Volume 60 - Number 4 - Winter 1994

H. Migration

Studies that treat quantitative data on migration analytically. Methodological studies concerned primarily with migration are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , as appropriate. Includes some consideration of policy aspects, but studies relating primarily to policies designed to affect migration are coded under M.3. Measures Affecting Migration .

H.1. General Migration

Studies that concern both international and internal migration.

60:40434 Drbohlav, Dusan. The problem of the relationship of preference-migration. [K problematice vztahu preference-migrace.] Zpravy Geografickeho Ustavu CSAV, Vol. 28, No. 3, 1991. 29-38 pp. Brno, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng.
The author examines migration preferences and behavior in the Czech Republic in the 1980s. Factors considered include age, economic status, and sex.
Correspondence: D. Drbohlav, Geograficky Ustav CSAV, Na Slupi 14, 128 00 Prague 2, Czech Republic. Location: Cornell University Library, Ithaca, NY.

60:40435 Duroselle, Jean-Baptiste. The invasion. Human migration: chance or fate? [L'invasion. Les migrations humaines: chance ou fatalite?] ISBN 2-259-02490-4. 1992. 229 pp. Plon: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is a general nontechnical study of human migration around the world. The author demonstrates that migration has been a constant factor throughout history, whether as belligerent invasion or peaceful immigration, and that the consequences of such migration range from genocide to cultural and socioeconomic enrichment. The focus is on the relevance of migration concepts to modern French politics.
Correspondence: Plon, 76 rue Bonaparte, 75006 Paris, France. Location: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Paris, France.

60:40436 El-Gamal, Mahmoud A. A dynamic migration model with uncertainty. Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Vol. 18, 1994. 511-38 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
The author presents "a dynamic version of the Harris-Todaro migration model where a finite population of infinitely-lived Bayesian agents choose consumption and migration decision rules as a function of their histories. The agents do not know the production functions in the two sectors and learn about them through wage draws that they receive from the stochastic production functions. The government knows the true production functions but is uninformed about the agents' beliefs, and the actual wage draws they observe. The government maximizes its welfare function using wage subsidies in the two sectors, and a migration tax. We solve the agents' dynamics programming problem, and then use the solution to solve the government's dynamic programming problem. We study the effects of government policies on the population distribution, and illustrate the model by numerically solving a particular parametric example."
Correspondence: M. A. El-Gamal, California Institute of Technology, Division of the Humanities and Social Sciences 228-77, Pasadena, CA 91125. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40437 Findley, Sally E. Does drought increase migration? A study of migration from rural Mali during the 1983-1985 drought. International Migration Review, Vol. 28, No. 3, Fall 1994. 539-53 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"Using data from a longitudinal panel study conducted in 1982 and 1989 in...Mali, this article demonstrates that the level of migration did not rise during the drought of 1983-1985. However, there was a dramatic increase in the migration of women and children during the severe 1983-1985 drought. Along with this increase in migration by women and children, there was a shift to short-cycle circulation, with 64 percent of the migrants adopting circular patterns. The study describes the characteristics of these migrants and recommends changes to development and migration policies that will facilitate such migrations in subsequent droughts."
Correspondence: S. E. Findley, Columbia University, Morningside Heights, New York, NY 10027. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40438 Glaesser, Hans-Georg; Siefkes, Frauke. Bibliography on migration: German and English language literature. [Bibliographie zur Wanderung: deutsch- und englischsprachige Literatur.] Kieler Bibliographien zu Aktuellen Okonomischen Themen, Vol. 10, ISBN 3-89456-052-5. 1993. 134 pp. Universitat Kiel, Institut fur Weltwirtschaft, Bibliothek: Kiel, Germany. In Eng; Ger.
This unannotated bibliography presents literature in English and German on migration for the period 1985-1993. It is organized geographically by region, and is global in scope. Indexes are included for authors, organizations, series, journals, and for subject and region in both languages.
Correspondence: Universitat Kiel, Instituts fur Weltwirtschaft, Bibliothek, Dusternbrooker Weg 120, 24105 Kiel, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40439 Kouame, Aka. The mobility of labor and the development of a peripheral satellite capitalist economy: labor-force migration in the Ivory Coast from 1900 to 1960. [Mobilite du travail et formation d'une economie capitaliste peripherique relais: les migrations de main-d'oeuvre en Cote-d'Ivoire de 1900 a 1960.] In: Population, reproduction, societes: perspectives et enjeux de demographie sociale, edited by Dennis D. Cordell et al. 1993. 311-28 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre.
This study uses the example of the Ivory Coast to show how the French colonial authorities encouraged the development of a mobile labor force as a major factor that enabled a capitalist colonial economy to grow. Trends in migration patterns from 1901 to 1960 are described.
Correspondence: A. Kouame, Institut de Formation et de Recherche Demographiques, B.P. 1556, Yaounde, Cameroon. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40440 Li, Wen Lang. Models of migration. Monograph of the Population Studies Center, ISBN 957-9019-46-0. 1994. vi, 124 pp. National Taiwan University, Population Studies Center: Taipei, Taiwan. In Eng.
This is a general introduction to the study of migration and to the use of models in such studies. An introductory chapter examines the sociological theories of migration. Part 1 examines behavioral approaches to migration, including employment opportunities, predicting individual behavior, and occupational mobility. Part 2 looks at return migration. Part 3 deals with immigration, and Part 4 with migration streams and their effect on spatial distribution. Part 5 concerns the role of migration in population projections. The geographical scope is worldwide, with particular emphasis in several cases on the United States.
Correspondence: National Taiwan University, Population Studies Center, 1 Roosevelt Road IV, Taipei, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40441 Lin-Yuan, Yihua; Kosinski, Leszek A. The model of place utility revisited. International Migration, Vol. 32, No. 1, 1994. 49-70 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The purpose of this paper...is twofold: first, to specify a way of calculating place utility so that potential migrants could move to the place where overall place utility is maximized; and second, which is more important, to reveal how decision-makers in the real world, who are acting within 'bounded rationalities'...,make their decisions on where to migrate. This study is supported by an empirical survey of recent Chinese immigrants to Edmonton [Canada]....The findings reveal that when people evaluate different places, they do not necessarily look for the one that generates the highest overall value or utility across all properties....The study further indicates that the assumption underlying most microeconomic models (that maximizing utility or benefit is the ultimate rule for choosing one location out of several) has not been verified."
Correspondence: Y. Lin-Yuan, University of Alberta, Department of Geography, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40442 Liu, Qiming. Analysis of the spatial process of population migration and its corresponding migratory field. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 6, No. 1, 1994. 49-57 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"With population as the starting point, the author puts forward in this article a general mathematical expression of the spatial process of population migration...from a cybernetic perspective, and established a conceptual framework and analytical method for the migratory field theory on the basis of spatial interaction theory, physical field theory and maximum entropy theory."
Correspondence: Q. Liu, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Population Research Institute, 5 Jianguomen Nei Da Jie 5 Hao, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40443 Martin, Philip L. Migration and trade: challenges for the 1990s. In: Development issues: presentations to the 48th meeting of the Development Committee. May 1994. 97-108 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper summarizes recent migration patterns and recommends a three-pronged strategy to deal with the interactions between economically-motivated migration in the 1990s. In particular, we need (1) a better understanding of migration and its impacts at areas of origin and destination...,(2) more research on the migration transition, the process by which an emigration country transforms itself into an immigration country, and (3) more exploration of a basis for international coordination in migration matters."
Correspondence: P. L. Martin, University of California, Department of Agricultural Economics, Davis, CA 95616. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40444 Montabes Pereira, Juan; Lopez Garcia, Bernabe; Del Pino, Domingo. The population explosion, employment, and labor migration in the western Mediterranean. [Explosion demografica, empleo y trabajadores emigrantes en el Mediterraneo occidental.] Serie Monografias, ISBN 84-338-1775-2. 1993. 596 pp. Universidad de Granada, Biblioteca de Ciencias Politicas y Sociologia: Granada, Spain; Agencia Espanola de Cooperacion Internacional [AECI]: Madrid, Spain. In Fre; Spa; Ita; Por.
This collective work is a product of a meeting held February 6-9, 1990, in Granada, Spain, which brought together scholars from countries located both north and south of the Mediterranean to examine questions of common interest, such as migration. The 29 papers are in French, Italian, Portuguese, or Spanish, and are divided into five major parts. These concern demographic problems in the western Mediterranean, primarily in North Africa; international cooperation in the region; employment policies in both developed and developing countries in the region; the informal or underground economy; and international migration.
Correspondence: Universidad de Granada, Biblioteca de Ciencias Politicas y Sociologia, Hospital Real, Calle Cuesta del Hospicio s/n, 18071 Granada, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40445 Ouedraogo, O. Dieudonne. Migration in Burkina Faso under the Popular Democratic Revolutionary Party: continuity or change? [Les migrations burkinabe sous la Revolution Democratique et Populaire: continuite ou rupture?] In: Population, reproduction, societes: perspectives et enjeux de demographie sociale, edited by Dennis D. Cordell et al. 1993. 329-50 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre.
The author examines the extent to which political developments in Burkina Faso since 1983 have affected migration. Noting that migration patterns developed during the colonial period involved migration from the Upper Volta region to the coastal areas, the author uses data from a variety of sources to suggest that the nature of migration has changed significantly from being predominately international to internal since the early 1980s.
Correspondence: O. D. Ouedraogo, Institut du Sahel, Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches sur la Population pour le Developpement, B.P. 1530, Bamako, Mali. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40446 Traore, Sadio. The ethnic dimensions of migration in the Senegal River valley. [Dimension ethnique de la migration dans la vallee du fleuve Senegal.] Etudes et Travaux de CERPOD, No. 11, ISBN 2-902221-01-6. Jan 1994. x, 290 pp. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherche sur la Population pour le Developpement [CERPOD]: Bamako, Mali. In Fre.
This is an analysis of migration in the Senegal River valley region, which includes parts of Mali, Mauritania, and Senegal. Data are primarily from the 1982-1983 Migration Survey of the Senegal River valley. Separate consideration is given to external factors affecting emigration from the region, such as colonial and post-colonial government actions and policies. Internal factors specific to the different peoples inhabiting the region are also examined.
Correspondence: Centre d'Etudes et de Recherche sur la Population pour le Developpement, Institut du Sahel, B.P. 1530, Bamako, Mali. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40447 Vignikin, Kokou. Land, agricultural production, and migration: the situation in southeastern Togo. [Terre, production agricole et mobilite: la situation au sud-est du Togo.] In: Population, reproduction, societes: perspectives et enjeux de demographie sociale, edited by Dennis D. Cordell et al. 1993. 299-309 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre.
This interdisciplinary study examines recent changes in the system of agricultural production in southeastern Togo and the migration patterns associated with such developments. The author notes that household strategies adopted to date have involved continued high fertility and extensive out-migration, primarily to the capital, Lome, designed to extend the household's economic base. The author also notes that such strategies are no longer working, and that major agricultural reforms are needed instead.
Correspondence: K. Vignikin, Universite du Benin, Unite de Recherche Demographique, B.P. 12971, Lome, Togo. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.2. International Migration

Studies concerned with international migration, including the brain drain.

60:40448 Abrahams, Ray. There is my fatherland: migration and remigration of Surinamese elderly between 1970 and 1990. [Daar is mijn vaderland: migratie en remigratie van Surinaamse ouderen tussen 1970 en 1990.] In: Ebbehout onder de zeespiegel: maatschappelijke integratie van Surinaamse ouderen in Nederland, edited by V. Tjon-A-Ten. 1993. 11-22 pp. Stichting Landelijke Federatie van Welzijnsorganisaties voor Surinamers: Utrecht, Netherlands. In Dut.
Migration between Suriname and the Netherlands of Surinamese aged over 65 is analyzed for the period 1970-1990. The results show a pattern of growing out-migration from Suriname, mainly triggered by politically determined push-factors in that country, and that economical pull-factors from the Netherlands have only a marginal role.
Correspondence: R. Abrahams, University of Amsterdam, Section of Demographic Anthropology, Department of Anthropology, Oudezijds Achterburgwal 185, 1012 DK Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40449 Ahlburg, Dennis A.; Vaupel, James W. Immigration and the dependency burden. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population: Montreal 1993, Volume 4. 1993. 61-71 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"In this paper we show that dependency in the U.S. is likely to rise by 10% to 20% over the next decade with constant fertility, mortality, and immigration....We will investigate whether increased immigration is a realistic policy to keep the dependency burden in the U.S. at or near its historical level. We show that it is not unless the U.S. is willing and able to accommodate levels of annual immigration more than ten times the current level."
Correspondence: D. A. Ahlburg, University of Minnesota, Center for Population Analysis, Minneapolis, MN 55455. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40450 Appleyard, Reginald T. Trends in international migration in the 1990s and beyond. In: Migration policies in Europe and the United States, edited by Giacomo Luciani. 1993. 33-52 pp. Kluwer Academic: Boston, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
The author discusses the new role and importance of international migration since the 1970s, with a focus on the "new and unexpected political and economic circumstances [that have] led to major changes in both the direction and composition of international migration." He outlines trends in permanent contract labor and illegal migration; the movement of transient professionals; and changing approaches to asylum seekers and refugees.
Correspondence: R. T. Appleyard, University of Western Australia, Centre for Migration and Development Studies, Nedlands, WA 6009, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40451 Baines, Dudley. European emigration, 1815-1930: looking at the emigration decision again. Economic History Review, Vol. 47, No. 3, Aug 1994. 525-44 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Many of the explanations offered for European emigration are unsystematic because they fail to address the relative incidence of emigration from different parts of Europe. An attempt is made to evaluate implicit assumptions in the literature. Two other questions are discussed: the relation between internal migration in European countries and emigration, and the higher rate of return migration to southern than to northern European countries. There are some suggestions for future research."
Correspondence: D. Baines, London School of Economics and Political Science, Houghton Street, Aldwych, London WC2A 2AE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

60:40452 Bernard, Philippe. Immigration. [L'immigration.] Collection Synthese, No. 8600, ISBN 2-501-01989-X. 1993. 182 pp. Le Monde Editions: Paris, France; Marabout: Alleur, Belgium. In Fre.
This is a study of immigration and its consequences in the modern French context. Topics covered include data on current immigration, 100 years of population policy, the economic impact of immigration, integration, racism, and global aspects of immigration.
Correspondence: Marabout, 30 avenue de l'Energie, 4430 Alleur, Belgium. Location: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Paris, France.

60:40453 Bucher, Hansjorg. International migration relationships of the Federal Republic of Germany: their contribution to future population trends. [Die Aussenwanderungsbeziehungen der Bundesrepublik Deutschland: ihr Beitrag zur kunftigen Bevolkerungsentwicklung.] Raumforschung und Raumordnung, Vol. 51, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1993. 254-64 pp. Cologne, Germany. In Ger.
The impact of international migration on future population trends in Germany is examined for the period 1990-2000. Effects on population size, age structure, and spatial distribution of the population are analyzed.
Correspondence: H. Bucher, Bundesforschungsanstalt fur Landeskunde und Raumordnung, Am Michaelshof 8, 53177 Bonn, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40454 Canada. Quebec (Province). Ministere des Communautes Culturelles et de l'Immigration. Direction des Etudes et de la Recherche (Quebec, Canada). Graphical presentation of immigration and the immigrant population of Quebec. [Presentation graphique sur l'immigration et la population immigree du Quebec.] ISBN 2-550-22901-0. Dec 1992. 102 pp. Quebec, Canada. In Fre.
This report describes the current immigration situation in the Canadian province of Quebec, using data from the 1986 Canadian census and various federal and provincial sources. The period considered is 1901-1990. Particular consideration is given to the economic contribution of immigrants, their linguistic background, and countries of origin. The statistics are presented in graph form.
Correspondence: Ministere des Communautes Culturelles et de l'Immigration, Direction des Etudes et de la Recherche, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. Location: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Paris, France.

60:40455 Cattedra, Raffaele; Laino, Giovanni. Immigration areas and urban examples: the case of Naples. [Espaces d'immigration et formes urbaines: considerations sur le cas de Naples.] Revue Europeenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 10, No. 2, 1994. 175-85 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre.
This is a case study on the problems faced by third world immigrants in Europe, using the example of housing problems experienced by immigrants from north Africa to Naples, Italy.
Correspondence: R. Cattedra, Istituto Universitario Orientale di Napoli, Dipartimento da Africa e Paesi Arabi, P.S. Giovanni Maggiore 30, 86134 Naples, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40456 Chan, Kwok Bun; Chiang, See Ngoh Claire. Cultural values and immigrant entrepreneurship: the Chinese in Singapore. Revue Europeenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 10, No. 2, 1994. 87-118 pp. Poitiers, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"It is the intent of this paper to examine the interrelationships between early socialisation into core Chinese cultural values, international migration and Chinese immigrant entrepreneurship....It is through a developmental socialisation process by which [cultural] values are articulated in family and kin network dynamics that social organisations begin to develop and define what is popularly understood as the 'Chinese way of doing business'. We argue that among the overseas Chinese, this way of doing business must be viewed historically and developmentally, as it is intimately intertwined with transmigration experiences and their consequences in shaping values necessary for the emergence and development of entrepreneurship."
Correspondence: K. B. Chan, National University of Singapore, Department of Sociology, Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore 0511. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40457 Council of Europe (Strasbourg, France). Political and demographic aspects of migration flows to Europe. [Aspects politiques et demographiques des flux migratoires vers l'Europe.] Etudes Demographiques, No. 25, ISBN 92-871-2359-4. 1993. 138 pp. Strasbourg, France. In Fre.
This report, which is also available in English, considers both the political and demographic implications for Europe of current and future migration pressure. It includes chapters on international migration from the countries south of the Mediterranean to Europe, the statistical aspects of recent immigration and resident migrant populations, and migration policies.
Correspondence: Council of Europe, Publications and Documents Division, 67006 Strasbourg Cedex, France. Location: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Paris, France.

60:40458 Dalton, Humphrey. Will America drown? Immigration and the third world population explosion. ISBN 1-878465-05-8. 1993. 122 pp. Scott-Townsend Publishers: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This is a collection of papers by various authors, most of which have been adapted from articles published in the Conservative Review, focusing on the perceived negative impact of large-scale illegal immigration in the United States. The editor concludes that "only a drastic change of government attitude, a radical revision of prevailing laws regarding the acceptance of immigrants, especially 'political refugees,' the 'rights' of illegal immigrants, a system of centralized identity cards for legal residents tied to a computer network like credit cards, and a concerted effort to make the smuggling of illegals unprofitable to the smugglers, can possibly save America. Otherwise this country, along with all other Western nations, will eventually be drowned by the rising tide of humanity...."
Correspondence: Scott-Townsend Publishers, P.O. Box 34070 NW, Washington, D.C. 20043. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40459 Di Nicola, Giulia P.; Py, Bernard. Alternatives to the daily routine. Migration between Abruzzi and Neuchatel. [Alterita al quotidiano. Migrazioni Abruzzo-Neuchatel.] 1993. 302 pp. Universita degli Studi G. D'Annunzio, Dipartimento di Teoria dei Sistemi e delle Organizzazioni: Chieti Scalo, Italy. In Ita.
This report analyzes migration between the Italian region of Abruzzi and the Swiss canton of Neuchatel. It is a collaborative work in which individual authors examine topics such as the integration of migrants, return migration, and policy issues.
Correspondence: Universita degli Studi G. D'Annunzio, Dipartimento di Teoria dei Sistemi e delle Organizzazioni, Via dei Vestini, 66013 Chieti Scalo, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40460 Fassmann, Heinz; Munz, Rainer. European East-West migration, 1945-1992. International Migration Review, Vol. 28, No. 3, Fall 1994. 520-38 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article's thesis is that Europe is undergoing an international but intracontinental migration such as it has not seen since the beginning of the Cold War. The authors cite several reasons for the recent outburst of migration: ethnic relocation, the search for refuge and asylum, and the need for work. They also present a country-by-country description of sending and receiving nations. The push and pull factors causing such massive migration cannot only be contained by the present methods of having each government erect legislative and other barriers--such as armed border guards--against newcomers."
Correspondence: H. Fassmann, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Dr. Ignaz Seipel-Platz 2, 1010 Vienna, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40461 Franklin, Daniel. Migration: new demands and approaches for Europe. In: Migration policies in Europe and the United States, edited by Giacomo Luciani. 1993. 17-31 pp. Kluwer Academic: Boston, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
The author discusses changes in European migration, with a focus on the shift from the region's being a net exporter of people to being a net importer. Reasons for these migration flow changes are examined, and possible means of dealing with increased numbers of migrants are considered.
Correspondence: D. Franklin, The Economist, 25 St. James's Street, London SW1A 1HG, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40462 Gould, W. T. S.; Findlay, A. M. Population migration and the changing world order. Belhaven Series in Population Studies, ISBN 0-471-94916-7. LC 93-49629. 1994. x, 293 pp. John Wiley and Sons: New York, New York/Chichester, England. In Eng.
This volume is a product of a symposium held in January 1993 at the Institute of British Geographers' Annual Conference in London, England. The focus was on the impact of the end of the Cold War and the Gulf War on global migration trends. "The symposium sought to review the ways that these and other broad political and economic changes of the previous few years, associated with what was being fashionably described as the 'new world order', were affecting population movements, and also how these movements were themselves active factors in the shaping of the changing world order." The 16 papers are divided into sections on migration within the developed world, migration to the developed world, and migration within the developing world.
Correspondence: John Wiley and Sons, Baffins Lane, Chichester, West Sussex PO19 1UD, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40463 Haines, Robin. Indigent misfits or shrewd operators? Government-assisted emigrants from the United Kingdom to Australia, 1831-1860. Population Studies, Vol. 48, No. 2, Jul 1994. 223-47 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Passages funded by Australia's colonial governments accounted for 56 per cent of all arrivals from the United Kingdom between 1831 and 1860. In concert with a range of private, Colonial Office, and Poor Law sources in the U.K., analysis of data on the emigrants' age, sex, occupation, county of origin, literacy, and religious persuasion, collected by colonial Immigration Agents, challenges the traditional view of Australia's government immigrants. Rather than indigent misfits, shovelled out by a system anxious to rid the U.K. of its poor, they were primarily well-informed, self-selecting, literate individuals who often sought help from philanthropic agencies or their local parish to enable them to finance their passage deposit, mandatory clothing, and travel to the port of embarkation. Comparative analysis of data on occupation and county of origin, which suggests that they were not the spillover of the North America-bound streams, further challenges the prevailing view."
Correspondence: R. Haines, Flinders University of South Australia, Bedford Park, SA 5042, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40464 Hatton, Timothy J.; Williamson, Jeffrey G. What drove the mass migrations from Europe in the late nineteenth century? Population and Development Review, Vol. 20, No. 3, Sep 1994. 533-59, 693, 695 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article examines the cross-country and intertemporal determinants of overseas migration from Europe in the late nineteenth century. Using a new real wage data base, the results support the pioneering work of Richard Easterlin: rates of natural increase in Europe and income gaps between Europe and overseas were both important, while any additional influence associated with industrialization was modest. The network effects of previous migrants were very strong. The upswing of the emigration cycle was dominated by the earlier stages of the demographic transition and industrialization, reinforced by the rising stock of migrants abroad. On the downswing of the cycle these forces ebbed and were increasingly dominated by the convergence of real wages in the Old World on real wages in the New."
Correspondence: T. J. Hatton, University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester, Essex C04 3SQ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40465 Icduygu, Ahmet. Facing changes and making choices: unintended Turkish immigrant settlement in Australia. International Migration, Vol. 32, No. 1, 1994. 71-93 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article considers Turkish migration and settlement in Australia from both the micro and macro levels of analysis. Migration and settlement of Turkish migrants in Melbourne is explored from the immigrants' viewpoint, including how settlement in that city has influenced their lives, both inside and outside their workplaces, over time. The article also addresses Turkish immigration to Australia within the global context of international migration. The Melbourne Turkish Migration (MTM) study was conducted by the author between 1987 and 1990."
Correspondence: A. Icduygu, Bilkent University, Department of Political Science and Public Administration, 06533 Bilkent, Ankara, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40466 Ichino, Andrea. The economic impact of immigration on the host country. In: Migration policies in Europe and the United States, edited by Giacomo Luciani. 1993. 145-62 pp. Kluwer Academic: Boston, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
The author attempts "to show that economic theory does not offer clear-cut indications concerning the sign and size of the impact of immigration on the host country. In other words, economic theory does not unambiguously support the view often shared by politicians and policy makers, according to which migration inflows have mainly undesirable effects on the native economy. Indeed, based on the survey of some economic models and of the limited available empirical evidence, this paper shows that there might be desirable correlations between migration inflows and economic indicators taken from three areas: 1) labour market, 2) output and growth, and 3) public finance and welfare."
Correspondence: A. Ichino, Universita Commerciale Luigi Bocconi, Via R. Sarfatti 25, 20136 Milan, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40467 Izquierdo Escribano, Antonio. Immigration in Spain, 1980-1990. [La inmigracion en Espana, 1980-1990.] Collecion Informes, Serie General, No. 17, ISBN 84-7434-756-4. 1992. 260 pp. Ministerio de Trabajo y Seguridad Social: Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
This study reviews the process whereby Spain has changed from an emigrant to an immigrant society over the decade of the 1980s. Legal and illegal immigration are analyzed separately. The characteristics and geographical distribution of both legal and illegal immigrants are described. The work concludes with a summary of the situation in 1991 and of the process of regularization of illegal immigration.
Correspondence: Ministerio de Trabajo y Seguridad Social, Centro de Publicaciones, Augustin de Bethencourt 11, 28003 Madrid, Spain. Location: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Paris, France.

60:40468 Juhasz, Judit. International migration in Hungary. [A Magyarorszagot erinto nemzetkozi vandorlas.] Demografia, Vol. 37, No. 1, 1994. 32-59 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng.
The author reviews trends in international migration in Hungary. "The first part of the paper gives a short overview of the migration movement of the past centuries and those historical events which might influence the present migration processes....The second part concentrates on the [most recent] events. Using the existing statistical data [the author] shows the main trends, the types and characteristics of migrants and reflects [on] some policy implications as well as the possible reasons [for] the opinions and behaviour of the public."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40469 Khader, Bichara. Migrations in the Mediterranean region: the cordon sanitaire and the rejection of diversity. [Le migrazioni nel Mediterraneo: i cordoni sanitari e il rifiuto dell'alterita.] Studi Emigrazione/Etudes Migrations, Vol. 31, No. 114, Jun 1994. 238-50 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"The article tries to clarify the reasons [for] European negative attitudes towards its Maghrebine migrant population and endeavours to go beyond the traditional explanations ascribing such attitudes to social and economic crisis. The main thesis...is that 'being other' in Western culture has not always been very easy, above all when the 'other' is oriental, Arab or Moslem, i.e. the 'nearest difference'."
Correspondence: B. Khader, Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches sur le Monde Arabe Contemporain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40470 Koll, Robert; Vogler-Ludwig, Kurt. Effects of immigration to Bavaria on population structure, the labor and housing market, infrastructure, and land use. [Auswirkungen der Zuwanderungen nach Bayern auf die Bevolkerungsstruktur, den Arbeits- und den Wohnungsmarkt, die Infrastruktur und den Flachenverbrauch.] Raumforschung und Raumordnung, Vol. 51, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1993. 303-8 pp. Cologne, Germany. In Ger.
The projected effects of immigration on age structure, the labor market, the housing market, infrastructure, and land use are analyzed for Bavaria, Germany. The projections are primarily for the period 1990-2010 and include four different scenarios.
Correspondence: R. Koll, IFO-Institut fur Wirtschaftsforschung, Poschingerstrasse 5, 81679 Munich, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40471 Luciani, Giacomo. Migration: a global phenomenon calling for common solutions. In: Migration policies in Europe and the United States, edited by Giacomo Luciani. 1993. 1-15 pp. Kluwer Academic: Boston, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
The author provides a detailed overview of the papers presented in this volume on migration. Aspects considered include the international regulation of labor migration; stereotypes about migration; migration and growth in the receiving country; environment, population pressure, and migration; administrative measures and market mechanisms; the need for international cooperation; and the integration of migration policies in the context of global development efforts.
Correspondence: G. Luciani, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, Milan, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40472 Maguid, Alicia. The importance of systematizing migration information for making policy: recent initiatives and possibilities for Latin America and the Caribbean. [La importancia de la sistematizacion de la informacion migratoria en la formulacion de politicas: iniciativas recientes y posibilidades para la region de America Latina y el Caribe.] Revista de la OIM sobre Migraciones en America Latina/IOM Latin American Migration Journal, Vol. 11, No. 3, Dec 1993. 5-67 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Eng; Spa.
The case is made for developing a reliable system of data on international migration in Latin America and the Caribbean which would enable countries in the region to develop appropriate migration policies. The author describes the systems that currently exist in Europe and Latin America and "explores the possibility of implementing a regional registry and information system for migrations in the region." Locating the proposed system within the UN regional operation in Santiago, Chile, is proposed.
Correspondence: A. Maguid, Organizacion Internacional para las Migraciones, Avenida Pedro de Valdivia 1218, Casilla 781, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40473 Malpas, Nicole. Casacalenda-Montreal: a new methodological approach to the study of a migration network. [Casacalenda-Montreal: une nouvelle approche methodologique pour l'etude d'un reseau migratoire.] In: Population, reproduction, societes: perspectives et enjeux de demographie sociale, edited by Dennis D. Cordell et al. 1993. 371-93 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre.
This study examines factors associated with emigration from Italy to Quebec, Canada. The focus is on emigration from Casacalenda, a town in southern Italy, to Montreal from 1879 to 1925. Attention is given to the methodology developed at the Ecole de Montreal for this kind of study.
Correspondence: M. Malpas, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie, 1 place Montesquieu, B.P. 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40474 Minkov, Minko. International migration in Bulgaria. [La migration internationale en Bulgarie.] Revue Europeenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 10, No. 2, 1994. 163-73 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre.
A review of recent trends in international migration affecting Bulgaria is presented. The author discusses the social and economic consequences of emigration, the potential for further emigration, and migration policy. The focus is on the period since 1989.
Correspondence: M. Minkov, Academie des Sciences, Institut de Demographie, 6 rue Varila, Sofia, Bulgaria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40475 Mukherji, Shekhar. International migration in India: levels, trends and policy implications. IIPS Newsletter, Vol. 35, No. 1, Jan 1994. 1-9 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
The author investigates recent trends in India's international migration, with a focus on the movement of professionals and other skilled workers to developed countries, and the temporary migration of workers to oil-rich Middle Eastern countries. In addition, trends in refugee migration, permanent emigration, and illegal migration from Bangladesh are outlined, and policy implications are considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40476 Neuman, Kristin E.; Massey, Douglas S. Undocumented migration and the quantity and quality of social capital. Population Research Center Discussion Paper Series, No. 94-4, [1994]. 34, [1] pp. University of Chicago, National Opinion Research Center [NORC], Population Research Center: Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"Unlike prior researchers, we argue that social capital contained in migrant networks is not dichotomous, but continuous and varies in terms of quality and quantity. Quality is defined by the strength of social ties to people with U.S. experience and by the closeness of their attachment to the United States. Quantity is simply the number of connections at a given level of quality. We construct four indices of social capital that take into account these notions of quality and quantity, and use them to show that social capital has little effect on the costs of undocumented migration between Mexico and the United States, but that it significantly raises the benefits. We go on to demonstrate that social capital increases the odds of undocumented migration in theoretically expected ways and offer a reformulation of network theory that emphasizes the benefits rather than the costs of migration."
Correspondence: University of Chicago, National Opinion Research Center, Population Research Center, 1155 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40477 Nicolaas, H. The largest number of non-Dutch national immigrants in 1993 was born in one of the former Yugoslav republics. [Grootste groep niet-Nederlandse immigranten in 1993 geboren in het voormalige Joegoslavie.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 42, No. 5, May 1994. 8-13 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The author reviews migration trends in the Netherlands since 1985. "In 1993 immigration amounted to 119 thousand, 2 thousand (i.e. 2.0%) more than the 1992 level....According to [official] data...35 thousand non-Dutch nationals requested...asylum in 1993, 15 thousand more than in 1992. The (modest) increase in immigration was mainly caused by non-Dutch nationals born in one of the former Yugoslav republics and Somalia....The level of emigration amounted to 59 thousand, only a few hundred more than in 1992."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40478 Nieminen, Mauri. Foreigners in Finland. [Ulkomaalaiset Suomessa.] Vaesto/Befolkning/Population 1994, No. 3, ISBN 951-47-8720-X. 1994. 36 pp. Tilastokeskus: Helsinki, Finland. In Fin.
An analysis is presented of foreigners living in Finland. Characteristics analyzed include age and sex distribution, country of origin, marriage with Finnish nationals, language spoken, and employment. The author notes that the number of foreigners has grown significantly in recent years, the largest groups being asylum-seekers and Finnish-related migrants from the former Soviet Union.
Correspondence: Tilastokeskus, PL 504, 00101 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40479 Ochel, Wolfgang. Germany and Bavaria as a destination for international migration since 1960 and scenarios for future immigration beyond the year 2000. [Deutschland und Bayern als Zielgebiet internationaler Wanderungen seit 1960 und Szenarien der kunftigen Zuwanderung uber das Jahr 2000 hinaus.] Raumforschung und Raumordnung, Vol. 51, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1993. 295-302 pp. Cologne, Germany. In Ger.
Trends in international migration to West Germany and Bavaria during 1960-1990 are examined. Four different scenarios of future immigration to Germany and Bavaria are then presented for the period 1991-2010. Migration of Germans and foreigners is analyzed separately, and the impact on population growth is considered.
Correspondence: W. Ochel, IFO-Institut fur Wirtschaftsforchung, Poschingerstrasse 5, 81679 Munich, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40480 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD] (Paris, France). Migration and development. New partnerships for co-operation. ISBN 92-64-14200-2. 1994. 305 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
This report, which is also available in French, is the product of a conference on international migration held in Madrid, Spain, March 29-31, 1993. The publication "offers a comparative evaluation of the main migration systems with respect to their performance and adaptability to structural change and increased migration flows. It reviews the control and selection of inflows and examines policies designed to integrate immigrants in several OECD countries....Examples from Asia, North America, sub-Saharan Africa, the Maghreb and Europe are used to illustrate the impact of migration of trade liberalisation, regional integration, development of labour-intensive activities, foreign direct investment and migrant remittances. Finally, suggestions are made for new partnerships for co-operation among the principal actors in the areas of migration and development."
Correspondence: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2 rue Andre Pascal, 75775 Paris Cedex 16, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40481 Paz de la Torre, Julia. The Latin American immigrant population in Germany: some socio-demographic characteristics. [La poblacion latinoamericana inmigrante en Alemania: algunas caracteristicas socio-demograficas.] Revista Peruana de Poblacion, No. 2, 1993. 65-86 pp. Lima, Peru. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"Initially the migrants from Latin America in the former West Germany [represented] 1% of the total migrant population; currently, their annual rate of growth is 5%. This population is mainly represented by Brazilians, Chileans, Peruvians and Argentines. However, since 1984, Chileans and Argentines have begun a [return] movement to their countries....[The] high volume of female migrants...is directly related to a high demand in the [service] sector...."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40482 Pebayle, Raymond. The Brazilguayans, Brazilian migrants in Paraguay. [Les Bresilguayens, migrants bresiliens au Paraguay.] Revue Europeenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 10, No. 2, 1994. 73-86 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa; Por.
"Since the 1950s, the population of Eastern regions of Paraguay has grown with the steady influx of Brazilian immigrants. Planters from Parana and Sao Paulo, mechanized wheat and soy farmers from the southern campos and cattle farmers from the Matto Grosso do Sul have joined mixed farmers, descendants of European settlers from the south of Brazil. Despite some local conflicts, the Brazilguayans...[in] Oriente [province] seem to be on the road to integration in Paraguay."
Correspondence: R. Pebayle, Universite de Poitiers, Departement de Geographie, 95 avenue du Recteur Pineau, 86022 Poitiers Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40483 Portes, Alejandro; Zhou, Min. Should immigrants assimilate? Public Interest, No. 116, Summer 1994. 18-33 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The process of assimilation among recent immigrants to the United States is examined. The authors conclude that, in contrast to earlier U.S. immigrant experience, second-generation non-white immigrants do not generally have the opportunity to gain access to middle-class white society and may remain in ethnically and culturally distinct minority communities.
Correspondence: A. Portes, Johns Hopkins University, Department of Sociology, Baltimore, MD 21218. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

60:40484 Rai, Baljit. Demographic aggression against India: Muslim avalanche from Bangladesh. [1994]. x, 246 pp. B. S. Publishers: Chandigarh, India. In Eng.
The author discusses problems related to the increasing migration of Muslims from Bangladesh to India. He concludes that over 15 millon Bangladeshi Muslims are now living in India. The political implications of this migration are reviewed.
Correspondence: B. S. Publishers, House No. 111, Sector 11-A, Chandigarh 160 011, India. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

60:40485 Sabagh, Georges. Los Angeles, a world of new immigrants: an image of things to come? In: Migration policies in Europe and the United States, edited by Giacomo Luciani. 1993. 97-126 pp. Kluwer Academic: Boston, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"In the popular image, Los Angeles is a diverse city of immigrants which foreshadows the future of metropolitan regions in the United States. The main objective of this paper is to assess the accuracy of this image. This assessment is based on an analysis of trends in ethnic and national diversity and of their impact on socio-cultural, socio-demographic, and economic changes in Los Angeles....As an introduction to the discussion of the importance of immigration to Los Angeles, a brief description will be presented regarding the 1980-1990 population growth of the Los Angeles metropolitan region as compared to other major metropolitan regions of the United States."
Correspondence: S. Sabagh, University of California, Gustav E. von Grunebaum Center for Near Eastern Studies, Los Angeles, CA 90024. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40486 Salt, John. Migration and population change in Europe. Research Papers/Travaux de Recherche, No. 19; UNIDIR/93/23, Pub. Order No. GV.E.93.0.14. ISBN 92-9045-082-7. 1993. ix, 86 pp. United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research [UNIDIR]: Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
This is a general review of migration trends in Europe since the end of World War II. Sections are included on types of migration, migration data problems, demographic trends and structures, migrant stocks and flows, the Western need for immigrants, new migration pressures from the South and the East, asylum seekers, and policy responses.
Correspondence: United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research, Palais des Nations, 1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (UN).

60:40487 Schmid, Josef. The migration problem in Europe from a demographic, economic, and social viewpoint, with special reference to Germany. [Die Wanderungsproblematik in Europa aus demographischer, wirtschaftlicher und sozialer Sicht unter besonderer Berucksichtigung Deutschlands.] Raumforschung und Raumordnung, Vol. 51, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1993. 287-94 pp. Cologne, Germany. In Ger.
The demographic situation in Western Europe is reviewed, with an emphasis on projections of population decrease, demographic aging, and labor supply during the period 1990-2030. The potential for international migration to Europe is then examined, and migration policy problems in Germany are discussed.
Correspondence: J. Schmid, Universitat Bamberg, Lehrstuhl fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Postfach 15 49, 96045 Bamberg, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40488 Shah, Nasra M. Arab labour migration: a review of trends and issues. International Migration, Vol. 32, No. 1, 1994. 3-28 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The objectives set for this paper are to: provide an analysis of volume and trends in labour migration within the Arab region; discuss the major characteristics of the migrants, including demographic features, types of economic activity, wage levels and duration of stay in host countries; [and] outline and discuss the major issues in labour migration both from the sending and receiving countries. The time period covered by the study is from the mid 1970s to the present."
Correspondence: N. M. Shah, Kuwait University, Faculty of Medicine, P.O. Box 24923, Safat, Kuwait. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40489 Simmons, Alan B.; Turner, Jean E. Caribbean immigration to Canada, 1967-1987: structural constraints and actual events. [L'immigration antillaise au Canada, 1967-1987: contraintes structurelles et experiences vecues.] In: Population, reproduction, societes: perspectives et enjeux de demographie sociale, edited by Dennis D. Cordell et al. 1993. 395-418 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre.
Patterns of international migration from the Caribbean to Canada are analyzed for the period from the mid-1960s to 1987. The characteristics of this migration are identified, consisting of initial migration by young women followed in due course by other members of their families. The effect of inequalities between Canada and the Caribbean on this migration and of changing Canadian migration policies are noted. Data are from a variety of official and other sources.
Correspondence: A. B. Simmons, York University, Department of Sociology, 4700 Keele Street, North York, Ontario M3J 1P3, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40490 Steinmann, Gunter. Fertility, family and migration: policy options for low growth countries. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population: Montreal 1993, Volume 4. 1993. 57-60 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The author provides a brief overview of papers presented at a conference session on fertility, family, and immigration in various world regions and countries.
Correspondence: G. Steinmann, Martin-Luther-Universitat, Department of Economics, Universitatsplatz 10, 4010 Halle (Salle), Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40491 Stpiczynski, Tadeusz. Problems concerning research on international migration. [Problemy badania migracji zagranicznych.] Wiadomosci Statystyczne, Vol. 39, No. 1, 1994. 26-9 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng.
The author discusses problems involved in regulating and surveying migration in Poland, with a focus on the rapid increase in international migration since the 1980s. "The problems of the classification, sources, methods of survey and perspectives of migration as well as the influence of migration policy are described and discussed."
Correspondence: T. Stpiczynski, Glowny Urzad Statystyczny, Department Badan Spolecznych i Demograficznych, Al. Niepodleglosci 208, 00-925 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40492 Suhrke, Astri. Migration, state and civil society in Southeast Asia. Programme of Human Rights Studies Working Paper, No. M 1992: 4, 1992. 24 pp. Chr. Michelsen Institute, Department of Social Science and Development, Programme of Human Rights Studies: Fantoft, Norway. In Eng. with sum. in Nor.
This study examines the consequences of international migration for receiving states and societies in Southeast Asia from pre-colonial times to the present. Separate consideration is given to labor migration and to refugees.
Correspondence: Chr. Michelsen Institute, Department of Social Science and Development, Fantoftvegen 38, 5036 Fantoft, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40493 Tapinos, Georges. The dynamics of international migration in post-war Europe. In: Migration policies in Europe and the United States, edited by Giacomo Luciani. 1993. 127-43 pp. Kluwer Academic: Boston, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"In this paper, we intend to analyze the dynamics of international migration in Europe, in order to help understand the issues raised by the current situation. When dealing with international migrations in Europe, the post-war period can be divided into three phases, each raising specific economic and social issues. Until 1973 European growth was accompanied by a large migration movement, which will be analyzed first. In 1973-1974, European countries put an end to the influx of immigrants by closing their borders, and the implications of this will be considered. Finally, the present situation will be examined, and perspectives for the future will be explored."
Correspondence: G. Tapinos, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40494 Tas, R. F. J. On January 1, 1994, more than 5% of the total population of the Netherlands were non-Dutch nationals. [Op 1 januari 1994 was ruim 5% van de totale bevolking van Nederland een niet-Nederlander.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 42, No. 5, May 1994. 14-7 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"On 1 January 1994 779 thousand non-Dutch nationals had residence in the Netherlands, i.e. 5.1% of the total population." Information is included on nationality of migrants, age and sex distribution, natural growth, net migration, and net changes of nationality.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40495 Ueda, Reed. Postwar immigrant America: a social history. Bedford Series in History and Culture, ISBN 0-312-10279-8. LC 92-75894. 1994. ix, 182 pp. Bedford Books: Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
This volume "examines the changing patterns of immigration to the United States since World War II....An introduction summarizes the history of immigration to the United States before World War II, and the six chapters that follow discuss major themes such as the development of immigration patterns, the changes in American immigration and naturalization policies, and the image of the 'melting pot' versus the concept of pluralism. Charts, tables, maps, boxes featuring the human element in immigration, a chronology of immigration policy, and an index are also included."
Correspondence: Bedford Books, St. Martin's Press, 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10010. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

60:40496 van Hoorn, W. D. External migration slows aging. [Migratie vermindert vergrijzing.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 42, No. 5, May 1994. 18-21 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"In the Netherlands net [immigration] is larger for men than for women. Recently the mean age of the migrants has risen (at the moment the maximum is around 25 years). Most migrants are not married. The demographic characteristics of the migrants differ from the Dutch population....Although external migration slows down the ageing of the Dutch population, it does not stop this process."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40497 Vocking, J. Trends in the immigration of Surinamese people since 1980. [Achtergronden van de immigratie van Surinamers vanaf 1980.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 42, No. 8, 1994. 6-14 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"In explaining the changes in the immigration pattern of Surinam [to the Netherlands] it is important to take into consideration that the age structure of the Surinamese population in the Netherlands and in Surinam are similar. The age group 15-44 years is relatively large. Because of family-formation migration, the age structure can be considered as a demographic pull-factor. In 1983 and 1987 the political situation in Surinam may explain increases in migration. In the last months of 1993 there was a sharp increase in immigration that cannot be explained by the political situation. The economic situation has grown much worse...particularly since 1991."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40498 von Zameck, Walburga. Germany, land of immigrants: economic consequences and economic policy options. [Einwanderungsland Deutschland: okonomische Konsequenzen und wirtschaftspolitische Optionen.] Jahrbuch fur Sozialwissenschaft, Vol. 44, No. 3, 1993. 348-64 pp. Gottingen, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
The increase in immigration from Eastern and southern Europe to Germany since 1985 is reviewed. Economic consequences for the sending and receiving countries are analyzed, and policy options are discussed.
Correspondence: W. von Zameck, Freie Universitat Berlin, Institut fur Offentliche Finanzen und Sozialpolitik, FB Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Boltzmannstrasse 20, 14195 Berlin, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

60:40499 Widgren, Jonas. Refugee and migration policy in Europe: political reactions to the pressure of immigration. [Die Asyl- und Wanderungspolitik in Europa: politische Reaktionen auf den Einwanderungsdruck.] Raumforschung und Raumordnung, Vol. 51, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1993. 281-6 pp. Cologne, Germany. In Ger.
Trends in international migration to Europe are reviewed. Two strategies for dealing with the pressure of immigration are then discussed: the creation of an environment favorable to immigration in the receiving countries, and the use of development aid to improve living conditions in the countries of origin. The need for international cooperation is stressed.
Correspondence: J. Widgren, Inter-Governmental Consultations on Asylum, Refugee and Migration Policies in Europe, North America and Australia, 145 rue de Lausanne, 1202 Geneva, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40500 Willekens, Frans. Monitoring international migration flows in Europe. Towards a statistical data base combining data from different sources. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 10, No. 1, 1994. 1-42 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The paper reviews techniques developed in demography, geography and statistics that are useful for bridging the gap between available data on international migration flows and the information required for policy making and research. The basic idea of the paper is as follows: to establish a coherent and consistent data base that contains sufficiently detailed, up-to-date and accurate information, data from several sources should be combined....The issues may be tackled more easily if the statistics that are being compiled are viewed as different outcomes or manifestations of underlying stochastic processes governing migration. The link between the processes and their outcomes is described by models, the parameters of which must be estimated from the available data....The paper discusses the experience of the U.S. Bureau of the Census in combining migration data from several sources. It also summarizes the many efforts in Europe to establish a coherent and consistent data base on international migration."
Correspondence: F. Willekens, University of Groningen, Population Research Centre, 9700 AV Groningen, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40501 Yang, Philip Q. Explaining immigrant naturalization. International Migration Review, Vol. 28, No. 3, Fall 1994. 449-77 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"Prior research on immigrant naturalization has focused mainly on the effects of immigrants' adaptation experiences and demographic characteristics on their propensity to naturalize. This article proposes a broader analytical framework which incorporates immigrants' individual characteristics and larger social contexts in the country of origin and the country of destination to explain the likelihood of citizenship acquisition. The framework is tested for a cohort of recent immigrants, using the PUMS data from the 1980 U.S. census. The results show that economic, political, social, cultural and geographical conditions in the country of origin, and immigrants ethnic communities and urban concentration in the country of destination, to a large extent influence immigrants' propensity for naturalization and that, net of the contextual factors, many of the immigrants' adaptation and demographic characteristics are also significant predictors of citizenship acquisition."
Correspondence: P. Q. Yang, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.3. Internal Migration

Studies concerned with internal migration.

60:40502 Cisse, Ibrahima. Agricultural migration in Mali. [Les migrations agricoles au Mali.] Cahiers du CIDEP, No. 18, ISBN 2-87209-333-8. Dec 1993. 73 pp. Centre International de Formation et de Recherche en Population et Developpement [CIDEP]: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Distributed by Academia-Erasme, Grand rue 25/115, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Ger; Spa; Ara; Dut; Chi.
An analysis of migration patterns in Mali is presented. The author concludes that "rural migrations in Mali tend to be from North to South, involving mainly the peoples of the sahelian regions and those dwelling at the northern edges of the sudanic areas. The results demographically speaking in the South are large concentrated pockets of population." The problems posed by the these migrations for development planning are noted.
Correspondence: Centre International de Formation et de Recherche en Population et Developpement, 1 Place Montesquieu, Boite 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40503 Fielding, Elaine L. A new look at racial differentials in local residential mobility. Population Studies Center Research Report, No. 93-294, Oct 1993. 32, [9] pp. University of Michigan, Population Studies Center: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"Using data from the 1985 American Housing Survey, this analysis takes an in-depth look at racial differentials in intrametropolitan mobility [in the United States]." The results indicate that "although blacks are more likely to move than whites, no racial difference remains when pre-move household and housing variables are added to the equation. However, tenure and location interact with race in the prediction of local mobility. Black city renters have particularly low chances of moving while black suburban owners have particularly high chances."
This paper was originally presented at the 1993 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40504 Fielding, Elaine L. Understanding why households move: a comprehensive analysis of reasons for moving. Population Studies Center Research Report, No. 94-305, Mar 1994. 33, [7] pp. University of Michigan, Population Studies Center: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study examines residential mobility in the United States. The author "presents a comprehensive analysis of reason for moving, asking the following questions: 1) What types of moves are most frequent? 2) Is there a way to group reasons that would be both substantively meaningful and analytically useful? and 3) Is reason for moving associated with household characteristics, such as household composition or tenure status?"
Correspondence: University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40505 Frey, William H. College grad, poverty blacks take different migration paths. Population Studies Center Research Report, No. 94-303, Mar 1994. 4, [5] pp. University of Michigan, Population Studies Center: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
Differences in internal migration trends among blacks of different socioeconomic status are analyzed using data from the 1990 U.S. census.
Correspondence: University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40506 Frey, William H. Immigration and internal migration "flight": 1990 census findings for California. Population Studies Center Research Report, No. 94-306, Apr 1994. 10, [26] pp. University of Michigan, Population Studies Center: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
An analysis of migration in California is presented using data from the 1990 U.S. census. The focus is on migration from California to other parts of the United States, and its causes. Two separate migration streams are identified, the out-migration of lower-income, less-educated Californians to neighboring states that is probably the result of large-scale immigration to the state from Mexico, and a more normal migration of the better educated, higher-income Californians with the rest of the country as a whole. The impact of these migration trends on the population of neighboring states is also assessed.
Correspondence: University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40507 Heinicke, Craig. African-American migration and mechanized cotton harvesting, 1950-1960. Explorations in Economic History, Vol. 31, No. 4, Oct 1994. 501-20 pp. Orlando, Florida. In Eng.
The author examines the hypothesis that cotton harvest mechanization was a major cause of African American out-migration from the rural South of the United States between 1950 and 1960. The results suggest that the effect of mechanization on migration has been exaggerated. "In order to link previous estimates of migration to displacement by mechanization, an estimate is made of the number of cotton acres upon which mechanized harvesting would have been profitable in 1959 and of the number of African-Americans harvesting that acreage. It is found that about one-fourth of the migration could have resulted directly from the harvester."
Correspondence: C. Heinicke, Baldwin-Wallace College, 275 Eastland Road, Berea, OH 44017. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

60:40508 Kulkarni, Milind; Pol, Louis G. Migration expectancy revisited: results for the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 13, No. 2, Jun 1994. 195-202 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This note focuses on changes in migration expectancy over three decades in the context of the planning function. Using the [U.S.] CPS one-year migration question for the periods 1975-1976, 1980-1981, and 1987-1991, and the work of Wilber (1963) and Long (1973) as historical benchmarks, migration expectancy is found to have fallen since the earlier studies. Longer-distance migration (between counties and between states) has remained relatively constant over the same period so that these types of moves now account for a larger proportion of total residential mobility."
Correspondence: L. G. Pol, University of Nebraska, College of Business Administration 512H, Department of Marketing, Omaha, NE 68182-0048. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40509 Lichter, Daniel T. Migration, population redistribution, and the new spatial inequality. In: The demography of rural life, edited by David L. Brown, Donald R. Field, and James J. Zuiches. NERCRD Publication, No. 64, May 1993. 19-57 pp. Northeast Regional Center for Rural Development [NERCRD]: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"A central thesis of this paper is that current [U.S.] migration and redistribution trends have accelerated the potential for growing economic differentiation at the micro level....The changing role of migration as an equilibrating mechanism (at the macro level) and as a route to upward social mobility (at the micro level) especially for the economically disadvantaged is evaluated....The paper concludes with a modest agenda and recommendations for future research on rural migration and redistribution." Comments are included by David L. Brown, Thomas R. Ford, and James J. Zuiches (pp. 47-57).
Correspondence: D. T. Lichter, Pennsylvania State University, Department of Sociology, 211 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40510 Perveen, Azra. Inter-provincial migration in Pakistan, 1971-1981. Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 32, No. 4, Pt. 2, Winter 1993. 725-35 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
The objectives of this paper are: "(1) To estimate the volume of net inter-provincial migration in Pakistan between 1971-1981 with the use of the census survival ratio method; and (2) to estimate selected demographic characteristics (age and sex) of the migrants."
Correspondence: A. Perveen, National Institute of Population Studies, House No. 8, Street 70, F-8/3, P.O. Box 2197, Islamabad, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40511 Sadaqat, Mahpara. Determinants of migration in a large third world city. Pakistan Economic and Social Review, Vol. 30, No. 1, Summer 1992. 1-17 pp. Lahore, Pakistan. In Eng.
The author examines determinants of migration to Karachi, Pakistan, using data from a 1987-1988 socioeconomic survey of 6,275 households in the city. Aspects considered include population at area of origin, income levels, employment conditions, age, and education.
Correspondence: M. Sadaqat, University of Karachi, Applied Economics Research Centre, Karachi 32, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40512 Sandu, Dumitru; De Jong, Gordon F. Migration in market and democracy transition: migration intentions and behavior in Romania. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 94-17, May 1994. 38 pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"This paper analyzes the determinants of migration intentions and behavior...in Romania. Using early 1990s internal migration survey, census and population register data, the results from Lisrel path models show that market and democracy value orientation variables are significant determinants of intentions to move....Similarly, aggregate county-level out-migration behavior is directly determined by the political profile of the county."
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6211. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40513 Stambol, Lasse S. Migration and education, 1986-1989: some results from an analysis of internal migration between major parts of the country broken down by educational level. [Flytting og utdanning, 1986-1989: noen resultater fra en undersokelse av innenlandske flyttinger pa landsdelsniva og utdanning.] Rapporter fra Statistisk Sentralbyra, No. 92/15, ISBN 82-537-3682-7. 1992. 73 pp. Statistisk Sentralbyra: Oslo-Kongsvinger, Norway. In Nor.
Internal migration among the seven major regions of Norway are analyzed for the period 1986-1989. The analysis concerns individuals aged 16-44 and is presented by age, sex, and educational status of migrant. Data are from the Central Population Register. The results will be used to prepare population projections for the regions.
Correspondence: Statistisk Sentralbyra, P.B. 8131 Dep., 0033 Oslo 1, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40514 Stevanovic, Radoslav. Migration in the communes of Yugoslavia: based on the 1991 census. [Migracione odlike opstina SR Jugoslavije: prema popisu stanovnistva 1991. godine.] Stanovnistvo, Vol. 30-31, 1992-1993. 99-116 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper discusses emigrant (communes with a negative balance of migration) and immigrant (communes with a positive balance of migration) territories of...Yugoslavia and its constituent republics and provinces based on vital statistics and population migration data during the inter-censal 1981-1991 period. A comparison is made with the preceding inter-censal period, 1971-1981."
Correspondence: R. Stevanovic, Univerzitet u Beogradu, Instituta Drustvenih Nauka, Centar za Demografska Istrazivanja, Narodnog Fronta 45, 11000 Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40515 Velenchik, Ann D. Cash seeking behaviour and migration: a place-to-place migration function for Cote d'Ivoire. Journal of African Economies, Vol. 2, No. 3, Dec 1993. 329-47 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper presents estimates of an aggregate place-to-place migration function for Cote d'Ivoire based on the premise that migration is motivated by rural residents' desire for cash income. The results indicate that migration from a region responds differently to changes in cash and food income, which supports the idea that it is the composition of rural income, and not just its level, that determines migration flows."
Correspondence: A. D. Velenchik, Wellesley College, Wellesley, MA 02181. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

60:40516 Vlassoff, Carol; Rao, Shobha. Reversing the flow: agricultural development and changing migration patterns in rural Maharashtra. International Migration, Vol. 32, No. 1, 1994. 95-126 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"In this paper we investigate the impact of rapid change from subsistence to irrigated farming [in Maharashtra, India,] and human dynamic responses to these changes from a longitudinal perspective (1975 to 1987). The study focuses on a single village, providing an in-depth and extensive analysis of both in and out-migration, characteristics of migrants, motivations for migration, experience at destination, and links with home areas, both social and economic....The importance of migration, not only to the study village, but also to other rural areas from which in-migrants came, is also assessed."
Correspondence: C. Vlassoff, World Health Organization, Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.4. Settlement and Resettlement

Studies on international and internal settlement and resettlement, including programs concerned with refugees and their settlement and with forced migrations.

60:40517 Adelman, Howard; Sorenson, John. African refugees: development aid and repatriation. African Modernization and Development Series, ISBN 0-8133-8460-5. LC 93-47501. 1994. xix, 264 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This is a collection of 12 papers on aspects of the refugee problem in Africa. "The first brief section provides the legal framework for defining and assisting refugees. The second section considers the lack of resources that contribute to refugee production and inadequate relief aid. Since relatively few African refugees are able to avail themselves of one permanent solution to their plight--resettlement abroad--the third section discusses the two other permanent solutions utilized--settlement in countries of first asylum and repatriation." The fourth and final section examines issues concerning refugees and the problems of economic development in Africa.
Correspondence: Westview Press, 5500 Central Avenue, Boulder, CO 80301-2847. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40518 Black, Richard. Refugee migration and local economic development in Eastern Zambia. Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie/Journal of Economic and Social Geography, Vol. 85, No. 3, 1994. 249-62 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This article examines the local socio-economic impact of the arrival of Mozambican refugees in the Eastern Province of Zambia. Previous studies of forced migration elsewhere in Africa have suggested that not only stresses, but also positive gains for local development may be felt in areas hosting significant numbers of refugees. It is suggested here that an appropriate framework from which to analyze the impact of refugees is to focus separately on the effects of population increase on the one hand, and the specific characteristics of refugees on the other. Using this distinction, a model is developed of potential beneficial changes resulting from the arrival of refugees. Key assumptions of this model are then identified to be of relevance to policies designed to promote local economic development under conditions of refugee migration."
Correspondence: R. Black, University of London, King's College, Department of Geography, Strand, London WC2R 2LS, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40519 Boyd, Monica. Gender concealed, gender revealed: the demography of Canada's refugee flows. Center for the Study of Population Working Paper, No. WPS 94-122, [1994]. 21, [7] pp. Florida State University, College of Social Sciences, Center for the Study of Population: Tallahassee, Florida. In Eng.
"This paper offers a first step toward revealing the position of women in refugee flows to Canada, using unpublished data obtained from Employment and Immigration and from the Immigration and Refugee Board. These data confirm the male dominated nature of refugee settlement in Canada and the lower representation of women in refugee admission and in the refugee claimant process."
Correspondence: Florida State University, Center for the Study of Population, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4063. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40520 de Beer, J.; Nicolaas, H. Twenty-six thousand asylum seekers in the first half of 1994. [26 duizend asielzoekers in eerste halfjaar van 1994.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 42, No. 8, 1994. 15-8 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"According to data of the [Netherlands] Ministry of Justice the number of asylum requests amounted to 26,000 in the first half year of 1994, almost twice as many as in the corresponding period of 1993. In the first half of 1994, most asylum seekers (almost 30%) had a nationality of one of the former Yugoslav republics, followed by persons from Somalia, Iran and the former Soviet Union."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40521 Goza, Franklin. Brazilian frontier settlement: the case of Rondonia. Population and Environment, Vol. 16, No. 1, Sep 1994. 37-60 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This research begins with a review of several theoretical models designed specifically to account for developments related to frontier settlement. Historical developments that contributed to the massive movement to Rondonia [Brazil] are then reviewed in an attempt to explain how and why it occurred. Next, recent migratory tendencies are examined using data only recently made available. Environmental consequences of this movement are then considered. The paper ends with a discussion of theory relevance and policy recommendations."
Correspondence: F. Goza, Bowling Green State University, Department of Sociology, Bowling Green, OH 43403-0231. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.5. Temporary Migration

Migration, both internal and international, in which the stay is temporary. Includes return migration, transit migration, commuting, and seasonal migration.

60:40522 Bessy, Pascale; Riche, Corinne. When people born in French overseas departments return home to retire. A survey of intentions. [Le retour au pays pour la retraite des personnes nees dans les DOM. Une enquete sur les intentions.] Economie et Statistique, No. 270, 1993. 51-61, 79, 81 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Ger; Spa.
"Almost half of...over-45s born in French overseas departments and living in mainland France had plans to return overseas by the year 2000. The desire to return is more clear-cut among the 50 to 54 year olds. The younger people have yet to think seriously about retirement, whilst a number of the oldest individuals have already made definite plans." Data are from a survey carried out in 1992.
Correspondence: P. Bessy, Institut d'Amenagement et d'Urbanisme de la Region Ile-de-France, Division Demographie, Habitat, Equipement et Gestion Locale, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40523 Dikaiou, Maria. Present realities and future prospects among Greek returners. International Migration, Vol. 32, No. 1, 1994. 29-47 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The current study on Greek [migrants returning from working overseas] examines a wide range of social, economic and psychological factors that influenced decisions to return and processes of readjustment in the home environment....This study concentrates on returner families and explores the extent to which they felt that the homeland had fulfilled their needs and expectations....The main goal...was to explore interpersonal and socio-cultural, as well as socio-economic, aspects of readjustment."
Correspondence: M. Dikaiou, Aristotle University of Thessalonike, University Campus, 540 06 Thessalonike, Greece. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40524 Ilcan, Suzan M. Peasant struggles and social change: migration, households and gender in a rural Turkish society. International Migration Review, Vol. 28, No. 3, Fall 1994. 554-79 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article sheds light on the interrelationship of seasonal migration, subsistence production and peasant relations in a community (Sakli) located in Turkey's northwestern countryside....While migrant labor is understood by local villagers as forming part of a continual battle to preserve local tradition and kinship ties, this article shows how it reduces the dominion of landlords while creating internal household differentiation and gendered hierarchies."
Correspondence: S. M. Ilcan, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40525 Smith, Stanley K. Estimating temporary populations. Applied Demography, Vol. 9, No. 1, Summer 1994. 4-7 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The difficulty of tracking temporary short-term population movements (commuting, seasonal visitation, convention and business travel) is examined, with a focus on Hawaiian statistician Robert Schmitt's work. The author finds that "Schmitt's contributions toward a methodology for estimating daytime populations were important because this approach utilized data sources that were widely available for small areas on at least an annual basis. Consequently, this approach could be used for frequent updates of the estimates, for many areas and at relatively little cost....The major drawback of the approach is the lack of solid data on temporary residents to serve as larger-area control totals and as a historical base for small-area estimates." The geographical focus is on the United States, particularly Hawaii.
Correspondence: S. K. Smith, University of Florida, Bureau of Economic and Business Research, 221 Matherly Hall, Gainesville, FL 32611. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40526 Yang, Xiushi. Urban temporary out-migration under economic reforms: who moves and for what reasons? Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 13, No. 1, Mar 1994. 83-100 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Using a unique data set from two surveys conducted in Zhejiang province, China, this paper examines...temporary migration from urban places....The analysis identifies three types of temporary migrations: on-business, economic, and family-related. Using [a] multinomial logit model, the analysis suggests that the three types of temporary migration differ significantly from each other in both their causes and migrants' socioeconomic characteristics; so does urban-urban migration from urban-rural migration."
Correspondence: X. Yang, Old Dominion University, College of Arts and Letters, Department of Sociology and Criminal Justice, Norfolk, VA 23529-0090. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.6. Rural-Urban Migration

Migration from rural to urban areas (the rural exodus), both internal and international. Reverse or turnaround migration is also included.

60:40527 Gedik, Ayse. The effects of in- and out-migration on urban growth in Turkey (1965-85) and a comparison with the developed countries. Papers in Regional Science, Vol. 71, No. 4, 1992. 405-19 pp. Urbana, Illinois. In Eng.
The author examines the relative weight of pull and push factors affecting rural-urban migration in Turkey. Data are from the 1970, 1980, and 1985 censuses. "The results of this study indicate that, for the Turkish case, the effects of migration on urban growth had been contrary to those found in the developed countries, but that, as Turkish development increased over the time period 1965-85, the effects of migration increasingly came to resemble those of developed countries."
Correspondence: A. Gedik, Orta Dogu Teknik Universitesi, Faculty of Architecture, Department of City and Regional Planning, Ankara 06531, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40528 Rawat, P. S. Migration and structural change. ISBN 81-85394-10-5. 1993. xi, 176 pp. Sarita Book House: Delhi, India. In Eng.
Rural-urban migration in India is analyzed using the example of a rural society in the Garhwal District of the Himalayan region. Consideration is given to the impact of migration on family structures, social mobility, caste stratification, and socioeconomic development.
Correspondence: Sarita Book House, 2594/194 Tri Nagar, Delhi 110 035, India. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.


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