's Africa Operations Research and Technical Assistance Project (funded by USAID)."
Correspondence: I. Askew, Population Council, Regional Bureau for East and Southern Africa, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10293 Banister, Judith; Harbaugh, Christina W. China's family planning program: inputs and outcomes. CIR Staff Paper, No. 73, Jun 1994. xvi, 176 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Center for International Research: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors present a variety of data on China's national family planning program. "A surprising range of information has been completely unavailable or very difficult to locate. The main purpose of this report is to fill in as many of those missing pieces as possible, so that interested observers can more fully comprehend the organizational structure, chains of command, staffing, financial aspects, and means of delivery of each kind of birth control technique in the People's Republic of China. Another purpose is to assess what aspects of China's family planning program are relevant elsewhere and might provide an example for other countries to follow."
Correspondence: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Center for International Research, Washington, D.C. 20233-3700. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10294 Browne, Jan; Minichiello, Victor. The condom: why more people don't put it on. Sociology of Health and Illness, Vol. 16, No. 2, Mar 1994. 229-51 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
This is an analysis of the interpersonal aspects of sexual relationships that influence condom use, using data gathered in 1990 from individuals in Melbourne and Brabant, Australia. "Using the principles of grounded theory, in-depth interviews were conducted with heterosexual men and women to understand the impact of the dyadic context of 'heterosex' on decisions to use condoms, condom availability and partner support and receptivity to cooperate in safer sex practices....The study highlights the importance of promoting condom sex as good and pleasurable sex if education and public health intervention programmes are to be effective in changing attitudes towards safer sex practices."
Correspondence: J. Browne, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria 3083, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:10295 Caruso, Beth; Williamson, Nancy E. Providing family planning services in the era of AIDS/STDs. Advances in Population: Psychosocial Perspectives, Vol. 2, 1994. 49-74 pp. Bristol, Pennsylvania/London, England. In Eng.
"This chapter addresses the challenges of delivering family planning services in the era of AIDS and STDs. It outlines some of the contributions that family planning programs are making (or could make) to AIDS/STD prevention among their clients and the communities they serve. More specifically, it discusses the relationship of family planning methods to HIV/STD transmission; the increasing importance of barrier methods; the need to give more attention to latex male condoms; the difficult issues surrounding condom commodities and logistics; and the potential contribution of female condoms."
Correspondence: N. E. Williamson, Family Health International, One Triangle Drive, P.O. Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10296 Castro Martin, Teresa; Njogu, Wamucii. A decade of change in contraceptive behaviour in Latin America: a multivariate decomposition analysis. Population Bulletin of the United Nations, No. 36, 1994. 81-109 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study relies on World Fertility Survey (WFS) and Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) data to examine recent trends and determinants of contraceptive use in five Latin American countries: Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Mexico and Peru. These countries experienced a substantial increase in contraceptive prevalence in the inter-survey period. Within countries, however, the increase was not equally shared by all social and demographic groups. The study found that relatively disadvantaged groups experienced greater gains in contraceptive use. Despite the prevailing tendency towards convergence, wide differentials in contraceptive behaviour among social sectors still persist."
Correspondence: T. Castro Martin, UN Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, Population Division, United Nations, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10297 de Alencar, Jose A.; de Andrade, Edgar C. The use of contraceptives in Brazil: an analysis of the prevalence of female sterilization. [O uso de contraceptivos no Brasil: uma analise da prevalencia da esterilizacao feminina.] Dados, Vol. 36, No. 3, 1993. 419-39 pp. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"Female sterilization is Brazil's most common method of birth-control. This paper examines the main social and demographic traits of the sterilized female population, comparing these with the characteristics of the institutions and agents that provide birth-control methods. When demographic variables are controlled...it can be shown that most of those choosing sterilization as a birth-control method are of higher social status. At the same time, increased use of sterilization has accompanied growth of the social security health-care and hospital network, which appears to have extended the method to ever greater numbers of Brazil's relatively needier classes."
Correspondence: J. A. de Alencar, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Technologico, Laboratorio Nacional de Computacao Cientifica, Av. W-3 Norte Quadra 507, Bl. B, 70740 Brasilia, DF, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:10298 Fathalla, Mahmoud F. Family planning and reproductive health--a global overview. In: Population--the complex reality, edited by Francis Graham-Smith. 1994. 251-70 pp. Royal Society: London, England; North American Press: Golden, Colorado. In Eng.
The author reviews recent trends in family planning and reproductive health, with attention to family planning in developing countries, contraceptive technological advances, and the prevalence of various contraceptive methods worldwide. Government interventions are assessed, and efforts to improve reproductive health are outlined. Abortion rates and laws are briefly discussed, and major tasks for the future of the family planning movement are considered.
Correspondence: M. F. Fathalla, Rockefeller Foundation, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10299 Forrest, Jacqueline D. Contraceptive use in the United States: past, present and future. Advances in Population: Psychosocial Perspectives, Vol. 2, 1994. 29-47 pp. Bristol, Pennsylvania/London, England. In Eng.
"In this chapter, I will review how [U.S.] contraceptive use patterns have changed and what are the current patterns of use. Based on these past experiences, I will raise questions about what the future might hold for American women, American men and for social scientists trying to study contraceptive behavior."
Correspondence: J. D. Forrest, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10300 Gaal, Gergely; Strenyer, Ibolya. Demographic changes in China Part 2: the "Chinese model" of family planning--birth control--healthy family. [Valtozasok Kinaban a demografia tukreben. II. A csalad--csaladtervezes--szuletesszabalyozas "kinai modellje"] Demografia, Vol. 37, No. 2, 1994. 191-202 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng.
"The article studies the determining factors of...birth control [in China]: for example the large number of women at child-bearing age and the majority of the agricultural population....The article's authors aim at presenting China's ambitions to set up a new, developed economic-social system with the help of the family planning policy."
For Part 1, also published in 1994, see 60:40283.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10301 Gress-Wright, Jessica. The contraception paradox. Public Interest, No. 113, Fall 1993. 15-25 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author reviews the debate over the provision of contraceptive services to adolescents in the United States which has continued from the 1970s to the present day. The debate is primarily between conservatives, who maintain that the provision of such services and sex education promote teenage sexual behavior and pregnancy, and family planning advocates, who maintain that their provision encourages responsible sex behavior and helps prevent unwanted pregnancies. "Comparisons with Sweden and Great Britain suggest that America's difficulties with teen childbearing and abortion can be traced partly to continued cultural ambivalence about chastity, childbearing, and working."
Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

61:10302 Hagenfeldt, Kerstin. Current status of contraceptive research and development. In: Population--the complex reality, edited by Francis Graham-Smith. 1994. 271-85 pp. Royal Society: London, England; North American Press: Golden, Colorado. In Eng.
"Financial resources for contraceptive research and development have decreased during the last two decades, mainly due to the diminished contributions to the field by the pharmaceutical industry. The main contributors today are the international public sector programmes. Through their collaboration and the building of resources and training of scientists in developing regions, substantial progress has been made both in biotechnology and social science." The author reviews "the safety and efficacy of existing contraceptive methods as well as the development of new methods for both women and men...[with a focus on] their importance for reproductive health."
Correspondence: K. Hagenfeldt, Karolinska Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10303 Hammerslough, Charles R. Women's groups and contraceptive use in rural Kenya. In: The onset of fertility transition in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Therese Locoh and Veronique Hertrich. 1994. 267-87 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium; Derouaux Ordina Editions: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"This paper investigates the relationship between membership in voluntary women's associations and contraceptive use in rural Kenya. It argues that women's groups mediate between individuals and Western-style institutions, which include the government, the monetized formal economy, and family-planning providers. It hypothesizes that women mobilize economic and knowledge resources and reduce the cultural costs of using contraception by participating in women's groups. Using individual-level fertility survey and community data, supplemented with group interviews, it evaluates this argument by analyzing the relationship between the existence, strength, and activities of women's groups and individual contraceptive use. Results are that women's group members are 33% more likely to be current users of contraception than non-members, controlling for age, parity, education, and urban-rural residence."
Correspondence: C. R. Hammerslough, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1248. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10304 Islam, M. Ataharul. Multistate survival models for transitions and reverse transitions: an application to contraceptive use data. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A: Statistics in Society, Vol. 157, No. 3, 1994. 441-55 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper illustrates the use of the multistate hazards model for transitions and reverse transitions among more than one transient state emerging from follow-up studies. In addition a simple method is demonstrated for testing the equality of parameters for a transition from one state to another for the first time and subsequent times. This has been applied to contraceptive use dynamics data in Bangladesh."
Correspondence: M. A. Islam, University of Dhaka, Department of Statistics, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

61:10305 Kraft, Joan M.; Coverdill, James E. Employment and the use of birth control by sexually active single Hispanic, black, and white women. Demography, Vol. 31, No. 4, Nov 1994. 593-602 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Previous studies of the use of birth control by sexually active single women tend to emphasize family background and aspirations, and restrict their attention to teenagers. We elaborate this framework by considering how labor market experiences might shape the birth control practices of women in their late teens and twenties. Data from the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Force Experiences--Youth Cohort provide evidence that employment histories and wages influence birth control practices, net of the effects of family background, aspirations, and educational attainment. Several pronounced racial and ethnic differences are found."
Correspondence: J. E. Coverdill, University of Georgia, Department of Sociology, Athens, GA 30602. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10306 Legare, Jacques. The role of NGOs in population programmes. Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 19, No. 3, 1993-1994. 263-8 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Eng.
The author outlines the role of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in the establishment of population programs throughout the world. He discusses the different roles of NGOs in implementing the present World Population Plan of Action, and also considers the role and place of demographers in this process.
Correspondence: J. Legare, Universite de Montreal, Pavillon Lionel-Groulx, C.P. 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10307 Mamdani, Masuma; Garner, Paul; Harpham, Trudy; Campbell, Oona. Fertility and contraceptive use in poor urban areas of developing countries. Health Policy and Planning, Vol. 8, No. 1, Mar 1993. 1-18 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
This is a review of the literature on the factors enhancing fertility in poor urban areas of developing countries, such as decreases in breast-feeding and in sexual abstinence taboos, and those reducing fertility, such as the proportion marrying, age at first marriage, increased spousal separation, and increased use of contraception. "This paper characterizes both these factors and those which influence fertility and family planning in urban settings, particularly in poor urban areas. It examines policy options for improving access to contraception, taking into account issues important in the urban context, including HIV infection and adolescent pregnancy."
Correspondence: P. Garner, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Urban Health Programme, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

61:10308 Mason, Karen O. Do population programs violate women's human rights? Asia Pacific Issues, No. 15, Aug 1994. 8 pp. East-West Center: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
The author examines the charge that current fertility control programs in developing countries violate women's human rights. She also considers whether the proposed women's health and education programs that are designed to replace them will be financially sustainable and effective in reducing rates of population growth. She concludes that, because of the threat of continued major increases in global population, it would be better to improve the quality of fertility control programs than to abandon them altogether.
Correspondence: East-West Center, Office of Public Programs, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10309 McFarlane, Carmen P.; Friedman, Jay S.; Morris, Leo; Goldberg, Howard I. Contraceptive Prevalence Survey, Jamaica, 1993. Volume III: sexual experience, contraceptive practice and fertility. Oct 1994. 30, [83] pp. National Family Planning Board: Kingston, Jamaica; U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]: Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
This is the third of five planned volumes presenting results from the 1993 Jamaica Contraceptive Prevalence Survey. It contains data on sexual behavior, contraceptive usage, availability and cost of contraceptive services, fertility, breast-feeding and postpartum amenorrhea, and maternal and child health services.
For Volumes I and II, also published in 1994, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10310 Niehof, Anke. Family planning and status of women in Indonesia. Groningen Demographic Reports, No. 17, 1994. 29 pp. University of Groningen, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, Population Research Centre: Groningen, Netherlands. In Eng.
The relationship between status of women and family planning is examined using data collected through fieldwork in West Java and Madura, Indonesia. The author concludes that Indonesian female family planning acceptors perceive gains in physical, social, and economic aspects. "The author takes position against the feminist critique on family planning programmes in general and counters arguments like 'women cannot make a free and informed choice concerning family planning' and 'the Indonesian family planning programme lacks a concern for women's health'. She concludes that many poor women in developing countries simply lack access to family planning methods and services. Only if they have this access, women will be able to make a choice and control their own fertility."
Correspondence: University of Groningen, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, Population Research Centre, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10311 Oddens, B. J.; Arnolds, H. Th.; van Maris, M. G. M.; van Lunsen, H. W. The dynamics of oral contraceptive use in the Netherlands 1990-1993. Advances in Contraception, Vol. 10, No. 3, Sep 1994. 167-74 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Data from an ongoing series of surveys on contraceptive use in the Netherlands were analyzed with respect to the percentages of oral contraceptive (OC) users who annually started use, discontinued use or switched to another OC type. The surveys had been conducted between 1990 and 1993 among samples of women aged 15-49 who belonged to a survey panel....Of all respondents who had used OCs during the 12 months prior to the surveys, 12-15% discontinued use within this period, mainly in order to get pregnant, 12-16% were starters and 9-14% switchers. Of all starters 37% switched to another OC type within the first 12 months after starting. Switching was mainly related to the experience of perceived side-effects and wishes for better cycle control."
Correspondence: B. J. Oddens, International Health Foundation, Geneva, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10312 Phimmasone, Kotsaythoune; Oudom, Manisone; Fauveau, Vincent; Godin, Isabelle; Pholsena, Phonethep. Socio-cultural and economic determinants of contraceptive use in the Lao People's Democratic Republic. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 9, No. 2, Jun 1994. 3-24 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This article reports on the...first national survey of fertility and contraceptive knowledge and use [undertaken in Laos in 1993]....We have chosen six indicators to analyse the socio-cultural and economic determinants of contraception....We examine the distribution of these factors with regard to knowledge of the fecund period during the menstrual cycle, knowledge of various contraceptive methods and their source of supply, ideal family size and composition, demand for limitation or spacing of births, ever- and current use of contraception, reasons for non-use or for stopping use, satisfaction with the currently used method, and readiness to pay for contraception."
Correspondence: K. Phimmasone, Institute of Maternal and Child Health, Laos. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10313 Polaneczky, Margaret; Slap, Gail; Forke, Christine; Rappaport, Aviva; Sondheimer, Steven. The use of levonorgestrel implants (Norplant) for contraception in adolescent mothers. New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 331, No. 18, Nov 3, 1994. 1,201-6 pp. Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The use of Norplant for contraception is analyzed using data for 100 postpartum adolescents who chose different contraceptive methods for subsequent use at a U.S. urban teaching hospital in 1991-1992. The authors conclude that "the selection of Norplant by adolescent mothers as a method of contraception is associated with higher rates of continued use and lower rates of new pregnancy than the selection of oral contraceptives and does not affect the use of health care services, sexual activity, condom use, or the rate of sexually transmitted diseases."
Correspondence: M. Polaneczky, New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Box 392, 525 East 68th Street, New York, NY 10021. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

61:10314 Poppen, Paul J. Adolescent contraceptive use and communication: changes over a decade. Adolescence, Vol. 29, No. 115, Fall 1994. 503-14 pp. San Diego, California. In Eng.
"Sexual experiences of 186 adolescents in 1979 were compared to those of 215 adolescents in 1989 who were recruited from the same [U.S.] university to determine if there was an increase over the decade in 'safe sex' practices." The results indicate that, although condom use increased over time, "the percentage of respondents using any method of contraception and the percentage who discussed contraception with their partner increased from first to current partner, but did not increase between 1979 and 1989." The two main problems identified are "encouraging communication between partners regarding contraception and increasing condom use for the very first time an adolescent has sex."
Correspondence: P. J. Poppen, George Washington University, Department of Psychology, Washington, D.C. 20052. Location: Princeton University Library (SW).

61:10315 Rao, K. V.; Zhao, Hongxin. Trends and differentials in female contraceptive sterilization in the United States: 1976 and 1988. In: Studies in applied demography, edited by K. Vaninadha Rao and Jerry W. Wicks. 1994. 425-40 pp. Bowling Green State University, Department of Sociology, Population and Society Research Center: Bowling Green, Ohio. In Eng.
"Using data from the 1976 and 1988 cycles of the [U.S.] National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), life table techniques and proportional hazards modeling were employed to determine the timing of female contraceptive sterilization as well as factors associated with the likelihood in a sample of ever-married women who want no more children, and changes in the relative importance of the covariates in relation with female sterilization during this twelve-year period. Multivariate analysis suggests that parity, age at first birth, marital status, region of residence, and religion are important predictors in both surveys. Age at first marriage, planning status of last birth, poverty level and race fail to emerge as important predictors in the 1988 NSFG. Surprisingly, educational attainment does not show its significant effect on the likelihood of sterilization in either year."
Correspondence: K. V. Rao, Bowling Green State University, Department of Sociology, Bowling Green, OH 43403-0231. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10316 Riley, Ann P.; Stewart, M. Kathryn; Chakraborty, Jyotsnamoy. Program- and method-related determinants of first DMPA use duration in rural Bangladesh. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 25, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1994. 255-67 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article examines the determinants of first-time use durations of the injectable contraceptive Depo Medroxy Progesterone Acetate (DMPA) for rural Bangladeshi women. The method's side effects were defined by 200 first-time users in Matlab district during lengthy, open-ended interviews. Women with many children used the method longer than did women of low parity. Those who experienced side effects had shorter use durations than those who did not, and those who cited heavy bleeding as their main problem discontinued use soonest. Women whose husbands approved of family planning had significantly longer use durations than those whose husbands disapproved. Respondents who adopted DMPA because of perceived positive aspects of the drug used it longer than those who chose it for other reasons."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1991 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: A. P. Riley, Georgetown University, Department of Demography, 236 Poulton Hall, Washington, D.C. 20057. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10317 Sachs, Aaron. Men, sex, and parenthood in an overpopulating world. World Watch, Vol. 7, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1994. 12-9 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author notes that "because women bear the primary responsibility for childrearing and family life in every country, they are also presumed to bear the primary responsibility for excess population growth. But family planning is unlikely to succeed--and population is unlikely to stabilize--until men share fully in those responsibilities." The geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: A. Sachs, Worldwatch Institute, 1776 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:10318 Sai, Fred T. Obstacles to family planning. In: Population--the complex reality, edited by Francis Graham-Smith. 1994. 303-12 pp. Royal Society: London, England; North American Press: Golden, Colorado. In Eng.
"The paper deals...with the developmental, political, religious and cultural, legal, technical and financial constraints to the wider availability of family planning, and reviews the approaches which hold out the best hope of overcoming these obstacles....Among [these] approaches...are: overt policy commitment, internationally and nationally, to supplying family planning information and services to all who need them; the involvement of all levels of administration, down to the community level, in programme planning and management; and quality programmes, oriented to meet client needs, with user involvement and real choice."
Correspondence: F. T. Sai, International Planned Parenthood Federation, Regent's College, Inner Circle, Regent's Park, London NW1 4NS, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10319 Sanhueza, H. Family planning in Latin America: development, costs, and the future. [La planificacion familiar en America Latina: desarrollo, costos, y futuro.] Advances in Contraception, Supplement 1, Vol. 10, Jul 1994. 19-31 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Spa.
This is a general review of trends in family planning in Latin America. The author provides information on the level of contraceptive usage by country and unmet needs, reviews the costs of providing family planning services, and considers ways in which current programs might be improved in the future.
Correspondence: H. Sanhueza, International Planned Parenthood Federation, 902 Broadway, New York, NY 10010-6089. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10320 Schuler, Sidney R.; Choque, Maria E.; Rance, Susanna. Misinformation, mistrust, and mistreatment: family planning among Bolivian market women. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 25, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1994. 211-21 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Results of an ethnographic study suggest that, despite stereotypes to the contrary, urban Aymara women in Bolivia want to regulate their fertility, and sociocultural norms support fertility regulation. However, the norms also make such regulation difficult to achieve. One barrier is a deep suspicion of modern medicine and medical practitioners, who are not seen as reliable sources of information. This suspicion is reinforced when the quality of health services is inadequate. Among urban Aymara, the level of acceptability of most modern methods of contraception is low. Many would prefer to use traditional methods, even when use of these methods entails considerable sacrifice and risk of conflict with their partners, unwanted pregnancies, and recourse to unsafe abortion."
Correspondence: S. R. Schuler, JSI Research and Training Institute, Empowerment of Women Program, 1616 North Fort Myer Drive, Arlington, VA 22209. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10321 Severy, Lawrence J.; Thapa, Shyan. Preferences and tolerance as determinants of contraceptive acceptability. Advances in Population: Psychosocial Perspectives, Vol. 2, 1994. 119-39 pp. Bristol, Pennsylvania/London, England. In Eng.
"As long as world-wide contraceptive prevalence remains at relatively low rates, the issue of cultural variation in contraceptive acceptability will remain of utmost importance....This current...chapter represents a theoretical 'work-in-progress' inviting renewed interest in the assessment of acceptability because of its critical importance."
Correspondence: L. J. Severy, University of Florida, Department of Psychology, Gainesville, FL 32611. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10322 Short, R. V. Contraceptive strategies for the future. In: Population--the complex reality, edited by Francis Graham-Smith. 1994. 323-39 pp. Royal Society: London, England; North American Press: Golden, Colorado. In Eng.
The author discusses the need "to develop an integrated approach to family planning, maternal and child health, sexually transmitted diseases, and AIDS prevention. The focus is on meeting the existing unmet demand for contraception, educating women and children, overcoming inequalities in reproductive health, and developing new, more acceptable and cost-effective contraceptives as well as new ways of reducing the spread of sexually transmitted diseases.
Correspondence: R. V. Short, Monash University, Wellington Road, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10323 Singh, Rahul. Family planning success stories: Asia, Latin America, Africa. ISBN 81-7476-013-X. 1994. xiv, 302 pp. UBS Publishers' Distributors: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author describes the development of successful policies designed to slow the rate of population growth in a selection of developing countries around the world. The countries analyzed are Thailand, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, Zimbabwe, and Tunisia. The emphasis is on the development of successful family planning programs that do not rely on coercive measures to reduce fertility.
Correspondence: UBS Publishers' Distributors, 5 Ansari Road, New Delhi 110 002, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10324 Skjeldestad, Finn E. Choice of contraceptive modality by women in Norway. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, Vol. 73, No. 1, 1994. 48-52 pp. Copenhagen, Denmark. In Eng.
Contraceptive usage in Norway is analyzed using data on a sample of 4,933 individuals selected at random from the Central Population Register as participants in the second Norwegian fertility survey of 1988. From the total sample, data were collected through personal interviews with the 2,782 women who were fecund, sexually active, and not pregnant. The results of the analysis indicate that nearly 70% of the women were either using oral contraceptives or IUDs, or were in a relationship in which one or the other of the partners was sterilized. Nonuse was most frequent among those planning to have more children.
Correspondence: F. E. Skjeldestad, University Hospital of Trondheim, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 7606 Trondheim, Norway. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

61:10325 Thapa, Shyam; Prasad, C. V. S.; Rao, P. H.; Severy, Lawrence J.; Rao, Saumya R. Social marketing of condoms in India. Advances in Population: Psychosocial Perspectives, Vol. 2, 1994. 171-204 pp. Bristol, Pennsylvania/London, England. In Eng.
"The objective of this chapter is to provide an overview of India's [condom] social marketing initiative (including highlights from the consumers), describe the firms participating in the program, and summarize the lessons learned from the social marketing experience....We review profiles of the current users of condoms by major brands currently used, the users' purchasing and use habits, and their preferences....[We then focus] upon an assessment of the experiences, successes and difficulties of the organizations participating in the SM [social marketing] program."
Correspondence: S. Thapa, Integrated Development Systems, Katmandu, Nepal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10326 Torrez Pinto, Hugo. The socioeconomic and cultural characteristics of women whose contraceptive needs are unmet and the relationship with fertility differentials. [Caracteristicas socioeconomicas y culturales de las mujeres con necesidad insatisfecha en anticoncepcion y su relacion con los diferenciales de la fecundidad.] DHS Working Paper, No. 13, Sep 1994. 60 pp. Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Calverton, Maryland. In Spa.
This is an analysis of family planning in Bolivia using data from the 1989 Encuesta Nacional de Demografia y Salud, carried out as part of the Demographic and Health Survey program. The geographical focus is on the altiplano, valles, and llanos regions, and on rural-urban differences. Unmet need for family planning in the country both now and projected up to the year 2000, and how that need can be met through the provision of family planning services, are both examined.
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Calverton, MD 20705. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10327 Torrez Pinto, Hugo. Two aspects of family planning in Bolivia, 1989. [Dos casos de la planificacion familiar en Bolivia, 1989.] Vol. 3.2, Dec 1992. 65 pp. Ministerio de Planeamiento y Coordinacion, Unidad de Politica de Poblacion: La Paz, Bolivia. In Spa.
This report is in two parts. The first section covers fertility levels and contraceptive practices among adolescents in Bolivia. The second part concerns contraception among women, with a focus on sterilization. Data are from the 1989 Demographic and Health Survey.
Correspondence: Ministerio de Planeamiento y Coordinacion, Unidad de Politica de Poblacion, Avenida Arce 2147, Casilla 6982, La Paz, Bolivia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10328 Trottier, Dorace A.; Potter, Linda S.; Taylor, Barbara A.; Glover, Lucinda H. User characteristics and oral contraceptive compliance in Egypt. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 25, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1994. 284-92 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Results from the 1988 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey show that many women are not taking oral contraceptives in a manner that ensures full protection by the method. Reports from 1,258 current pill users show a range of incorrect use; 63 percent of women surveyed reported an interruption in their use of the pill in the past month, and of those women, only 40 percent took the correct action when they missed a pill. The majority (89 percent) did not wait the correct number of days between packs. Multivariate analysis revealed that rural women were more likely to take pills out of sequence, compared with their urban counterparts....The younger women surveyed were more likely to know the correct interval between pill packs than were older women; and women who wanted more children were more likely to know the correct interval than those who did not."
Correspondence: D. A. Trottier, Family Health International, One Triangle Drive, P.O. Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10329 United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA] (New York, New York). Directory of training courses in family planning and reproductive health, 1994-95 edition. ISBN 0-89714-160-1. Oct 1994. xxxviii, 315 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
This is the fourth edition of a global directory on training courses in family planning and reproductive health. The focus is on short-term (one year or less) non-degree training courses scheduled for 1994 and 1995. The training courses described include those in clinical training; information, education, and communications; management; training of trainers; and other topics. Indexes are included on organizations, language of courses, and geographical location by region.
For a previous edition, published in 1992, see 59:10322.
Correspondence: United Nations Population Fund, 220 East 42nd Street, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10330 Visaria, Leela; Visaria, Pravin; Jain, Anrudh. Estimates of contraceptive prevalence based on service statistics and surveys in Gujarat State, India. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 25, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1994. 293-303 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This report demonstrates that the estimates of contraceptive prevalence based on surveys are substantially lower than those based on the service statistics generated by the Indian family planning program. The reasons for this discrepancy were examined by contacting a subsample of acceptors recorded by female health workers as users in their registers. This inquiry indicated that the health workers themselves knew that 15-39 percent of the women who had been recorded as users of reversible methods were not really using them. About 19-27 percent of the recorded users of IUDs and only 3-4 percent of the recorded condom users confirmed use of the devices. Overall, the nonusers formed 59 and 64 percent of the recorded users contacted in Bharuch and Panchmahals districts, respectively. The estimates of nonuse of contraceptives in the follow-up survey are high enough to reconcile most of the observed discrepancy between the two sets of estimates of contraceptive prevalence."
Correspondence: L. Visaria, Gujarat Institute of Development Research, Gota 382 481, Ahmedabad, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10331 Weinberger, Mary B. Recent trends in contraceptive use. Population Bulletin of the United Nations, No. 36, 1994. 55-80 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article reviews trends in contraceptive prevalence and methods used in developing countries. It also briefly examines trends in contraceptive use for education and rural/urban subgroups of the population, drawing on information for 15 of the countries that participated in both the World Fertility Survey (WFS) and the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). In general, contraceptive prevalence has increased substantially within both rural and urban areas and among women with all levels of educational attainment. Rural/urban and education differentials in contraceptive prevalence narrowed in a few countries and widened in others, but on average the differentials did not change much over the roughly 10-year period between the surveys."
Correspondence: M. B. Weinberger, UN Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, Population Division, United Nations, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.2. Clinical Aspects & Use-Effectiveness Studies

Selected studies on the medical aspects of fertility control methods, including studies on side effects and use-effectiveness.

61:10332 Bontis, J.; Vavilis, D.; Theodoridis, T.; Sidiropoulou, A. Copper intrauterine contraceptive device and pregnancy rate. Advances in Contraception, Vol. 10, No. 3, Sep 1994. 205-11 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The authors investigate the unwanted pregnancy rate among women using copper IUDs. "Between August 1983 and August 1992, 1,995 women aged 20-43 years [in Thessaloniki, Greece,] were fitted with 2,736 copper intrauterine contraceptive devices (MLCu250, MLCu375, Nova-T, Gravigard, Anticon)....During this period 39 accidental pregnancies occurred....Most of the accidental pregnancies occurred during the first 12 months of use. The pregnancy rate of IUD users was negatively correlated with age. It is concluded that fitting the Cu-IUD intramenstrually, teaching the user to self-check herself and having frequent re-examinations seems to decrease the pregnancy rate in Cu-IUD users."
Correspondence: J. Bontis, Aristotelian University of Thessaloniki, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Thessaloniki, Greece. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10333 Farr, Gaston; Amatya, Ramesh; Delgado Betancourt, Jose; David, Manuel; Alfonso, Lydia; Dacalos, Emilia. Clinical performance of the TCu 380A and TCu 220C IUDs in four developing country family planning clinics. Contraception, Vol. 50, No. 5, Nov 1994. 417-29 pp. Woburn, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This paper is the third in a series describing the comparative evaluation of the clinical performance of the TCu 380A IUD with IUDs used at various family planning centers in developing countries throughout the world....In this comparison, data of subjects using the TCu 380A IUD or the TCu 220C IUD during 12 months of use are compared. The study was conducted at four family planning clinics in two countries: three of the sites were in the Philippines (two in Cebu City and one in Manila) and one was in Mexico (Villahermosa)."
Correspondence: G. Farr, Family Health International, P.O. Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10334 Farr, Gaston; Gabelnick, Henry; Sturgen, Kim; Dorflinger, Laneta. Contraceptive efficacy and acceptability of the female condom. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 84, No. 12, Dec 1994. 1,960-4 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The effectiveness of the female condom is analyzed using data on 328 individuals in U.S. and Latin American clinics who used the device as their only means of contraception over a six-month period. "During perfect (consistent and correct) use of the method, the 6-month accidental pregnancy rates were 2.6 and 9.5 for the U.S. and Latin American centers, respectively. There were no serious adverse events related to the use of the method."
Correspondence: G. Farr, Family Health International, Clinical Trials Division, P.O. Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

61:10335 Steiner, Markus; Trussell, James; Glover, Lucinda; Joanis, Carol; Spruyt, Alan; Dorflinger, Laneta. Standardized protocols for condom breakage and slippage trials: a proposal. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 84, No. 12, Dec 1994. 1,897-900 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"According to the recent literature, condom breakage rates range from 0% to 12%, with many U.S. studies falling in the 2% to 5% range. Few studies have collected slippage data. In addition to discussing methodological issues associated with these studies, we propose a standardized protocol for future condom breakage and slippage trials and discuss how results may be used to estimate perfect-use and typical-use pregnancy rates."
Correspondence: M. Steiner, Family Health International, Contraceptive Use and Epidemiology Division, P.O. Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

61:10336 Talwar, G. P.; Pal, Rahul; Dhawan, Suman; Singh, Om; Shaha, Chandrima. Current status and future of immunological approaches to fertility control. In: Population--the complex reality, edited by Francis Graham-Smith. 1994. 287-302 pp. Royal Society: London, England; North American Press: Golden, Colorado. In Eng.
"There is a continuing need to have additional options of methods for couples desiring contraception. Birth control vaccines (BCVs) have attractive characteristics. They require periodic intake, are reversible, can be used at either the early, middle or the late stages of reproductive life and do not block ovulation nor change menstrual regularity and bleeding patterns. The current status of BCVs is reviewed with particular focus on those which have reached the stage of clinical trials and may be available for family planning in the not distant future."
Correspondence: G. P. Talwar, National Institute of Epidemiology, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10337 World Health Organization [WHO]. Division of Family Health. Maternal Health and Safe Motherhood Programme (Geneva, Switzerland). Clinical management of abortion complications: a practical guide. Safe Motherhood Practical Guide, Pub. Order No. WHO/FHE/MSM/94.1. 1994. iv, 77 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
"This manual is intended to assist health workers in preventing death and serious injury from abortion complications. It outlines the full range of steps in addressing life-threatening complications."
Correspondence: World Health Organization, Division of Family Health, Maternal Health and Safe Motherhood Programme, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10338 Xu, J.-X.; Yan, J.-H.; Fan, D.-Z.; Zhang, D. W. Billings natural family planning in Shanghai, China. Advances in Contraception, Vol. 10, No. 3, Sep 1994. 195-204 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The authors report on a study in Shanghai, China, of "the Billings method (ovulation method) of natural family planning, by which a woman recognizes the characteristics of her cervical mucus that identify the fertile phase of her menstrual cycle....Based on the results of [a] preliminary clinical trial, a second trial was organized to take place from July 1, 1988 to May 31, 1990. This trial involved six medical centers, five of which were in urban centers and one of which was in a rural area. The purpose of the trial was to study the effectiveness of the Billings method in 688 couples of child-bearing age." The authors conclude "that further investigation of the Billings method is warranted and that careful planning and organization are needed to disseminate the method more broadly."
Correspondence: J.-X. Xu, Shanghai Municipal Family Planning Commission, 33 Zhang Shan Dong Yi Road, Shanghai 200 002, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10339 Zachariasen, Rita D. Loss of oral contraceptive efficacy by concurrent antibiotic administration. Women and Health, Vol. 22, No. 1, 1994. 17-26 pp. Binghamton, New York. In Eng.
The author examines the extent to which the efficacy of oral contraception in the United States may be reduced by concomitant drug therapy. "This article reviews the published incidence of oral contraceptive/antibiotic interaction, along with a discussion of the possible mechanisms by which this interaction occurs. Recommendations are also presented for the health management of women taking oral contraceptives and other prescribed drugs."
Correspondence: R. D. Zachariasen, University of Texas, Health Science Center, Department of Physiology, P.O. Box 20068, Houston, TX 77225. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.3. Evaluation of Programs

Studies evaluating either the demographic impact or other criteria of effectiveness of family planning programs.

61:10340 Askew, Ian; Mensch, Barbara; Adewuyi, Alfred. Indicators for measuring the quality of family planning services in Nigeria. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 25, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1994. 268-83 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article presents the Situation Analysis approach as a means of collecting data that can be used to assess the quality of care provided by family planning service-delivery points (SDPs), and describes the quality of services offered in Nigeria. Elements of the quality of services provided at 181 clinical service-delivery points in six states of Nigeria are described. The substantive results from the study suggest that although most of the 181 service points sampled are functional, the quality of care being provided could be improved. Illustrative scores for these indicators and elements of the Bruce-Jain framework are given. By comparison with contraceptive prevalence surveys, the Situation Analysis approach is still in its early stages. Some methodological issues are raised here and future directions for strengthening the validity and applicability of the approach are discussed."
Correspondence: I. Askew, Population Council, Programs Division, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10341 Askew, Ian; Tapsoba, Placide; Ouedraogo, Youssouf; Viadro, Claire; Bakouan, Didier; Sebgo, Pascaline. Quality of care in family planning programmes: a rapid assessment in Burkina Faso. Health Policy and Planning, Vol. 8, No. 1, Mar 1993. 19-32 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors describe an assessment of both the functional capacity of various activities being carried out as part of Burkina Faso's new government family planning program, including logistics, equipment, record keeping, IEC activities, and service delivery, and the quality of services being offered at the clinic level. The emphasis is on a new approach to the rapid assessment of such programs, which involved visiting 53 clinics and collecting data through observation and interviews. "The use of simple, clear data collection instruments and immediate data entry and tabulation enabled the data to be presented to policymakers a few weeks after fieldwork was completed. Moreover, the results were presented in a form that was easily communicated and stressed practical decision-related issues."
Correspondence: I. Askew, Population Council, Africa Operations Research and Technical Assistance Project, P.O. Box 17643, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

61:10342 Attanayake, Nimal; Fauveau, Vincent; Chakraborty, J. Cost-effectiveness of the Matlab MCH-FP project in Bangladesh. Health Policy and Planning, Vol. 8, No. 4, Dec 1993. 327-38 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper focuses on the cost-effectiveness of the Matlab MCH-FP project in Bangladesh for the period of 1986-89 with a view to assessing its economic viability....Basically three indicators, namely contraceptive users generated and births/deaths prevented, were used in the [cost-effectiveness analysis]. It was concluded that the allegedly high cost of the project had been significantly offset by extra births and deaths prevented, and improvements in reproductive health."
Correspondence: N. Attanayake, University of Colombo, Department of Economics, Colombo 3, Sri Lanka. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

61:10343 Bernhart, Michael H.; Kamal, Ghulam M. Management of community distribution programs in Bangladesh. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 25, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1994. 197-210 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In Bangladesh, five high- and five low-performing nongovernmental organization-supported community distribution projects were studied to determine which management, supervisory, and field activities differed between the better and poorer performers. A total of 37 variables were studied, and differences between the higher- and lower-performing projects were noted for nearly all of the variables. In general, project effectiveness was associated with higher service quality, more proactive field supervision, and greater organizational clarity. No project performed all of the 37 activities well. No one or two variables predicted project success, and none of them was found to be a necessary condition for project success. Higher performance was associated with doing well on many of these variables."
Correspondence: M. H. Bernhart, University of Puget Sound, School of Business and Administration, 1500 North Warner, Tacoma, WA 98416-0126. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10344 Diaz, Soledad; Croxatto, Horacio B. Scientific aspects in family planning services. In: Population--the complex reality, edited by Francis Graham-Smith. 1994. 313-21 pp. Royal Society: London, England; North American Press: Golden, Colorado. In Eng.
The authors evaluate a postpartum contraceptive program that was tested in a research clinic and in a community-based clinic in Santiago, Chile. The program "has been acceptable and appreciated from the clients' perspective. It is also successful according to the biomedical indicators used to evaluate the health service. We have attempted to identify the elements that contributed to this result and, inevitably reached...the conclusion that the initial research component was a very significant ingredient."
Correspondence: S. Diaz, Instituto Chileno de Medicina Reproductiva, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10345 Gomez-Dantes, Octavio; Garcia-Nunez, Jose. Monitoring and evaluating the quality of family planning services. [Monitoreo y evaluacion de la calidad de los servicios de planificacion familiar.] Salud Publica de Mexico, Vol. 36, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1994. 180-9 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper discusses some ideas useful for the implementation of programs of quality of care in family planning units. In the first part we present an analytical framework in which the place of quality of family planning services as a determinant of fertility is established. Part two deals with a set of concepts which includes the several elements of quality of care: structure, process and result elements of family planning services."
Correspondence: O. Gomez-Dantes, Instituto Nacional de Salud Publica, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

61:10346 Koo, Helen P.; Dunteman, George H.; George, Cindee; Green, Yvonne; Vincent, Murray. Reducing adolescent pregnancy through a school- and community-based intervention: Denmark, South Carolina, revisited. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 26, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1994. 206-11, 217 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The publication of a 1987 article in the Journal of the American Medical Association evaluating a pregnancy prevention program in Denmark, S.C., showed declines in estimated pregnancy rates among adolescents in the intervention area. A reanalysis of the data that selected better matched comparison areas and extended the time period covered confirms that the adolescent pregnancy rate in the intervention area significantly decreased from an annual average of 77 pregnancies per 1,000 women aged 14-17 during the preprogram period (1981-1982) to 37 per 1,000 following the intervention (1984-1986). However, the reanalysis also shows that the pregnancy rate returned to a higher level (66 per 1,000) in 1987-1988 after the discontinuation of important program components and related nonprogram services. These services included the efforts of a school nurse, who provided contraceptive services to students and whose intervention was not previously reported."
Correspondence: H. P. Koo, Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10347 Kuseka, I.; Silberman, T. Male Motivation Impact Evaluation Survey. Jun 1990. xii, 116, [22] pp. Zimbabwe National Family Planning Council, Evaluation and Research Unit: Harare, Zimbabwe. In Eng.
This is a report from an evaluation of a three-year male motivation project carried out in Zimbabwe starting in 1988. The evaluation was designed to assess the effectiveness of the various project activities and to provide information about male fertility and family planning of relevance to future programming. Information is included on fertility; ideal family size and birth intervals; family planning knowledge, attitude, and practice; reasons for using family planning; male participation in fertility decision-making; and exposure to and impact of project media.
Correspondence: Zimbabwe National Family Planning Council, Harare, Zimbabwe. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10348 Maynard, Rebecca; Rangarajan, Anu. Contraceptive use and repeat pregnancies among welfare-dependent teenage mothers. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 26, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1994. 198-205 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A study of policy options for encouraging contraceptive use and delaying repeat pregnancies draws on a sample of 3,400 first-time teenage mothers receiving welfare in Chicago, Ill., and Newark and Camden, N.J. Half the young mothers were selected for a special program of enhanced services. Although the majority of the young mothers were using a contraceptive method two years after enrollment in the study, half had become pregnant again within two years after the birth of their first child. An analysis examining the effects of providing the enhanced services, including family planning information and counseling, shows that they did little or nothing to delay subsequent pregnancies."
Correspondence: R. Maynard, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10349 Vernon, Ricardo; Staunton, Anne; Garcia, Mario; Arroyo, Juan J.; Rosenberg, Raul. A test of alternative supervision strategies for family planning services in Guatemala. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 25, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1994. 232-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This report presents results of an operations research project that tested the impact and cost-effectiveness of alternative supervision schemes of reproductive health services in Guatemala. The strategies tested were (1) indirect supervision, in which one of the two annual supervised visits to each health unit was replaced by a one-day meeting at the district level with the supervisor; and (2) self-assessment, in which one supervised visit was replaced by a two-day workshop where participants filled out self-assessment checklists identifying quality of care problems and made a plan to solve identified problems during the following months. Health units in the two experimental groups showed greater increases in productivity than units receiving traditional supervision....Few differences were observed between the experimental and control groups in terms of the satisfaction of service providers with their jobs and of clients with services received."
Correspondence: R. Vernon, Population Council, Mexico City, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.4. Attitudes Toward Fertility & Fertility Control

Studies concerned with the interrelations between fertility control and attitudinal variables, including studies on wanted and unwanted pregnancy and children, motivation for parenthood, sex preference, and voluntary childlessness. Studies on knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of family planning and attitudes toward family size are classified under this heading.

61:10350 Allie, Emile; Dauphin, Roma; Fortin, Mario. Fertility goals among students at the University of Sherbrooke. [Les aspirations de fecondite des etudiants et etudiantes de l'Universite de Sherbrooke.] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 22, No. 1, Spring 1993. 133-52 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"This paper describes intentions in the matter of fertility expressed by 900 first-year students surveyed at the University of Sherbrooke [in Canada]. The study seeks to ascertain links between certain attitudes, perceptions or personal situations and the desired number of children. The desired number of children is shown to be strongly influenced by attitudes regarding marriage and by the importance placed on family life....One surprising result is that the average desired number of children is 2.45. Given the high level of education of the sample, this appears to be quite a high figure."
Correspondence: E. Allie, Universite de Sherbrooke, Departement d'Economique, 2500 Boulevard de l'Universite, Sherbrooke, Quebec J1K 2R1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10351 Bondi, Hermann. The role of science and its limitations. In: Population--the complex reality, edited by Francis Graham-Smith. 1994. 343-7 pp. Royal Society: London, England; North American Press: Golden, Colorado. In Eng.
"The decisions of individuals on desired family size are influenced by various factors: cultural, social and economic. The scientific argument that continued population growth is bound to lead to disaster will not directly have much effect in changing people's outlook. The importance of education, especially of girls, is stressed as one of the few means available to affect the choice of family size."
Correspondence: H. Bondi, University of Cambridge, Churchill College, Cambridge CB3 0DS, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10352 Booth, Beverly E.; Verma, Manorama; Beri, Rajbir S. Fetal sex determination in infants in Punjab, India: correlations and implications. British Medical Journal, Vol. 309, No. 6964, Nov 12, 1994. 1,259-61 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Data concerning 596 children delivered or seen at a hospital in Punjab, India, in 1990 and 1991 are used to determine the proportion of children whose sex was determined prenatally and the factors associated with such sex determination. The results suggest that "fetal sex determination was common, especially if the family already had daughters. Sex determination seems to be driven by a desire to have sons, with socioeconomic status and education having little effect. The lower prevalence of fetal sex determinations for girls is likely to be due to abortion of fetuses found to be female."
Correspondence: B. E. Booth, 14 Birbal Road, Jangpura Extension, New Delhi 100 014, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

61:10353 Herold, Joan M.; Thompson, Nancy J.; Valenzuela, Maria S.; Morris, Leo. Unintended pregnancy and sex education in Chile: a behavioural model. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 26, No. 4, Oct 1994. 427-39 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This study analysed factors associated with unintended pregnancy among adolescent and young adult women in Santiago, Chile. Three variations of a behavioural model were developed. Logistic regression showed that the effect of sex education on unintended pregnancy works through the use of contraception. Other significant effects were found for variables reflecting socioeconomic status and a woman's acceptance of her sexuality. The results also suggested that labelling affects measurement of 'unintended' pregnancy."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1991 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: J. M. Herold, Emory University, School of Public Health, 1599 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30322. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10354 Khopkar, Asha. Awareness of the dimensions of the population explosion and awareness of the means of family planning among lower socio-economic class women in Pune, India. Indian Journal of Social Science, Vol. 5, No. 3, Jul-Sep 1992. 303-17 pp. Newbury Park, California/New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The extent to which urban women of lower socioeconomic status in India are aware of the breadth of current population growth and its consequences, and of the means available to control their fertility, is explored using data collected in the city of Pune in 1991, concerning 219 women. The results suggest that about three-quarters were aware of the consequences, and about half knew how to practice family planning.
Correspondence: A. Khopkar, University of Poona, Fergusson College, Pune 4, India. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

61:10355 Landry, David J.; Camelo, Theresa M. Young unmarried men and women discuss men's role in contraceptive practice. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 26, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1994. 222-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"To gain more insight into young, unmarried men's attitudes toward and involvement in contraception, the Alan Guttmacher Institute conducted a series of focus groups [in Denver, Colorado]....The focus groups addressed the following questions: How do young men define their involvement in contraception and disease prevention? How consistent are their attitudes about contraceptives with their behavior? To what extent do they discuss contraceptives with their sexual partners?" Results indicate that "motivation to use contraceptives is driven by a desire to prevent both pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), particularly AIDS. Despite dissatisfaction with the condom, both men and women report high rates of condom use. The method used, however, is dependent on the type of relationship involved....Despite awareness of the risks of STDs and pregnancy, both men and women report that they occasionally use no method at all or rely on a method other than condoms with casual partners. Most men and women in long-term relationships switch from condoms to other methods once they have had time to assess, often by unreliable means, their partner's risk status."
Correspondence: D. J. Landry, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10356 Makinwa-Adebusoye, Paulina. Changes in the costs and benefits of children to their parents. In: The onset of fertility transition in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Therese Locoh and Veronique Hertrich. 1994. 175-92 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium; Derouaux Ordina Editions: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"This paper examines recent increases in child-rearing costs, such as the costs of education, and their effects on the value of children in countries of sub-Saharan Africa. The first section reviews the main theoretical perspectives concerning the relationship between fertility and the costs and benefits of children. These theoretical perspectives are then discussed in the context of sub-Saharan Africa....Parental aspirations for children's schooling and perceived attendant costs under conditions of economic hardship...are examined....The next two sections look at the effects of socio-economic changes on intergenerational wealth flows and on child fostering."
Correspondence: P. Makinwa-Adebusoye, Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research, Population Research Unit, PMB 5, University Post Office, Ibadan, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10357 McFarlane, Carmen P.; Friedman, Jay S.; Morris, Leo. 1993 Contraceptive Prevalence Survey, Jamaica. Volume II: knowledge and attitudes towards family, contraception and AIDS. Aug 1994. xi, 105 pp. National Family Planning Board: Kingston, Jamaica. In Eng.
This is the second of five planned volumes presenting results from the 1993 Jamaica Contraceptive Prevalence Survey. It contains data on knowledge of contraceptive methods, attitudes toward fertility and the family, attitudes toward contraception, and knowledge of transmission and prevention of AIDS.
For Volumes I and III, also published in 1994, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: National Family Planning Board, Kingston, Jamaica. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10358 Miller, Warren B. Reproductive decisions: how we make them and how they make us. Advances in Population: Psychosocial Perspectives, Vol. 2, 1994. 1-27 pp. Bristol, Pennsylvania/London, England. In Eng.
The author reviews and evaluates decision-making theorizing and research in the area of human reproduction, using "data from a study of intended and unintended pregnancy in a longitudinal study of 967 women living in the San Francisco Bay Area...." He examines "perception of the spouse's desires, the formation of intent and the implementation of intent through joint action....[He also discusses] the issue of post-decision regret [using] research experience...with post-abortion and post-sterilization regret...."
Correspondence: W. B. Miller, Transnational Family Research Institute, 669 Georgia Avenue, Palo Alto, CA 94306. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10359 Panitchpakdi, P.; Podhipak, A.; Kyaw Sein, U.; Kywe, Bo. Family planning: knowledge, attitudes and practice survey in Zigone, Myanmar. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, Vol. 24, No. 4, Dec 1993. 636-46 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
Results are presented from a KAP survey of 600 married women living in rural villages carried out in the Zigone township region of Myanmar in 1991. The results indicate that about half the married women of reproductive age are currently practicing modern methods of contraception. "Seven out of ten married women of reproductive age did not want more children and one out of two women in this group were current users of contraception. Therefore a certain proportion of users was probably using these (mainly temporary) methods to terminate fertility rather than for birth spacing purposes. Moreover, only 63% of those wanting children, but not in the next 12 months, were using a contraceptive method. These findings demonstrated that there was a large group of potential contraceptive users who were currently not using a method."
Correspondence: P. Panitchpakdi, Family Planning International Assistance, Bangkok, Thailand. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

61:10360 Tan, Poo Chang; Tey, Nai Peng. Do fertility intentions predict subsequent behavior? Evidence from Peninsular Malaysia. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 25, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1994. 221-31 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Data from the 1984 Malaysian Population and Family Survey were matched with birth registration records for 1985-87 to determine the accuracy of statements regarding desired family size that were reported in a household survey in predicting subsequent reproductive behavior. The findings of this study were that stated fertility intention provides fairly accurate forecasts of fertility behavior in the subsequent period. In other words, whether a woman has another child is predicted closely by whether she wanted an additional child. Informational, educational, and motivational activities of family planning programs would, therefore, have greater success in reducing family size if fertility intentions were taken into account."
Correspondence: P. C. Tan, University of Malaya, Faculty of Economics and Administration, Lembah Pantai, 59100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10361 Zuniga Herrera, Elena. Changes in the level of desired fertility in Mexican women, 1976-1986. [Cambios en el nivel de la fecundidad deseada en las mujeres mexicanas, 1976-1986.] Revista Mexicana de Sociologia, Vol. 55, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1993. 83-96 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"Mexico has seen drastic changes in the population's reproductive behavior due mainly to a rapid increase in the use of contraceptive methods and lower fertility rates. In order to analyze the factors contributing to this decrease, the study examines variations in desired family size between 1976 and 1986, using Bongaarts' methodology." The data are from both surveys and censuses and are for the period 1976-1986.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

F.4.5. Induced Abortion

Studies on induced abortion, including those on attitudes, with the exception of studies primarily concerned with government regulation of abortion, which are coded under M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility . Studies of spontaneous abortion appear under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology .

61:10362 Althaus, Frances A.; Henshaw, Stanley K. The effects of mandatory delay laws on abortion patients and providers. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 26, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1994. 228-31, 233 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors explore the impact of U.S. laws requiring women to delay abortion "for a certain number of hours or days after receiving certain state-mandated information and being offered information on fetal development and lists of agencies that provide prenatal care or other services for women who decide to carry their pregnancies to term." The effects of such legislation in Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Mississippi are assessed."
Correspondence: F. A. Althaus, Family Planning Perspectives, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10363 Chandrasekhar, S. India's abortion experience, 1972-1992. Philosophy and the Environment Series, No. 4, ISBN 0-929398-80-7. LC 94-26228. 1994. xvi, 247 pp. University of North Texas Press: Denton, Texas. In Eng.
This study examines the history of induced abortion in India since the passing of the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act in 1972. The study begins with a review of Indian and global attitudes toward abortion followed by an overview of India's population problem. The development and passing of the 1972 legislation is then described. India's abortion experience from 1972 to 1992 is analyzed.
For the 1974 study, published under the title Abortion in a Crowded World, see 40:3366.
Correspondence: University of North Texas Press, P.O. Box 13856, Denton, TX 76203-6856. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10364 David, Henry P.; Titkow, Anna. Abortion and women's rights in Poland, 1994. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 25, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1994. 239-42 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The purpose of this brief report is to consider the de facto situation [regarding the provision of abortion services] in Poland in June 1994, one year after the implementation of...antiabortion legislation....The overall impression is that the country is experiencing a period of considerable political and governmental instability....Little desire to rock the boat on abortion is evident."
Correspondence: H. P. David, Transnational Family Research Institute, 8307 Whitman Drive, Bethesda, MD 20817. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10365 Hardy, Ellen; Costa, Rosely G.; Rodrigues, Telma; de Moraes, Teresinha M. Current characteristics associated with a history of induced abortion. [Caracteristicas atuais associadas a historia de aborto provocado.] Revista de Saude Publica, Vol. 28, No. 1, Feb 1994. 82-5 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
An analysis of induced abortion in Brazil is presented using data on 138 university students. "It was found that the largest percentage of women who had already had an induced abortion were of less than 24 years of age, were not living in marital union, had no religious affiliation and no living children at the time of the study. Analysis by logistic regression showed that having no living children was the only current characteristic associated with having had an induced abortion."
Correspondence: E. Hardy, Caixa Postal 6181, 13081-970 Campinas, SP, Brazil. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

61:10366 Houghton, Anita. Women who have abortions--are they different? Journal of Public Health Medicine, Vol. 16, No. 3, Sep 1994. 296-304 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The aim of the study is to test the hypothesis that there is no difference between women who are currently undergoing an abortion and those who are not in an inner London health district....One hundred and thirty-one consecutive attenders at an inner city day-care abortion service were compared, using a self-administered questionnaire, with two other groups: a random sample of 142 women aged between 18 and 45 taken from the local Family Health Services Authority age-sex register, and 149 consecutive attenders at the district's antenatal clinic....It was concluded that apart from age and ethnic origin, there were no differences between women who were having abortions and those who were not."
Correspondence: A. Houghton, St. Bartholomew's Hospital, City Health Promotion Unit, 3rd Floor, Queen Mary Wing, West Smithfield, London EC1A 7BE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10367 McFarlane, Deborah R. Induced abortion: an historical overview. American Journal of Gynecologic Health, Vol. 7, No. 3, May-Jun 1993. 77-82 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article provides a brief history of abortion worldwide, as well as a discussion of the historical practice and prevalence of abortion in the United States, including the development of American public policy toward abortion until 1973 when Roe v Wade was decided."
Correspondence: D. R. McFarlane, University of New Mexico, School of Public Administration, Albuquerque, NM 87131. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

61:10368 McFarlane, Deborah R.; Meier, Kenneth J. State abortion funding policies in 1990. Women and Health, Vol. 22, No. 1, 1994. 99-115 pp. Binghamton, New York. In Eng.
"The American states have broad discretion in developing their respective abortion policies. This paper examines the determinants of 1990 state policies toward funding abortion for low income women and analyzes differences in the outputs of these state policies. Our findings show that the strength of advocacy groups as well as the political forces within a state determine the type of abortion funding policy. Once the policy is established, the number of publicly funded abortions is determined by the type of state policy adopted as well as the demand for these services."
Correspondence: D. R. McFarlane, University of New Mexico, School of Public Administration, Albuquerque, NM 87131-1216. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10369 Rogo, K. O. Induced abortion in Sub-Saharan Africa. East African Medical Journal, Vol. 70, No. 6, Jun 1993. 386-95 pp. Nairobi, Kenya. In Eng.
"Unsafe abortions and their complications are a major cause of maternal mortality. Hospital based studies from most African countries confirm that up to 50% of maternal deaths are due to abortion. This paper reviews problems of induced abortion in sub-Saharan Africa. Issues of prevalence and prevention are addressed while acknowledging the need to review the legal regimes operating in these countries."
Correspondence: K. O. Rogo, University of Nairobi, College of Health Services, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, P.O. Box 30588, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

61:10370 Thapa, Shyam; Thapa, Prem J.; Shrestha, Neera. Abortion in Nepal: emerging insights. Advances in Population: Psychosocial Perspectives, Vol. 2, 1994. 253-70 pp. Bristol, Pennsylvania/London, England. In Eng.
"In this chapter, we present emerging insights into induced abortion practices in several communities in rural Nepal. The study, from which the data are obtained for analysis, employed multiple approaches to collect information on the health problem. We present a profile of the women who have had abortions, their reasons for abortion, instruments or procedures used, and the outcomes. We also present a profile of the providers involved and the methods or procedures used by them. We further present insights from the district hospitals where some of the women were admitted for treatment of abortion-related complications."
Correspondence: S. Thapa, Family Health International, One Triangle Drive, P.O. Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10371 United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] (Atlanta, Georgia). Abortion surveillance: preliminary data--United States, 1992. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 43, No. 50, Dec 23, 1994. 930-3, 939 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
Preliminary data on legal induced abortions performed in the United States in 1992 are presented. The results indicate a continuation in the decline in the total number of abortions which began in 1990. The national abortion ratio also declined from 339 abortions per 1,000 live births in 1991 to 335 in 1992.
Correspondence: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10372 Wadhera, Surinder. A look at therapeutic abortions in Canada in 1992. [Un apercu des avortements therapeutiques au Canada en 1992.] Health Reports/Rapports sur la Sante, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1994. 279-86 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
The author outlines characteristics of therapeutic abortions performed in Canada in 1992. Information is included on type of medical center performing abortions, abortion rates by patient's place of residence, demographic characteristics of women obtaining therapeutic abortions, and international comparisons.
Correspondence: S. Wadhera, Statistics Canada, Health Statistics Division, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility

Studies on lactation, nutrition, fecundability, sex behavior, menarche and menopause, and other biological factors or social customs as they affect fertility directly. Factors affecting contraceptive practice and factors affecting fertility indirectly are not included here.

61:10373 Amador, Manuel; Silva, Luis C.; Valdes-Lazo, Francisco. Breast-feeding trends in Cuba and the Americas. Bulletin of the Pan American Health Organization, Vol. 28, No. 3, Sep 1994. 220-8 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"In order to analyze breast-feeding trends in the Region of the Americas vis-a-vis trends observed in Cuba, information was culled from a selection of national surveys on the prevalence and duration of breast-feeding conducted in the 1970s and compared with the results of a national survey carried out in Cuba in 1973. Similarly, information from PAHO Document HPN/92.7, which contains reports from countries of the Americas for the period 1986-1991, was compared with the results of the National Survey carried out in Cuba in 1990....The study revealed a consistent pattern: typically, a relatively high percentage of newborns were initially breast-fed, but the prevalence of exclusive breast-feeding was low and the percentage of breast-fed infants declined quickly. However, the more recent data showed improvements in most of the countries involved with respect to both the prevalence and duration of breast-feeding. Cuba was found to have intermediate values relative to the other countries."
Correspondence: M. Amador, Instituto de Nutricion e Higiene de los Alimentos, Calzada de Infanta 1158, Havana 10300, Cuba. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10374 Heinig, M. Jane; Nommsen-Rivers, Laurie A.; Peerson, Janet M.; Dewey, Kathryn G. Factors related to duration of postpartum amenorrhoea among U.S.A. women with prolonged lactation. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 26, No. 4, Oct 1994. 517-27 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Duration of postpartum amenorrhoea (PPA) was compared among [U.S.] women who breast-fed for [6 months or more] (breast-feeding group) or [3 months or less] (formula-feeding group) and was found to be significantly shorter among the latter. Associations between maternal factors and duration of PPA were examined. Within the formula-feeding group, the only variable associated with duration of PPA was duration of breast-feeding....[The] results indicate that maternal anthropometric status is related to duration of PPA, even in a relatively well-nourished population of lactating women."
Correspondence: M. J. Heinig, University of California, Department of Nutrition, Davis, CA 95616-8669. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10375 Leung, Siu Fai. Will sex selection reduce fertility? Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 7, No. 4, 1994. 379-92 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"This paper investigates both theoretically and numerically the impact of sex selection on fertility. A static quantity-quality model of fertility is employed to compare fertility choices in two regimes: one in which parents cannot choose the gender of children and another in which parents can fully choose the gender of children. The static theory shows that whether sex selection reduces fertility depends on the second and third derivatives of the utility function and the child expenditure function. A numerical dynamic analysis is also presented. Using empirical dynamic models of fertility and Monte Carlo integration technique, the simulation shows that sex selection on the firstborn child among the Chinese in Malaysia could reduce fertility by about 3%."
Correspondence: S. F. Leung, University of Rochester, Department of Economics, Harkness Hall, Rochester, NY 14627. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10376 Morris, Leo. Sexual behavior of young adults in Latin America. Advances in Population: Psychosocial Perspectives, Vol. 2, 1994. 231-52 pp. Bristol, Pennsylvania/London, England. In Eng.
The author reports on recent surveys on sexual behavior among young Latin American adults. Aspects considered include marital unions, premarital sexual experience, contraceptive use, current sexual activity, and knowledge about HIV/AIDS transmission.
Correspondence: L. Morris, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Reproductive Health, Atlanta, GA 30341. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.6. Fertility Outside Marriage

Studies on nonmarital fertility, including illegitimacy. Studies of common-law marriage and other forms of cohabitation or voluntary single parenthood are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

61:10377 Bouchard, Gerard. Trends in prenuptial conceptions as an indicator of cultural change. [L'evolution des conceptions prenuptiales comme indicateur de changement culturel.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1993. 25-49 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"Making use of the reconstituted families of the BALSAC population register, the author has studied the evolution of the prenuptial conceptions...taken as an indicator of the socio-cultural change in the Saguenay region [of Quebec, Canada] between 1842 and 1971." The results indicate that rates of prenuptial conception remained low up to the 1920s and subsequently have steadily increased. Some methodological problems concerning studies of this kind are discussed.
Correspondence: G. Bouchard, Universite du Quebec, Centre Interuniversitaire SOREP, 555 Boulevard de l'Universite, Chicoutimi, Quebec G7H 2B1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10378 Bronars, Stephen G.; Grogger, Jeff. The economic consequences of unwed motherhood: using twin births as a natural experiment. American Economic Review, Vol. 84, No. 5, Dec 1994. 1,141-56 pp. Nashville, Tennessee. In Eng.
"We estimate the short-run and life-cycle effects of unplanned children on unwed mothers by comparing unmarried women who first gave birth to twins with unwed mothers who bore singletons. We find large short-term effects of unplanned births on labor-force participation, poverty, and welfare recipiency among unwed mothers, but not among married mothers. Although most of the adverse economic effects of unplanned motherhood dissipate over time for whites, there are larger and more persistent negative effects on black unwed mothers." Data are from the 1970 and 1980 U.S. censuses.
Correspondence: S. G. Bronars, University of Texas, Department of Economics, Austin, TX 78712. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

61:10379 Parnell, Allan M.; Swicegood, Gray; Stevens, Gillian. Nonmarital pregnancies and marriage in the United States. Social Forces, Vol. 73, No. 1, Sep 1994. 263-87 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"One important change in postwar American family-formation patterns has been a sharp decline in the probability that single women pregnant with their first child marry during their pregnancies and thus legitimate the birth. In this article we first discuss the social context surrounding this change. Our empirical analysis of four national cross-sectional fertility surveys covering the early 1950s through the late 1980s then documents the decreasing likelihood of legitimation for women from most racial, social, and family backgrounds. Finally, we use longitudinal data for recent cohorts of young women to investigate the attitudinal, familial, and scholastic factors that shape their decisions about legitimating a nonmarital pregnancy."
Correspondence: A. M. Parnell, Duke University, Department of Sociology, Box 90088, Durham, NC 27708. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10380 Schellekens, Jona. Courtship, the Clandestine Marriage Act, and illegitimate fertility in England. Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Vol. 25, No. 3, Winter 1995. 433-44 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
Factors affecting the rise in illegitimate fertility in England between 1750 and 1800 are analyzed. "Using Wilson and Woods' estimates of illegitimate fertility and nuptiality indices, a model was fit to the trends in illegitimate fertility from 1581 to 1810 through multiple regression techniques." The author concludes that "the rise in nuptiality, the Clandestine Marriage Act [of 1753], and the decline in real wages together explain over 80 percent of the rise in illegitimate fertility."
Correspondence: J. Schellekens, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Department of Demography, Mount Scopus, Jerusalem 91905, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SH).


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