Volume 60 - Number 4 - Winter 1994

J. Characteristics

Primarily references to descriptive studies. Official tabular material will be found under S. Official Statistical Publications . Items that are primarily analytical, but that also contain information on characteristics, will be found under K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations and Natural Resources or L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations , as appropriate.

J.1. General Demographic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to various demographic characteristics, including age, sex, sex ratios, and marital status. Studies on demographic aging are also included.

60:40552 Asselin, Suzanne; Duchesne, Louis; Gauthier, Herve; Jean, Sylvie; Lachapelle, Jean; Laroche, Denis; Lavoie, Yolande; Nobert, Yves. Men and women: a comparison of standards of living. [Les hommes et les femmes: une comparaison de leurs conditions de vie.] Statistiques Demographiques, ISBN 2-551-13954-6. 1994. 301 pp. Bureau de la Statistique du Quebec: Quebec, Canada. In Fre.
This report analyzes demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the province of Quebec, with the focus on differences between men and women. Chapters are included on age and sex distribution, fertility and nuptiality, the domestic and family situation, health, education, labor force, professions, income, demographic changes and the life cycle, employment, and sharing household chores.
Correspondence: Bureau de la Statistique du Quebec, 200 chemin Saint-Foy, Quebec, Quebec G1R 5T4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40553 Baranyai, Istvan. On the number and composition of elderly people, 1960-1990. [Az idoskoruak szamanak es osszetetelnek alakulasa, 1960-1990.] Statisztikai Szemle, Vol. 72, No. 6, Jun 1994. 448-60 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
"Hungary's population increased moderately between 1960 and 1980, then it has been decreasing every year. However, within this the number and proportion of those over 60 years of age--particularly of females--increased right along, even after 1980. The study follows up the socio-economic and demographic characteristics of this population group...."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40554 Bucher, Hansjorg. The spatial dimension of aging. [Die raumliche Dimension der Alterung.] Forum Demographie und Politik, No. 6, Jun 1994. 53-77 pp. Bonn, Germany. In Ger.
Regional differences in demographic aging in Germany and their causes are examined. Projections for the period 1991-2010 are then presented, and the consequences are discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40555 Cheng, Chaoze. The challenge of population aging in mainland China: a demographic accounting. Issues and Studies, Vol. 29, Dec 1993. 69-87 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Eng.
Recent trends in demographic aging in China are reviewed using data from censuses taken between 1953 and 1990 and the 1987 1-per-100 Population Sampling Survey. Sections are included on the age composition of the elderly population, dependency ratios, life expectancy, sex distribution of the elderly, and regional differences. Particular attention is given to the policy implications of current and future trends.
Correspondence: C. Cheng, University of Hong Kong, Center of Asian Studies, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong. Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

60:40556 Darnay, Arsen J. Statistical record of older Americans. ISBN 0-8103-9198-8. 1994. xl, 926 pp. Gale Research: Detroit, Michigan/London, England. In Eng.
This publication contains a selection of statistical tables on older Americans; data are drawn from government, academic, association, technical, trade, and journalistic sources. Sections are included on demographics; education; families; income, assets, and spending; pensions and retirement; social security; labor and employment; housing; health and health care; health insurance; nursing homes and resident care; culture and lifestyle; public life; opinions; and criminals and victims.
Correspondence: Gale Research, 835 Penobscot Building, Detroit, MI 48226-4094. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40557 De Silva, W. Indralal. How serious is ageing in Sri Lanka and what can be done about it? Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 9, No. 1, Mar 1994. 19-36 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"The objective of this article is...to examine the demographic characteristics and emergence of new challenges of the fast growing elderly population in Sri Lanka." Results indicate that "the combination of low fertility and increased survival in Sri Lanka during the last four decades ensures that there will be large and rapid increases in the elderly population. Although the traditional family support system for the elderly still exists, modernization has an adverse impact on the care and support traditionally provided by families....The study examines possible socio-economic implications of ageing to enable policy makers to be prepared for problems that are likely to emerge."
Correspondence: W. I. De Silva, University of Colombo, Demographic Training and Research Unit, P.O. Box 1490, Colombo, Sri Lanka. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40558 Du, Peng. A quantitative analysis of the major influencing factors in the aging of the Chinese population. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 6, No. 1, 1994. 59-68 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this study, the author conducts a quantitative analysis of the respective role of fertility rate, mortality rate and population age structure in the aging process of the Chinese population by the method of comparative population prediction."
Correspondence: P. Du, People's University of China, Institute of Population Science, 39 Haidian Road, Haidian District, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40559 Hopflinger, Francois; Struckelberger, Astrid. Old age and research on aging in Switzerland. [Vieillesse et recherche sur la vieillesse en Suisse.] ISBN 2-88146-055-0. 1992. 245 pp. Realites Sociales: Lausanne, Switzerland. In Fre.
This study, translated from the original German, concerns demographic aging in Switzerland. Based on a review of the published literature, it concentrates on the main findings of current research and their implications for social policy. Chapters are included on demographic aging, the socioeconomic position of the aged, theories on aging, the life cycle and personal development of the elderly, medical aspects of aging, and policies for helping the aged.
Correspondence: Realites Sociales, C.P. 1273, 1001 Lausanne, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40560 Jacquot, Alain. Migration and uneven aging in the regions of France. [Les migrations et l'inegal vieillissement des regions francaises.] Economie et Statistique, No. 273, Mar 1994. 3-16, 78-80 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Ger; Spa.
Regional differences in the rate of demographic aging in France are examined. The author notes that "contrary to popular belief, of the two factors that contribute to aging, natural trends (births and deaths) still have the edge over the effect of population migrations across regions. The only exception to this is in the Paris area, due to the influence of Paris itself, where youthfulness caused by migrations is on a more or less equal footing with 'natural' aging. Conversely, migration contributes the most to the increase in the average age in the western French regions, with the joint effects of young people leaving and the over-60s returning."
Correspondence: A. Jacquot, Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, Division Statistiques et Etudes Regionales, 18 boulevard Adolphe Pinard, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40561 Kannisto, Vaino. Development of oldest-old mortality, 1950-1990: evidence from 28 developed countries. Odense Monographs on Population Aging, No. 1, ISBN 87-7838-015-4. 1994. 108 pp. Odense University Press: Odense, Denmark. In Eng.
This is the first in a planned series of monographs that will analyze data from the Odense Archive of Population Data on Aging. "These data, which pertain to death counts and population counts by year of age, year of birth, and current year over the last four decades or so in some thirty countries, permit the estimation of death rates after age 80." The author shows that in developed countries, death rates among octogenarians, nonagenarians, and even centenarians have improved in an unprecedented manner since 1950.
Correspondence: Odense University Press, Campusvej 55, 5230 Odense M, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40562 Knodel, John. Population ageing and fertility: some implications for Thailand. Comparative Study of the Elderly in Asia, Research Report, No. 93-25, Sep 1993. 17, [4] pp. University of Michigan, Population Studies Center: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This paper begins with an explication of the impact of past and future fertility trends on the population process of ageing stressing several important features of the situation that are often overlooked or misunderstood. It then examines the implications of fertility decline for the familial system of support focusing on coresidence elderly and their adult children."
Correspondence: University of Michigan, Department of Sociology, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40563 Koopman-Boyden, Peggy G. New Zealand's ageing society: the implications. ISBN 0-908896-19-0. 1993. [iv], 257 pp. Daphne Brasell Associates Press: Wellington, New Zealand. In Eng.
This is a collection of studies by various authors on aspects of demographic aging and its consequences for New Zealand. The first part looks at theories of aging, the characteristics of the elderly, and health and social issues related to aging. The second part considers policy implications concerning housing, income support, and institutional care and community services for the elderly. The third and final part looks at specific subgroups such as women and the Maori population, and at the political aspects of demographic aging.
Correspondence: Daphne Brasell Associates Press, P.O. Box 12-214, Thorndon, Wellington, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40564 Lamur, Humphrey. Surinamese elderly in the Netherlands: demographic aspects. [Surinaamse ouderen in Nederland: demografische aspecten.] In: Ebbehout onder de zeespiegel: maatschappelijke integratie van Surinaamse ouderen in Nederland, edited by V. Tjon-A-Ten. 1993. 5-10 pp. Stichting Landelijke Federatie van Welzijnsorganisaties voor Surinamers: Utrecht, Netherlands. In Dut.
The author reviews the size and characteristics of the Surinamese population aged 65 or older living in the Netherlands.
Correspondence: H. E. Lamur, University of Amsterdam, Anthropological-Sociological Center, Oudezijds Achterburgwal 185, 1012 DK Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40565 Longino, Charles F. Myths of an aging America. American Demographics, Vol. 16, No. 8, Aug 1994. 36-42 pp. Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
The implications of the growing elderly population in the United States are assessed. The author questions the assumption that this change will place an overwhelming burden on society. He suggests that, thanks to better health, changing living arrangements, and improved devices to assist the elderly, this population will be better equipped to live independently than their predecessors.
Correspondence: C. F. Longino, Wake Forest University, Department of Sociology, Winston-Salem, NC 27109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40566 Northcott, Herbert C. Public perceptions of the population aging "crisis" Canadian Public Policy/Analyse de Politiques, Vol. 20, No. 1, Mar 1994. 66-77 pp. Guelph, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This study examines the extent to which the general public anticipates a future crisis regarding Canada's ability to provide economic support for its aging population and analyses public opinion regarding policy alternatives designed to either increase revenues or reduce expenditures for seniors." Data are from a 1989 survey of 443 adults in Edmonton, Alberta. The results suggest that "there is a widely shared perception that Canada in the future will have difficulty supporting its elderly population. Furthermore, the public appears to be willing to accept increased taxation, is divided on the issue of targeting benefits to lower income seniors, and is opposed to across-the-board cuts in the levels of benefits paid to seniors."
Correspondence: H. C. Northcott, University of Alberta, Department of Sociology, Edmonton T6G 2H4, Alberta, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

60:40567 Noumbissi, Amadou. Population dynamics and age and sex structure of the population: the case of Cameroon. [Structures per age et sexe et dynamique demographique: le cas du Cameroun.] Population, Vol. 49, No. 3, May-Jun 1994. 751-71 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"In this paper, a simple method, which is based entirely on a knowledge of the age structure, is presented to describe the dynamics of a population and assess the development of its birth and death rates. The method is based on the relation that exists between a population's structure and its development, as mapped out by Bennett and Horiuchi. The method is applied to data from Cameroon, following a critical evaluation of the age and sex structure of the population shown in the censuses of April 1976 and March 1987, after a period during which the death rate fell dramatically, the birth rate increased, whilst fertility rates during the early 1980s appear to have been declining."
Correspondence: A. Noumbissi, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie, 1 place Montesquieu, B.P. 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40568 Uruguay. Instituto Nacional de Estadistica [INE] (Montevideo, Uruguay); United Nations. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia [CELADE] (Santiago, Chile). Childhood and adolescence in Uruguay. [Ninez y adolescencia en el Uruguay.] CELADE Serie OI, No. 95, Pub. Order No. LC/DEM/R.205. 1994. 59 pp. Montevideo, Uruguay. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
A demographic analysis of the population of Uruguay under age 15 is presented using data from the 1985 census and the 1991 round of the National Household Survey. Chapters are included on the size, composition, and spatial distribution of this population; future trends; educational status; health status; household characteristics; the handicapped; and basic needs.
Correspondence: Instituto Nacional de Estadistica, C.P. 11.800, Montevideo, Uruguay. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40569 Wachter, Kenneth W.; Freedman, David A. Measuring local heterogeneity with 1990 census data. Program in Population Research Working Paper, No. 37, May 1993. 21 pp. University of California, Institute of International Studies, Program in Population Research: Berkeley, California. In Eng.
"We have introduced a direct measure of heterogeneity...and used it to measure heterogeneity from local area to local area for four variables related to Census coverage from the Census Bureau's P-12 sample from the 1990 U.S. Census. The heterogeneity we have measured is residual heterogeneity after stratification by age, sex, race and ethnicity, renter-owner status, place type and broad geographical division of the country."
Correspondence: University of California, Institute of International Studies, Program in Population Research, 2232 Piedmont Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40570 Weil, David N. Intergenerational transfers, aging, and uncertainty. NBER Working Paper, No. 4477, Sep 1993. 31, [6] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"Research on intergenerational transmission of wealth has pointed to uncertainty...as a potential source of significant bequest flows. In this paper I examine the effects of this same uncertainty on the behavior of those who expect to receive bequests....I examine the effect of this uncertainty on the outcome of population aging....I show that accounting for the effects of uncertainty slows down the reduction in saving that results from population aging."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

60:40571 Willekens, Frans. Children in the third world: a demographic profile. In: Population and family in the Low Countries 1993: late fertility and other current issues, edited by Gijs Beets et al. NIDI/CBGS Publication, No. 30, 1994. 167-208 pp. Swets and Zeitlinger: Berwyn, Pennsylvania/Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This contribution presents a demographic profile of children in the Third World. It describes and discusses changes in the number of children, their age distribution, chances of survival and living arrangements. Particular attention is devoted to the factors affecting the life chances of children, such as education and reproductive behaviour of the mother, gender bias, parental relationship, and health and social development programmes. Many findings from censuses and demographic and health surveys are given. The paper concludes with a discussion of the child survival issues raised in 1990 by Maurice King and calls for a comprehensive approach to sustainable human development and growth."
Correspondence: F. Willekens, University of Groningen, Population Research Centre, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40572 Zha, Ruichuan; Qiao, Xiaochun. Preliminary analysis of age heaping in population of Uygur nationality in Xinjiang Autonomous Region. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 5, No. 4, 1993. 335-44 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Since 1982 when China conducted its third census, the population heaping phenomenon in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region has drawn wide attention and concern....In August 1992, an investigation on the age heaping of population of the Uygur nationality in Xinjiang was conducted....This paper presents a preliminary data analysis from this investigation."
Correspondence: R. Zha, People's University of China, Institute of Population Research, 39 Haidian Road, Haidian District, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.2. Biological Characteristics

Descriptive studies of menarche and menopause, longevity, and increasing the life span, as well as other biological characteristics such as sex selection. Studies that are concerned with menarche and menopause as they specifically affect fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility .

60:40573 Chakravarty, Kanta. Age at menarche among the Rajbanshi women of north Bengal. Journal of the Assam Science Society, Vol. 36, No. 1, Mar 1994. 49-52 pp. Gauhati, India. In Eng.
Age at menarche among the Rajbanshi of northern Bengal is studied using data on 167 women collected in 1991. Results show mean age at menarche to be 14.7 years and declining.
Correspondence: K. Chakravarty, Institute of Social Change and Development, Gauhati, Assam 781 001, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40574 Wingard, Deborah L.; Criqui, Michael H.; Edelstein, Sharon L.; Tucker, Joan; Tomlinson-Keasey, Carol; Schwartz, Joseph E.; Friedman, Howard S. Is breast-feeding in infancy associated with adult longevity? American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 84, No. 9, Sep 1994. 1,458-62 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The relationship between breast-feeding in infancy and longevity is explored using data on 1,170 subjects in California who have been followed up for 65 years or longer. "Overall, the present study does not provide strong evidence that breast-feeding is associated with adult longevity."
Correspondence: D. L. Wingard, University of California, Department of Family and Preventive Medicine 0607, La Jolla, CA 92093-0607. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

J.3. Economic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of income differentials, earnings, career mobility, and other economic characteristics if allocated according to demographic groups. Analytical studies are classified under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population , and studies concerned with employment and labor force are classified under K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation .

60:40575 Abbott, Michael G.; Beach, Charles M. Immigrant earnings differentials and birth-year effects for men in Canada: post-war-1972. Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue Canadienne d'Economique, Vol. 26, No. 3, Aug 1993. 505-24 pp. Downsview, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper investigates immigrant earnings differentials for males in Canada and how these earnings have changed over time leading up to 1972 with workers' year of birth. The paper uses the 1973 Job Mobility Survey, which contains a direct measure of work experience reported independent of age. Thus, using age as a birth-year index, it is found that cross-sectional earnings differentials of immigrant men have widened since the later 1960s relative to those of native-born workers."
Correspondence: M. G. Abbott, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40576 Banerji, Rukmini; Mehrotra, Nidhi; Parish, William L. Gender wage gap in Malaysia and Taiwan. Population Research Center Discussion Paper Series, No. 93-1, Jun 1993. 23, [34] pp. University of Chicago, National Opinion Research Center [NORC], Population Research Center: Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"Using nationally representative samples of women in Malaysia and Taiwan, we examine the extent to which [male-female earnings differentials] match those observed in other countries, and weigh which theoretical perspectives best explain the observed labor market outcomes. We emphasize micro and macro-level economic factors, beginning with the supply side and a standard human capital framework, continuing with demand side factors that influence how women are drawn into different parts of the labor market, and then concluding with an examination of the effects of institutional structure and government policy in both countries."
Correspondence: University of Chicago, National Opinion Research Center, Population Research Center, 1155 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40577 Blackburn, McKinley; Korenman, Sanders. The declining marital-status earnings differential. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 7, No. 3, Jul 1994. 247-70 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"Earnings differentials between married and unmarried [U.S.] men have been declining since the late 1960s. We consider two possible explanations for this decline: changes in the nature of selection into marriage; and changes in role specialization within marriage. Our analysis of changes in marriage differentials within cohorts supports only a small contribution of changes in selection. There is some evidence that differences in human-capital investment between married and unmarried men have fallen over time, but this effect has apparently been largely offset by increases in the return to that human capital."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1991 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: M. Blackburn, University of South Carolina, Department of Economics, Columbia, SC 29208. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40578 Bloom, David E.; Grenier, Gilles; Gunderson, Morley. The changing labor market position of Canadian immigrants. NBER Working Paper, No. 4672, Mar 1994. 24, [10] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This paper uses pooled 1971, 1981, and 1986 Canadian census data to evaluate the extent to which (1) the earnings of Canadian immigrants at the time of immigration fall short of the earnings of comparable Canadian-born individuals, and (2) immigrants' earnings grow more rapidly over time than those of the Canadian-born. Variations in the labor market assimilation of immigrants according to their gender and country of origin are also analyzed. The results suggest that recent immigrant cohorts have had more difficulty being assimilated into the Canadian labor market than earlier ones, an apparent consequence of recent changes in Canadian immigration policy, labor market discrimination against visible minorities, and the prolonged recession of the early 1980s."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

60:40579 Brezis, Elise S.; Krugman, Paul. Immigration, investment, and real wages. NBER Working Paper, No. 4563, Dec 1993. 16, [5] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"When a country is the recipient of large-scale, politically motivated immigration--as has been the case for Israel in recent years--the initial impact is to reduce real wages. Over the longer term, however, the endogenous response of investment, together with increasing returns, may well actually increase real earnings. If immigration itself is not wholly exogenous, but responds to real wages, there may be multiple equilibria. That is, optimism or pessimism about the success of the economy at absorbing immigrants may constitute a self-fulfilling prophecy."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

60:40580 Casper, Lynne M.; McLanahan, Sara S.; Garfinkel, Irwin. The gender-poverty gap: what can we learn from other countries. American Sociological Review, Vol. 59, No. 4, Aug 1994. 594-605 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"We examine gender differences in the relative poverty of men and women in eight industrialized countries. The analyses are based on data from the Luxembourg Income Study, which includes data from the United States, Canada, Australia, the United Kingdom, West Germany, Sweden, Italy, and the Netherlands. We examine the importance of the gender-specific demographic compositions of marriage, parenthood, and employment in accounting for differences in men's and women's poverty rates, both within and across countries. The cross-national comparisons suggest that the relative importance of demographic characteristics differs by country and that factors such as religion, culture, and government policies also help determine the gap between women's and men's poverty rates."
Correspondence: L. M. Casper, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Population Division, Washington, D.C. 20233-3400. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40581 Hoynes, Hilary W.; McFadden, Daniel. The impact of demographics on housing and non-housing wealth in the United States. NBER Working Paper, No. 4666, Mar 1994. 28, [25] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This paper focuses on two questions: (1) Are housing prices forecastable from current information on demographics and housing prices? and (2) How are household savings decisions affected by capital gains in housing? We use [U.S.] metropolitan statistical area (MSA) level data on housing prices and demographic trends during the 1980s and find mixed evidence on the forecastability of housing prices. Further, we use data on five-year savings rates from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and find no evidence that households engage in changing their non-housing savings in response to expectations about capital gains in housing."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

60:40582 Hurd, Michael D. The effects of demographic trends on consumption, saving and government expenditures in the U.S. NBER Working Paper, No. 4601, Dec 1993. 21, [23] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This paper reviews and analyzes forecasts of the Social Security trust funds, government spending, medical expenditures, and other elements of aggregate income and spending. According to these forecasts, the aging of the U.S. population will require some increases in taxes to support the retirement system. It should reduce the saving rate, and the composition of output will change....The direct effects of aging are completely dominated by the projected increases in medical expenditures."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

60:40583 Jaeger, David A.; Page, Marianne. Degrees matter: new evidence on sheepskin effects in the returns to education. Population Studies Center Research Report, No. 94-307, Apr 1994. 14 pp. University of Michigan, Population Studies Center: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The authors use a unique data set, from a matched sample of the 1991 and 1992 Current Population Survey that has information on both years of education and diplomas received, to examine the impact of education on future income in the United States. They show that this approach substantially increases the estimated returns to a bachelor's degree.
Correspondence: University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40584 Karoly, Lynn A.; Klerman, Jacob A. Using regional data to reexamine the contribution of demographic and sectoral changes to increasing U.S. wage inequality. RAND Labor and Population Program Reprint, No. 94-01, Pub. Order No. RP-277. 1994. [33] pp. RAND: Santa Monica, California. In Eng.
"This paper uses geographical disaggregation to reevaluate the importance of sectoral and demographic shifts in explaining recent changes in the U.S. wage distribution. Using hourly earnings data from the Current Population Survey, we explore two approaches to assessing the contribution of demographic and sectoral changes to the increase in inequality in that distribution. The first approach uses fine disaggregations of the sample of workers by age and industry to conduct shift-share analyses. The second approach conducts regression analyses of the trend in inequality of our panel sample of geographic areas as a function of aggregate measures of demographic, industry, macroeconomic and international trade variables."
This chapter is reprinted from the Changing Distribution of Income in an Open U.S. Economy, edited by J. H. Bergstrand et al., pp. 183-216, Amsterdam, Netherlands, Elsevier Science, 1994.
Correspondence: RAND, 1700 Main Street, P.O. Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40585 Lam, David; Schoeni, Robert. Family ties and labor markets in the United States and Brazil. Population Studies Center Research Report, No. 93-283, Jul 1993. 25 pp. University of Michigan, Population Studies Center: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"Comparable surveys from Brazil and the United States are used to examine 'vertical' and 'horizontal' economic connections between families. Based on a model of assortative mating and intergenerational transmission of schooling and earnings, we estimate the effects of the schooling of a worker's father, father-in-law, and wife on the worker's wage."
Correspondence: University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40586 Massey, Douglas S.; Parrado, Emilio. Migradollars: the remittances and savings of Mexican migrants to the U.S.A. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 13, No. 1, Mar 1994. 3-30 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"In this article, we use new data from 22 communities to estimate the total flow of dollars back into Mexico as a result of migration to the United States. Our estimates include remittances sent while working abroad and money brought back on return trips; they incorporate transfers by temporary as well as permanent U.S. workers; they include money transferred by legal as well as illegal migrants; and they include funds sent or brought by household heads as well as other family members. We estimate that U.S. $24 million in 'migradollars' flowed into the sample communities during the survey year. In some places, the flow of U.S. money equalled or exceeded the value of locally earned income."
Correspondence: D. S. Massey, University of Chicago, National Opinion Research Center, 1155 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40587 Massey, Douglas S.; Gross, Andrew B.; Shibuya, Kumiko. Migration, segregation, and the geographic concentration of poverty. American Sociological Review, Vol. 59, No. 3, Jun 1994. 425-45 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"We analyze patterns of African-American mobility and white mobility in U.S. cities to determine the causes of geographically concentrated poverty. Using a special tabulation of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics that appends U.S. Census tract data to individual records, we analyze the movement of poor and nonpoor people into and out of five types of neighborhoods: white nonpoor, black nonpoor, black poor, black very poor, and racially and socioeconomically mixed neighborhoods. We find little support for the view that the geographic concentration of black poverty is caused by the out-migration of nonpoor blacks or that it stems from the net movement of blacks into poverty. Rather, our results suggest that the geographic concentration of poor blacks is caused by the residential segregation of African-Americans in urban housing markets."
Correspondence: D. S. Massey, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40588 McLaughlin, Diane K.; Jensen, Leif. Poverty dynamics among U.S. elders: implications of occupation, gender, and residence. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 94-16, May 1994. 28, [22] pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
Data from the Response and Non-response files of the 1988 Wave of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics are used to analyze the relatively greater risk of poverty faced by nonmetropolitan than metropolitan elderly in the United States.
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6211. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40589 Schieber, Sylvester J.; Shoven, John B. The consequences of population aging on private pension fund saving and asset markets. NBER Working Paper, No. 4665, Mar 1994. 29 pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This paper examines the impact of the aging demographic structure of the U.S. on its funded private pension system. A 75-year outlook is produced for the pension system corresponding to the 75-year forecast of the Social Security system. The primary result is that the pension system will cease being a source of national saving in the third decade of the next century. The paper speculates about the impact this may have on asset prices."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

60:40590 Weiss, Yoram; Willis, Robert J. Transfers among divorced couples: evidence and interpretation. Journal of Labor Economics, Vol. 11, No. 4, Oct 1993. 629-79 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
An analysis of the economic impact of divorce settlements in the United States is presented using data for a white cohort taken from the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972. "The effects of spouses' incomes on the divorce transfer are estimated and used to simulate the welfare effects of divorce on husbands, wives, and children under alternative assumptions about marriage contracts and the ability of a couple to continue coordinating resources in the aftermath of divorce. We find a positive (negative) relationship between divorce transfers and the growth of husband's (wife's) earnings during marriage. The estimated expenditure on children in the divorce state is only half the accustomed level during marriage."
Correspondence: Y. Weiss, Tel Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv, 69 978 Tel Aviv, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (IR).

60:40591 Zweimuller, J.; Winter-Ebmer, R. Gender wage differentials in private and public sector jobs. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 7, No. 3, Jul 1994. 271-85 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"In this study gender wage differentials in private and public sector jobs in Austria are calculated. Occupational attainment is considered as endogenous by the use of an ordered response model. Results show that wage discrimination is also present in the public sector, though on a lower level. Both in private firms and for public servants a substantial part of this unwarranted differential is due to unequal professional advancement."
Correspondence: J. Zweimuller, University of Linz, Department of Economics, 4040 Linz, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.4. Social Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to literacy and educational attainment, cultural background, religious affiliation, residential characteristics and segregation, and the like. Studies on social mobility are also coded under this heading.

60:40592 Butcher, Kristin F.; Case, Anne. The effect of sibling sex composition on women's education and earnings. Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 109, No. 3, Aug 1994. 531-63 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This paper documents the impact of siblings on the education of men and women born in the United States between 1920 and 1965. We examine the effect of the number and sex composition of a boy or girl's siblings on that child's educational attainment. We find that throughout the century women's educational choices have been systematically affected by the sex composition of her siblings, and that men's choices have not. Women raised only with brothers have received on average significantly more education than women raised with any sisters, controlling for household size." The implications of these findings for women's potential income are considered. Data are from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, the National Longitudinal Survey of Women, and the Current Population Survey.
Correspondence: K. F. Butcher, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

60:40593 Knodel, John. Parental views on gender and schooling: qualitative evidence from rural Thailand. Population Studies Center Research Report, No. 93-292, Sep 1993. 18, [1] pp. University of Michigan, Population Studies Center: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"The present study provides an analysis of qualitative data on the attitudes and opinions of rural parents [in Thailand] about educating sons and daughters past the primary level. The focus is on issues related to the sex of their children." The data are from a series of focus group discussions held in 1991 and 1992.
Correspondence: University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40594 Kominski, Robert; Adams, Andrea. Educational attainment in the United States: March 1993 and 1992. Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, No. 476, May 1994. xvii, 101, [12] pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report contains data on the educational attainment of persons in the United States from the Current Population Surveys (CPS) conducted by the Bureau of the Census in March 1992 and 1993. Summary data on educational attainment by age, sex, race and Hispanic origin are shown for 1992 and 1993...."
Correspondence: U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D.C. 20402. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40595 Manzoor, Khaleda. An attempt to measure female status in Pakistan and its impact on reproductive behaviour. Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 32, No. 4, Pt. 2, Winter 1993. 917-30 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
"The present study is an attempt to measure female status with the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey data (1991) and study the impact of female status on fertility, desired family size, contraceptive use and attitudes of females and their spouses." A comment is included by Naushin Mahmood (pp. 928-30).
Correspondence: K. Manzoor, National Institute of Population Studies, House No. 8, Street 70, F-8/3, P.O. Box 2197, Islamabad, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40596 Potter, D. E. B.; Cunningham, Peter J. An evaluation of a method used to impute residence data. Journal of Economic and Social Measurement, Vol. 20, No. 3, 1994. 263-83 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Data from the 1987 [U.S.] National Medical Expenditure Survey, Institutional Population Component were used to characterize partial and complete respondents with respect to outcome measures based on event history data....The results indicated that after controlling for sample type...,persons who spent any time in a nursing or personal care home during 1987 and for whom incomplete residence data were collected were significantly different from their counterparts with complete data. Most importantly, persons with incomplete data were more likely to move from place to place, and to have more stays in NHs [nursing homes] during 1987....The results further provided some evidence that a minimum distance function imputation technique could be used to impute residence data for multiple events to persons missing some event history data, and that in some circumstances the imputation reduced the nonresponse bias of survey estimates....The paper also provides a brief description of the methodology used to construct and impute the event history profiles of missing residence data."
Correspondence: D. E. B. Potter, Agency of Health Care Policy and Research, 2101 East Jefferson Street, Suite 500, Rockville, MD 20852. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

60:40597 Sathar, Zeba A. The processes by which female education affects fertility and child survival. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population: Montreal 1993, Volume 4. 1993. 229-40 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The author briefly reviews research on the relationship between female education, fertility, and child survival. "The aim of this [conference] session was to move away from the numerous studies which establish the importance of female education as a correlate or determinant of fertility behaviour or child survival and to step further towards seeking explanations for why female education is associated strongly and significantly with both the demographic processes of fertility and mortality. In brief, the aim...was to invite research which would provide insights into the mechanisms by which the relatively low position of women is posited to be a major reason for continuing high levels of fertility and child mortality in many developing societies."
Correspondence: Z. A. Sathar, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, P.O. Box 1091, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40598 Terrie, E. Walter; Nam, Charles B. 1990 and 1980 Nam-Powers-Terrie Occupational Status Scores. Center for the Study of Population Working Paper, No. WPS 94-118, [1994]. 8, [14] pp. Florida State University, College of Social Sciences, Center for the Study of Population: Tallahassee, Florida. In Eng.
"This paper contains newly calculated Occupational Status Scores for 505 occupations classified in the 1990 U.S. Census. These scores are calculated using the same procedures as those used by Nam and Powers since 1950. The procedure is described. Due to the very high comparability between the 1980 and 1990 occupational classification systems, scores for both decades are presented....A computer disk containing these scores as well as scores for 1950 through 1970 and sample programs for their use is available from the authors."
Correspondence: Florida State University, Center for the Study of Population, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4063. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40599 Visaria, Leela. Female autonomy and fertility behaviour: an exploration of Gujarat data. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population: Montreal 1993, Volume 4. 1993. 263-75 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"This exploratory analysis has two objectives. First, it seeks to evolve quantifiable categories to measure women's autonomy [in Gujarat, India,] in terms of their (a) access to and control over cash or money, (b) perception of freedom enjoyed to perform certain tasks in the affinal family and (c) contact with the natal kin. Secondly, it attempts to assess the relationship between the first two measures of female autonomy and fertility and contraceptive use."
Correspondence: L. Visaria, Gujarat Institute of Development Research, Near Gota Char Rasta, Gota, Ahmedabad 382 481, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.5. Ethnic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations on the basis of race, ethnic group, language, and national origin.

60:40600 Altamirano, Teofilo. Toward a Latin Americanization of North American culture? [Hacia una Latinoamericanizacion de la cultura norteamericana?] Revista Peruana de Poblacion, No. 2, 1993. 87-112 pp. Lima, Peru. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"The author analyses [U.S. census data,] which demonstrate that [the] Latin American population is growing very fast. The research shows interesting contributions of the Latin American culture to different aspects of the American life style like music, movies, food and language."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40601 Hui, Zhixin. Characteristics of minority population distribution and development in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 5, No. 4, 1993. 297-302 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper attempts to offer a general introduction and analysis of the characteristics of minority population distribution and development [in China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region] based on the region's manually collected and 10% pre-selected sample data of the fourth census."
Correspondence: Z. Hui, Census Office, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40602 Lesthaeghe, R.; Surkyn, J. Heteropraxis and heterogeneity in social change: Turkish and Moroccan women in Belgium. IPD Working Paper, No. 1994-1, 1994. 18, [13] pp. Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Interuniversity Programme in Demography: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
"The main purpose of the article is to document the intergenerational changes occurring among the two most important Islamic communities in Flanders and Brussels [Belgium]." Attention is directed to family formation, including nuptiality, fertility, and contraception; changes in sex preference and the utility of children; gender relations and women's status; and religiosity.
Correspondence: Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Centrum voor Sociologie, Interuniversity Programme in Demography, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40603 Meillassoux, Claude. How do the Inuit survive? [Comment se sont perpetues les Inuit?] In: Population, reproduction, societes: perspectives et enjeux de demographie sociale, edited by Dennis D. Cordell et al. 1993. 19-45 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre.
This is a general study, based on secondary sources, of the demographic survival of Arctic populations of Eskimo and Inuit. Factors considered include mortality, infanticide, and reproduction.
Correspondence: C. Meillassoux, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 15 quai Anatole France, 75700 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40604 Montgomery, Patricia A. The Hispanic population in the United States: March 1993. Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, No. 475, May 1994. iii, 23, [23] pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report presents a profile of the Hispanic origin population in the United States based on data collected in the March 1993 Current Population Survey (CPS)....[It] shows the characteristics of the total United States population, the Hispanic population and its subgroups, and the non-Hispanic and non-Hispanic White populations....[It] includes one text table, four tables with detailed data for 1993, and two time series tables showing selected social and economic characteristics dating back to the March 1983 CPS. The social and economic characteristics presented in the tables include age, sex, marital status, educational attainment, occupation, employment status, family and household composition, income, and poverty status."
Correspondence: U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D.C. 20402. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40605 Poston, Dudley L.; Mao, Michael X.; Yu, Mei-Yu. The global distribution of the overseas Chinese around 1990. Population and Development Review, Vol. 20, No. 3, Sep 1994. 631-45, 694, 696 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The authors examine patterns of Chinese emigration, with a focus on "such questions as: How many overseas Chinese are there today? How are they distributed among the world's regions? What have been their patterns of population change in the past decade? What characteristics of the host countries are related to the magnitude of the overseas Chinese population?...Generally, the overseas Chinese tend to live in countries with large populations; and among the overseas Chinese living in Asia, their number in a country is inversely related to the distance of the country from Guangzhou (Canton)."
Correspondence: D. L. Poston, Texas A & M University, Department of Sociology, College Station, TX 77843. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40606 Psacharopoulos, George; Patrinos, Harry A. Indigenous people and poverty in Latin America: an empirical analysis. World Bank Regional and Sectoral Studies, ISBN 0-8213-2958-8. LC 94-26584. 1994. xxiii, 232 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This is an analysis of poverty among the indigenous people of Latin America. Introductory chapters examine the costs of ethnicity around the world, the problems of enumerating indigenous people, and methods and data. Chapters then focus on country-specific issues in urban Bolivia, Guatemala, Mexico, and Peru. "This report documents that equalization of income-generating characteristics would boost the productivity of the indigenous population in their market and nonmarket activities and lead to a considerable reduction in inequality and poverty. This suggests that the socioeconomic condition of indigenous people can be improved since policy-influenced variables such as education are largely responsible for differences in observed earnings."
Correspondence: World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40607 Saha, S. S. Genetic demography and anthropometry of Muria tribe. ISBN 81-7099-301-6. 1993. x, 169 pp. Mittal Publications: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
This is a demographic study of the Muria tribe of Bastar, Madhya Pradesh, India, based on a data sample of some 5,000 individuals. Topics covered include population structure, fertility, mortality, migration, marriage patterns, and anthropometric characteristics.
Correspondence: Mittal Publications, A-110 Mohan Garden, New Delhi 110 059, India. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

60:40608 Watkins, Susan C. After Ellis Island: newcomers and natives in the 1910 census. ISBN 0-87154-910-7. LC 93-191610. 1994. xviii, 451 pp. Russell Sage Foundation: New York, New York. In Eng.
This is a selection of studies by various authors on the foreign-born population of the United States. Data are from the 1910 census. Following an introduction by the editor, chapters are included on child mortality differences by ethnic group; ethnic differences in fertility; family and household structure; residential segregation; race and ethnicity, social class, and schooling; and occupational differences by country of origin. The work concludes with a review of these studies and of their implications for future research, an introduction to the Public Use Sample of the 1910 census and a tabular presentation of immigrant characteristics by ethnic group.
Correspondence: Russell Sage Foundation, 112 East 64th Street, New York, NY 10021. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40609 Weiner, Michael. Race and migration in Imperial Japan. Sheffield Centre for Japanese Studies/Routledge Series, ISBN 0-415-06228-4. LC 93-24007. 1994. x, 278 pp. Routledge: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
"In large part this study is an analysis of racial discourse in Japan, its production and reproduction over the past one hundred years, and an attempt to deconstruct the assumptions which underpin the myth of a Japanese race....The second...theme developed in this study is the colonial project in Korea, the maturation of a Korean community in prewar Japan, and the later mobilisation of Korean labour during the Pacific War....The final theme addressed in this study is that of colonial migration, its causes and consequences. But, rather than merely identifying the causes or 'push factors', facilitating migration, the analysis will focus upon the more dynamic or 'pull factors', which determined immigrant destinations....Rather than confining the analysis to racial or class determinants, this study focuses upon the complex interplay of both in determining the function and status of Koreans in prewar Japanese society."
Correspondence: Routledge, 11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE, England. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

60:40610 Wrench, John; Solomos, John. Racism and migration in Western Europe. ISBN 0-85496-332-4. 1993. x, 293 pp. Berg: Providence, Rhode Island/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In contemporary European societies the question of racism, linked to the politicisation of migration, is a major issue in social and political debate. Developments in a number of European societies have highlighted the volatility of this phenomenon and the ease with which racist and extreme-right political movements can mobilise around the question of immigration and opposition to cultural pluralism. The situation in countries as divergent as Britain, France, Germany, the Netherlands and various Scandinavian societies shows evidence of mounting racism and hostility to migrants. This volume provides a critical overview of the processes that have led to the present situation and explores some of the options for the future."
Correspondence: Berg Publishers, 221 Waterman Street, Providence, RI 02906. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.


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