Volume 61 - Number 1 - Spring 1995

C. Spatial Distribution

Studies with an emphasis on locational patterns and their interpretation.

C.1. General Spatial Distribution

Studies of rural and urban populations considered together. Studies that are concerned primarily with the movement of population are classified under H. Migration . Studies concerned with the definition of urban or rural areas and with boundary changes are classified here or in O.1. Population Statistics, General Aspects .

61:10041 Bean, Frank D.; Myers, George C.; Angel, Jacqueline L.; Galle, Omer R. Geographic concentration, migration, and population redistribution among the elderly. In: Demography of aging, edited by Linda G. Martin and Samuel H. Preston. 1994. 319-55 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The purpose of this review is to examine the geographic distribution of the elderly population in the United States and the factors that contribute to its change over time (especially migration). The first section of the chapter summarizes patterns of elderly geographic concentration in the country....The second section focuses on patterns of elderly and nonelderly population redistribution....The third section examines the results of research about migration....A fourth section introduces international comparisons....The fifth section specifies some of the major remaining gaps in knowledge about elderly migration and redistribution...."
Correspondence: F. D. Bean, University of Texas, Department of Sociology, Population Research Center, 1800 Main Building, Austin, TX 78712. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10042 Champion, A. G.; Clark, W. A. V. Migration and population redistribution I. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 26, No. 10, Oct 1994. 1,497-577 pp. London, England. In Eng.
This special section is the first of two which will present eight papers on internal migration and spatial distribution. The papers were presented at a conference held in Los Angeles, California, in August 1992. The geographical focus is on the United Kingdom, the United States, and Germany.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: A. G. Champion, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Department of Geography, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, England. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

61:10043 Champion, A. G. Population change and migration in Britain since 1981: evidence for continuing deconcentration. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 26, No. 10, Oct 1994. 1,501-20 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Recent trends in spatial distribution and internal migration in Britain are reviewed using small-area statistics from the 1981 and 1991 censuses. "The results indicate that the differentials in the population growth rate between metropolitan and nonmetropolitan Britain narrowed somewhat between the 1970s and the 1980s, but the negative relationship between urban status and population change remained very clear. Moreover, contrary to the experience of the U.S.A. and a number of European countries, in the mid-1980s Britain saw a resurgence of nonmetropolitan growth which had widespread impact across the country."
Correspondence: A. G. Champion, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Department of Geography, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, England. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

61:10044 Champion, Tony; Dorling, Daniel. Population change for Britain's functional regions, 1951-91. Population Trends, No. 77, Autumn 1994. 14-23 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This article highlights results derived from an aggregation of 1991 [U.K.] Census data to the CURDS [Centre for Urban and Regional Development Studies at the University of Newcastle upon Tyne] functional regions framework. The principal features of population distribution in 1991 are presented, and changes since 1981 are analysed and compared with earlier trends. The metropolitan/freestanding, urban/rural, and core/ring dimensions of the functional regions framework continue to provide powerful descriptions of the geographical patterns of population change in Britain, alongside the widening North-South divide."
Correspondence: T. Champion, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Housing and Society Research Group, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10045 Champion, Tony. Population distribution and change since 1981. Geography Review, Vol. 7, No. 1, Sep 1993. 10-5 pp. Deddington, England. In Eng.
"In this article the provisional 1991 estimates [from the 1991 U.K. census] are used to highlight the unevenness of population distribution around the country. They are then compared with the 1981 data in order to identify the principal changes of the past decade."
Correspondence: T. Champion, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Department of Geography, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10046 Chang, Kuo-Chen. A neural network approach to geographical analysis of population pattern change. Pub. Order No. DA9420091. 1994. 158 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
In this study, prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Minnesota, the author attempts "to examine, develop, and apply neural network...to define the interactions and relationships that underlie population pattern changes." The focus is on geographical analysis of the spatial distribution of population.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 55(3).

61:10047 Edwards, John N.; Fuller, Theodore D.; Sermsri, Santhat; Vorakitphokatorn, Sairudee. Why people feel crowded: an examination of objective and subjective crowding. Population and Environment, Vol. 16, No. 2, Nov 1994. 149-73 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Prior studies have found only a modest relationship between objective and subjective crowding, defying logic and commonsensical notions of why people feel crowded. Using data from a representative sample of Bangkok, Thailand, where the level of household crowding is four times that in western societies, we explore several possibilities of why this is the case....The findings indicate that the objective-subjective crowding relationship is nonlinear and that there is a ceiling effect muting the impact of increased objective crowding. The analyses further suggest that the strength of the relationship is mitigated somewhat, with part of the feeling of being crowded accounted for by household circumstances, such as the degree of control an individual has over the use of household space."
Correspondence: J. N. Edwards, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Department of Sociology, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0137. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10048 Kontuly, T.; Schon, K. P. Changing western German internal migration systems during the second half of the 1980s. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 26, No. 10, Oct 1994. 1,521-43 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This study has two purposes. First, we will analyze in detail the extent to which regional demographic changes during the second half of the 1980s represent a return to concentration in western Germany....The second purpose of this paper will be to measure regional demographic impacts in western Germany as the result of the large East to West movement of population that occurred before formal unification...." The results indicate that "the slow downward trend toward greater spatial deconcentration in West Germany during the time period 1970 to 1984 shifted back toward concentration from 1985 and through 1988." This involved both labor market changes affecting primarily the population aged 25-49, and greater concentrations of population in densely populated regions such as the Ruhr-Rhine and Saarland.
Correspondence: T. Kontuly, University of Utah, Department of Geography, 270 Orson Spencer Hall, Salt Lake City, UT 84112. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

61:10049 Schuler, Martin; Joye, Dominique. Federal population census 1990. The geographical levels of Switzerland. [Eidgenossische Volkszahlung 1990. Die Raumgliederungen der Schweiz/Recensement federal de la population 1990. Les niveaux geographiques de la Suisse.] Statistik der Schweiz, Reihe 0: Bereichsubergreifende Themen/Statistique de la Suisse, Serie 0: Themes Generaux, ISBN 3-303-00093-X. 1994. 312, [5] pp. Bundesamt fur Statistik: Bern, Switzerland. In Fre; Ger.
This report describes Switzerland's spatial units, regions, and divisions and how they are defined for purposes of the 1990 census. It contains a description of each spatial subdivision, a review of its history and current responsibilities, a map of its location, and a list of the communes included.
Correspondence: Bundesamt fur Statistik, Hallwylstrasse 15, 3003 Bern, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

C.2. Urban Spatial Distribution

Studies of urban populations, including those of metropolitan areas and suburban and semi-urban zones. Also includes studies on urbanization insofar as they relate to the effects of migration on urban areas or the socioeconomic and demographic structure of urban populations. Studies on the actual process of rural-urban migration are coded under H.6. Rural-Urban Migration .

61:10050 Burdack, Joachim. Recent trends of population development in the French urban system. [Jungere Tendenzen de Bevolkerungsentwicklung im Stadtesystem Frankreichs.] Erdkunde, Vol. 47, No. 1, 1993. 52-60 pp. Bonn, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
"The paper analyses the population development of French urban agglomerations of more than 50,000 inhabitants over the last three decades (1962-90). Trends of net migration, natural increase and total population change are examined with respect to different functional and structural city types. The results show changes of long established growth patterns: an overall decrease of urban growth rates in the seventies and the resurgence of the growth of the largest metropolitan areas in the eighties."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:10051 Champion, A. G. Counterurbanisation and population growth within the urban system. Investigaciones Geograficas Special Issue, 1992. 39-62 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Eng.
"The paper focuses on the results of population monitoring and ideas about population redistribution. It begins with a description of the 'counterurbanisation phenomenon' as conceptualised in the literature, and then outlines the progress of urban deconcentration as indicated by the latest evidence. The paper continues with a discussion of the various ideas which have been put forward to make sense of counterurbanisation and ends by stressing the potential importance of detailed research on the Mexican situation. At each stage the paper tries to draw out points which could repay investigation in the context of Mexico's intermediate cities strategy."
Correspondence: A. G. Champion, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Department of Geography, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10052 Constantino-David, Karina; Valte, Maricris R. Poverty, population growth and the impact of urbanization in the Philippines. International Social Science Journal, Vol. 46, No. 3, Sep 1994. 413-21 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This article examines the consequences of urban growth within the context of an underdeveloped export-oriented economy and rapidly increasing population in the Philippines. In particular, it elaborates on the continued deterioration of living standards and the dismal lack of basic services in urban areas, which contribute to further impoverishment of the majority of urban residents....The article also discusses the effects of urban poverty on women."
Correspondence: K. Constantino-David, Harnessing Self-Reliant Initiatives and Knowledge, 2A Malusog COR, Matiwasay, 1101 U.P. Village, Quezon City, Philippines. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:10053 Diwakar, Ashok; Qureshi, M. H. Demographic processes of urbanisation in Delhi. Population Geography, Vol. 14, No. 1-2, Jun-Dec 1992. 27-36 pp. Chandigarh, India. In Eng.
"Metropolitanisation has been observed by experts as one of the main characteristics of Indian urbanisation. Rural to urban migration has been a major player in urban growth of metropolitan cities, particularly Delhi. Not only Delhi but its hinterland [are] urbanising fast as compared to the hinterlands of other major cities of India. There are several processes of urbanization viz. historical, physical, demographic and economic. In this paper the role of demographic processes in urban expansion of Delhi [is examined]."
Correspondence: A. Diwakar, Dronacharya Government College, Gurgaon, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10054 Fisher, James H. Hazardous waste in urban growth paths: urban planning conflicts. In: Studies in applied demography, edited by K. Vaninadha Rao and Jerry W. Wicks. 1994. 375-84 pp. Bowling Green State University, Department of Sociology, Population and Society Research Center: Bowling Green, Ohio. In Eng.
"A team of University of Cincinnati faculty...is investigating physical, institutional and legal aspects of urban growth into areas which have pollution producing land uses....This paper is an assessment of the strategies identified by the team for doing this research and a discussion of the models employed for projecting urban growth and environmental risks. The research is ultimately intended to produce a package of microcomputer software and institutional guidelines useful to urban planners and public administrators concerned with managing urban and industrial growth conflicts."
Correspondence: J. H. Fisher, Wright State University, Department of Community Medicine/SAIP, 054 Biological Science Building, Dayton, OH 45435. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10055 Hammel, E. A.; Mason, Carl. My brother's keeper: modelling kinship links in early urbanization. In: Old and new methods in historical demography, edited by David S. Reher and Roger Schofield. 1993. 318-42 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors use techniques of computer microsimulation to examine some implications of a hypothesis originally proposed by Alan Sharlin, which suggested that a major reason for slow urban growth in early European cities was the low fertility of recent migrants to the city because of their low nuptiality rates. The focus is on modeling kinship of migrants through microsimulation.
Correspondence: E. A. Hammel, University of California, Department of Demography, 2232 Piedmont Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10056 Ito, Shigeru. Consideration on the vital statistics of cities in the prewar period. Keizai Kenkyu/Economic Review, Vol. 44, No. 4, Oct 1993. 298-99 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
This study on vital statistics available for cities in Japan covers the period 1906-1932.
Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

61:10057 Ko, Sung Ho. Urban growth in Korea, 1970-1980: an application of the human ecological perspective. Korea Journal of Population and Development, Vol. 23, No. 1, Jul 1994. 1-18 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
"This study aims to understand the conditions under which [South] Korean cities grew. Building upon ecological theories of population redistribution...,variables that are expected to influence urban growth in Korea are derived. Using a series of Population Censuses of Korea, 1970 and 1980, multiple regression analyses are conducted. The analysis shows that ecological theories are fairly effective in explaining urban growth in Korea. To be specific, ecological variables accounted for about two-thirds of the urban growth rate and between 37 percent and 76 percent of net migration rates, depending on age groups. Indigenous labor surplus, population potential, and sustenance differentiation were most influential over the urban growth rate. However, determinants of net migration rates by age are more complex....This study also shows that the effect of population size substantially decreased in the 1970s...."
Correspondence: S. H. Ko, Sung Kyun Kwan University, 53, 3-ga, Myungryun-dong, Chongro-ku, Seoul 110-745, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10058 Lin, George C.-S. Changing theoretical perspectives on urbanisation in Asian developing countries. Third World Planning Review, Vol. 16, No. 1, Feb 1994. 1-23 pp. Liverpool, England. In Eng.
This study examines some of the characteristics of urbanization in Asia's developing countries. "Five major theoretical issues are assessed in this paper: 1) the role of cities in regional development; 2) the dualistic nature of employment in Asian cities; 3) trans-national capital and urbanisation; 4) socialism and urbanisation; and 5) extended metropolitan regions in Asia."
Correspondence: G. C.-S. Lin, University of British Columbia, Department of Geography, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z2, Canada. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

61:10059 Ma, Laurence J. C.; Fan, Ming. Urbanisation from below: the growth of towns in Jiangsu, China. Urban Studies, Vol. 31, No. 10, Dec 1994. 1,625-45 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"Urbanisation in China during the Maoist period was largely a consequence of centralised planning and Soviet-type industrialisation dominated by the growth of cities. The towns lost their commercial function and stagnated. Since the reforms of 1978, the growth of towns has emerged as a new force of Chinese urbanisation. This case study of the growth of towns in Jiangsu province shows that enterprises in the towns have attracted a large number of daily commuters and some migrants, resulting in a more diversified pattern of population composition in the towns. The population of the towns is growing at a faster rate than the city population. Manufacturing dominates the employment structure of the designated towns, including county capitals, as well as the rural market towns. The central government of China has not played any active role in the growth of towns."
Correspondence: L. J. C. Ma, University of Akron, Department of Geography and Planning, Akron, OH 44325. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

61:10060 Mukherji, Shekhar. Functional classification of Indian towns by factor-cluster method (1981 and 1991). IIPS Research Report Series, No. 5, 1993-1994. 127 pp. International Institute for Population Sciences: Bombay, India. In Eng.
"This research monograph [attempts] to unfold the underlying basic dimensions of the economic structure of India's towns and cities, both for 1981 and 1991 time-points, and has provided and tested a new and a novel methodology, based on matrix algebra-cum-multivariate techniques of Factor analysis-cum-Euclidean cluster analysis-cum-Distance analysis-cum-Hierarchical cluster analysis, for appropriately classifying various towns and cities into urban functional types and hierarchies, both for 1981 and 1991."
Correspondence: International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Bombay 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:10061 Rowland, Richard H. Declining towns in the former USSR. Post-Soviet Geography, Vol. 35, No. 6, Jun 1994. 352-65 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"The paper comprises an update of an earlier study...focused on towns with declining population during the 1959-1970 period. Based on recently published data on individual urban centers with 15,000 or more inhabitants reported in the 1979 and 1989 censuses, it identifies centers where population declined from 1970 to 1989. The study also assesses selected geographical aspects, economic functions, and size characteristics of such urban centers. Comparisons with data from the 1959-1970 period are made to arrive at a 30-year perspective."
For the previous study, published in 1980, see 46:3122.
Correspondence: R. H. Rowland, California State University, Department of Geography, 5500 University Parkway, San Bernardino, CA 92407-2397. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:10062 Rukmani, R. Urbanisation and socio-economic change in Tamil Nadu, 1901-91. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 29, No. 51-52, Dec 17-24, 1994. 3,263-72 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"This article examines the pattern of urbanisation in Tamil Nadu during 1901-91 and attempts to identify the factors underlying the observed pattern of urbanisation. It identifies the different stages of urbanisation, the distinctive characteristics of each phase and the socio-economic factors underlying." Data are primarily from the Indian census.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

C.3. Rural Spatial Distribution

Studies of agricultural and farming populations.

No citations in this issue.


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