Volume 60 - Number 4 - Winter 1994

K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations

Studies concerned with the relations between population factors as a whole and economic aspects. Relations affecting a single demographic variable and economic factors are coded under the variable concerned and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

K.1. Economic Development and Population

Studies concerned equally with economic and social development. Most studies on the microeconomics of the family will be found in G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population

Studies on economic and social development with a worldwide emphasis, together with those with no geographical emphasis.

60:40611 Fogel, Robert W. Economic growth, population theory, and physiology: the bearing of long-term processes on the making of economic policy. NBER Working Paper, No. 4638, Feb 1994. 39, [9] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This paper sketches a theory of the secular decline in morbidity and mortality that takes account of changes in human physiology since 1700....Thermodynamic and physiological aspects of economic growth are defined and their impact on growth rates is assessed. Implications of this theory for population forecasting, measurement of national income, demand for leisure, pension policies, and for the demand for health care are considered."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

60:40612 Lee, Ronald. Fertility, mortality, and intergenerational transfers: comparisons across steady states. In: The family, the market and the state in ageing societies, edited by John Ermisch and Naohiro Ogawa. 1994. 135-57 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The analysis of the impact of the rate of population growth on transfers between generations is extended to consider the effect of mortality change. "The first part of this chapter reviews recent research on fertility change, intergenerational transfers, and life-cycle consumption....I will then discuss the effect of mortality change on life-cycle consumption. First I set out the analytical framework, and then I make a more detailed assessment of actual patterns of mortality change and their implications for consumption. As a first and simpler case, I examine the effect of different mortality rates when fertility changes at the same time so as to keep the population growth-rate fixed at zero; in this way the pure effect of mortality on life-cycle is isolated. I then consider the full effects of mortality change when induced changes in population growth-rates occur as well." The study concerns both developed and developing countries.
Correspondence: R. Lee, University of California, Department of Demography, 2232 Piedmont Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.1.2. Developing Countries

General studies on the relations between population factors and economic development in developing countries. Includes studies on dependency as they relate to developing countries.

60:40613 Chowdhury, Kamala. Interrelationships between population, environment and poverty: population growth and distribution, agricultural productivity, and rural poverty (including environment). In: Expert group meeting on population, environment and sustainable development. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 126, 1994. 43-8 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"The close linkages between rapid population growth, environmental degradation and poverty have been made clear by the development experiences of the last few decades....The paper discusses the world experience of development efforts, particularly India's efforts in poverty alleviation since 1947, the differences between Gandhi and Nehru with regard to development strategies, and the country's overall failure to contain, let alone eradicate, poverty. It argues that sustainable development and alleviation of poverty are intricately interlinked and are not merely matters of economic planning and technological achievements."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40614 Delor-Vandueren, Annick; Degand, Jose. Burundi: population, agriculture, and the environment. [Burundi: demographie, agriculture et environnement.] Cahiers du CIDEP, No. 14, ISBN 2-87085-263-0. May 1992. 74 pp. Centre International de Formation et de Recherche en Population et Developpement [CIDEP]: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Distributed by Academia-Erasme, Grand rue 25/115, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Ger; Spa; Ara; Dut; Chi.
The authors describe how the increase in population density in Burundi has been accompanied by changing agricultural practices and improved standards of nutrition. However, they conclude that there is no causal relationship between these two trends, and that nutritional improvements are due more to improved interregional exchanges than to agricultural improvements.
Correspondence: Centre International de Formation et de Recherche en Population et Developpement, 1 Place Montesquieu, Boite 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40615 Gerard, Hubert. The Quetelet Chair 1990. Integrating population and development. [Chaire Quetelet 1990. Integrer population et developpement.] ISBN 2-87209-177-7. 1993. 823 pp. Academia-Erasme: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; L'Harmattan: Paris, France. In Fre.
These are the proceedings of the 1990 Quetelet Chair conference, held in Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium, on October 2-5, 1990. The meeting was organized jointly by the Catholic University of Louvain's Institute of Demography and the Centre de Formation et de Recherche en Population et Developpement (CIDEP) in collaboration with the Centre Francais sur la Population et le Developpement (CEPED). The subject of the conference was the integration of population into the development process. The 41 papers included are divided into five sections, which concern theoretical aspects of integration, the available methods and techniques to achieve such integration, some practical examples of integration in specific sectors, national experiences, and conclusions. The geographical focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: Academia-Erasme, 25/115 Grand Rue, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40616 Hong, Yingfang. The quality of economic growth and the effect of population. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 6, No. 1, 1994. 13-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Practice has proved that the quality of economic growth (QEC hereafter) cannot be ensured, nor can economic efficiency be improved, nor can economy grow rapidly, without adequate attention being paid to the effect of population. In particular, the study of and solution to these issues are in the immediate interest of developing countries, especially densely populated, low-income nations and impoverished areas. This article attempts to conduct an initial analysis of QEC and the double effect of population and to recommend corresponding policies."
Correspondence: Y. Hong, Jilin University, Institute of Population Science, Jilin, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40617 Jiang, Zhenghua; Mao, Zhifeng; Wang, Haitao. A theoretical analysis of optimum consumer population and its control. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 6, No. 1, 1994. 1-12 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors provide a theoretical calculation of the consumer population in the national economy. The topographic structure of material production and consumption is discussed, and the level of consumption in urban and rural areas of developing countries is examined.
Correspondence: Z. Jiang, Jiaotong University, Institute of Population Science, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40618 Lutz, Wolfgang; Beguant, Jawaharlaal; Prinz, Christopher; Toth, Ferenc L.; Wils, Anne B. Population--development--environment: understanding their interactions in Mauritius. ISBN 3-540-58301-7. 1994. xiii, 400 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
This book contains 19 studies by various authors on aspects of the relationships among population growth, socioeconomic development, and the environment in Mauritius. The focus of the book is on the process whereby Mauritius evolved from a country of rapid population growth, extreme poverty, and poor economic prospects in the early 1960s to its current situation of steady economic growth, full employment, low fertility, and concern with environmental issues. Many of the studies are based on a model developed at the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis in Laxenburg, Austria. Questions considered include the effects of population density on the environment, the causes of the fertility decline, the impact of declining fertility on economic growth, the conditions for sustainable economic growth, and policy priorities.
Correspondence: Springer-Verlag, Heidelberger Platz 3, 14197 Berlin, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40619 Mariano, Roberto S. Complementarity and conflict among population and other policies: specifying an economic-demographic model for a developing country. Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 32, No. 4, Pt. 1, Winter 1993. 523-40 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
The author describes a research project which is attempting "to construct a prototype long-term macroeconomic model for developing countries with an adequate endogenous treatment of demographic changes showing how population affects and is affected by socio-economic variables--with special attention to the latter feedback." Comments are included by Hans-Rimbert Hemmer (pp. 535-6) and Ashfaque H. Kahn (pp. 537-9).
Correspondence: R. S. Mariano, University of Pennsylvania, Department of Economics, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6297. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40620 Nkurunziza, Francois. Population and agrarian land in Burundi: the limits to adjustment. [Population et espace agraire au Burundi: les limites de l'ajustement.] Cahiers du CIDEP, No. 9, ISBN 2-87085-247-9. Feb 1991. 59 pp. Centre International de Formation et de Recherche en Population et Developpement [CIDEP]: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Distributed by ARTEL, 14 Chaussee de Gand, 1080 Brussels, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Ger; Spa; Ara; Dut; Chi.
The adjustment of traditional systems of land management in Burundi to increasing population pressures is analyzed. The author concludes that the various means of coping with increasing numbers have already been tried, and that the country is now on the road toward an agricultural dead end. Alternatives to agricultural development that might help resolve the present crisis are explored.
Correspondence: Centre International de Formation et de Recherche en Population et Developpement, 1 Place Montesquieu, Boite 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40621 Nzisabira, Jean. Accumulation of the rural population and agro-pastoral adjustments in Rwanda. [Accumulation du peuplement rural et ajustements agro-pastoraux au Rwanda.] Cahiers du CIDEP, No. 1, ISBN 2-87085-190-1. Jun 1989. 76 pp. Centre International de Formation et de Recherche en Population et Developpement [CIDEP]: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Distributed by ARTEL, 14 Chaussee de Gand, 1080 Brussels, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Ger; Spa; Ara; Dut; Chi.
This study uses data from official sources to examine the impact of population growth and increasing population pressure on available resources in Rwanda, on the spatial distribution of the rural population, and on methods of livestock breeding. These changes include abandoning cattle raising to grow food crops, suppressing fallow systems, and engaging in rural-urban migration.
Correspondence: Centre International de Formation et de Recherche en Population et Developpement, 1 Place Montesquieu, Boite 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40622 Repetto, Robert. The "second India" revisited: population, poverty, and environmental stress over two decades. ISBN 0-915825-96-1. LC 94-61054. Aug 1994. ix, 95 pp. World Resources Institute: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This book reports the results of a collaborative effort to compare the forecasts of the Second India Study, undertaken in the 1960s, to examine how India would cope with demands for more food, land, water, jobs, schooling, and energy as its population doubled by the year 2000, with actual developments. The focus is on the relationships among demographic change, economic growth, environmental stress, and government policy. "The evidence that has emerged in India over the 20 years since the Second India Study was carried out suggests that rapid demographic transition, poverty alleviation, and development can occur simultaneously even in poor and populous countries. But unsustainable spirals of population growth, environmental degradation, and impoverishment are also possible. India's population growth has made it harder to reduce underemployment and poverty, raise educational levels and environmental quality, or provide adequate infrastructure and basic services, and will continue to do so until the population stabilizes in the next century....The key determinants of success lie in the social framework, including the system of social norms, economic arrangements, policies, and institutions of governance."
Correspondence: World Resources Institute, 1709 New York Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20006. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40623 Sadik, Nafis. Population and development: investment in the future. In: Development issues: presentations to the 48th meeting of the Development Committee. May 1994. 125-40 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The first part of this paper looks at economic linkages between population and development, leaving aside other powerful rationales for supporting population programmes such as the health benefits accruing from reduced fertility and the equity question of providing all groups in society with equal chances to exercise the right to regulate their own reproductive behaviour. The second part of the paper describes the policy process that is occurring in the international arena leading up to the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo [in September 1994] and suggests what the national and global responses should be."
Correspondence: N. Sadik, United Nations Population Fund, 220 East 42nd Street, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40624 Schultz, T. Paul. Human capital and economic development. Economic Growth Center Discussion Paper, No. 711, May 1994. 31 pp. Yale University, Economic Growth Center: New Haven, Connecticut. In Eng.
The relative impact of inputs in different aspects of human capital improvement on total factor productivity is examined using recent household survey data for the Ivory Coast and Ghana. "Overall returns...are similar within each country, but education and migration returns are higher in the more rapidly growing Cote d'Ivoire, and nutrition and health returns are higher in the less well-nourished Ghanaian population."
Correspondence: Yale University, Economic Growth Center, P.O. Box 208269, 27 Hillhouse Avenue, New Haven, CT 06520-8269. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40625 Sussangkarn, Chalongphob. Dynamic balance for social changes and environmentally sound and sustainable development. In: Expert group meeting on population, environment and sustainable development. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 126, 1994. 49-53 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"Sustainable development may be characterized by a dynamic social-political-economic-environmental balance....Some past and current imbalances in Thailand are discussed with the main emphasis on the environment....Some points that would help attain better environmental balance in the course of an oscillating development path are briefly indicated."
Correspondence: C. Sussangkarn, Thailand Development Research Institute, National Resources and Environment Programme, Rajapark Building, 163 Asoke, Sukhumvit Road, Bangkok 10110, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40626 Tiffen, Mary; Mortimore, Michael. Malthus controverted: the role of capital and technology in growth and environment recovery in Kenya. World Development, Vol. 22, No. 7, Jul 1994. 997-1,010 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper provides a nonmathematical case study and model from Kenya of the way in which investments in technological change, and especially in land improvement, have enabled rural incomes per capita to grow substantially, with improved environmental conservation, through the interactions of increased population density, improved information and market opportunities. Population density and investment are shown to be critical interrelated factors."
Correspondence: M. Tiffen, Overseas Development Institute, Regent's College, Inner Circle, Regent's Park, London NW1 4NS, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

60:40627 United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP] (Bangkok, Thailand); United Nations Development Programme [UNDP] (New York, New York). Expert group meeting on population, environment and sustainable development. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 126, Pub. Order No. ST/ESCAP/1381. 1994. x, 100 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
This is a selection of papers presented at a pre-conference seminar at the Fourth Asian and Pacific Population Conference, held in August 1992 in Indonesia. The present publication "is intended to serve as a resource for those concerned with population, environment and sustainable development in the Asian and Pacific region."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, United Nations Building, Rajdamnern Nok Avenue, Bangkok 10200, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40628 Verhaegen, Etienne; Degand, Jose. The development of agricultural systems in Burundi: a dynamic made for conflict. [L'evolution des systemes agricoles au Burundi: une dynamique conflictuelle.] Cahiers du CIDEP, No. 17, ISBN 2-87209-311-7. Oct 1993. 100 pp. Centre International de Formation et de Recherche en Population et Developpement [CIDEP]: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Distributed by Academia-Erasme, Grand rue 25/115, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Ger; Spa; Ara; Dut; Chi.
The authors analyze changes made by the peasants of the Muruta region of Burundi in response to growing pressures on available land resources. They conclude that the capacity of the system to evolve is now exhausted, unless major changes are made that would guarantee the quality of the environment as a whole and redefine the relationship between the peasants and the state.
Correspondence: Centre International de Formation et de Recherche en Population et Developpement, 1 Place Montesquieu, Boite 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40629 Wadia, Avabai B. Role of women in population, sustainable development and environment. In: Expert group meeting on population, environment and sustainable development. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 126, 1994. 54-60 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"The paper discusses the UN [Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women] definition of sustainable development, existing differences in its conceptualization and the need for developing countries to build their own ecological models. In looking for women's role in sustainable development, relationships between family planning and women's status, poverty and the environment etc., are reviewed and the competence of women in managing rural resources noted. Several recommendations are made including those related to family planning, education and organized action units for women...."
Correspondence: A. B. Wadia, Family Planning Association of India, Bajaj Bhavan, Nariman Point, Bombay 400 021, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40630 World Bank. Development Committee (Washington, D.C.). Development issues: presentations to the 48th meeting of the Development Committee. No. 33, ISBN 0-8213-2870-0. May 1994. v, 151 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This is the report of the 48th meeting of the World Bank's Development Committee, held on April 26, 1994, at which one of the three items on the agenda was population and migration. The meeting reviewed some key population issues and their financial implications, and identified the priority areas for action as being family planning, improved female education, and basic health care.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: World Bank Development Committee, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40631 Zhang, Shiqing. The effect of population growth in China on the course of economic growth. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 5, No. 3, 1993. 181-92 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Past studies of the relation between population growth and economic growth in China have always stressed the mutually affective external relation between the two, touching very little on the internal mechanism interacting between them, what links them, and to what extent. In this paper we attempt to make a study of the process of population-economic growth in China over the last 40 years following a new approach, in order to analyze and depict the deep-going relation of the effect of population growth in China on economic growth in a comparatively profound and wide sense."
Correspondence: S. Zhang, Nankai University, Population Institute, Balitai, Tianjin 300071, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.1.3. Developed Countries

Studies on the relations between population and economic factors as they affect the developed world. Also includes studies on the economic effects of a stationary or declining population, the effects of aging on the economy, retirement, and problems of economic dependency in developed countries.

60:40632 Bakshi, Gurdip S.; Chen, Zhiwu. Baby boom, population aging, and capital markets. Journal of Business, Vol. 67, No. 2, Apr 1994. 165-202 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"This article tests how demographic changes affect capital markets. The life-cycle investment hypothesis states that at an early stage an investor allocates more wealth in housing and then switches to financial assets at a later stage. Consequently, the stock market should rise but the housing market should decline with the average age, a prediction supported in the post-1945 period [in the United States]. The second hypothesis that an investor's risk aversion increases with age is tested by estimating the resulting Euler equation and supported in the post-1945 period. A rise in average age is found to predict a rise in risk premiums."
Correspondence: G. S. Bakshi, University of New Orleans, Lakefront, New Orleans, LA 70148. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

60:40633 Baldwin, Richard; Venables, Anthony J. International migration, capital mobility and transitional dynamics. Economica, Vol. 61, No. 243, Aug 1994. 285-300 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
This is a study of the process of transition that the countries of Central and Eastern Europe have begun from centrally planned to free-market economies. "The purpose of this paper is to investigate the interactions between trade and various types of factor mobility, and to explore their effect on the transition." Consideration is given to international migration, particularly the emigration of skilled workers.
Correspondence: R. Baldwin, Graduate Institute of International Studies, Geneva, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

60:40634 Borsch-Supan, Axel. Aging in Germany and the United States: international comparisons. NBER Working Paper, No. 4530, Nov 1993. 60, [21] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This paper reports on a set of international comparisons of how the German and the U.S. economies are affected by population aging. The paper's main focus is on the influence of institutional arrangements such as government regulations and subsidies on retirement, savings and housing choices in the two countries....Retirement, savings and housing behavior differ quite markedly between Germany and the United States, and I will show that most of these differences are consistent with the incentives applicable to each country."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

60:40635 Ermisch, John; Ogawa, Naohiro. The family, the market and the state in ageing societies. ISBN 0-19-828818-2. LC 93-32724. 1994. xiv, 239 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The chapters in this volume arose from papers presented at a seminar organized by the Committee on Economic Consequences of Alternative Demographic Patterns of the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population. The seminar took place in Sendai, Japan, from 19 to 21 September 1988. It brought together more than 20 economists studying economic aspects of changes in family patterns in industrialized countries." The nine papers are organized under two topics, market and state influences on family formation, and intergenerational transfers in theory and practice.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, Walton Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40636 Mason, Andrew; Teh, Yoke-Yun; Ogawa, Naohiro; Fukui, Takehiro. The intergenerational distribution of resources and income in Japan. In: The family, the market and the state in ageing societies, edited by John Ermisch and Naohiro Ogawa. 1994. 158-97 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
This study compares standards of living among different generations in Japan, and simulates changes in the distribution of household income and levels of bequests over the period 1980-2025. "The first part of the paper presents a macroeconomic model used to determine the distribution of national income among households....The second part of the paper implements the theoretical model relying on data from Japan drawn from a variety of sources....The third part of the paper reports the results of a simulation starting in 1980 and running to 2025 based on: (1) continued growth in national product equal to that observed from 1980 to 1985; (2) additional improvements in mortality conditions and a continuation of below-replacement fertility; (3) an absence of fundamental changes in the family system; and (4) no change in the redistributive role of the public sector. The discussion of the results highlights three features of the simulation--changes in the distribution of household income, changes in the distribution and level of bequests, and the rapid increase in foreign investment."
Correspondence: A. Mason, East-West Center, East-West Population Institute, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40637 Simon, Julian L. Demographic causes and consequences of the Industrial Revolution. Journal of European Economic History, Vol. 23, No. 1, Spring 1994. 141-58 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng.
"This paper inquires into the relationship of population to the industrial revolution. It concludes that increased European population density, and the economic development in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were the fundamental causes of each other." The author suggests that "the industrial revolution emerged out of increased technical knowledge and improved social organization....The larger number of Europeans who were alive in, say, 1850 than 1450 or 1050 produced knowledge more rapidly than if the number of persons had not grown in the previous centuries." He also notes that "industrial societies have enabled much larger numbers of persons to be born and to remain alive than have agrarian societies. This has occurred because a) more-advanced societies produce more sustenance per hectare than do less-advanced societies, and b) the larger amount of sustenance can be produced by fewer people in the agricultural labour force, and therefore there is less crowding on the land and a larger labour force available for industrial and other non-agricultural work."
Correspondence: J. L. Simon, University of Maryland, College of Business and Management, College Park, MD 20742. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40638 Takayama, Noriyuki. The greying of Japan: an economic perspective on public pensions. Economic Research Series, No. 30, ISBN 4-314-10065-6. 1992. xiv, 206 pp. Kinokuniya: Tokyo, Japan. Distributed by Oxford University Press, Walton Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, England. In Eng.
"This volume studies the economic consequences of the political decisions embodied in the Japanese public pension system under conditions of a rapidly aging population. It aims to deepen the public understanding as to how the present social security programs are working, who gains and who loses through them, and what the economic effects will be. It explains the Japanese public pension system, describes the rapid aging of Japanese population, presents the current economic status of the elderly, estimates income transfers between generations through public pensions, examines the impact of public pensions on private savings, discusses how sensitive the retirement decisions are to the level of public pension benefits, and presents estimates of Japan's saving rate under alternative definitions." Data are primarily from the National Survey of Family Income and Expenditure.
Correspondence: Kinokuniya, 17-7 Shinjuku 3-chome, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 163-91, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40639 van Nimwegen, Nico; Chesnais, Jean-Claude; Dykstra, Pearl. Coping with sustained low fertility in France and the Netherlands. NIDI/CBGS Publication, No. 27, ISBN 90-265-1343-7. 1993. 346 pp. Swets and Zeitlinger: Berwyn, Pennsylvania/Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
This book contains papers presented at a 1991 seminar held in the Netherlands, on how European societies will respond to changing age structures resulting from low fertility and high longevity. "In this volume the focus will be on demographic patterns in two European countries. Recent demographic trends in France and the Netherlands are compared, emphasizing the ways in which both societies are adapting to and coping with one particular demographic phenomenon, i.e. sustained low fertility." Sections are included on demographic trends; spatial population issues; the labor market; and households, care, and social security.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Swets and Zeitlinger, Heereweg 347B, 2161 CA Lisse, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.2. Population Growth and Natural Resources

Studies on the environment, quality of life, conservation, food production, etc., and their interrelations with population factors.

60:40640 Adnan, Mohd H. H. Technological changes for increased production, changing consumption patterns and sustainable development. In: Expert group meeting on population, environment and sustainable development. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 126, 1994. 85-93 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This paper highlights the central role of the consumer in today's economic systems and the need for consumer behaviour studies. It advocates responsible consumption as a method to ensure a better utilization of the scarce resources of the Earth and suggests that social marketing could be a helpful strategy in achieving this."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40641 Bartiaux, Francoise; van Ypersele, Jean-Pascal. The role of population growth in global warming. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population: Montreal 1993, Volume 4. 1993. 33-54 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"To quantify the role of population and [carbon dioxide] emissions per capita...in producing world [carbon dioxide] emissions [and using] statistics for the 1950-1990 period, we have built different scenarios using a standardization method, as commonly made in demography. These scenarios have shown that the increase in MDC [more-developed countries' carbon dioxide] emission per capita had a significantly larger effect on world total emissions increases than LDC [less-developed countries'] population growth did. It was also shown that MDC population growth had a larger effect than LDC population growth."
Correspondence: F. Bartiaux, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie, 1 place Montesquieu, B.P. 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40642 Bartlett, Albert A. Reflections on sustainability, population growth, and the environment. Population and Environment, Vol. 16, No. 1, Sep 1994. 5-35 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author discusses the challenge of creating a sustainable society and facing problems caused by population growth. "The related terms, 'sustainable' and 'sustainability,' have become popular and are used to describe a wide variety of activities which are generally ecologically laudable....An attempt is made here to give firm definition to these terms and to translate the definition into a series of laws and hypotheses which, it is hoped, will clarify the implications of their use. These are followed by a series of observations and predictions that relate to 'sustainability.'"
Correspondence: A. A. Bartlett, University of Colorado, Department of Physics, Box 390, Boulder, CO 80309-0390. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40643 Caldwell, John C.; Caldwell, Pat. Rapid population growth and fragile environments: the Sub-Saharan African and South Asian experience. In: Human reproductive ecology: interactions of environment, fertility, and behavior, edited by Kenneth L. Campbell and James W. Wood. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 709, 1994. 355-69 pp. New York Academy of Sciences: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper will examine the proposition that continued rapid population growth will cause such irreparable damage to the environment that the world's capacity to support its inhabitants at a reasonable standard of living will be imperiled." The geographical focus is on Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, two of the world's poorest regions. "The central argument of the paper is that the critical period is not of indefinite duration. In fact, the period of rapid population growth is likely to be mostly limited to the next half century and that of rural population to an even shorter period....The most important question is whether the globe can survive this transition period without its resource base being so eroded as to reduce its capacity for providing a good living for all. The paper concludes that it probably can do so and can safely reach a time when the human population will be increasing more slowly and will be richer so that it can afford all further necessary steps for maintaining and improving the environment."
Correspondence: J. C. Caldwell, Australian National University, Health Transition Centre, G.P.O. Box 4, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

60:40644 Commoner, Barry. Population, development, and the environment: trends and key issues in the developed countries. International Journal of Health Services, Vol. 23, No. 3, 1993. 519-39 pp. Amityville, New York. In Eng.
The relationships among population, economic development, and the technology of production that give rise to environmental pollution are analyzed for developed countries in general and the United States in particular. "Annual data for the emission of carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides from mobile sources and for the use of pesticides and inorganic nitrogen fertilizer from agriculture...were analyzed to determine the relative change in the three factors over the period 1970-1987. In each case the considerable variation in pollutant emissions among the different countries is most closely related to the concomitant change in the technology factor (pollution/good). In contrast, there is much less variation among the countries in the population and 'affluence' factors, which are consequently uncorrelated with the variation in pollutant emissions. The data show that the change in production technology is by far the most important of the several factors responsible for changes in pollution emission."
Correspondence: B. Commoner, City University of New York, Queens College, Center for the Biology of Natural Systems, Flushing, NY 11367. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40645 Dahlan, M. Alwi. Interrelationships between population and the environment: towards an operational framework. In: Expert group meeting on population, environment and sustainable development. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 126, 1994. 10-4 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
The author examines the relationships between population and the environment "in relation to family planning and transmigration policies in Indonesia....The author proposes a framework, one tested in policy analysis in Indonesia with promising results and recently incorporated in the country's new population law, which splits the environment into three sub-systems: natural, man-made and social, and suggests further work that is needed to make the framework more operational."
Correspondence: M. A. Dahlan, Ministry of State for Population and the Environment, Jakarta, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40646 Daily, Gretchen C.; Ehrlich, Anne H.; Enrlich, Paul R. Optimum human population size. Population and Environment, Vol. 15, No. 6, Jul 1994. 469-75 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors present criteria for answering "the question of what would be an optimum number of human beings to live on Earth at any given time?" They conclude that "determination of an 'optimum' world population size involves social decisions about the life styles to be lived and the distribution of those life styles among individuals in the population. To us it seems reasonable to assume that, until cultures and technologies change radically, the optimum number of people to exist simultaneously lies in the vicinity of 1.5 to 2 billion people."
Correspondence: G. C. Daily, University of California, Energy and Resources Group, Building T-4, Room 100, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40647 Dilworth, Craig. Two perspectives on sustainable development. Population and Environment, Vol. 15, No. 6, Jul 1994. 441-67 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper applies the 'Perspectivist conception' to the issue of sustainable development in such a way as to make perspicuous two competing views on the issue. These views, here termed the economic and ecological, are respectively that of the United Nation's Brundtland Commission, which favours economic growth as a means of overcoming the world's environmental problems, and an alternative view, according to which environmental problems must be dealt with directly, and economic growth may well be a hindrance to their solution. The paper concludes with a theory of human development based on the vicious circle principle, which shows the economic perspective on sustainable development to be incoherent, and the ecological perspective to remain a viable alternative." The geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: C. Dilworth, Uppsala University, Department of Philosophy, Villavagen 5, 752 36 Uppsala, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40648 Ghimire, Krishna B. Linkages between population, environment and development. Case studies from Costa Rica, Pakistan and Uganda. ISBN 92-9085-011-6. Nov 1993. xviii, 118 pp. United Nations Research Institute for Social Development [UNRISD]: Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
"This monograph attempts to explore the linkages between population growth, environmental changes and development patterns. It is based on case studies carried out in Costa Rica, Pakistan and Uganda....The monograph is organized in five parts. The first chapter discusses different concepts and debates on the relationship between population, environment and development....The second chapter examines the linkages in the context of the three countries studied. The third looks at the different ways in which production, consumption and livelihood patterns at the local level have adapted to environmental and demographic changes. The fourth one analyses the impact of external forces on resource management and livelihood provisioning. Principal research findings are presented in the final chapter."
Correspondence: United Nations Research Institute for Social Development, Palais des Nations, 1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland. Location: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Paris, France.

60:40649 Hall, Charles A. S.; Pontius, R. Gil; Coleman, Lisa; Ko, Jae-Young. The environmental consequences of having a baby in the United States. Population and Environment, Vol. 15, No. 6, Jul 1994. 505-24 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper gives crude estimates of the environmental consequences associated with the birth of one baby in the United States. We calculate the magnitude of one hundred environmental impacts which one American born today will cause over a lifetime. The impacts are grouped under five headings: waste generation, mineral consumption, energy consumption, ecosystem alteration, and food consumption. We also consider, but do not quantify, impacts on extinctions of species and indigenous cultures. Our purpose is to emphasize the role of population growth in the creation of environmental problems, and to make potential parents aware of their ability to impact the global environment. We conclude that one especially effective way for individuals to protect the national and global environment, and hence protect the wellbeing of all existing people, is to stop creating more humans."
Correspondence: C. A. S. Hall, State University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Department of Environmental Forest Biology, 302 Illick Hall, Syracuse, NY 13210. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40650 Hardaway, Robert M. Population, law, and the environment. ISBN 0-275-94570-7. LC 93-44501. 1994. [xi], 177 pp. Praeger: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
The relationships among population, law, and the environment are explored in this study. The focus is on the environmental aspects of government policies in such areas as abortion, family planning, immigration, education, and economic regulation. The main geographical focus is on the United States. The author concludes the study with a proposed philosophy for future action, which he calls environmental Malthusianism.
Correspondence: Praeger Publishers, 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40651 Hirschl, Thomas A.; Bills, Nelson L. Urban influences on farmland use in New York State. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 13, No. 2, Jun 1994. 179-94 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This article assesses the relationship between demographic change and structural adjustments in agriculture. A number of demographic and economic analyses have posited an inverse relationship between post-1950 exurban population growth and agricultural viability, especially in the Northeast Region of the U.S.A. To test this hypothesis, a multivariate model of percent change in county land in farms over the period 1950-1987 is estimated, and the findings only partially support the population hypothesis. Estimation results indicate that the effect of core metropolitan status is significant, but that the effects of rural population change, rural nonfarm population change, and county population deconcentration are not. The analysis demonstrates the maintenance of land in farm use largely depends upon economic forces that are national and regional in scope, and almost exclusively outside the purview of state and local farmland protection programs."
Correspondence: T. A. Hirschl, Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, 333 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40652 Hossain, Monowar. Interrelationships between population and natural resources: an analytical framework. In: Expert group meeting on population, environment and sustainable development. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 126, 1994. 1-9 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This paper attempts to develop a holistic model to capture the interrelationships between population, the environment and development....The use of the model is illustrated in terms of conceptual and definitional clarification of some important paradigms in the population-environment nexus: sustainable development, demographic transition, poverty, and family [program] failures."
Correspondence: M. Hossain, Multidisciplinary Action Research Centre, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40653 Jolly, Carole L. Four theories of population change and the environment. Population and Environment, Vol. 16, No. 1, Sep 1994. 61-90 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper evaluates current theories of the relationship between population change and the environment, particularly land use, in developing countries. Specifically, this paper critically reviews the literature and suggests what demographers can contribute to testing these theories....It is argued that although these theories present very different world views, they are not necessarily mutually exclusive....This paper focuses specifically on land resources because of the centrality of land to many developing countries that depend on agriculture for a large portion of their national income, exports, and employment."
Correspondence: C. L. Jolly, National Research Council, Committee on Population, 2101 Constitution Avenue, Washington, D.C. 20418. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40654 Kim, Ock-Kyung. Demographic patterns and wildlife resources. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population: Montreal 1993, Volume 4. 1993. 23-32 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"The primary objective of this paper is to examine the impact of the patterns of population growth and its distribution on the utilisation of wildlife resources. In addition, a theoretical framework is proposed to study the impact of population-related factors on the conservation of wildlife resources....This paper...focuses on the demographic patterns in selected countries representing different world regions and their implications for the wildlife."
Correspondence: O.-K. Kim, IUCN--World Conservation Union, Gland, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40655 Kotokou, Kodjo. Population growth and problems of the environment. [La croissance demographique et les problemes environnementaux.] URD Document de Travail, No. 8, May 1992. 16 pp. Universite du Benin, Unite de Recherche Demographique [URD]: Lome, Togo. In Fre.
The relationship between population growth and environmental problems in Togo is examined. The author concludes that slowing the rate of population growth could contribute to the country's ability to solve environmental problems.
Correspondence: Universite du Benin, Unite de Recherche Demographique, B.P. 12971, Lome, Togo. Location: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Paris, France.

60:40656 Krautkraemer, Jeffrey A. Population growth, soil fertility, and agricultural intensification. Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 44, No. 2, Aug 1994. 403-28 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper presents a renewable resource model of soil fertility with a nonconvexity in the net benefit function. In this setting, recurring cycles of cropping and fallow can be the optimal soil management strategy. The model is used to illuminate the Boserup discussion of agricultural development in which population growth leads to agricultural intensification, defined as an increase in cropping frequency." The results indicate that "as population grows, and the demand for food increases, the importance of the nonconvexity diminishes and more frequent cropping becomes economical. Given a nonconvexity in the production technology, it is possible, though not necessary, that average labor productivity increases with agricultural intensification. Thus, it is possible to reconcile the greater labor requirement of intensive farming with an increase in average labor productivity."
Correspondence: J. A. Krautkraemer, Washington State University, Department of Economics, Pullman, WA 99164-4860. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

60:40657 Martine, George. Population, the environment, and development: truths and contradictions. [Populacao, meio ambiente e desenvolvimento: verdades e contradicoes.] Colecao Momento, ISBN 85-268-0270-4. 1993. 207 pp. Editora da UNICAMP: Campinas, Brazil. In Por.
This is a collection of studies by various authors on the relationships among population, the environment, and economic development in Brazil.
Correspondence: Editora da Universidad Estadual de Campinas, Rua Cecilio Feltrin 253, Cidade Universitaria, Barao Geraldo, CEP 13084-110 Campinas, SP, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40658 Meesook, Ambhorn. Women and environment: partners in life and the role of women in sustainable development. In: Expert group meeting on population, environment and sustainable development. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 126, 1994. 61-8 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This paper presents an analytical summary of some of the problems, success stories and specific recommendations of the Asia-Pacific Regional Assembly on Population and Environment held at Bangkok [Thailand] in March 1991. The case studies confirmed that unbalanced population growth and distribution would have a direct impact on the Earth's ability to sustain more people, and has already increased the burden on women....The case studies showed that women have played an important role and brought about significant changes in improving their environment and thus made development sustainable at those levels."
Correspondence: A. Meesook, Foundation for Life-Long Education, National Council on Social Welfare of Thailand, Bangkok, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40659 Mertens, Walter. Population and deforestation in humid tropics. IUSSP Policy and Research Paper, No. 2, ISBN 2-87108-033-10. 1994. 28 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
This paper summarizes the content of a seminar on population and deforestation in the humid tropics organized by the IUSSP Committee on Population and the Environment. The seminar concluded that "policy-making and program formulation in regard to population, deforestation and other environmental problems in the humid tropics will have to be done in a context of uncertainty. Many facts are uncertain, even contradictory...[and] the analytical relationship between demographic and other variables remains uncertain or unexplored and often lacks substantial theoretical underpinnings."
Correspondence: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, 34 rue des Augustins, 4000 Liege, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40660 Ohtsuka, Ryutaro. Subsistence ecology and carrying capacity in two Papua New Guinea populations. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 26, No. 3, Jul 1994. 395-407 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This article examines the mechanisms of subsistence adaptation of two Papua New Guinea populations, the Metroxylon sago-depending lowland Gidra and the taro-monoculture Mountain Ok....Observation of the groups' land use systems strongly suggests that their population densities have not been far below the carrying capacity, although the territory of each population is markedly heterogeneous. Both groups have maintained their sustainable food production not only for resource management but also for survival at a population level, either expanding their territory or changing the sustainable level in tandem with changes of subsistence system."
Correspondence: R. Ohtsuka, University of Tokyo, Department of Human Ecology, Tokyo, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40661 Ouedraogo, Dieudonne. A plea for a spatial approach to the problem of population growth. [Plaidoyer pour une spatialisation de l'accroissement demographique.] Pop Sahel, No. 20, May 1994. 16-23 pp. Bamako, Mali. In Fre.
Current demographic trends in the Sahel region of Africa are reviewed. The focus is on the relationship between population growth and the environment. The author suggests that the unevenness of population distribution causes problems that have been ignored to date. He also examines trends in urbanization. The need to take into account the spatial distribution of the population and the migration related to it in development planning for the region is noted.
Correspondence: D. Ouedraogo, Centre d'Etudes sur la Population pour le Developpement, Institut du Sahel, B.P. 1530, Bamako, Mali. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40662 Picouet, Michel R. Population pressure and natural environments in rural areas of the third world: an effort of synthesis. [Pression demographique et milieux naturels dans les campagnes du Tiers-Monde: un essai de formalisation.] In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population: Montreal 1993, Volume 4. 1993. 9-22 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Fre.
The author attempts to show how the study of population provides an access to the environmental problems in developing countries. The emphasis is on the complexity of the relationships between demographic and environmental factors.
Correspondence: M. R. Picouet, 25 rue de la Providence, 13710 Fuveau, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40663 Poulain, Michel. The effect of population on the environment. [De l'effet de la population sur l'environnement.] In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population: Montreal 1993, Volume 4. 1993. 3-8 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Fre.
This is a general review of the relationship between population and the environment, and of the contribution demographers can make in this area.
Correspondence: M. Poulain, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie, 1 place Montesquieu, B.P. 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40664 Tabutin, Dominique. Demography and environment in the south and in the African Mediterranean: facts, theories, approaches, and concepts. [Demographie et environnement dans le sud et en Afrique mediterraneenne: faits, doctrines, approches et cadres conceptuels.] Les Cahiers du Monde Arabe, No. 105, 1993. 41 pp. Universite Catholique de Louvain, Departement des Sciences de la Population et du Developpement, Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches sur le Monde Arabe Contemporain [CERMAC]: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre.
The focus of this study is on relationship between population growth and the deterioration of the environment, particularly in the countries of North Africa. The need for more accurate data, particularly at the local level, and for an interdisciplinary approach to the study of the problem is noted.
Correspondence: Universite Catholique de Louvain, Departement des Sciences de la Population et du Developpement, Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches sur le Monde Arabe Contemporain, 3 Place Montesquieu, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Paris, France.

60:40665 Thiltges, Evelyne; Tabutin, Dominique. Population and environment: a summary of facts, theories, and policies in the countries of the South. [Population et environnement: une synthese des faits, doctrines et politiques dans les pays du Sud.] Cahiers du CIDEP, No. 15, ISBN 2-87209-261-7. Nov 1992. 85 pp. Centre International de Formation et de Recherche en Population et Developpement [CIDEP]: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Distributed by Academia-Erasme, Grand rue 25/115, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Ger; Spa; Ara; Dut; Chi.
The authors present a general overview of the literature on the relationship between population and the environment. They conclude that the arguments linking population growth and environmental degradation lack sufficient empirical data, but that the concept of sustainable development remains an objective that has yet to be achieved.
Correspondence: Centre International de Formation et de Recherche en Population et Developpement, 1 Place Montesquieu, Boite 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40666 United Nations Research Institute for Social Development [UNRISD] (Geneva, Switzerland). Development, environment and people. Report of the Conference on the Social Dimensions of Environment and Sustainable Development, Valletta, Malta: 22-25 April 1992. Oct 1992. iii, 37 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
This is the report of a 1992 conference, held in Malta, on the relationships among socioeconomic development, the environment, and population. The primary focus was on the need to take the social dimensions of the environment into account in the quest for sustainable development. One dimension considered is population dynamics.
Correspondence: United Nations Research Institute for Social Development, Palais des Nations, 1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland. Location: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Paris, France.

60:40667 van Diepen, Albertine; van Ginneken, Jeroen. Population trends, consumption patterns, and environmental pressures in the Netherlands. [Demografische ontwikkelingen, consumptiepatronen en milieubelasting in Nederland.] NIDI Rapport, No. 34, ISBN 90-70990-42-3. 1994. 92 pp. The Hague, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The relationships among population trends, consumption patterns, and environmental pressure in the Netherlands are explored. The focus is on the impact of demographic factors on the consumption of electricity, natural gas, and water. Projections of the usage of these natural resources are made up to the year 2010. The results indicate that "the use of electricity is expected to increase by 25 per cent from 1992 to 2010 and consumption of water by 20 per cent. Population factors have certainly contributed to these developments and will also continue to do so in the future. The most important of these factors are: population increase, changes in population composition, increases in the number of households, and changes in the composition of households."
Correspondence: Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute, P.O. Box 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation

Studies of employment and labor force statistics that are of demographic relevance. Includes studies of the labor force (employment status, occupation, and industry) and of the relations among employment, labor force participation, and population factors. Studies on the effect of female labor force participation on fertility are coded under F.1. General Fertility and cross-referenced here.

60:40668 Adepoju, Aderanti. Women, work and fertility in Swaziland. In: Gender, work and population in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Aderanti Adepoju and Christine Oppong. 1994. 157-72 pp. James Currey: London, England; Heinemann: Portsmouth, New Hampshire. In Eng.
The author examines factors affecting fertility levels and labor force participation of women in Swaziland. He finds that "the population growth rate is high, because of the high level of fertility. Infant, childhood and maternal mortality remain high. The position of women in Swaziland is circumscribed in a number of ways: what a woman does, where she works, how she disposes of her income--indeed, the key aspects of her life--are traditionally sanctioned by men. The high fertility level is explained by these constraints as much as by the early start of child-bearing....In spite of all this, women contribute the lion's share of agricultural labour. They also dominate the informal sector, using their earnings there to supplement their incomes, which are otherwise strictly controlled by their husbands. Wage employment is dominated by men, while women in wage employment face a series of discriminatory practices relating to wages, paid maternity leave, etc. Nevertheless, women are increasingly visible in skilled professions, where earnings are relatively high."
Correspondence: A. Adepoju, Union pour l'Etude de la Population Africaine, B.P. 21007, Dakar Ponty, Senegal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40669 Ahituv, Avner; Tienda, Marta; Xu, Lixin; Hotz, V. Joseph. Initial labor market experiences of black, Hispanic and white men. Population Research Center Discussion Paper Series, No. 94-5, Jun 1993. 42, [16] pp. University of Chicago, National Opinion Research Center [NORC], Population Research Center: Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"This paper examines race and ethnic variation in the timing, nature, and determinants of initial labor market encounters for a representative cohort of young men [in the United States]. We explore the ramifications of ignoring work experience acquired during adolescence in characterizing the school to work transition and conclude that ignoring employment episodes that occur during periods of school enrollment misses key differences in the labor market stratification processes of minority versus nonminority youth. We also estimate a dynamic multi-state model to evaluate the factors that determine the various pathways from school to work that characterize the experience of minority and nonminority versus nonminority youth."
Correspondence: University of Chicago, National Opinion Research Center, Population Research Center, 1155 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40670 Blanc, Ann K.; Lloyd, C. B. Women's work, child-bearing and child-rearing over the life cycle in Ghana. In: Gender, work and population in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Aderanti Adepoju and Christine Oppong. 1994. 112-31 pp. James Currey: London, England; Heinemann: Portsmouth, New Hampshire. In Eng.
"In this chapter we examine women's child-rearing strategies in relation to employment and family size in Ghana, a country where high rates of cash employment for women are known to coexist with high fertility. Our framework emphasises the ways in which women make choices regarding these three critical elements of their lives over their reproductive years....We examine occupational characteristics, work patterns, household composition, fertility and child-care arrangements among women over the course of their reproductive years. We view these elements as interacting with one another to form patterns which reflect a balancing of roles as women respond to shifting responsibilities over the life cycle....We conclude with a discussion of the implications of our findings for changes in fertility and women's employment, and the relationship between them. Further, we identify possible avenues through which the burden of child-care may be shifting in Ghana and the likely consequences for women over the life cycle."
Correspondence: A. K. Blanc, Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Suite 300, Calverton, MD 20705. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40671 Blanchet, Didier; Marchand, Olivier. Adjusting to a declining and aging labour force in France. In: Coping with sustained low fertility in France and the Netherlands, edited by Nico van Nimwegen, Jean-Claude Chesnais, and Pearl Dykstra. NIDI/CBGS Publication, No. 27, 1993. 227-47 pp. Swets and Zeitlinger: Berwyn, Pennsylvania/Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This chapter deals with prospects concerning the labour force and the labour market in France under a regime of low fertility or reduced population growth. Such a regime will imply both a potential contraction of the labour force, and a substantial aging of its members....The main question here is to analyze how well or how poorly the French economy absorbed its rapidly growing labour force since the mid-1960s....The subsequent section will discuss the conditions and the schedule for the potential decline of the labour force....Two instruments have a demographic nature: raising the fertility rate itself (as soon as possible) or relying on increased migration. We will only discuss these policies from the point of view of their quantitative impact on the total labour force....In contrast, two other variables are non-demographic, and will be discussed more in-depth and from a qualitative as well as a quantitative point of view. These are the labour force participation rate, especially for women, and the retirement age."
Correspondence: D. Blanchet, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40672 Bloss, Thierry; Frickey, Alain; Novi, Michel. Ways of entering adult life and the social decisions of married women. [Modes d'entree dans la vie adulte et trajectoires sociales des femmes mariees.] Population, Vol. 49, No. 3, May-Jun 1994. 637-56 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"In this paper, [the authors analyze] the extent to which different ways of entering adult life, as shown by the woman's leaving her parental home, affect the course of women's careers....By using answers to questionnaires in a retrospective survey [in France], the authors show that some aspects of life style, and particularly the method of transition to adult status, do have specific effects on women's decisions about their occupations, relations with their family, and on migrating. This has led the authors to assess the weight of some determinants, such as social background, in shaping the life course."
Correspondence: T. Bloss, Universite de Provence, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40673 Bordes, Marie-Madeleine; Guillemot, Daniele. The labor force: long-term trends. [Marche du travail: series longues.] INSEE Resultats: Emploi-Revenus, No. 62-63, ISBN 2-11-066169-0. May 1994. 215 pp. Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques [INSEE]: Paris, France. In Fre.
A selection of long-term time series data concerning employment and the labor force in France is presented. The time period covered varies, ranging from the early 1950s and 1960s up to 1992 or 1993.
Correspondence: Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, 18 boulevard Adolphe Pinard, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40674 Duberstein, Laura. Breastfeeding and postpartum employment: are there conflicts for American women? Population Research Center Discussion Paper Series, No. 94-3, May 1994. 33, [18] pp. University of Chicago, National Opinion Research Center [NORC], Population Research Center: Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"This analysis uses data from Cycle IV of the National Survey of Family Growth to examine the relationship between women's postpartum employment and breastfeeding behaviors in the U.S. during the period 1980-86. Analyses find that women employed part-time have significantly higher breastfeeding rates and longer durations than women employed full-time, suggesting that conflicts between the behaviors vary by the intensity of employment. Further, a discrete-time hazard model finds that women have an increased likelihood of stopping breastfeeding in the month they enter employment, suggesting that these behaviors constrain each other. Policy implications of these constraints are examined."
Correspondence: University of Chicago, National Opinion Research Center, Population Research Center, 1155 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40675 Feld, Serge. The impact of the foreign labor force and of immigration on the labor market of a country with declining fertility. [Impact de la main-d'oeuvre etrangere et de l'immigration sur le marche du travail d'un pays a fecondite declinante.] In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population: Montreal 1993, Volume 4. 1993. 91-105 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Fre.
This study uses the example of Belgium to examine the impact of immigration and the foreign labor force on the labor market in a country with fertility below replacement level. The author notes that the foreign labor force is not a homogeneous body that can be easily substituted for existing labor shortages, and that problems of assimilation and integration need to be addressed before too much reliance is placed on immigrant labor.
Correspondence: S. Feld, Universite de Liege, Departement d'Economie, place du 20 Aout 7, 4000 Liege, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40676 Goldin, Claudia. The U-shaped female labor force function in economic development and economic history. NBER Working Paper, No. 4707, Apr 1994. 40 pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The labor force participation rate of married women first declines and then rises as countries develop. Its U-shape is revealed both across the process of economic development and through the histories of currently advanced economies....This paper explores why the change takes place and why the U-shape is traced out....Data for more than one hundred countries and for United States history are used to explore the hypothesis of the U-shaped female labor force function."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

60:40677 Juarez, Eduardo. The interaction of municipal labor markets in the state of Tabasco: an approximation via the use of gravitational models. [Interaccion de mercados laborales municipales en el estado de Tabasco: una aproximacion a traves del uso de modelos gravitatorios.] Estudios Demograficos y Urbanos, Vol. 8, No. 1, Jan-Apr 1993. 157-89, 259-60 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This study is based on the hypothesis that although the growth of labor markets depends upon the increase in demand for laborers, the short term increase of supply depends upon mobility--the possibility to commute from one place to another....This study analyses the seventeen 'county' or municipio seats in the State of Tabasco [Mexico]. The author uses gravitational models in order to delineate the interaction between local labor markets."
Correspondence: E. Juarez, El Colegio de Mexico, Centro de Estudios Demograficos y de Desarrollo Urbano, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40678 Kazi, Shahnaz; Sathar, Zeba A. Informalisation of women's work: consequence for fertility and child schooling in urban Pakistan. Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 32, No. 4, Pt. 2, Winter 1993. 887-93 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
This study uses data from the 1990-1991 Pakistan Integrated Household Survey to investigate the following issues. "First, it will address issues related to women's productive activities. What are the employment patterns of women in the urban sector? What characteristics distinguish women working in the informal sector from formal sector workers, in particular, what are the differences in education, earnings, hours of work and length of work experience? The second part of the study explores the differentials in outcomes such as fertility (actual and desired), contraceptive knowledge and adoption and children's schooling by employment status of evermarried women."
Correspondence: S. Kazi, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, P.O. Box 1091, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40679 Keilman, Nico. Demographic trends and the labour market in the Netherlands. In: Coping with sustained low fertility in France and the Netherlands, edited by Nico van Nimwegen, Jean-Claude Chesnais, and Pearl Dykstra. NIDI/CBGS Publication, No. 27, 1993. 201-25 pp. Swets and Zeitlinger: Berwyn, Pennsylvania/Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
This is a general review of the aging of the labor force in the Netherlands and its consequences. The author concludes that "there is no demographic remedy against the problems that the low birth rates, observed in the 1960s and 1970s in the Netherlands, will probably cause the labour market in the 1990s and beyond. A smaller future labour force, whose members will be less flexible and less productive than nowadays due to aging processes, can only be avoided if appropriate labour market policy measures are taken: increasing female labour force participation, recurrent education, counteracting disability at older ages, and increasing the mean pensionable age, are some of the measures that have to be considered."
Correspondence: N. Keilman, Central Bureau of Statistics, P.O. Box 8181 Dep., 0033 Oslo 1, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40680 Kempeneers, Marianne; Saint-Pierre, Marie-Helene. Work and family: a relationship to build. [Travail et famille: une relation a construire.] In: Population, reproduction, societes: perspectives et enjeux de demographie sociale, edited by Dennis D. Cordell et al. 1993. 129-48 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre.
This is a study of the relationship between the professional lives of women and their family lives, and is based primarily on Canadian data from the Survey on the Active Population (EPA) for the period 1976-1988. The results suggest that female employment continues to show characteristics that are clearly different than employment for men, primarily because of women's dominant role in the maintenance of family life.
Correspondence: M. Kempeneers, Universite de Montreal, Departement de Sociologie, C.P. 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40681 Marcoux, Richard. Child labor in Mali: urban constraints and household strategies. [Le travail des enfants au Mali: specificites urbanies et strategies des menages.] In: Population, reproduction, societes: perspectives et enjeux de demographie sociale, edited by Dennis D. Cordell et al. 1993. 149-74 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre.
An attempt is made to estimate the extent of child labor in Mali using data primarily taken from the 1985 Demographic Survey. The focus is on the role that children play in the overall economy of the household, and how this role is affected by the process of urbanization.
Correspondence: R. Marcoux, Universite de Montreal, Departement de Demographie, Programme Population et Developpement au Sahel, C.P. 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40682 Marcoux, Richard. Work or school. Children's activities and household characteristics in an urban environment in Mali. [Le travail ou l'ecole. L'activite des enfants et les caracteristiques des menages en milieu urbain au Mali.] Etudes et Travaux de CERPOD, No. 12, ISBN 2-902221-02-4. Jan 1994. vi, 200 pp. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherche sur la Population pour le Developpement [CERPOD]: Bamako, Mali. In Fre.
This study, developed as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Montreal, concerns child labor in an urban setting in Mali. It is based primarily on data from a 1985 survey of more than 2,500 children aged 8-14. In addition to studying child labor, the author examines the relationship between household characteristics and school enrollment.
Correspondence: Centre d'Etudes et de Recherche sur la Population pour le Developpement, Institut du Sahel, B.P. 1530, Bamako, Mali. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40683 Maruo, Naomi. Aging of the population and social policy: lessons from Sweden. Jinkogaku Kenkyu/Journal of Population Studies, No. 17, May 1994. 5-14 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
"In this paper I tried to show how the ageing of the population influences the change in the growth of employment, employment structure, the savings ratio, economic growth and the cost of social security [in Sweden]. In the latter part of the paper I suggested a close correlation between the average marriage age of women, the total fertility rate and the work participation ratio of women."
Correspondence: N. Maruo, Keio University, 2-15-45 Mita, Minato-ku, 108 Tokyo, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40684 Matkovic, Gordana; Mulina, Tripo; Rasevic, Miroslav. Population, labor force, and employment in South Serbia. [Stanovnistvo, radna snaga i zaposlenost na podrucju Juga Srbije.] Stanovnistvo, Vol. 30-31, 1992-1993. 135-52 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
"[This] review represents a part of the analysis that has been conducted for the purpose of creating a long term socio-economic development program for the underdeveloped local communities in South Serbia and some adjoining border communities. The review explores development of population and households, fertility, mortality, natural increase, social and economic structures of the population, development and characteristics of the labour force, employment evolution, employment in private sector, employment abroad unemployment and economic structure of workers in the period 1961-1991. In addition...population, labour force and employment projections until 2010 are provided...."
Correspondence: G. Matkovic, Ekonomski Institut, Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40685 Ogawa, Naohiro; Hodge, Robert W. Patrilocality, childbearing, and the labour supply and earning power of married Japanese women. In: The family, the market and the state in ageing societies, edited by John Ermisch and Naohiro Ogawa. 1994. 105-31 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper analyses the way in which the supply of female labour and the wages of women are intertwined, not only with each other, but also with selected demographic and socio-economic factors such as Japanese family structure and life-cycle stage. The data are primarily from a survey conducted in June of 1988 by Mainichi Newspapers....The analysis is structured as follows: section II examines wife's earnings relative to her husband's income, by type of her employment; section III analyses the earnings profile of married women working as full-time paid employees, and the determinants of full-time participation in the labour-force; section IV compares the differences between full-time paid workers and other married women with different work statuses in the determinants of their participation in the workforce. In order to gain a further insight into the analyses developed in the previous sections, section V discusses wives' reasons for participating in the labour-force."
Correspondence: N. Ogawa, Nihon University, Population Research Institute, 3-2 Misaki-cho, 1-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40686 Poston, Dudley L. Patterns of economic attainment of foreign-born male workers in the United States. International Migration Review, Vol. 28, No. 3, Fall 1994. 475-500 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article is concerned with the economic attainment patterns of foreign-born male workers in the United States in 1980. The economic attainment patterns of males born in 92 countries of the world are examined and are compared among themselves, as well as among the seven principal U.S.-born groups of Anglos, Afro-Americans, Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, Cuban Americans, Asian Americans, and American Indians. For all foreign-born groups, the article examines the degree to which such individual-level factors as educational attainment, labor market experience, and so forth account for their variation in economic attainment. We conclude that although microlevel characteristics are not the complete answer, they are important for most foreign-born populations in explaining their variation in earnings."
Correspondence: D. L. Poston, Texas A & M University, College Station, TX 77843. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40687 Rich, Lauren. The long-run impact of early nonemployment: a reexamination. Population Studies Center Research Report, No. 93-300, Dec 1993. 22, [8] pp. University of Michigan, Population Studies Center: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This study considers, for a sample of youth who left high school [in the United States] between the years of 1980 and 1984, the impact of hours worked in high school on wages and hours worked up to eight years after high school. In contrast to previous studies, early work experience is found to have a significant long-run impact on future employment and an insignificant impact on wages." Data are from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth.
Correspondence: University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40688 Rubin-Kurtzman, Jane R. Occupational heterogeneity among female workers in Mexico City, 1970. [Heterogeneidad ocupacional del empleo femenino en la ciudad de Mexico, 1970.] Estudios Demograficos y Urbanos, Vol. 8, No. 1, Jan-Apr 1993. 121-56, 259 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper investigates the characteristics of female workers and their households which determine their wage status, or distribution into salaried versus non-salaried categories. The article focuses on women in 1970, a time of relative economic growth in Mexico City....The results indicate that women with extensive domestic responsibilities are more likely to be non-salaried. Marital status, age, education, and two childcare proxies--domestic servants and elderly persons in the household--are the principal individual and household determinants of wage status."
Correspondence: J. R. Rubin-Kurtzman, RAND Corporation, 1700 Main Street, P.O. Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40689 Sun, Huaiyang; Du, Yong. The employment status of the female population of minority nationalities in China. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 6, No. 1, 1994. 85-94 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article attempts a brief description of the employment status of the female population of minority nationalities in China." Data are from China's 1990 census.
Correspondence: H. Sun, State Statistics Bureau, Population Department, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40690 Sundstrom, Marianne. Managing work and children: part-time work and the family cycle of Swedish women. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 81, ISBN 91-7820-082-2. Feb 1994. 27 pp. Stockholm University, Demography Unit: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
Trends and patterns in women's part-time employment in Sweden are analyzed using data from the panel of the Swedish Labor Force Surveys. Part-time work is most frequent among women of childbearing ages and women over age 55. Although among mothers of preschool-age children, the trend is toward part-time work, mothers of school children tend to increase their hours to full-time employment.
Correspondence: Stockholm University, Demography Unit, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40691 Uwizeyimana, Laurien. Population growth and agricultural production in Rwanda. An impossible equation? [Croissance demographique et production agricole au Rwanda. Impossible adequation?] Cahiers du CIDEP, No. 8, ISBN 2-87085-246-0. Jan 1991. 72 pp. Centre International de Formation et de Recherche en Population et Developpement [CIDEP]: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Distributed by ARTEL, 14 Chaussee de Gand, 1080 Brussels, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Ger; Spa; Ara; Dut; Chi.
The increasing pressure on available agricultural land caused by continued population growth in Rwanda is described. The author examines the prospects for national food self-sufficiency by the year 2000.
Correspondence: Centre International de Formation et de Recherche en Population et Developpement, 1 Place Montesquieu, Boite 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40692 Visaria, Pravin; Gumber, Anil; Gopinath, Chinnam. Child labour, family life and fertility in India. Gujarat Institute of Development Research Working Paper, No. 55, ISBN 81-85820-12-0. Dec 1993. viii, 111 pp. Gujarat Institute of Development Research: Ahmedabad, India. In Eng.
"The paper attempts to review the trend in the incidence of child labour estimated by successive [Indian] censuses beginning with 1961 and the quinquennial surveys conducted by the National Sample Survey (NSS) Organisation during 1977-78, 1983 and 1987-88. This review is followed by a discussion of the results of an extensive retabulation of the 1983 and 1987-88 survey data for the two most urbanised states, Gujarat and Maharashtra. The household-level data of the two surveys are used also to attempt multiple and logistic regression analysis of the determinants of child labour in the two states. The paper also examines the nature of economic activities being pursued by the child workers." The results "show statistically significant negative association between child labour and the independent variables of (i) student population ratios, (ii) household size and (iii) educational level of the head of household."
Correspondence: Gujarat Institute of Development Research, Gota 382-481, Ahmedabad, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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