Volume 61 - Number 1 - Spring 1995

E. Mortality

Studies that treat quantitative mortality data analytically. Methodological studies primarily concerned with mortality are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary. The main references to crude data are in the vital statistics items in S. Official Statistical Publications .

E.1. General Mortality

Studies of overall mortality and comparisons of several types of mortality. Studies dealing with two or more of the topics listed in this division are classified under the major section covered, or, if this is not self-evident, included here under General Mortality.

61:10099 Andreev, E. M.; Biryukov, V. A.; Shaburov, K. Ju. Life expectancy in the former USSR and mortality dynamics by cause of death: regional aspects. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 10, No. 3, 1994. 275-85 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The purpose of our paper is to present recent trends of mortality in the former USSR in terms of demographic transition theory....Analysis of data on mortality dynamics by age and cause of death allows us to consider some features of the progress of the demographic transition....The principal causes of the discrepancy between the former USSR and Western countries appear to follow first of all from considerably lower living standards....The second principal cause of unfavourable patterns of mortality was an unhealthy environment in the workplace and at home." The focus is on the 1980s.
Correspondence: E. M. Andreev, Goskomstat of Russia, Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies, Department of Demography, 51 Malaya Gruzinskaya Street, 123557 Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10100 Bengtsson, Tommy. Combined time-series and life-event analysis: the impact of economic fluctuations and air temperature on adult mortality by sex and occupation in a Swedish mining parish, 1757-1850. In: Old and new methods in historical demography, edited by David S. Reher and Roger Schofield. 1993. 239-56 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In the present chapter I attempt to combine time-series analysis with an event-history approach to study whether harvest fluctuations influenced age- and sex-specific mortality rates in different social and economic groups equally, by analysing demographic data that relate to individuals in a single parish in combination with information on community-wide economic cycles and air temperatures." The data are for the period 1757-1850 and concern the Swedish mining parish of Vastansfors. The results show that it is possible to analyze the impact of annual environmental changes on very small populations.
Correspondence: T. Bengtsson, University of Lund, Department of Economic History, P.O. Box 7083, 220 07 Lund, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10101 Eberstadt, Nicholas. Mortality and the fate of communist states. Communist Economies and Economic Transformation, Vol. 5, No. 4, 1993. 499-517 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
The author suggests that the general tendency to overestimate the economic success of communist countries by Western scholars before the breakup of the Soviet Union was due primarily to a failure to take proper account of demographic factors, and particularly declines occurring in life expectancy. "The first section reviews the anomalous history of mortality trends in Central and Eastern Europe and the USSR between the end of the Second World War and the 'end of the Cold War'. The second draws inferences about economic performance in those countries from their mortality trends. The third examines some characteristic differences in mortality trends between those areas in which communist rule has recently collapsed and those in which it continues, and speculates about the significance of the distinction. The final section discusses the significance of current mortality trends for post-communist societies, especially as they pertain to the prospective transition to a stable economic and political order."
Correspondence: N. Eberstadt, American Enterprise Institute, 1150 17th Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

61:10102 Ellman, Michael; Maksudov, S. Soviet deaths in the Great Patriotic War: a note. Europe-Asia Studies, Vol. 46, No. 4, 1994. 671-80 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
The authors attempt a synthesis of recent research in the USSR and post-Soviet Russia on Soviet mortality during World War II. They conclude that the official estimate adopted since 1990 of 26 to 27 million deaths is probably accurate, and note that most of the Soviet citizens who died were civilians.
Correspondence: M. Ellman, University of Amsterdam, Faculty of Economics and Econometrics, Roetersstraat 11, 1018 WB Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:10103 Ellman, Michael. The increase in death and disease under "katstroika" Cambridge Journal of Economics, Vol. 18, No. 4, Aug 1994. 329-55 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The author describes recent trends in mortality and morbidity in the successor states to the former Soviet Union. Separate consideration is given to mortality under late perestroika (1987-1991) and subsequent mortality trends. The author concludes that "the collapse of the USSR and the problems of the successor states have had severe adverse affects not only on macroeconomic indices but also on the mortality and morbidity of the population....Since the collapse of the USSR, the mortality situation in the successor states has rapidly and significantly worsened. Between 1991 and 1993 the crude death rate in Russia rose by 26%. As a result, by 1993 the life expectancy at birth of Russian men had fallen to about 59, which is about 6 years below the level of 1987....By 1993, male life expectancy at birth in Russia had fallen below the level of the medium income countries and had probably fallen to a level about that of Indonesia in the second half of the 1980s. Ukraine has also experienced an increase in mortality since the collapse of the USSR. In other successor states, experiencing serious military conflicts, such as Tadjikstan and Armenia, the proportionate increase in mortality was even larger than in Russia."
Correspondence: M. Ellman, University of Amsterdam, Spui 21, 1012 WX Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

61:10104 Godfrey, A. Elizabeth; Chevarley, Frances M.; Rosenberg, Harry M.; Kochanek, Kenneth D.; Feinleib, Manning. Mortality Surveillance System: models from the second year. Vital and Health Statistics, Series 20: Data from the National Vital Statistics System, No. 22, Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 95-1859. LC 92-48958. Oct 1994. vi, 82 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
"This is the second report presenting statistical charts and text from the Mortality Surveillance System (MSS)....[It] presents the statistical charts and text from the second year of the MSS as published in the [Mortality Vital Statistics Report] volume 39, number 2-volume 40, number 1. Also presented are the monthly data used in fitting the models depicted in the published charts and the model statistics for the fitted curves." The data presented concern death rates from various causes, and infant, postneonatal, and neonatal mortality rates.
For the first report, presenting similar data from the first year of the system, see 59:30086.
Correspondence: U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Mail Stop SSOP, Washington, D.C. 20402-9328. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10105 Grover, Steven A.; Gray-Donald, Katherine; Joseph, Lawrence; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Coupal, Louis. Life expectancy following dietary modification or smoking cessation: estimating the benefits of a prudent lifestyle. Archives of Internal Medicine, Vol. 154, No. 15, Aug 8, 1994. 1,697-704 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
The authors "evaluate the maximum benefits of dietary modification or smoking cessation to the life expectancy of North American adults. Using a computer model, we estimated the change in life expectancy for men and women following risk factor modification. We then estimated the total number of adults who would be targeted by national guidelines and the total person-years of life that would be saved....Younger men, aged 30 to 59 years, might live slightly longer after dietary change, but among women and older men the average benefits would be negligible. The benefits of smoking cessation are more uniform across age and sex and are substantially greater than those predicted for dietary change."
Correspondence: S. A. Grover, Montreal General Hospital, Centre for the Analysis of Cost-Effective Care, 1650 Cedar Avenue, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10106 Guha, Sumit. The importance of social intervention in England's mortality decline: the evidence reviewed. Social History of Medicine, Vol. 7, No. 1, Apr 1994. 89-113 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines the first phase of England's mortality decline, which commenced in the middle of the eighteenth century, and proceeded fitfully down to the end of the nineteenth. It finds that recent research in population history has weakened the explanation known as the McKeown thesis, but that the alternative synthesis, developed by Szreter, does not stand up well to a scrutiny of the evidence for London in the eighteenth, and England in the nineteenth century, especially the evidence on infant mortality and morbidity. It concludes by pointing out that, contrary to the received version, diarrhoeal diseases continued in defiance of late-Victorian public health measures, but appear to have become less lethal, sharing in the general decline in the lethality of illness found by J. C. Riley for the second half of the nineteenth century."
Correspondence: S. Guha, Nehru Memorial Museum and Library, Center for Contemporary Studies, Teen Murti House, New Delhi 110 001, India. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

61:10107 Hoyert, Donna L. Effect on mortality rates of the 1989 change in tabulating race. Vital and Health Statistics, Series 20: Data from the National Vital Statistics System, No. 25, Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 94-1853. ISBN 0-8406-0493-9. LC 94-22721. Sep 1994. iii, 28 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
"The report discusses the effect of the change in tabulation from race of child to race of mother on mortality rates. Infant, fetal, perinatal, and maternal mortality rates are shown by race of child and race of mother for 1970-89 [for the United States]."
Correspondence: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10108 Imhof, Arthur E. Life expectancies in Germany, Norway, and Sweden in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. [Lebenserwartungen in Deutschland, Norwegen und Schweden im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert.] ISBN 3-05-002451-8. 1994. 725 pp. Akademie Verlag: Berlin, Germany. In Ger.
This collection of papers by various authors focuses on changes in life expectancy in Germany, Norway, and Sweden during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The data and methods are first described, and statistical results are then presented. Chapters are included on sources and methods for studying mortality; the increase in life expectancy and changes in causes of death in Germany; generational mortality in Norway, 1846-1980; Germany, 1871-1945; Germany after 1945; mortality, illness, and society in Norway from the end of the eighteenth century to the present; and life expectancy in Sweden, 1750-1900.
Correspondence: Akademie Verlag, Muhlenstrasse 33-34, 13187 Berlin, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10109 Kearns, G. The urban disadvantage and the decline in mortality in England and Wales, 1851-1900. [Le handicap urbain et le declin de la mortalite en Angleterre et au Pays de Galles 1851-1900.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1993. 75-105 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper [contains] research on the causes of...mortality in England and Wales during the second half of [the] nineteenth century their evolution and the very large difference between the cities and the country...." Particular attention is given to methodological difficulties inherent in such studies.
Correspondence: G. Kearns, University of Liverpool, Department of Geography, P.O. Box 147, Liverpool L69 3BX, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10110 Lee, Ronald D.; Rofman, Rafael. Modeling and projecting mortality in Chile. [Modelacion y proyeccion de la mortalidad en Chile.] Notas de Poblacion, Vol. 22, No. 59, Jun 1994. 183-213 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"In a recent paper, Lee and Carter developed a new method for analyzing and forecasting time series of age specific mortality, and applied it to the U.S. population. In this paper, we extend that method to deal with various problems of incomplete data common in Third World populations, and then apply the method to forecast mortality in Chile."
For the article by Lee and Carter, published in 1992, see 58:30105.
Correspondence: R. D. Lee, University of California, Department of Demography, 2232 Piedmont Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10111 Manton, K. G.; Singer, Burton. What's the fuss about compression of mortality? Chance, Vol. 7, No. 4, 1994. 21-30 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors examine some implications of current trends in life expectancy and morbidity in developed countries such as the United States. In particular, they "demonstrate, empirically, that there is as yet no clear evidence supporting the idea of compression of mortality in either human populations or in experimental animal models; discuss statistical and mathematical modeling issues--including open research problems pertaining to the measurement of compression of mortality, morbidity, and disability; [and] relate debates about compression to population forecasting and health policy agendas."
Correspondence: B. Singer, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10112 Martikainen, Pekka. Women's employment, marriage, motherhood and mortality: a test of the multiple role and role accumulation hypotheses. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 40, No. 2, Jan 1995. 199-212 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Two contrasting hypotheses on the effects of combining marital, parental and work roles on mortality are analysed in this paper. The 'multiple role' hypothesis suggests that the effects are harmful, but the 'role accumulation' hypothesis argues that the benefits will outweigh the possible harmful effects. This paper uses record linkage data for all 35-64 year-old non-pensioned Finnish women to examine the two hypotheses." The author concludes that "neither of the hypotheses on multiple roles are very relevant for the analysis of female mortality and that more attention should be devoted to understanding the contribution of possible selection effects leading to marriage and motherhood and the contribution of the 'healthy worker effect' in creating low mortality for the employed."
Correspondence: P. Martikainen, University of Helsinki, Department of Sociology, Population Research Unit, P.O. Box 33, 00014 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:10113 Mitra, S.; Denny, Clark. On the application of a model of mortality. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 21, No. 2, 1994. 117-32 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"A two parameter model of mortality is presented which is a simplification of an earlier three parameter model formulated by Mitra (1983)....The parameters measure two dimensions: the level and the pattern of mortality. The model is applied to real and model life tables and compared with Brass's logit model. The model is shown to fit as well as the Brass model without the difficulty of choosing a standard table."
Correspondence: S. Mitra, Emory University, Department of Sociology, Atlanta, GA 30322. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10114 Nault, Francois; Ford, David. An overview of deaths in Canada in 1992. [Un survol de la mortalite au Canada en 1992.] Health Reports/Rapports sur la Sante, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1994. 287-94 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
The authors review deaths in Canada in 1992, with a focus on regional variations, sex differences, age-specific death rates, and the increasing trend toward cremation after death.
Correspondence: F. Nault, Statistics Canada, Health Statistics Division, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10115 Okolski, Marek. Health and mortality. In: European Population Conference, 1993. Proceedings. Volume 1. 1994. 119-205 pp. UN Economic Commission for Europe [ECE]: Geneva, Switzerland; Council of Europe: Strasbourg, France. In Eng.
The author examines mortality and morbidity trends in Europe and North America in the 1980s and 1990s, with a focus on problems of the elderly, regional differences, and socioeconomic variations. Health policies in the 1980s are described and assessed, and options for future health-related policies are outlined. Comments by Graziella Caselli are included (pp. 193-205).
Correspondence: M. Okolski, Warsaw University, Department of Economics, Dluga 44/50 Street, 00-241 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10116 Paffenbarger, Ralph S.; Kampert, James B.; Lee, I-Min; Hyde, Robert T.; Leung, Rita W.; Wing, Alvin L. Changes in physical activity and other lifeway patterns influencing longevity. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, Vol. 26, No. 7, 1994. 857-65 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
The effect of physical activity on male mortality in the United States is examined using data on nearly 15,000 Harvard University alumni aged 45-84 in 1977. The subjects were surveyed by questionnaire in 1962 or 1966 and again in 1977. The results indicate that "changes in body-mass index had little influence on mortality during follow-up. [The] findings fit the hypothesis that adopting a physically active lifeway, quitting cigarette smoking, and remaining normotensive independently delay all-cause mortality and extend longevity."
Correspondence: R. S. Paffenbarger, Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Epidemiology, Stanford, CA 94305-5092. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10117 Prata, Pedro R. The epidemiological transition in Brazil. [A transicao epidemiologica no Brasil.] Cadernos de Saude Publica, Vol. 8, No. 2, Apr-Jun 192. 168-75 pp. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
"The author critically evaluates the evolution of the Brazilian mortality pattern during the last fifty years under the framework of the epidemiologic transition theory. The author also discusses mortality determination as a result of economic development and preventive measures. He considers that cardiovascular diseases, neoplasms and injuries are related with environmental and socio-cultural factors and therefore cannot be considered chronic degenerative diseases but preventable ones. These groups of disease are also considered to be unevenly distributed and more prevalent in deprived populations. The author also refers to the simultaneous prevalence of two distinct epidemiologic patterns described in the epidemiologic transition theory, due to the remaining infectious diseases prevalence or to the outbreak of previously eradicated infectious diseases in Brazil, leading to an incomplete epidemiologic transition."
Correspondence: P. R. Prata, Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul, Campus Universitario, Campo Grande 79070-900, MS, Brazil. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

61:10118 Rennert, Gad. Implications of Russian immigration on mortality patterns in Israel. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 23, No. 4, Aug 1994. 751-6 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Official mortality statistics from Israel and the USSR were compared for differences in major causes of death. Russian mortality rates were then incorporated into a calculation taking into account the total size of the Israeli population and the relative size of the immigrant population to give the expected overall age-adjusted mortality in Israel following the wave of immigration....When comparing the mortality statistics for Israel with those of the former USSR it is evident that the mortality rate in the latter is significantly higher....The breakdown of the mortality rates into specific causes of death discloses a predominance of cardiovascular mortality in both countries, but while cardiovascular diseases and cancer are responsible for about 40% and 20% of the total mortality respectively in males from both countries there is a large difference among females....The patterns of death from cancer in the two countries also differ significantly."
Correspondence: G. Rennert, Carmel Medical Center, Department of Community Medicine and Epidemiology, Kupat Holim Klalit, Haifa 34362, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10119 RIFLE Research Group (Rome, Italy). Presentation of the RIFLE project: risk factors and life expectancy. European Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 9, No. 5, Sep 1993. 459-76 pp. Stuttgart, Germany. In Eng.
"Plans are presented for conducting an epidemiological observational project which will pool the data from nine Italian field studies covering over 70,000 men and women aged 20 to 69 years, belonging to 52 population samples distributed in 13 different regions of the country. The main objective is to produce multivariate models for the prediction of all-cause mortality, life expectancy and selected causes of death as a function of some baseline characteristics." The data are for the period 1978-1987.
Correspondence: A. Menotti, Laboratorio di Epidemiologia e Biostatistica, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

61:10120 Riley, James C. Excess mortality in youth. In: Old and new methods in historical demography, edited by David S. Reher and Roger Schofield. 1993. 394-409 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The phenomenon of excess mortality among youths and young people aged 12-35 is explored for different historical periods. Data from Sweden for the period 1755-1985 and Japan for 1891-1985 are used. The results suggest that excess mortality is not a recent phenomenon, but that the risk of dying at around 20 years of age from trauma, particularly among males, has diminished over time.
Correspondence: J. C. Riley, Indiana University, Department of History, Bloomington, IN 47405. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10121 Smith, Ken R.; Waitzman, Norman J. Double jeopardy: interaction effects of marital and poverty status on the risk of mortality. Demography, Vol. 31, No. 3, Aug 1994. 487-507 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to examine the hypothesis that marital and poverty status interact in their effects on mortality risks beyond their main effects. This study examines the epidemiological bases for applying an additive rather than a multiplicative specification when testing for interaction between two discrete risk factors. We specifically predict that risks associated with being nonmarried and with being poor interact to produce mortality risks that are greater than each risk acting independently. The analysis is based on men and women who were ages 25-74 during the 1971-1975 [U.S.] National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I (NHANES I) and who were traced successfully in the NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-Up Study in 1982-1984. Overall, being both poor and nonmarried places nonelderly (ages 25-64) men, but not women, at risk of mortality greater than that expected from the main effects. This study shows that for all-cause mortality, marital and poverty status interact for men but less so for women; these findings exist when interaction is assessed with either a multiplicative or an additive standard."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1990 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: K. R. Smith, University of Utah, Department of Family and Consumer Studies, Salt Lake City, UT 84112. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10122 Tabeau, Ewa; van Poppel, Frans; Willekens, Frans. Mortality in the Netherlands: the data base. NIDI Rapport, No. 36, ISBN 90-70990-46-6. 1994. 84 pp. Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute [NIDI]: The Hague, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This report documents the compilation of an extensive data base on mortality in the Netherlands over the period 1850-1991....The set contains observations on three variables: the number of deaths by sex, single year of age, year of death, and year of birth, the number of people by sex and single year of age on the end of each year, and the number of live births by sex....The report offers an introduction to [age-period-cohort] analysis, describes original data sources used for the compilation, and documents the various steps of the compilation process."
Correspondence: Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute, P.O. Box 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10123 United Nations. Economic Commission for Africa [ECA]. Population Division (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia). Assessment of mortality levels, trends and differentials in relation to the goal of "health for all" by year 2000 in some ECA member states. No. ECA/POP/TP/92/3b(iv), Nov 1992. 48 pp. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. In Eng.
This is a review of current trends in mortality and morbidity in Africa. The focus is on the countries of Botswana, Kenya, Lesotho, Swaziland, and Tanzania. The report includes an analysis of mortality levels, trends, and differentials in each of these five countries.
Correspondence: UN Economic Commission for Africa, Population Division, P.O. Box 3001, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10124 Valkonen, Tapani. Trends in regional and socio-economic mortality differentials in Finland. International Journal of Health Sciences, Vol. 3, No. 3-4, 1992. 157-66 pp. Assen, Netherlands. In Eng.
Trends in mortality in Finland are reviewed over the past 20 years. The author notes that "Finnish female life expectancy has increased more than five years since 1965-1969 and it is now slightly higher than the average in Western Europe. It is also almost five years higher than the average life expectancy in Eastern Europe. The male life expectancy has also risen by more than five years...." However, the author also states that regional differences in mortality have not diminished over this period, despite prevention programs designed to reduce such differences. Furthermore "socio-economic differences in mortality have increased during the same period among men, but had been relatively stable among the women."
Correspondence: T. Valkonen, University of Helsinki, Department of Sociology, Hameentie 68 B, 00550 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10125 Viscusi, W. Kip. Mortality effects of regulatory costs and policy evaluation criteria. RAND Journal of Economics, Vol. 25, No. 1, Spring 1994. 94-109 pp. Santa Monica, California. In Eng.
This article concerns the cost benefit of policies designed to reduce risks of mortality in specific instances. The author points out that "risk regulations directly reduce risk, but they may produce offsetting risk increases. Regulated risks generate a substitution effect, as individuals' risk-averting actions will diminish. Recognition of these effects alters benefit-cost criteria and the value-of-life estimates pertinent to policy analysis. Particularly expensive risk regulations may be counterproductive. The expenditure level that will lead to the loss of one statistical life equals the value of life divided by the marginal propensity to spend on health. Regulations with a cost of $30 million to $70 million per life saved will, on balance, have a net adverse effect on mortality because of these linkages."
Correspondence: W. K. Viscusi, Duke University, Durham, NC 27706. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

61:10126 Wasserman, Ira; Stack, Steven. Testing the deathdip and deathrise hypothesis: Ohio mortality results, 1989-1991. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 21, No. 2, 1994. 133-48 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The study develops a multivariate model that controls for age, gender, marital status, and education. In order to determine whether there is a death-dip before birthdays, and/or a death-rise after birthdays, the research uses dummy variables that determine whether an individual is more likely to die a week before their birthday, and/or a week after their birthday. Using Ohio mortality data from 1989 to 1991 for individuals 18 years of age and older who died of natural causes, the study estimates the coefficients in the multivariate model. Age and seasonal effects, as well as interactions between age and gender and seasonal effects, are significant explanators of the difference between deathday and birthday. However, the study also found that individuals were more likely to die in the week after the birthday. The results lend support to the deathrise hypothesis."
Correspondence: I. Wasserman, Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti, MI 48197. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10127 Yun, Zhou. Mortality estimation of Hopi American Indians: 1911-1937. In: Studies in applied demography, edited by K. Vaninadha Rao and Jerry W. Wicks. 1994. 347-52 pp. Bowling Green State University, Department of Sociology, Population and Society Research Center: Bowling Green, Ohio. In Eng.
"The focus of this study is the estimation of general mortality and infant mortality of the Hopi population [in the United States between 1911 and 1937]....The paper has used two different methods, one to estimate infant mortality and the other to estimate general mortality. In this study, the estimation of infant mortality is more accurate than that of general mortality."
Correspondence: Z. Yun, Arizona State University, Department of Anthropology, Tempe, AZ 85287. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.2. Prenatal and Perinatal Mortality

Studies dealing primarily with fetal and neonatal mortality, except those dealing with spontaneous abortions, which are classified under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology , and those studies dealing with induced abortions, which are classified under F.4.5. Induced Abortion . Perinatal mortality is defined as mortality occurring between the twenty-eighth week of gestation and the seventh day of life.

61:10128 Bartlett, Alfred; Paz de Bocaletti, Maria E.; Bocaletti, Marco A. Reducing perinatal mortality in developing countries: high risk or improved labour management? Health Policy and Planning, Vol. 8, No. 4, Dec 1993. 360-8 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
Data from a one-year longitudinal study of births in a traditional indigenous rural community in Guatemala are used to test the assumption that high-risk maternal characteristics can be identified by a screening process to maximize the use of limited health resources. The results suggest that "the maternal risk screening and classification approach does not have adequate predictive value to assign obstetric resources. Interventions based on improved detection, management, and referral of complicated labours and deliveries might be effective interim strategies for obstetric risk management in such settings."
Correspondence: A. Bartlett, U.S. Agency for International Development, Bureau of Research and Development, SA-18 Room 1264, 320 21st Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20523-1817. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

61:10129 Schieber, Barbara; O'Rourke, Kathleen; Rodriguez, Carmen; Bartlett, Alfred. Risk factor analysis of peri-neonatal mortality in rural Guatemala. Bulletin of the Pan American Health Organization, Vol. 28, No. 3, Sep 1994. 229-38 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The three aims of the work reported here were to identify important predictors of peri-neonatal mortality within a rural area of Guatemala; to assess the effects of traditional and modern health care providers on such mortality; and to find ways of identifying high-risk women who might benefit from transfer to a hospital or clinic. For these purposes a case-control study was conducted of 120 women in the rural department of Quetzaltenango who had lost their babies from the 20th week of pregnancy through the 28th day of life....It was found that the complications of pregnancy and delivery with the greatest statistical significance were prematurity, malpresentation, and prolonged labor. Population-based attributable risks of these complications demonstrated that they accounted for significant proportions of the observed peri-neonatal mortality."
Correspondence: K. O'Rourke, University of Massachusetts, School of Public Health, 418 Arnold House, Amherst, MA 01003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.3. Infant and Childhood Mortality

Studies of infant mortality under one year of age, including neonatal mortality occurring after the seventh day of life, and childhood mortality after one year of age. The subject of infanticide, deliberate or implied, is also classified under this heading.

61:10130 Adetunji, Jacob A. Infant mortality and mother's education in Ondo State, Nigeria. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 40, No. 2, Jan 1995. 253-63 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This is an analysis of data from the 1986-1987 Ondo State, Nigeria, Demographic and Health Survey to try and establish why infant mortality seems to be higher among children of secondary school graduates than children of less educated mothers. The results indicate that breast-feeding patterns and maternal age were the most significant factors affecting infant mortality.
Correspondence: J. A. Adetunji, Harvard University, Center for Population and Development Studies, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:10131 Adetunji, Jacob A. Infant mortality in Nigeria: effects of place of birth, mother's education and region of residence. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 26, No. 4, Oct 1994. 469-77 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines the effects of a child's place of birth, mother's education, region of residence and rural and urban residence on infant mortality in Nigeria between 1965 and 1979, using data from the 1981/82 Nigeria Fertility Survey. Infant mortality rates declined in all regions between 1965 and 1979. Children born in modern health facilities, irrespective of their mothers' place of residence, experienced significantly lower rates of infant mortality than those born elsewhere. Logistic regression analysis showed that all other variables tested were also significant, although some to a lesser degree."
Correspondence: J. A. Adetunji, Harvard University, School of Public Health, Center for Population and Development Studies, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10132 Bajkhaif, Mohammed O.; Mahadevan, Kuttan. Infant mortality of Indian Muslims: determinants and implications. ISBN 81-7018-737-0. 1993. xxi, 150 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
An analysis of infant mortality among the Muslim population of India is presented. The data concern two sects of Indian Muslims, the Sunnis and Dudekulas, living in south central India, and were collected in 1989-1990: 500 couples were included in the study from each community using a multi-stage random sampling procedure. Path analysis is used to identify both direct and indirect factors affecting infant mortality in the two communities. "The path-analysis results show that the type of delivery attendant and general health of mother are important variables which show very high significant influence on infant mortality in both Muslims groups. Mother's age at marriage, house sanitation index and family income equally manifest negative influence on infant mortality. Education of mother and hygienic index also show a negative influence on infant mortality though their influence is much reduced compared to other variables."
Correspondence: B. R. Publishing, 29/9 Nangia Park, Shakti Nagar, Delhi 100 007, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10133 Basu, Alaka M. Maternal education, fertility and child mortality: disentangling verbal relationships. Health Transition Review, Vol. 4, No. 2, Oct 1994. 207-15 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"In this paper, I want to...disentangle in words the mediating roles of the maternal education-fertility and maternal education-child mortality relationships. Can at least a part of the education-child mortality relation be explained through the education-fertility relation and vice versa? Even if the result is a surfeit of words which are virtually impossible to test empirically, the theoretical possibilities should not be discounted."
Correspondence: A. M. Basu, Cornell University, Division of Nutritional Sciences, Ithaca, NY 14853. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10134 Brockerhoff, Martin; De Rose, Laurie F. Parental education and child survival: can the DHS tell us anything new? Health Transition Review, Vol. 4, No. 2, Oct 1994. 192-6 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"The World Fertility Survey (WFS) and the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) have been the foundation for most generalizations regarding the causal impact of parental education on child mortality. Given the limitations of these data sets, it is appropriate to question whether conclusions based on these surveys are justified; a clear understanding of the true relations between education and mortality must precede further study of the mechanisms linking the two....We also explore whether further analysis of the DHS is likely to contribute to our understanding of the link between parental education and child mortality."
Correspondence: M. Brockerhoff, Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10135 Brockerhoff, Martin. The impact of rural-urban migration on child survival. Health Transition Review, Vol. 4, No. 2, Oct 1994. 127-49 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This study uses data from Demographic and Health Surveys in 17 countries to assess the impact of maternal rural-urban migration on the survival chances of children under age two in the late 1970s and 1980s. Results show that, before migration, children of migrant women had similar or slightly higher mortality risks than children of women who remained in the village. In the two-year period surrounding their mother's migration, their chances of dying increased sharply as a result of accompanying their mothers or being left behind, to levels well above those of rural and urban non-migrant children. Children born after migrants had settled in the urban area, however, gradually experienced much better survival chances than children of rural non-migrants, as well as lower mortality risks than migrants' children born in rural areas before migration."
Correspondence: M. Brockerhoff, Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10136 Caldwell, John C. How is greater maternal education translated into lower child mortality? Health Transition Review, Vol. 4, No. 2, Oct 1994. 224-9 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
The author reviews papers included in a special Forum section of this journal issue, which focuses on the relationship between maternal education and child mortality.
Correspondence: J. C. Caldwell, Australian National University, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Health Transition Centre, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10137 de Almeida, Luis E. A.; Barbieri, Marco A.; Gomes, Uilho A.; dos Reis, Patricia M.; Chiaratti, Telma M.; Vasconcelos, Valeria; Bettiol, Heloisa. Birthweight, social class, and infant mortality in Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo. [Peso ao nascer, classe social e mortalidade infantil em Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo.] Cadernos de Saude Publica, Vol. 8, No. 2, Apr-Jun 1992. 190-8 pp. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
An analysis of infant mortality in Brazil is presented using data for women who had live-born children in hospitals in the city of Ribeirao Preto. The results indicate differences in mortality by birth weight and social class. Lower socioeconomic status was associated with low birth weight and higher infant mortality.
Correspondence: L. E. A. de Almeida, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina, Departamento de Puericultura e Pediatria, Avenida Bandeirantes 3900, Ribeirao Preto 14049-900, SP, Brazil. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

61:10138 de Vries, R. F. Child health in developing countries: towards new means of grasping an old problem. Groningen Demographic Reports, No. 14, 1992. [5], 59 pp. University of Groningen, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, Population Research Centre: Groningen, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This study examines theoretical research on child health and child mortality in developing countries. It discusses the recent development of intermediate variables models. These models are conceptual frameworks, in which the factors that influence morbidity and mortality directly (intermediate variables) are separated from socio-economic factors that exert indirect influence."
Correspondence: University of Groningen, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, Population Research Centre, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10139 Estonian Interuniversity Population Research Centre (Tallinn, Estonia). Infant mortality: counties 1965-1993. [Imikusuremus: maakonnad 1965-1993.] Eesti Rahvastikustatistika: Seeria C/Population Statistics of Estonia: Series C, No. 5, ISBN 9985-820-11-8. 1994. xxxviii, 120 pp. Tallinn, Estonia. In Eng; Est.
"The volume contains data on number of infant deaths and stillbirths and infant mortality rate in Estonia for the period 1965-1993. The collection of infant death statistics data have been based on the birth and death certificates filled in by the Civil Registration Office, and for the last two years, additionally, the birth records of Medical Birth Register....In the tables, the data are presented by counties (maakond) and urban settlements (towns and boroughs); for administrative units the current names...are used throughout the entire period."
Correspondence: Estonian Interuniversity Population Research Centre, P.O. Box 3012, 0090 Tallinn, Estonia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10140 Ewbank, Douglas C. Maternal education and theories of health behaviour: a cautionary note. Health Transition Review, Vol. 4, No. 2, Oct 1994. 215-23 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
The author discusses and evaluates various theoretical models concerning the relationship between maternal education and child survival.
Correspondence: D. C. Ewbank, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6297. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10141 Forste, Renata. The effects of breastfeeding and birth spacing on infant and child mortality in Bolivia. Population Studies, Vol. 48, No. 3, Nov 1994. 497-511 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Data from the Demographic and Health Survey of Bolivia, 1989, are used to examine the influence of breastfeeding and birth spacing on infant and child mortality during the first two years of life. Event-history techniques show that illness which leads to the cessation of lactation, rather than the cessation of lactation for other reasons, is the dominant factor contributing to mortality. Where lactation is separated from the effect of illness, it had no effect on infant and child survival, except during the very early months of life. Short birth intervals also increased the risk of dying during the first two years of life, as did receiving ante-natal care from a midwife."
Correspondence: R. Forste, Western Washington University, Department of Sociology, Bellingham, WA 98225-9081. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10142 Frisbie, W. Parker. Birth weight and infant mortality in the Mexican origin and Anglo populations. Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 75, No. 4, Dec 1994. 881-95 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
Standard decomposition techniques are applied to data from the San Antonio Metropolitan Health District in Texas and birth records from Bexar County over the period 1935-1985 to determine the extent to which differences in birth weight can account for the fact that the socially disadvantaged Mexican-origin minority has infant mortality rates similar to the white majority population. "The results indicate that ethnic differentials in birth weight distributions provide neither a resolution of the epidemiologic paradox as it exists currently nor an explanation of why Mexican origin and Anglo infant mortality converged. In contrast, changes in weight-specific risk constitute by far the most important explanation in regard to both neonatal and postneonatal mortality."
Correspondence: W. P. Frisbie, University of Texas, Population Research Center, 1800 Main Building, Austin, TX 78712. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:10143 Garrett, Eilidh; Wear, Andrew. Special number on infant and child mortality. Continuity and Change, Vol. 9, No. 2, Aug 1994. 171-346 pp. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
This special issue concerns "the decline in infant mortality in developed countries from the early years of the twentieth century to the present....When organizing the conference that in an indirect way gave rise to this special issue of Continuity and Change we deliberately invited speakers from different disciplines and with different spatial, temporal and social perspectives in order to capture the multifactorial nature of the decline in infant mortality. We hope this collection of papers also achieves this aim."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Cambridge University Press, Edinburgh Building, Shaftesbury Road, Cambridge CB2 2RU, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10144 Garssen, Joop. Policies and practices in pre- and post-independence health care: the case of Zanzibar. Groningen Demographic Reports, No. 15, 1993. vi, 56 pp. University of Groningen, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, Population Research Centre: Groningen, Netherlands. In Eng.
The author examines the impact of health interventions on infant and child mortality using data for the island of Zanzibar, Tanzania. The data concern both the colonial period prior to independence and more recent data, particularly for the 1980s. The author challenges commonly held beliefs concerning the inadequacy of colonial health services, and notes that the health care system in Zanzibar has deteriorated since independence, primarily because of the collapse of the island's economy. The failure to develop effective education and economic policies are seen as major reasons for the underdevelopment of health services.
Correspondence: University of Groningen, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, Population Research Centre, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10145 Gomez de Leon Cruces, Jose; Partida Bush, Virgilio. Levels of infant mortality and fertility in Mexico by state, 1990. [Niveles de mortalidad infantil y fecundidad en Mexico, por entidad federativa, 1990.] Revista Mexicana de Sociologia, Vol. 55, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1993. 97-135 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The authors present estimates of infant mortality in Mexico by state, using survey and census data for the 1970s and 1980s. They use an alternative method of calculating infant mortality which suggests that previous calculations have underestimated the level of both fertility and infant mortality.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:10146 Graham, David. Female employment and infant mortality: some evidence from British towns, 1911, 1931 and 1951. Continuity and Change, Vol. 9, No. 2, Aug 1994. 313-46 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"During the latter part of the nineteenth century, and for much of the twentieth, many commentators were critical of female employment since it was their belief that infant life suffered as a result. Using bivariate and multivariate techniques on datasets for 51 British towns for the years 1911, 1931 and 1951, the author explores this hypothesized relationship. Although there was a significant positive correlation between female employment and infant mortality in 1911 and 1951, and a positive, though insignificant, association in 1931, other variables, such as general mortality, fertility and social class, were found to be influencing the relationship."
Correspondence: D. Graham, 27 Union Street, Coleraine, County Derry, Northern Ireland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10147 Gutierrez, Gonzalo; Guiscafre, Hector; Reyes, Hortensia; Perez, Ricardo; Vega, Roxana; Tome, Patricia. Reduction of mortality due to acute diarrheal diseases. Experiences from a research-action program. [Reduccion de la mortalidad por enfermedades diarreicas agudas. Experiencias de un programa de investigacion-accion.] Salud Publica de Mexico, Vol. 36, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1994. 168-79 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
Results are presented from a project designed to reduce mortality from acute diarrhea in children under five years of age in Mexico. Six alternative strategies were implemented during the project. The results show that after nine months, about half of the women involved were able to improve their home treatment of infantile diarrhea significantly.
Correspondence: G. Gutierrez, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Grupo Interinstitucional de Investigacion en Sistemas de Salud, Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

61:10148 Huck, Paul. Infant mortality in nine industrial parishes in northern England, 1813-1836. Population Studies, Vol. 48, No. 3, Nov 1994. 513-26 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Evidence about infant mortality in a number of industrial towns was derived from baptismal and burial registers of the Anglican Church. The level of infant mortality during the period 1813-1836, after correction for underregistration, was comparable to that of British towns during the second half of the century. Infant mortality increased during this period, perhaps as a reflection of rapid population growth. In each of the parishes a winter peak and a summer trough was found in the seasonal index of infant deaths during this period. This pattern is very different from the high summer mortality that prevailed in British towns during the late nineteenth century. However, mortality in the summer increased over time, thus reducing the depth of the summer trough in infant deaths, and perhaps represents a movement towards the summer peak so apparent later in the century."
Correspondence: P. Huck, Wake Forest University, Department of Economics, Winston-Salem, NC 27109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10149 Jain, Anrudh K. Maternal education and childcare. Health Transition Review, Vol. 4, No. 2, Oct 1994. 199-206 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"Why are children of educated mothers exposed to lower risks of morbidity and mortality than those of mothers with little or no education?...This paper addresses this issue from a programmatic and policy perspective. It focuses on the identification of mechanisms through which mothers' education might influence the risk of child mortality....The data for the present study are taken from a representative sample survey of married women of reproductive age conducted in two districts of Gujarat [India]...."
Correspondence: A. K. Jain, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10150 Joves, Maria L. S. The major determinants of infant mortality: a meta-analysis. Pub. Order No. DA9421480. 1993. 217 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This meta-analysis sought to elucidate and explain the decline of infant mortality worldwide. It aimed to systematically review and characterize a sample of 60 studies and summarize their findings with a statistical synthesis." The study was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Pittsburgh.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 55(3).

61:10151 Kaufmann, Georgia; Cleland, John. Maternal education and child survival: anthropological responses to demographic evidence. Health Transition Review, Vol. 4, No. 2, Oct 1994. 196-9 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"It is not clear...why education should apparently have such a universal effect on the risks of child death nor what constitute the vital ingredients of this powerful relationship: there is a great need to unpack the contents of the relationship between mortality and education. Anthropology can often be used to interpret demographic associations; here we highlight some of the anthropological responses to questions raised by demographic evidence."
Correspondence: G. Kaufmann, Harvard University, Center for Population and Development Studies, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10152 Kidanemariam, Ande; Gallagher, Eugene B. Theoretical perspectives for explaining infant mortality in the third world. Central Issues in Anthropology, No. 10, 1992. 8-15 pp. Cleveland, Ohio. In Eng.
The authors analyze differentials in infant mortality rates in developing countries and attempt to go beyond the usual economic interpretations of these differences and identify some of the relevant social and political factors affecting infant mortality. In particular, they apply "a 'political economy of health' perspective to infant mortality and seek to account for discrepancies between economic progress and progress against infant mortality. [The paper] traces out a four-fold comparison--between countries with high/low economic development and countries with high/low infant mortality--for testing hypotheses in the political economy of health."
Correspondence: A. Kidanemariam, University of Kentucky, Department of Sociology, Lexington, KY 40506. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10153 Kinlen, L. J.; John, S. M. Wartime evacuation and mortality from childhood leukaemia in England and Wales in 1945-9. British Medical Journal, Vol. 309, No. 6963, Nov 5, 1994. 1,197-202 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors attempt "to discover whether the wartime government evacuation of children from London and other population centres to rural districts was associated with any increase in childhood leukaemia....Mortality from childhood leukaemia was examined in...three rural categories in 1945-9. Urban areas were also examined according to their exposure to evacuees....[The] findings suggest that wartime evacuation increased the incidence of childhood leukaemia in rural areas and that other forms of population mixing may have contributed to the increases in past decades. Overall, they add to the appreciable evidence for an infective basis in childhood leukaemia."
Correspondence: L. J. Kinlen, University of Oxford, Cancer Research Campaign Epidemiology Unit, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford OX2 6HE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

61:10154 Lee, James; Wang, Feng; Campbell, Cameron. Infant and child mortality among the Qing nobility: implications for two types of positive check. Population Studies, Vol. 48, No. 3, Nov 1994. 395-411 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Demographers, as early as Malthus, have assumed that in traditional China the positive check, mortality, was largely beyond human control. This paper re-examines the role of the positive check in late imperial China through an analysis of an historical source of unprecedented demographic detail and accuracy: the genealogy of the Qing (1644-1911) imperial lineage....We focus in this paper...on the patterns of neonatal, infant, and child mortality for the 33,000 children born in Beijing between 1700 and 1840. In Part 1 we calculate [the] age-specific mortality rates separately for each sex, and compare the scale and trends of neonatal and child mortality. In Part 2 we analyse these rates according to the parents' status in the nobility and marriage-type, to ascertain the social context of these aspects of mortality in late imperial China."
Correspondence: J. Lee, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10155 Mbago, Maurice C. Y. Some correlates of child mortality in the refugee populated regions in Tanzania. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 26, No. 4, Oct 1994. 451-67 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Data from the 1988 Tanzania census were used to examine child mortality in three regions populated with Burundi refugees. Logistic and least squares analyses show that for both Tanzanian nationals and refugees low levels of maternal education are associated with high child mortality levels. Children born to mothers who are housewives are associated with low levels of mortality compared to those born to employed mothers, though the results were not statistically significant for the refugees. Maternal demographic status, computed from age and parity, has a strong effect on child survival. Unexpectedly, child mortality was lower where the water source was a well outside the village. Tanzanian mothers who are at highest risk of childbearing are roughly 6.4 times more likely to have a child death than those at lowest risk; the corresponding figure for the refugees is 36.8."
Correspondence: M. C. Y. Mbago, University of Dar es Salaam, Department of Statistics, P.O. Box 35091, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10156 McMurry, Dan. Structural and behavioral correlates of infant mortality in Tennessee: changing patterns, new risks. In: Studies in applied demography, edited by K. Vaninadha Rao and Jerry W. Wicks. 1994. 441-62 pp. Bowling Green State University, Department of Sociology, Population and Society Research Center: Bowling Green, Ohio. In Eng.
"This paper consists of an ecological analysis of infant mortality using counties of Tennessee....Here the focus is to identify and describe the areas where infant deaths are highest and lowest. Then, using vital statistic data where each infant death is linked to its birth certificate, an analysis is done focusing on maternal social and behavioral characteristics. The recent addition to the birth certificate of information on smoking, drug and alcohol use, and other risk factors of the mother, allows researchers for the first time to go beyond the traditional restrictions of purely medical/biological correlates of infant mortality."
Correspondence: D. McMurry, Middle Tennessee State University, Sociology Department, Murfreesboro, TN 37132. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10157 Miller, C. Arden. Maternal and infant care: comparisons between Western Europe and the United States. International Journal of Health Services, Vol. 23, No. 4, 1993. 655-64 pp. Amityville, New York. In Eng.
The author reviews a number of studies that compare differences between selected European countries with low infant mortality and the United States concerning the provision of maternal and infant care. Although the results show great differences among the European countries concerning how such care is provided, they also reveal that "consistent among the study countries is the nearly complete enrollment of childbearing women in early and continuous prenatal care, and the strong linkage of that care to a generous spectrum of social supports and financial benefits. None of the benefits generally pertains in the United States." The lessons for the United States are discussed.
Correspondence: C. A. Miller, University of North Carolina, School of Public Health, Department of Maternal and Child Health, Campus Box 7400, Chapel Hill, NC 27599. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

61:10158 Rao, Saumya R.; Pandey, Arvind. Child mortality in Goa: a study of socio-economic and behavioural factors. IIPS Research Report Series, No. 1, 1993-1994. [vii], 52 pp. International Institute for Population Sciences: Bombay, India. In Eng.
This is an analysis of the socioeconomic and behavioral factors affecting child mortality and survival in the Indian state of Goa. "The analysis explores the factors associated with child mortality differentials in Goa in two steps. First, bivariate relationships were explored between child mortality and each of the eight socio-economic, health and behavioural related variables selected for the study. Secondly, multivariate regression was carried out, simultaneously including all the variables selected for the study." Particular attention is given to the relationship between breast-feeding and child mortality. The data for the study were collected in a survey carried out in 1984.
Correspondence: International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Bombay 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10159 Sastry, Narayan. Community characteristics, individual attributes, and child survival in Brazil. DHS Working Paper, No. 14, Aug 1994. 36 pp. Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Calverton, Maryland. In Eng.
"The principal objectives [of this study] are to investigate how the social and environmental context in which a child is raised affects the chances of his or her survival, and to analyze how individual and household characteristics modify the effects of community characteristics. The ultimate goal of the study is to understand the role of community characteristics in shaping child mortality differentials in the context of a developing country." The data are from a 1986 household survey conducted in Brazil as part of the Demographic and Health Surveys program.
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Calverton, MD 20705. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10160 Viazzo, Pier P.; Bortolotto, Maria; Zanotto, Andrea. Child care, infant mortality and the impact of legislation: the case of Florence's foundling hospital, 1840-1940. Continuity and Change, Vol. 9, No. 2, Aug 1994. 243-69 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"This article analyses the evolution of infant mortality at Florence's foundling hospital from the mid-nineteenth century to the Second World War in order to shed some light on the vexed question of the impact of legislative measures on infant mortality [in Italy]. It shows that, contrary to what had been previously assumed, the major restrictions imposed on child abandonment in 1875 through the abolition of the 'wheel' (the revolving box whereby infants were anonymously introduced into foundling hospitals) had limited effects on the levels and trends of infant mortality. Later pieces of local and national legislation proved, however, decisive in starting a rapid and irreversible process of decline."
Correspondence: P. P. Viazzo, Istituto degli Innocenti, Florence, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10161 Wilkinson, Richard G. Research note: German income distribution and infant mortality. Sociology of Health and Illness, Vol. 16, No. 2, Mar 1994. 260-2 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author comments on a recent paper by Irene Wennemo concerning the relationship between income distribution and infant mortality in developed countries from 1950 to 1985. He provides evidence that the German data from the Luxembourg Income Study used by Wennemo, which provided an exception to the rule that low rates of poverty were associated with low rates of infant mortality, are in fact wrong.
For the article by Wennemo, published in 1993, see 59:40130.
Correspondence: R. G. Wilkinson, University of Sussex, Trafford Centre for Medical Research, Brighton BN1 9RY, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:10162 Williams, Naomi; Mooney, Graham. Infant mortality in an "age of great cities": London and the English provincial cities compared, c. 1840-1910. Continuity and Change, Vol. 9, No. 2, Aug 1994. 185-212 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"This study uses published vital registration data to construct annual infant mortality rates for 21 large English towns and 25 districts in London between 1840 and 1910. Using a comparative geographical approach, differentials in levels of infant mortality and short-run cyclical movements are examined. While local factors (urban growth, prevailing sanitary conditions, methods of feeding and the quality of the milk supply) all affected levels of infant mortality, the close correspondence in the timing of movements of infant mortality suggest that a more general set of factors operated throughout the entire urban system at the same time. Of these, the interaction of climate and poor sanitary conditions is given particular emphasis."
Correspondence: N. Williams, University of Liverpool, Department of Geography, P.O. Box 147, Liverpool L69 3BX, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10163 Winter, Jay; Lawrence, Jon; Ariouat, Jackie. The impact of the Great War on infant mortality in London. Annales de Demographie Historique, 1993. 329-53 pp. Paris, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper presents evidence for a moderately optimistic account of the impact of the First World War on infant survival rates in London. The full effects of the war were not exhausted in November 1918. By examining the period immediately before and after the war, we show firstly, that the 1914-1918 conflict was a time of slowly declining infant mortality in London, and secondly, that the rate of decline accelerated after 1918."
Correspondence: J. Winter, University of Cambridge, Faculty of History, Cambridge CB2 1TN, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.4. Mortality at Other Ages

Studies of age-specific mortality and of mortality in special groups defined by age.

61:10164 Goldman, Noreen; Takahashi, Shigesato. Old-age mortality in Japan: demographic and epidemiological perspectives. OPR Working Paper, No. 94-1, Dec 1993. 39, [2] pp. Princeton University, Office of Population Research [OPR]: Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
This study is about the spectacular improvement in longevity that has occurred in Japan, with emphasis on the chronic diseases of the elderly population. An analysis of the contributions of different age groups and causes of death to mortality declines since the 1950s is presented first. The second part examines the effect of dietary factors on mortality.
Correspondence: Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10165 Himes, Christine L. Age patterns of mortality and cause-of-death structures in Sweden, Japan, and the United States. Demography, Vol. 31, No. 4, Nov 1994. 633-50 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper uses a new standard model of adult mortality to compare the mortality patterns of Swedes, Japanese, and U.S. whites between 1950 and 1985. It examines changes in the age patterns of mortality and the cause-of-death structures within the populations, and the relationships between those two factors. As Japan has reached a level of mortality similar to that in Sweden, the age patterns of mortality in the two populations have become more similar despite distinct differences in causes of death. The United States has a cause-of-death structure similar to that of Sweden, but the age pattern of mortality is very different. High mortality in the middle age range in the United States results in approximately a one-year loss of life expectancy at age 45 in comparison with Sweden."
Correspondence: C. L. Himes, Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6411. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10166 Robert, Jean-Louis; Winter, Jay. A hitherto ignored aspect of the urban demography of World War I: the crisis among the elderly in Berlin, London, and Paris. [Un aspect ignore de la demographie urbaine de la Grande Guerre: le drame des vieux a Berlin, Londres et Paris.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1993. 303-28 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"This article surveys the mortality of the elderly (60+) population in London, Paris, [and] Berlin during the Great War. These three capitals all registered increased mortality rates at advanced ages in 1917-1918. The situation was particularly grave in Berlin, reflecting the general crisis facing the city at the end of the war. The increase in death rates in the Allied capitals reflected the marginalization of the aged during the war, their neglect in social policy, their relative isolation, material difficulties and stress at a time of mass mourning."
Correspondence: J.-L. Robert, Universite d'Orleans, Chateau de la Source, B 6749, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10167 Zodgekar, Arvind V. The social impact of recent and prospective mortality decline among older New Zealanders. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 9, No. 2, Jun 1994. 47-60 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"Recent declines in mortality among the older New Zealand population are significant. This article demonstrates the extent of that decline among the total and the older population, and discusses its effects on population composition and family relationships. It also discusses the extent of morbidity and the impact of ageing on future health care facilities. It concludes that, as the emphasis of public policy shifts from institutional care to community care, there is an urgent need to plan for the transfer of necessary resources to the community in order for it to cope with this increasing burden. It also finds that there will be increased demands for geriatric hospital and community care that need to be planned for."
Correspondence: A. V. Zodgekar, Victoria University of Wellington, Department of Sociology and Social Work, P.O. Box 600, Wellington, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.5. Life Tables

Studies that present actual life table data and all studies concerned primarily with life tables, including the appropriate methodological studies. Life table studies that are concerned with topics other than mortality are classified under the appropriate heading and cross-referenced to this heading.

61:10168 Estonian Interuniversity Population Research Centre (Tallinn, Estonia). Life tables: counties 1986-1991. [Rahvastiku elutabelid: maakonnad 1986-1991.] Eesti Rahvastikustatistika: Seeria C/Population Statistics of Estonia: Series C, No. 4, ISBN 9985-820-09-6. 1994. xv, 60 pp. Tallinn, Estonia. In Eng; Est.
Life tables are presented for the counties of Estonia for the period 1986-1911. They are presented separately by sex and for the rural and urban population.
Correspondence: Estonian Interuniversity Population Research Centre, P.O. Box 3012, 0090 Tallinn, Estonia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10169 India. Office of the Registrar General. Vital Statistics Division (New Delhi, India). SRS based abridged life tables, 1986-90. Occasional Paper, No. 1 of 1994, 1994. ii, 90 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This report contains abridged life tables [for India] for the period 1986-90 separately by rural and urban areas and by sex for major states and the country." The data are from the Sample Registration System.
Correspondence: Office of the Registrar General, Vital Statistics Division, Ministry of Home Affairs, 2/A Mansingh Road, New Delhi 110 011, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10170 United States. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS] (Hyattsville, Maryland). Vital statistics of the United States, 1990. Volume II, Section 6. Life tables. Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 94-1104. ISBN 0-16-038278-5. Sep 1994. 20 pp. Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
These are the official life tables for the United States for the year 1990. The data include abridged life tables by race and sex, 1990; number of survivors at single years of age by race and sex; expectation of life at single years of age by race and sex; life tables by race and sex, 1900-1990; and average length of life by race and sex, 1900-1990.
For the 1989 tables, see 59:10156.
Correspondence: U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Mail Stop SSOP, Washington, D.C. 20402-9328. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10171 Valkovics, Emil. Some considerations on the three components of the Heligman-Pollard formula. [Nehany gondolat a Heligman-Pollard formula komponenserol.] Demografia, Vol. 37, No. 2, 1994. 203-29 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng.
"The aim [of] this modest contribution is partly to suggest a different method of fitting the Gompertz function for improving the quality of fit of the Heligman-Pollard formula at higher ages, partly to reformulate mathematically all of its three terms for making the procedure of fitting simpler and easier without raising the number of parameters of the formula and damaging the quality of its fit. The considerations on the three components of the Heligman-Pollard formula are based only on our experimentations with the...Hungarian life tables presented [here]...."
Correspondence: E. Valkovics, Maros-u 27 V.2, 1122 Budapest, Hungary. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.6. Differential Mortality

Studies on the ratio of mortality in different subgroups of a population, classified according to certain criteria, such as sex, social class, occupation, and marital status. Also includes studies on excess mortality and comparative mortality.

61:10172 Coale, Ansley J.; Banister, Judith. Five decades of missing females in China. Demography, Vol. 31, No. 3, Aug 1994. 459-79 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper seeks to explain the dearth of females in the population of China in cohorts born from the late 1930s to the present. We demonstrate that in virtually all cohorts, the shortage of females in comparison with males is revealed when the cohort is first enumerated in a census. Subsequently it barely changes, and [indicates] that female losses occur very early in life. Using the high-quality data from the censuses and fertility surveys in China, we show that many of the births of the girls missing in the censuses were not reported in the surveys because they died very young. The incidence of excess early female mortality (probably infanticide) declined precipitously in the Communist period, but not to zero. The recent escalation in the proportion of young females missing in China has been caused largely by rapidly escalating sex-selective abortion."
Correspondence: A. J. Coale, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10173 Elo, Irma T.; Preston, Samuel H. Estimating African-American mortality from inaccurate data. Demography, Vol. 31, No. 3, Aug 1994. 427-58 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper evaluates the quality of vital statistics and census data for estimating African-American mortality over a period of six decades [in the United States]. The authors employ intercensal cohort comparisons and extinct generation estimates to demonstrate that conventionally constructed African-American death rates may be seriously flawed as early as age 50. Using the crude death rate at ages 50+ for 1978-1982 in conjunction with estimated growth rates and two model life table systems, the authors estimate black age-specific death rates in 1978-1982. These results suggest that if a racial crossover in death rates occurs, the age pattern of mortality among African-Americans must be far outside the range observed in populations with more accurate data."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1993 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: I. T. Elo, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10174 Goldman, Noreen; Takahashi, Shigesato; Hu, Yuanreng. Mortality among Japanese singles: a re-investigation. OPR Working Paper, No. 94-6, Aug 1994. 26 pp. Princeton University, Office of Population Research [OPR]: Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
The authors use data for the period 1975-1989 now available from death registration and recent national fertility surveys in Japan to analyze the extent to which the excess mortality of singles is linked to the system of arranged marriages. "Results from this analysis, combined with earlier findings, confirm the importance of the mate selection process in producing atypically high and rapidly declining mortality rates among Japanese singles and suggest that the presence of tuberculosis was an important component of the screening process for potential spouses."
Correspondence: Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10175 Klein, Thomas. Family status and life expectancy. A cohort analysis for West Germany. [Familienstand und Lebenserwartung. Eine Kohortenanalyse fur die Bundesrepublik Deutschland.] Zeitschrift fur Familienforschung, Vol. 5, No. 2, 1993. 99-114 pp. Konstanz, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
"In this article the effect of family status on life-expectancy is analysed on the basis of cohort data. As a result it can be said that even after control for a variety of other variables marriage obviously protects from mortality. This effect is stronger for men than for women." The data concern West Germany in the 1980s.
Correspondence: T. Klein, Universitat Konstanz, Fakultat fur Verwaltungswissenschaft, Universitatsstrasse 10, 78464 Konstanz, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10176 Krumholz, Harlan M.; Seeman, Teresa E.; Merrill, Susan S.; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F.; Vaccarino, Viola; Silverman, David I.; Tsukahara, Reiko; Ostfeld, Adrian M.; Berkman, Lisa F. Lack of association between cholesterol and coronary heart disease mortality and morbidity and all-cause mortality in persons older than 70 years. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 272, No. 17, Nov 2, 1994. 1,335-40 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
The goal of this study is "to determine whether elevated serum cholesterol level is associated with all-cause mortality, mortality from coronary heart disease, or hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction and unstable angina in persons older than 70 years. Also, to evaluate the association between low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and elevated ratio of serum cholesterol to HDL-C with these outcomes....A total of 997 subjects...were interviewed in 1988 as part of the New Haven, [Connecticut,] cohort of the Established Population for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly (EPESE)....[The] findings do not support the hypothesis that hypercholesterolemia or low HDL-C are important risk factors for all-cause mortality, coronary heart disease mortality, or hospitalization for myocardial infarction or unstable angina in this cohort of persons older than 70 years."
Correspondence: H. M. Krumholz, Yale University School of Medicine, Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, 333 Cedar Street, P.O. Box 208017, New Haven, CT 06520-8017. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

61:10177 Kunst, Anton E.; Mackenbach, Johan P. International variation in the size of mortality differences associated with occupational status. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 23, No. 4, Aug 1994. 742-50 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This study reassesses the international pattern of inequalities in mortality using an inequality index devised recently....Data on mortality by social class were obtained from longitudinal studies from seven [European] countries. The data referred to men aged 35-64 years. The follow-up period was approximately 1971-1981. The size of mortality differences associated with occupational status was measured using a modification of the Relative Index of Inequality....The results of most previous international comparisons agree with the general pattern observed here....The results show that socioeconomic inequalities in mortality are not an invariable phenomenon, but that they are strongly dependent on the national context."
Correspondence: A. E. Kunst, Erasmus University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Department of Public Health, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10178 Martelin, Tuija. Differential mortality at older ages: sociodemographic mortality differences among the Finnish elderly. Publications of the Finnish Demographic Society, No. 16, ISBN 951-95357-7-2. 1994. 95 pp. Finnish Demographic Society: Helsinki, Finland. Distributed by Tiedekirja, Kirkkokatu 14, 00170 Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"This report summarizes the main results of a study on sociodemographic differences in elderly mortality in Finland." The data are from a data set constructed at Statistics Finland by linking census files for the years 1970, 1975, 1980, and 1985 with death records for the consecutive four five-year periods for the entire Finnish population. The following questions are examined in the study. "Do we find mortality differences also at older ages with regard to such basic sociodemographic characteristics as socioeconomic status, marital status, region of residence or mother tongue? Is there a tendency for a convergence of mortality levels, or are the differences growing wider? What can we infer from differentials and their trends as regards the future development of mortality at older ages or factors contributing to longevity?"
Correspondence: Finnish Demographic Society, Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10179 McCarron, Peter G.; Smith, George D.; Womersley, John J. Deprivation and mortality in Glasgow: changes from 1980 to 1992. British Medical Journal, Vol. 309, No. 6967, Dec 3, 1994. 1,481-2 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Trends in socioeconomic mortality differentials in Glasgow, Scotland, are described for the period 1980-1992, using data available from the Greater Glasgow Health Board. The results indicate that socioeconomic mortality differentials have increased over time, although overall mortality has improved.
Correspondence: G. D. Smith, University of Glasgow, Department of Public Health, Glasgow G12 8RZ, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

61:10180 McLoone, Philip; Boddy, F. A. Deprivation and mortality in Scotland, 1981 and 1991. British Medical Journal, Vol. 309, No. 6967, Dec 3, 1994. 1,465-70 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Mortality differentials in Scotland are analyzed by socioeconomic status using census data for 1981 and 1991. The authors conclude that "differences in mortality experience linked to relative poverty increased in the 10 years between [the] 1981 and 1991 censuses. Although mortality for Scotland as a whole is improving, the picture is one of an increasing distinction between the experience of the majority and that of a substantial minority of the population."
Correspondence: P. McLoone, University of Glasgow, Public Health Research Unit, Glasgow G12 8RZ, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

61:10181 Preston, Samuel H.; Taubman, Paul. Socioeconomic differences in adult mortality and health status. In: Demography of aging, edited by Linda G. Martin and Samuel H. Preston. 1994. 279-318 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This chapter reviews recent evidence about the extent and sources of socioeconomic differences in mortality and health among older persons in the United States, with some reference to other countries." Sections are included on socioeconomic measures; recent evidence on the extent of socioeconomic differences in mortality and health status; sources of socioeconomic differentials in mortality and health status; sources of change in differences; and race, class, and health.
Correspondence: S. H. Preston, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6297. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10182 Rafnsson, Vilhjalmur; Gunnarsdottir, Holmfridur. Mortality among Icelandic seamen. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 23, No. 4, Aug 1994. 730-6 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The aim of this cohort study was to evaluate the mortality of Icelandic seamen with particular reference to cancer deaths....In all 27,884 seamen...were followed-up [from 1958 to 1986]....We conclude that the excess mortality from unknown causes indicates a special situation among seamen, and might be due to hazardous working conditions or behavioural or lifestyle factors. The excess found for stomach and lung cancer is high and increased with increasing latency, however these cancer mortalities were not distinctly related to the duration of employment, which makes it uncertain whether these cancers are related to occupation. Some other smoking and lifestyle-related cancers were also in excess, e.g. liver and kidney cancers."
Correspondence: V. Rafnsson, Administration of Occupational Safety and Health, Department of Occupational Medicine, Bildshoefdi 16, 112 Reykjavik, Iceland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10183 Rofman, Rafael. Adult mortality differentials in Argentina. [Diferenciales de mortalidad adulta en Argentina.] Notas de Poblacion, Vol. 22, No. 59, Jun 1994. 73-91 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This article intends to estimate and analyze adult mortality differentials in Argentina, by utilizing data from the National Administration of Social Security. The method used is a combination of the technique known as logistic analysis and the use of models developed by Coale et al. and Coale and Guo. Based on these estimates, life tables by sex, place of residence, pension fund (utilized as an activity indicator) and income were constructed....Among the most important findings it was observed that the lowest mortality levels were presented by persons autonomously affiliated to pension funds....A strong inverse correlation was found between the probability of dying and the income level."
Correspondence: R. Rofman, Centro de Estudios de Poblacion, Casilla 4397, Correo Central, 1000 Buenos Aires, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10184 Sloggett, Andrew; Joshi, Heather. Higher mortality in deprived areas: community or personal disadvantage? British Medical Journal, Vol. 309, No. 6967, Dec 3, 1994. 1,470-4 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The association between level of social deprivation and premature mortality in England is explored using 1981 census data for some 300,000 individuals aged 16-65. The sample was followed up for nearly nine years. "Without allowance for personal disadvantage, both sexes showed a clear, significant, and roughly linear positive relation between degree of deprivation of the ward of residence in 1981 and premature death before 1990....The excess mortality associated with residence in areas designated as deprived by census based indicators is wholly explained by the concentration in those areas of people with adverse personal or household socioeconomic factors."
Correspondence: A. Sloggett, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Population Sciences, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

61:10185 Smith, Herbert L. Nonreporting of births or nonreporting of pregnancies? Some evidence from four rural counties in north China. Demography, Vol. 31, No. 3, Aug 1994. 481-6 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author critically examines an article by Ansley J. Coale and Judith Banister concerning sex ratios in China. "I present data from a recent sample survey featuring a retrospective pregnancy history. These data reveal that at least in the first pregnancy, from which the preponderance of sample births [arises], there is no evidence of elevated female infant mortality or of high numbers of stillbirths, but that reported sex ratios are unusually high. The proportion of stillbirths grows for later pregnancies, but not enough to account for high sex ratios. Retrospective fertility data regarding recall over a recent interval are vexed less by a misunderstanding of what a live birth is than by a 'misunderstanding' of what a (reportable) pregnancy is."
For the article by Coale and Banister, published in 1994, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: H. L. Smith, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10186 van der Veen, Willem J. Regional mortality differentials in Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands. Groningen Demographic Reports, No. 18, 1994. 174 pp. University of Groningen, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, Population Research Centre: Groningen, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This study examines regional mortality trends and differentials in the 1980s in Belgium, the former Federal Republic of Germany and The Netherlands. Mortality statistics by age, sex, year and underlying cause of death are analysed at the level of the Belgian and Dutch provinces and the Regierungsbezirke in the German states of Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen and Rheinland-Pfalz. Techniques are used to decompose differentials and changes in regional life expectancy at birth into age-specific and cause-specific contributions."
Correspondence: University of Groningen, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, Population Research Centre, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10187 Westerling, Ragnar. Indicators of "avoidable" mortality in health administrative areas in Sweden 1974-1985. Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine, Vol. 21, No. 3, 1993. 176-87 pp. Oslo, Norway. In Eng.
This is an analysis of variations in avoidable mortality by health administrative areas in Sweden for the period 1974-1985. "For most indicators the variation was significant. The level of systematic (nonrandom) variance differed between the sexes for certain conditions." The implications for health policy are considered.
Correspondence: R. Westerling, Uppsala University, Department of Social Medicine, 75185 Uppsala, Sweden. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

61:10188 Williams, Rory. Medical, economic and population factors in areas of high mortality: the case of Glasgow. Sociology of Health and Illness, Vol. 16, No. 2, Mar 1994. 143-81 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
Factors affecting mortality in Glasgow, Scotland, are analyzed from the nineteenth century to the present. The author notes that mortality in the city, which was converging with mortality in England up to the 1820s, surged from 1831 to 1871, and has remained high since then. The author suggests that this phenomenon is strongly associated with poverty, overcrowding, and probably inadequate diet. It is also closely associated with migration from the Highlands of Scotland and from Ireland.
Correspondence: R. Williams, MRC Medical Sociology Unit, 6 Lilybank Gardens, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

E.7. Mortality by Cause

Studies of demographic relevance on causes of death. Studies of morbidity and of public health measures are included only if they relate specifically to mortality. Also included are maternal mortality and comparisons of causes.

61:10189 Bindels, Patrick J. E.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Mulder-Folkerts, Dieke K. F.; Coutinho, Roel A.; van den Hoek, Anneke A. R. Impact of AIDS on premature mortality in Amsterdam, 1982-1992. AIDS, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1994. 233-7 pp. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
The authors "combined aggregated data from the Netherlands Central Bureau of Statistics with data from the municipal death and population registry and data from the Amsterdam AIDS surveillance system to calculate age standardized mortality rates for men aged 15-64 years and 25-54 years and working years of potential life lost before 65 years...." The results indicate that "AIDS was the leading cause of death for men aged 25-54 years in Amsterdam from 1990 onwards, and the third leading cause of death for men aged 15-64 years in 1991. In this larger age group AIDS will probably become the leading cause of death in the coming years."
Correspondence: P. J. E. Bindels, Department of Public Health and Environment, Municipal Health Service, Nieuwe Achtergracht 100, 1018 WT Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10190 Choiniere, Robert. Principal causes of death and hospitalization in the region of Montreal. [Les principales causes de deces et d'hospitalisation dans la region de Montreal.] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 22, No. 1, Spring 1993. 179-92 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The aim of this article is to draw a portrait of the principal causes of death and hospitalization on the Island of Montreal. Age and sex specific rates are compared to those for all of Quebec. Furthermore, the evolution of mortality rates by cause of death is traced from 1976 to 1990. AIDS, which was unheard of before 1983, now represents the number one ranking cause of death among men aged 25 to 44 years. For most of the causes considered here, a decline in mortality has been observed between 1976 and 1990. However, mortality rates for pulmonary diseases have increased significantly for both sexes, as have rates for lung cancer among women."
Correspondence: R. Choiniere, Hopital General de Montreal, Unite de Sante Publique, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10191 Criqui, M. H.; Ringel, Brenda L. Does diet or alcohol explain the French paradox? Lancet, Vol. 344, No. 8939-8940, Dec 24-31, 1994. 1,719-23 pp. New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
The causes of the strikingly low rate of mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD) in France compared with other developed countries is explored using data from 21 developed countries for selected years from 1965 to 1988, with the focus on differences in alcohol consumption and diet. "We conclude that ethanol, particularly wine ethanol, is inversely related to CHD but not to longevity in populations. Although light to moderate alcohol consumption may improve longevity, alcohol abuse--which sharply reduces longevity--is correlated with average alcohol consumption in populations. Thus, while the risk/benefit ratio varies for individuals, the use of alcohol for cardioprotective purposes should not be encouraged as a public health measure."
Correspondence: M. H. Criqui, University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, La Jolla, CA 92093-0607. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

61:10192 De Groof, D.; Seyni Bagnou, A.; Sekou, H. Estimating maternal mortality in a rural area of Niger: application of the indirect sisterhood method. [Estimation de la mortalite maternelle en zone rurale au Niger: utilisation de la methode indirecte des soeurs.] Annales de la Societe Belge de Medecine Tropicale/Annales van de Belgische Vereniging voor Tropische Geneeskunde, Vol. 73, No. 4, 1993. 279-85 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Dut.
The authors present results from use of the sisterhood method for the indirect estimation of maternal mortality in Niger. Data for over 3,000 women above the age of 15 were collected in 1992 in a rural area. The results indicate a maternal mortality rate of 1,050 per 100,000 live births, and that this method presents a simple and effective way of collecting such data in difficult conditions.
Correspondence: D. De Groof, Cooperation Medicale Nigero-Belge, Projet AMISAP, B.P. 457, Niamey, Niger. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

61:10193 Gregson, Simon; Garnett, Geoff P.; Anderson, Roy M. Is HIV-1 likely to become a leading cause of adult mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa? Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, Vol. 7, No. 8, 1994. 839-52 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Possible future trends of the HIV-1 epidemic in Sub-Saharan Africa are explored, with emphasis on the likely consequences for mortality. "Two contrasting scenarios are studied, one which turns population growth rates negative and another which does not. In both cases, HIV-1-related disease accounts for over 75% of annual deaths among men and women aged 15-60 years by year 25 of the epidemic. Relatively little change in mortality is seen in the early years of the simulated epidemics. However, by year 15, expectation of life at age 15 has fallen from 50 to below 30 years. The fragmentary evidence now available from empirical studies supports the impression that HIV-1 is rapidly emerging as a leading cause of adult deaths in areas of sub-Saharan Africa."
Correspondence: S. Gregson, University of Oxford, Department of Zoology, Infectious Disease Epidemiology Unit, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10194 Koskinen, Seppo. Origins of regional differences in mortality from ischaemic heart disease in Finland. NAWH Research Report, No. 41, ISBN 951-47-9600-4. 1994. vii, 204 pp. National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health [NAWH]: Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"This book evaluates the role of various suspected causal factors in the origin of the Finnish geographic mortality differences in heart disease. The book includes a thorough review of earlier literature and a detailed analysis of a large mortality data set, covering all deaths among the middle-aged in Finland during the fifteen-year period 1971-1985. The study shows that the demographic and socioeconomic composition of the regional populations does not explain the high eastern mortality. Regional mortality differences appear to be determined mainly by region of birth, rather than region of residence. The results suggest that the high heart disease mortality of women and men born in the east, compared to those born in the west, may mainly ensue either from genetic characteristics or from childhood circumstances."
Correspondence: National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health, P.O. Box 220, 00531 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10195 Kvale, Gunnar; Heuch, Ivar; Nilssen, Steinar. Parity in relation to mortality and cancer incidence: a prospective study of Norwegian women. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 23, No. 4, Aug 1994. 691-9 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors examine the relationship between childbearing and trends in total and cause-specific mortality and cancer incidence, using data from a 20-year follow-up study of 63,090 Norwegian women. "The study supports evidence of an increased risk of ischaemic heart disease in multiparous women, which had been observed previously in three smaller prospective studies. It confirms earlier observations of low risks of cancer of the breast, corpus uteri and ovaries in women with high parity."
Correspondence: G. Kvale, University of Bergen, Department of Epidemiology, 5020 Bergen, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10196 La Vecchia, Carlo; Levi, Fabio; Lucchini, Franca; Negri, Eva. Worldwide pattern of mortality from motor vehicle accidents, 1950-1990. Sozial- und Praventivmedizin/Medecine Sociale et Preventive/Social and Preventive Medicine, Vol. 39, No. 3, 1994. 150-78 pp. Basel, Switzerland. In Eng.
"Trends in age-specific and age-standardized death certification rates from motor vehicle accidents over the period 1950-1990 were analyzed for 48 countries from four continents...on the basis of data produced by the World Health Organization mortality database. In most developed western and Asiatic countries, mortality rates increased until the late 1960s or early 1970s, and declined thereafter to reach values often lower than those of the early 1950s, although the number of circulating vehicles has substantially increased over the same calendar period....There were a few countries, including Kuwait, Venezuela and several other Latin American countries, Australia and New Zealand, and several southern and eastern European countries, with exceedingly high rates from motor vehicle accidents, and where comprehensive interventions on this important cause of death are therefore a public health priority."
Correspondence: F. Levi, Institut Universitaire de Medecine Social et Preventive, CHUV-Falaises 1, 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10197 Lang, David M.; Polansky, Marcia. Patterns of asthma mortality in Philadelphia from 1969 to 1991. New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 331, No. 23, Dec 8, 1994. 1,542-6 pp. Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
Patterns in rates of death from asthma in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, are analyzed for the period 1969-1991 to determine the impact of changes in concentrations of major air pollutants on asthma mortality. The authors conclude that "the rates of death from asthma have increased in Philadelphia, whereas concentrations of major air pollutants have declined. The rates are highest in census tracts with the highest percentages of poor people and minority residents, particularly blacks."
Correspondence: D. M. Lang, Hahnemann University, Division of Allergy and Immunology, Mail Stop 107, Broad and Vine Streets, Philadelphia, PA 19102-1192. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

61:10198 Mbizvo, Michael T.; Fawcus, Susan; Lindmark, Gunilla; Nystrom, Lennarth. Operational factors of maternal mortality in Zimbabwe. Health Policy and Planning, Vol. 8, No. 4, Dec 1993. 369-78 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
This study concentrates on the impact of prevailing health care systems and community factors on the incidence of maternal mortality in Zimbabwe. "Whereas rural-urban variations in maternal mortality were observed, inter-rural district variations were also apparent, especially with poor medical resources, poor communication and delayed interventions. Risk factors for maternal mortality were present at each of the various levels of care....Health education, community sensitization and teaching on risk signal awareness as well as health care delivery system strengthening are recommended for reducing the high maternal mortality rates."
Correspondence: M. T. Mbizvo, University of Zimbabwe Medical School, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, P.O. Box A178, Avondale, Harare, Zimbabwe. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

61:10199 McCaa, Robert. Spanish and Nahuatl views on smallpox and demographic catastrophe in Mexico. Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Vol. 25, No. 3, Winter 1995. 397-431 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The author reexamines contemporary Spanish and Native American sources for evidence concerning the demographic impact of smallpox, the first Old World epidemic, which was introduced into Mexico in 1520. He concludes that the impact of the disease was indeed significant, and in a critique of a recent study by Francis J. Brooks, concludes that almost one half of the native population may have died in the epidemic.
For the study by Brooks, published in 1993, see 59:30085.
Correspondence: R. McCaa, University of Minnesota, Department of History, 267 19th Avenue South, Minneapolis, MN 55455. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10200 Menotti, A.; Keys, A.; Kromhout, D.; Blackburn, H.; Aravanis, C.; Bloemberg, B.; Buzina, R.; Dontas, A.; Fidanza, F.; Giampaoli, S. Inter-cohort differences in coronary heart disease mortality in the 25-year follow-up of the Seven Countries Study. European Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 9, No. 5, Sep 1993. 527-36 pp. Stuttgart, Germany. In Eng.
This study, which has nine additional authors, presents results from a long-term study on coronary heart disease mortality for 12,763 males aged 40-59 from seven developed countries. "Large differences in age-adjusted coronary heart disease (CHD) death rates were found, with extremes of 45 per 1,000 in 25 years in Tanushimaru, Japan, to 288 per 1,000 in 25 years in East Finland. In general, higher rates were found in the U.S. and Northern European cohorts as compared to the Southern European and Japanese cohorts. However, during the last 10 years of follow-up large increases of CHD death rates were found in some Yugoslavian areas. Out of 5 measured entry characteristics treated as age-adjusted levels (serum cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, cigarette smoking, body mass index and physical activity at work), only serum cholesterol was significant in explaining cohort differences in CHD death rates....It can be concluded that this study suggests that mean serum cholesterol is the major risk factor in explaining cross-cultural differences in CHD."
Correspondence: A. Menotti, Laboratorio di Epidemiologia e Biostatistica, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

61:10201 Nam, Charles B.; Hummer, Robert A.; Rogers, Richard G. Underlying and multiple causes of death related to smoking. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 13, No. 3, Sep 1994. 305-25 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Although smoking has been linked to various causes of death, there is no systematic account of the underlying and multiple cause-of-death distributions associated with various smoking statuses. We analyze such patterns by age and gender for the U.S.A. in 1986. Our study is based on a one-percent random sample of decedents 25 and over in the U.S.A. for whom survey data from informants were linked to death certificate data. Smoking is related to several underlying causes of death, the most common being circulatory diseases....Amount of smoking is tied to variations in cause-of-death patterns. Differences by age and gender are not substantial, although...cancers appear frequently for both smokers and non-smokers among women."
Correspondence: C. B. Nam, Florida State University, Center for the Study of Population, 659-C Bellamy Building, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4063. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10202 Raviglione, Mario C.; Snider, Dixie E.; Kochi, Arata. Global epidemiology of tuberculosis: morbidity and mortality of a worldwide epidemic. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 273, No. 3, Jan 18, 1995. 220-6 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"This article describes the epidemiology of tuberculosis in the world....Data on prevalence of infection, case notifications, and mortality were obtained from reports produced by ministries of health, World Health Organization (WHO) questionnaires in 1992 and 1993, reports of national tuberculosis and respiratory disease associations, and the published literature." The authors note that cases of reported tuberculosis increased in most regions of the world, excluding the Americas and Europe, over the period 1984-1991, and that "in 1990, there were an estimated 7.5 million cases of tuberculosis and 2.5 million deaths worldwide." The likelihood is that tuberculosis will continue to grow, partly because of HIV infections and increased drug resistance, and that "if worldwide control of tuberculosis does not improve, 90 million new cases and 30 million deaths are expected in the decade 1990 through 1999."
Correspondence: M. C. Raviglione, World Health Organization, Tuberculosis Programme, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

61:10203 Reissigova, J.; Luostarinen, T.; Hakulinen, T.; Kubik, A. Statistical modelling and prediction of lung cancer mortality in the Czech and Slovak Republics, 1960-1999. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 23, No. 4, Aug 1994. 665-72 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The current study examines the mortality pattern of lung cancer and establishes to what extent different factors (republic, age, year of birth and period) contributed to the trends and differentials in lung cancer mortality. Furthermore, the study predicts lung cancer mortality for 1990-1999....Mortality from lung cancer increased substantially among the Czech and Slovak populations from 1960 to 1989. The initial level was much lower in Slovakia than in the Czech Republic. The upward trend was more marked in the Slovak Republic so that Slovak male mortality was close to that of Czechs in the late 1980s."
Correspondence: J. Reissigova, Institute of Chest Diseases, Budinova 67, 18071 Prague 8, Bulovka, Czech Republic. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10204 Schrijvers, Carola T. M.; Mackenbach, Johan P. Cancer patient survival by socioeconomic status in the Netherlands: a review for six common cancer sites. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 48, No. 5, Oct 1994. 441-6 pp. London, England. In Eng.
This is a review of the literature on socioeconomic differences in cancer patient survival, primarily concerning studies undertaken in developed countries. The authors conclude that "socioeconomic differences in cancer survival are generally small and...socioeconomic differences in cancer mortality [are] probably small too."
Correspondence: C. T. M. Schrijvers, Erasmus University Medical School, Department of Public Health, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10205 Shahidullah, M. The sisterhood method of estimating maternal mortality: a study from Matlab, Bangladesh. Working Papers in Demography, No. 49, 1994. 25 pp. Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This study reports the results of a test of validation of the sisterhood method using data from Matlab, Bangladesh....Results suggest that in places similar to Matlab the sisterhood method will produce negative bias in estimates of maternal mortality and that the problem giving rise to most of this negative bias will be not with the method but with the sociocultural background of respondents, which encourages them to hide information on pregnancy-related deaths to never-married women."
Correspondence: Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10206 Soman, Krishna. Trends in maternal mortality. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 29, No. 44, Oct 29, 1994. 2,859-60 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
The author reviews recent trends in maternal mortality in India. It is concluded that "the failure of the maternal and health care programme is clearly evident in the largely unchanged pattern of maternal deaths in rural India over the years where avoidable causes continue to account for a large proportion of such deaths."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

61:10207 Terling, Toni; Frisbie, W. Parker; Sowards, Kathryn A.; Bradshaw, Benjamin S. Ethnic differentials in mortality from breast cancer. Texas Population Research Center Paper, No. 94-95-02, 1994-1995. 13, [3] pp. University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center: Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"This paper documents the differences in breast cancer mortality between Mexican origin and Anglo women [in Bexar County, Texas] over time. Of considerable interest is the finding that mortality from breast cancer is lower among Mexican origin women....Following documentation of the variation along ethnic and temporal dimensions, we speculate on some of the reasons for the differences observed and the implications for the future relative life expectancy of Mexican Americans and Anglos."
Correspondence: University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center, 1800 Main Building, Austin, TX 78712. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10208 Touloumi, G.; Pocock, S. J.; Katsouyanni, K.; Trichopoulos, D. Short-term effects of air pollution on daily mortality in Athens: a time-series analysis. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 23, No. 5, Oct 1994. 957-67 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The association of air pollution with daily all-cause mortality in Athens [Greece] for the years 1984-1988 was investigated using daily values of [sulphur dioxide] smoke and [carbon monoxide]. Autoregressive models with log-transformed daily mortality as the dependent variable, were used to adjust for temperature and relative humidity...,year, season and day of week, as well as for serial correlations in mortality." The results suggest that current air pollution levels in Athens may be responsible for a substantial number of premature deaths.
Correspondence: G. Touloumi, University of Athens Medical School, Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, 75 Mikras Asias Street, 11527 Athens, Greece. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10209 United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] (Atlanta, Georgia). Homicides among 15-19-year-old males--United States, 1963-1991. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 43, No. 40, Oct 14, 1994. 725-7 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
"In 1991, nearly half...of the 26,513 homicide victims in the United States were males aged 15-34 years. In addition, among males in this age group, homicide accounted for 18% of all deaths and was the second leading cause of death....From 1985 to 1991, the annual crude homicide rate for the United States increased 25% (from 8.4 to 10.5 per 100,000 persons). The homicide rate for persons aged 15-34 years increased 50% during this period (from 13.4 to 20.1 per 100,000), accounting for most of the overall increase."
Correspondence: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Mailstop C-08, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10210 Walraven, G. E. L.; Mkanje, R. J. B.; van Roosmalen, J.; van Dongen, P. W. J.; Dolmans, W. M. V. Assessment of maternal mortality in Tanzania. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Vol. 101, No. 5, May 1994. 414-7 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
An analysis of maternal mortality in northwestern Tanzania is presented using data obtained through three alternative methods. "Maternal mortality ratios derived from the prospective community-based survey, the sisterhood method survey and hospital data analysis were 241, 297, and 845 per 100,000 live births, respectively. [The authors conclude that] hospital data tend to overestimate maternal mortality in these communities. The sisterhood method is easier and more convenient than a prospective community-based study."
Correspondence: G. E. L. Walraven, Nijmegen University, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, Netherlands. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

61:10211 Wirawan, Dewa N.; Linnan, Michael. The Bali Indirect Maternal Mortality Study. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 25, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1994. 304-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The Bali Indirect Maternal Mortality Study (BIMMS) was conducted in Bali Province, Indonesia in 1991. The objective of the study was to evaluate the indirect sisterhood method for estimating maternal mortality, using a prospective (direct) community-based survey undertaken from 1980 to 1982 among women of reproductive age (Reproductive Age Mortality Survey, or RAMOS) as a comparison. The BIMMS maternal mortality ratio was 331 per 100,000 live births adjusted for 1982. This ratio is similar to the RAMOS one prior to its adjustment, of 359 per 100,000 live births. The sisterhood method was faster, cheaper, and appears to be as accurate as direct methods."
Correspondence: D. N. Wirawan, Udayana University, Department of Public Health, Jalan P. B. Sudirman, Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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