Volume 60 - Number 4 - Winter 1994

G. Nuptiality and the Family

Studies that quantitatively analyze aspects of nuptiality and the family. Studies concerned equally with marriage and the family are coded first under G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to G.1. Marriage and Divorce . Methodological studies on nuptiality and the family are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , as appropriate.

G.1. Marriage and Divorce

Studies of trends in marriage and divorce, nuptiality, duration of marriage, age at marriage, and demographic characteristics of marriage partners. Also includes studies of unmarried cohabitation and consensual unions.

60:40370 Abdelrahman, Abdelrahman I. Education and assortative marriage in northern and urban Sudan: 1945-79. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 26, No. 3, Jul 1994. 341-8 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This study examines the extent of assortative mating for education in Northern Sudan and urban Khartoum. More males than females were found at higher levels of education. Increasingly, people tend to marry persons of equal educational level, but the unequal educational opportunities for males and females have led to the emergence of educational exogamy in which members of different educational levels are more likely to marry from the adjacent educational category than from distant categories. The increasing level of education for both sexes, and especially for females, may in part explain the rising trend in age at marriage."
Correspondence: A. I. Abdelrahman, New Jersey Department of Health, Trenton, NJ 08619. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40371 Adams, Bert N.; Mburugu, Edward. Kikuyu bridewealth and polygyny today. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 25, No. 2, Summer 1994. 159-66 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng.
"This study of the Kikuyu [of Kenya] today looked at bridewealth and polygyny. The sample was about 300 30-40 year-olds, divided between residents of Nairobi and rural Kiambu. The families of almost all the male respondents had paid bridewealth at their marriages....About one in six of the male respondents either were currently in polygynous relationships, or planned to be. This was lower than the 28% of their fathers who were polygynous. The explanation for the reduction included opportunity, attitude change, expense, and the availability of extramarital relationships."
Correspondence: B. N. Adams, University of Wisconsin, Department of Sociology, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

60:40372 Bennett, Neil G.; Bloom, David E.; Miller, Cynthia K. The influence of nonmarital childbearing on the formation of first marriages. NBER Working Paper, No. 4564, Dec 1993. 28, [15] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"We examine the association between nonmarital childbearing and the subsequent likelihood of first marriage and document a negative association between these variables--controlling for a variety of potentially confounding influences--in several large survey data sets for the United States. We then subject possible explanations of this finding to empirical test."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1991 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

60:40373 Bergstrom, Theodore; Lam, David. The effects of cohort size on marriage-markets in twentieth-century Sweden. In: The family, the market and the state in ageing societies, edited by John Ermisch and Naohiro Ogawa. 1994. 46-63 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The first section of the chapter presents descriptive statistics of marriage patterns in twentieth-century Sweden. We follow this with an outline of our equilibrium theory of marriage assignment. Finally, we compare actual marriage patterns with those predicted by a simple implementation of our model which assumes that the difference between preferred age of marriage for the two sexes did not change over the entire period."
Correspondence: T. Bergstrom, University of Michigan, Department of Economics, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48104-2590. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40374 Blom, Svein. Marriage and cohabitation in a changing society: experience of Norwegian men and women born in 1945 and 1960. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 10, No. 2, 1994. 143-73 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Retrospective survey data are used to estimate the effect of various factors on the transitions to first marriage or first cohabitation among single Norwegian men and women born in 1945 and 1960. A high educational level is not found to reduce marriage intensities for women, although educational enrollment appears to be less compatible with marriage for women than men. The effect of employment varies according to prevailing sex-role expectations. The data support the assumption that modern cohabitation developed from two socially opposite origins, the educated elite and the working class. A social value dimension is assumed to have a major effect upon the present-day choice between marriage and cohabitation."
Correspondence: S. Blom, Statistisk Sentralbyra, Division for Demography and Living Conditions, P.B. 8131 Dep., 0033 Oslo 1, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40375 Botev, Nikolai. Where East meets West: ethnic intermarriage in the former Yugoslavia, 1962 to 1989. American Sociological Review, Vol. 59, No. 3, Jun 1994. 461-80 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"I examine ethnic intermarriage in the former Yugoslavia to determine the prevalence of exogamy there and if exogamy has increased since World War II....Using marriage registration data, I apply log-linear models to distinguish the effects of changes in the marginal distribution of spouses' traits from patterns that reflect the association between these traits. The results show that the widespread perception that intermarriage occurred frequently is an exaggeration--over the last three decades there has been no clear increase in the rates of intermarriage. Further, social barriers have hindered interactions (and intermarriage) among three cultural traditions present in the former Yugoslavia...."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1992 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: N. Botev, 93D Avenue d'Aire, 1203 Geneva, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40376 Chowdhury, Fakhrul I.; Trovato, Frank. The role and status of women and the timing of marriage in five Asian countries. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 25, No. 2, Summer 1994. 143-57 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This study explores the relationship of women's role and status in society to their marriage timing in five non-industrial Asian countries (Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Malaysia). The role and status of women, conceptualized from acquired characteristics such as education and occupation before marriage, determines the largest degree of variance explained in timing of marriage....Additional evidence indicates that country differences in female age at marriage are also conditioned by the stage of a country's socio-economic transition."
Correspondence: F. I. Chowdhury, University of Alberta, Department of Sociology, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

60:40377 Clarkberg, Marin; Stolzenberg, Ross M.; Waite, Linda J. Attitudes, values, and the entrance into cohabitational unions. Population Research Center Discussion Paper Series, No. 93-4, Nov 1993. 28, [12] pp. University of Chicago, National Opinion Research Center [NORC], Population Research Center: Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
The effects of values and attitudes measured prior to union formation on choice of cohabitation or marriage are assessed using U.S. data from the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972. "Our findings show strong support for the argument that values and attitudes lay a causal role in the formation of unions; people who choose to cohabit were significantly different prior to their decision to cohabit both from people who married and from people who stayed single."
Correspondence: University of Chicago, National Opinion Research Center, Population Research Center, 1155 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40378 de Guibert-Lantoine, Catherine; Leridon, Henri; Toulemon, Laurent; Villeneuve-Gokalp, Catherine. Adult cohabitation. [La cohabitation adulte.] Population et Societes, No. 293, Sep 1994. 4 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
Trends in consensual union in France are analyzed using data from a 1994 INED survey. The results show the growing acceptance of consensual unions as an alternative to marriage.
Correspondence: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40379 De Silva, W. Indralal. Family formation: socio-cultural differentials in age at first marriage in Sri Lanka. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 39, No. 3, Sep 1993. 55-60 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
The author investigates the sociocultural differences in age at first marriage in Sri Lanka. "The data used in this study come [from] the Sri Lanka Contraceptive Prevalence Survey (SLCPS) of 1982." Aspects considered include place of residence, educational level, ethnicity, and religion.
Correspondence: W. I. De Silva, University of Colombo, Demographic Training and Research Unit, Post Box 1490, Colombo 3, Sri Lanka. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40380 Desrosiers, Helene; Le Bourdais, Celine. Consensual unions in Canada: a study on the process of their formation and dissolution. [Les unions libres chez les femmes canadiennes: etude des processus de formation et de dissolution.] In: Population, reproduction, societes: perspectives et enjeux de demographie sociale, edited by Dennis D. Cordell et al. 1993. 197-214 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre.
An analysis of the extent of consensual unions in Canada is presented. The emphasis is on the factors associated with the formation of this kind of union, and those that lead to their evolution into formal marriage or dissolution. Data are primarily from the Family Survey of 1984.
Correspondence: H. Desrosiers, Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, 2635 boulevard Hochelaga, Suite 640, C.P. 7500, Sainte-Foy, Quebec G1V 4C7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40381 Dittgen, Alfred. Forms of marriage in Europe: civil and religious ceremonies. Overview and developments. [La forme du mariage en Europe: ceremonie civile, ceremonie religieuse. Panorama et evolution.] Population, Vol. 49, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1994. 339-68 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The decreasing number of marriages in Europe during the last quarter-century has been matched by a decline in the proportion of marriages that involve a religious ceremony. In Central Europe, where only civil marriages are recognized by the law, the percentage of couples who go from the Registrar's Office to Church or temple has continued to decline, at least in Western countries....In Northern Europe, where both religious and civil ceremonies are recognized, the percentage of weddings which involve a religious ceremony has been rising for some years, especially in Scandinavia. These different trends illustrate that religious and civil marriage ceremonies have different implications and significance in different social, political, religious and institutional environments."
Correspondence: A. Dittgen, Universite de Paris-Sorbonne, 12 place du Pantheon, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40382 Dittgen, Alfred. Regional differences in civil marriage in southern Europe. [Disparites regionales du mariage civil en Europe du sud.] Population, Vol. 49, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1994. 531-6 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
A comparative analysis of differences in civil marriage in Italy, Spain, and Portugal is presented. The relationship between the type of marriage ceremony chosen and level of religiousness in the region concerned is discussed.
Correspondence: A. Dittgen, 12 allee de la Noiseraie, 93160 Noisy-le-Grand, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40383 Fialova, Ludmila. Changes in nuptiality in Czech lands and Slovakia, 1981-1988. Journal of Family History, Vol. 19, No. 2, 1994. 107-15 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"During the period between the World Wars differences in the age at first marriage and proportions married in the Czech and Slovak areas of the Czechoslovak Republic showed the two to be distinct regions. In the Post-World War II period, however, differences in both measures have diminished and have almost disappeared, suggesting homogenization of demographic behavior. Current ages at first marriage have fallen to the levels interwar demographers believed to be conducive to family instability."
Correspondence: L. Fialova, Czech Academy of Sciences, Institute of Sociology, Narodni tr 3, 111 42 Prague, Czech Republic. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40384 Ghilagaber, Gebrenegus. The relationship between premarital cohabitation and marital stability: evidence for Swedish men born in 1936-1960. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 80, ISBN 91-7820-080-6. Nov 1993. 40 pp. Stockholm University, Demography Unit: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
The relationship between premarital cohabitation and the stability of subsequent marriages is examined using data from a 1985 survey of 3,200 Swedish men born between 1936 and 1960. Using multiplicative hazard models, the author shows that "previous cohabitors, compared to noncohabitors, tend to be at much greater differential risk of dissolution at all durations of marriage. In addition, we found that age at marriage, marriage duration, and child(ren) are among the strongest determinants of the risk of marital dissolution."
Correspondence: Stockholm University, Demography Unit, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40385 Huang, Rongqing. A study of changes in the marital pattern of Chinese women in the past 40 years. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 5, No. 4, 1993. 345-56 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"There has been a considerable amount of research on changes in the pattern of first marriage among Chinese women and its impact on [the] fertility rate since 1950. This paper attempts to establish several indexes for measuring various dimensions subsumed in the status of 'being married'...to expound the inter-relationships between the number and structure of marriages and the index of first marriage in the population."
Correspondence: R. Huang, Beijing School of Economics, Institute of Population Economics, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40386 Kalmijn, Matthijs. Assortative mating by cultural and economic occupational status. American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 100, No. 2, Sep 1994. 422-52 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"This study examines two micro-level hypotheses about status homogamy: (1) the cultural matching hypothesis (people prefer to marry someone of similar cultural status) and (2) the economic competition hypothesis (people prefer to marry someone of higher economic status). Detailed occupations of newlyweds in the 1970 and 1980 [U.S.] censuses are analyzed. Scales of cultural and economic occupational status are developed, and log-linear models of scaled association are used to analyze 70 x 70 occupational marriage tables. It is found that assortative mating by cultural status is more important than assortative mating by economic status, the economic dimension of status homogamy is more important when people marry late, and economic status homogamy has increased between 1970 and 1980 at the expense of cultural status homogamy."
Correspondence: M. Kalmijn, Utrecht University, Department of Sociology, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

60:40387 Lambert, Andre. Marriage and divorce in Belgium between 1981 and 1991. [Mariages et divorces en Belgique entre 1981 et 1991.] Interface Demography Working Paper, No. 1993-5, Aug 1993. 33, [3] pp. Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Centrum voor Sociologie: Brussels, Belgium. In Fre.
This analysis of trends in marriage and divorce in Belgium over the course of the 1980s is based on vital statistics data. Three main patterns are identified: a trend toward later age at first marriage, an increase in divorce, and an increase in remarriage following divorce.
Correspondence: Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Centrum voor Sociologie, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Paris, France.

60:40388 Manning, Wendy D.; Smock, Pamela J. Why marry? Race and transition to marriage among cohabitors. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 94-18, May 1994. 31, [10] pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"Our study investigates the transition to first marriage among cohabiting black and white men and women, drawing on data from the [U.S.] National Survey of Families and Households. Our results underscore the importance of economic factors on the transition to marriage for both black and white cohabitors."
This paper was originally presented at the 1994 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6211. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40389 Manting, D. Diversity of couple relationships. [Verscheidenheid in partner-relaties.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 42, No. 5, May 1994. 23-9 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"This article focuses on differences between married women who cohabited prior to marriage, married women who did not cohabit prior to marriage, and cohabiting women. There are quite remarkable differences between these three groups: in opinions about primary relationships and separations, in motives for marrying, in behaviour (stability of union, labour force participation) and individual and couple-related characteristics (number of children, religion). These results come from the Netherlands Family and Fertility Survey 1993 conducted by Statistics Netherlands."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40390 Molnar, Edit S. Changes in the marital status of females giving birth in adolescence, 1983-1993. [A serdulokorban szulo nok csaladiallapot-valtozasai, 1983-1993.] Statisztikai Szemle, Vol. 72, No. 7, Jul 1994. 560-76 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
"A national survey was carried out in [Hungary in] 1983 covering females who gave birth to their first child [at] the age of 17 years and under. At that time 59 per cent of them were married, 29 per cent cohabited with the child's father, and 12 per cent were single mothers, the pregnancy of which originated from a short-lived relationship. A similar survey was carried out among the same young mothers in 1993. The study shows the changes which took place in their marital status. The proportion of married rose to 81 per cent....Once ten years were over, 9 per cent of the mothers were divorced, and 1 per cent were widowed. The proportion of single mothers came also to 9 per cent, some half of them--mostly females of gipsy ethnic group--maintained cohabitation permanently with the first child's father. It is a characteristic feature of the sample that cohabitation is more admitted than in the population on the whole."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40391 Oropesa, R. S.; Lichter, Daniel T.; Anderson, Robert N. Marriage markets and first marriage transitions: a comparison of Mexican-Americans, African-Americans and Anglos. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 1993-10, Apr 1993. 32, [10] pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"Using data collected from the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this study extends previous analyses [of the relationship between race and nuptiality] by investigating the roles of both structural and cultural factors in the marriage transitions of Mexican-American, African-American and white women. Particular attention is paid to the relationship between macro-level conditions that differentially affect micro-level marriage transitions--the sex ratio and spatial segregation."
This paper was originally presented at the 1993 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6211. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40392 Saluter, Arlene F. Marital status and living arrangements: March 1993. Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, No. 478, May 1994. xiv, 76, [22] pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report presents detailed information on the marital status and living arrangements of the noninstitutional population of the United States, based on the results of the March 1993 Current Population Survey (CPS)." Most of the data are presented by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin.
Correspondence: U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D.C. 20402. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40393 Samuel, Olivia. A comparative socio-demographic study of nuptiality in two states: Aguascalientes and Veracruz. [Estudio sociodemografico comparativo de la nupcialidad en dos entidades federativas: Aguascalientes y Veracruz.] Estudios Demograficos y Urbanos, Vol. 8, No. 1, Jan-Apr 1993. 103-20, 258 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"In this article, nuptiality is studied as a demographic and social phenomenon....The study focuses on two states of [Mexico]: Aguascalientes and Veracruz, where the author analyzes the formation of couples, the social norms which determine marriage behavior patterns, and the interaction between marriage and reproductive behavior patterns....[The study] includes a description of the characteristics and patterns of unions in the two regions based on data from the 1982 'Encuesta Nacional Demografica' (National Demographic Survey) and on published studies on the subject."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40394 Willis, Robert J.; Michael, Robert T. Innovation in family formation: evidence on cohabitation in the United States. In: The family, the market and the state in ageing societies, edited by John Ermisch and Naohiro Ogawa. 1994. 9-45 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In this chapter we address the following issues: Why would a couple choose cohabitation instead of marriage? What are the characteristics of those who choose each? What does the descriptive evidence on cohabitational histories among a national sample of 32-year-olds tell us about the institution of cohabitation in the United States today?" Data are primarily taken from the Fifth Follow-up Survey of the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 which was carried out in 1986. The authors conclude that "in the United States, cohabitation among this cohort serves the purpose of a trial marriage, an opportunity for intensive search in the marriage-market." This is a revised version of a paper presented at the 1988 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: R. J. Willis, University of Chicago, National Opinion Research Center, Economics Research Center, 1155 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40395 Wu, Zheng; Balakrishnan, T. R. Cohabitation after marital disruption in Canada. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 56, No. 3, Aug 1994. 723-34 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"Using recent Canadian national data, this study examines the cohabitational experience of 930 women and 650 men after they terminated a first marriage in the context of a marital search model. Our results suggest an increasing trend of postmarital cohabitation for recent cohorts. The hazard rate of postmarital cohabitation varies, depending particularly on time since marital disruption, age at marital disruption, and year of marital dissolution. The analysis shows no significant sex differences in the rate of postmarital cohabitation. The implications [of] these results are discussed."
Correspondence: Z. Wu, University of Victoria, Department of Sociology, P.O. Box 3050, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 3P5, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

G.2. Family and Household

Studies of household structure and of family composition and size and the factors influencing them. Includes the full range of family concepts from the one-parent to the extended family and includes studies on the life course of the family. Studies on attitudes toward family size are coded under F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control .

60:40396 Ayad, Mohamed; Piani, Andrea L.; Barrere, Bernard; Ekouevi, Koffi; Otto, James. Demographic characteristics of households. DHS Comparative Studies, No. 14, Jun 1994. vi, 39 pp. Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Calverton, Maryland. In Eng.
This is a comparative report on the demographic characteristics of households in developing countries using data from 25 national surveys undertaken during the first phase of the DHS program in the late 1980s. Section 1 is the introduction; "in the next two sections, definitions of the household and issues related to the data used and data comparability are discussed; the fourth section examines the quality of age data; sections 5-7 present and compare data on household demographic characteristics such as age and sex structure, size of households and headship of households. The last section summarizes the results."
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Suite 300, Calverton, MD 20705. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40397 Bertram, Hans; Bayer, Hiltrud; Bauereiss, Renate. Family atlas: living conditions and regions in Germany. [Familien-Atlas: Lebenslagen und Regionen in Deutschland.] ISBN 3-8100-1050-2. 1993. xvii, 240 pp. Leske und Budrich: Opladen, Germany. In Ger.
This atlas contains maps and tables showing the situation of families in over 100 regions of Germany. Data are included on marital status, births, children, marriages and divorces, household size, age structure, migration, foreigners, population density, attitudes toward marriage and children, income, economic structure, education, and mortality. Most of the data are from the 1980s.
Correspondence: Leske und Budrich, Gerhart-Hauptmann-Strasse 27, Postfach 300406, 5090 Leverkusen 3, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40398 Bouchard, Gerard. Agrarian overpopulation and household structure in Saguenay (1881-1931). [Pressions agraires et structures des menages au Saguenay (1881-1931).] European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 10, No. 2, 1994. 175-97 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"Our paper investigates the effect of land shortage in the Saguenay region [of Quebec, Canada,] upon the household structures, more precisely on the frequency of a) complex structures, b) celibacy, c) cohabitation with strangers (non-relatives). The data come from 28 parish censuses of the period 1881-1931. For each of these three indicators, findings show that the saturation of arable land did not entail significant changes."
Correspondence: G. Bouchard, Centre Interuniversitaire SOREP, 555 Boulevard de l'Universite, Chicoutimi, Quebec G7H 2B1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40399 Boulanger, P. M.; Lambert, A.; Deboosere, P.; Lesthaeghe, R. Family formation: a prospective study. [La formation des familles: etude prospective.] Programme de Recherche en Sciences Sociales: Vieillissement, Mar 1994. 102, [68] pp. Politique Scientifique, Services de Programmation: Brussels, Belgium. Distributed by Centre d'Information d'INBEL, 54 boulevard du Regent, 1000 Brussels, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Dut.
This report looks at the present and future impact of demographic aging on families and households in Belgium. The first section examines recent changes in the family and household, particularly the growth of consensual unions and non-family households. The next section examines past and probable future trends in nuptiality, divorce, and widowhood from 1981 to 2010. The third and final section describes the consequences for families within the context of society as a whole.
Correspondence: Politique Scientifique, Services de Programmation, Rue de la Science 8, 1040 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40400 Burns, Ailsa; Scott, Cath. Mother-headed families and why they have increased. ISBN 0-8058-1440-X. LC 93-34798. 1994. xv, 217 pp. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: Hillsdale, New Jersey/Hove, England. In Eng.
"The goals of the book are twofold. The first is to bring together information on the past and present prevalence of mother-headed families in [developed] countries....The second goal is to consider the various explanations (economic, demographic, cultural, sociopsychological) that have been offered for the recent increase, and to see...what they imply for the future....Chapter 1 considers the role of divorce and separation....Chapters 2-4 consider out-of-wedlock births as a source of mother-headed families, particularly since the stabilization of divorce rates in the 1980s....Chapter 5 discusses widowhood....The second part of the volume (chapters 6-8) offers a critical discussion of various theories of the family and of parenting that might explain the various changes in the prevalence and status of mother-headed families that have been described."
Correspondence: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 365 Broadway, Hillsdale, NJ 07642. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

60:40401 Carlson, Barbara L.; Cohen, Steven B.; Johnson, Ayah E. Family unit constructs, dynamics, and analysis in the household component of the MNES. Journal of Economic and Social Measurement, Vol. 20, No. 3, 1994. 215-35 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"In this paper, the authors will describe the extent and type of change in [U.S.] family structure and composition in the Household Survey component of the 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey (NMES) over the course of the four data collection rounds in the survey year and the way these changes are incorporated into analytical plans. Several strategies for defining families which can change across time will be employed and evaluated. A few annualized outcome measures of interest at the family level will be explored using these various definitions."
Correspondence: B. L. Carlson, Mathematica Policy Research, P.O. Box 2393, Princeton, NJ 08543-2393. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

60:40402 Desplanques, Guy. To remain at home or to leave home. [Etre ou ne plus etre chez ses parents.] Population et Societes, No. 292, Jul-Aug 1994. 4 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
The author examines the process whereby young adults leave home in France. It is noted that students and the unemployed tend to remain in the parental home. The main factors affecting continued residence in the parental home are economic, although the quality of the accommodation in comparison to what young people could afford elsewhere could play an important role.
Correspondence: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40403 Geronimus, Arline T.; Korenman, Sanders; Hillemeier, Marianne M. Does young maternal age adversely affect child development? Evidence from cousin comparisons in the United States. Population and Development Review, Vol. 20, No. 3, Sep 1994. 585-609, 693-6 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979-90 are used to estimate relations between maternal age at first birth and measures of early socioemotional and cognitive development of children. Cross-sectional estimates are compared to estimates based on comparisons of first cousins to gauge the importance of bias from family background heterogeneity. Consistent with previous literature, cross-sectional estimates suggest adverse consequences of teenage motherhood for child development. However, children of teen mothers appear to score no worse on measures of development than their first cousins whose mothers had first births after their teen years. These findings suggest that differences in family background of mothers (factors that precede their childbearing years) may account for the low scores observed among young children of teen mothers."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1992 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: A. T. Geronimus, University of Michigan, School of Public Health, Department of Public Health Policy and Administration, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40404 Gustafsson, Bjorn; Kjulin, Urban. Time use in child care and housework and the total cost of children. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 7, No. 3, Jul 1994. 287-306 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"The use of time for child care and housework among Swedish families is investigated. We allow the effect of children on child care and housework to vary by age of the child and also by whether the child is cared for outside the home or not. Our estimates allow us to compute the total cost of children in the form of the cost of time, and the cost of goods, services and housing. The result shows that time used for child care decreases sharply with the age of the child but this is not the case for time used for other housework."
Correspondence: B. Gustafsson, Department of Economics, Viktoriagaten 30, 41125 Goteborg, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40405 Haskey, John. Stepfamilies and stepchildren in Great Britain. Population Trends, No. 76, Summer 1994. 17-28 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This article analyses data from two surveys--the Omnibus Survey and the General Household Survey--which provide information on stepfamilies and stepchildren in Great Britain. It is estimated that there were about 500 thousand stepfamilies with dependent stepchildren in Great Britain in 1991; around one in 15 of all families with dependent children....The article also describes a life table analysis to estimate the proportions of children who would become stepchildren by certain ages, were 1991-92 age-specific transition probabilities to persist unchanged."
Correspondence: J. Haskey, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, Population Statistics, St. Catherine's House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40406 Horska, Pavla. Historical models of the central European family: Czech and Slovak examples. Journal of Family History, Vol. 19, No. 2, 1994. 99-106 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"Preliminary research on the history of family and demography among Czechs and Slovaks in the pre-modern period suggests that these central European peoples shared both western and eastern characteristics, but also that results depend very much on the geographical location of the community being analyzed, on its nationality composition, and its socio-economic characteristics. Using internationally accepted analytical techniques such as family reconstitution and household-structure analysis, research continues on a wide range of sources such as ecclesiastical registers, household listings, and the population sources known as status animarum."
Correspondence: P. Horska, Czech Academy of Sciences, Institute of Sociology, Narodni tr 3, 111 42 Prague, Czech Republic. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40407 Horska, Pavla. Uncertain prognosis of European family evolution. [Nejista prognoza vyvoje evropske rodiny.] Demografie, Vol. 36, No. 2, 1994. 73-81 pp. Prague, Czech Republic. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author discusses past and future changes in the family in Europe. "During the years 1965-1985 demographic characteristics of...Western Europe indicate decline of fertility, nuptiality, growth of the number of divorces as well as growth of illegitimate deliveries....Family sociologists consider the present changes as [a] phenomenon of transformation of the Western-European family."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40408 Ingstad, Benedicte. The grandmother and household viability in Botswana. In: Gender, work and population in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Aderanti Adepoju and Christine Oppong. 1994. 209-25 pp. James Currey: London, England; Heinemann: Portsmouth, New Hampshire. In Eng.
"This chapter focuses on the part that the grandmother frequently plays in Tswana households [in Botswana] and the influence she has on economic and demographic strategies, including family planning and child-rearing, in a rapidly changing society stressed by drought....The data on which this analysis is based were gathered over a period of two years (1984-85) in Kweneng district, Botswana. A follow-up study of 94 households was carried out...[and] additional data were gathered by participant observation and informal interviews...."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40409 Kiely, Gabriel. In and out of marriage: Irish and European experiences. ISBN 1-870089-74-X. 1992. 98 pp. University College, Family Studies Centre: Dublin, Ireland. In Eng.
Most of "the papers published in this collection were read at a Conference held by the Family Studies Centre [Dublin, Ireland] in June 1991....All the papers are concerned with issues arising out of changes in family organisation over the past few decades." Chapters are included on marital separation in Ireland; the Italian experience of divorce; the reform of child support in Great Britain; the concept of household in social security; poor families in the Netherlands; single parents in Ireland; and theoretical and practical issues in family policy.
Correspondence: University College, Family Studies Centre, Dublin 4, Ireland. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

60:40410 Limanonda, Bhassorn; Podhisita, Chai; Wongsith, Malinee. Report on a Thai family and household survey. Pub. Order No. 186/91. ISBN 974-560-644-2. Nov 1991. 101 pp. Chulalongkorn University, Institute of Population Studies: Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
This publication includes the texts of three papers presented at a symposium held at Nihon University in Tokyo, Japan, on October 20-24, 1990. The three papers present results from the Thai Family and Household Survey of 1989-1990, which included 677 men and women in four provinces. The focus is on the Thai family, including family formation and attitudes toward the family.
Correspondence: Chulalongkorn University, Institute of Population Studies, Phyathai Road, Bangkok 10330, Thailand. Location: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Paris, France.

60:40411 Lloyd, Cynthia B. Fertility, family size, and structure: consequences for families and children. ISBN 0-87834-077-7. 1993. v, 552 pp. Population Council: New York, New York. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of a seminar held at the Population Council in New York, June 9-10, 1992, on the consequences of high fertility at the family level in developing countries. Among the topics given high priority were "the consequences of high fertility for children's educational opportunities and their time use, and for intra-family inequality, particularly as it relates to sex and birth order." The 14 papers are divided into five sections that deal with the costs and benefits of children, qualitative approaches concerning parents' perspective, child health and nutrition, children's education and work in changing societies, and the consequences of sustained high fertility.
Correspondence: Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40412 Lyngstad, Jan. Economic living conditions for families with children and for the elderly, 1970-1986. [Okonomiske levekar for barnefamilier og eldre, 1970-1986.] Rapporter fra Statistisk Sentralbyra, No. 92/11, ISBN 82-537-3660-6. 1992. 80 pp. Statistisk Sentralbyra: Oslo-Kongsvinger, Norway. In Nor.
This report analyzes changes in the economic living conditions of families with children and of the elderly in Norway in the period 1970-1986. The relevance of taxes and government allowances for the distribution of incomes within and between the two groups is emphasized. The data stem from official surveys on income and wealth for the years 1970, 1979, 1982, and 1986, which included between 2,600 and 5,300 households. The analysis shows that during the period 1970-1986, couples with children have improved their economic living conditions, compared to elderly households.
Correspondence: Statistisk Sentralbyra, P.B. 8131 Dep., 0033 Oslo 1, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40413 Manning, Wendy D.; Hogan, Dennis P. Who assists mothers with young children? Patterns of family formation and support to young mothers. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 94-14, May 1994. 26, [12] pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"This paper describes the support networks of women with young children. We focus on the factors associated with differences in the receipt of support, such as living arrangements and marriage history. The analysis is based on a nationally representative [U.S.] sample of 536 women under 30 years of age whose oldest child was less than five. These women were interviewed for the 1987/88 National Survey of Families and Households."
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6211. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40414 Meekers, Dominique; Franklin, Nadra; Meeker, Jeffrey. Conflict of interest: gender relations among the Kaguru of Tanzania. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 94-13, May 1994. 31 pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
This study concerns gender relations in Africa, particularly in matrilineal societies. The authors use "ethnographic interviews among the Kaguru [of Tanzania] to document how males exert control over women, and how women try to achieve their goals within these constraints."
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6211. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40415 Padmini, I. K.; Krishnamoorthy, S. Demographic and socio-economic status of women in different family structures in a rural area of south India. International Journal of Sociology of the Family, Vol. 24, No. 2, Autumn 1994. 49-55 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The authors study "women's demographic and socio-economic position in different family types...[using data] from a sample survey conducted in a rural area of Tamil Nadu [India] during May and June of 1988....Comparison of demographic characteristics of ever-married women in the reproductive age, such as marital status, age, marriage duration, age at marriage and living children, and socio-economic characteristics, such as educational status, occupational status, per capita annual income of the family and number of rooms in the house, is made between family types."
Correspondence: I. K. Padmini, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046, Tamil Nadu, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40416 Prins, C. J. M.; Levering, J. Nuclear families by family life cycle category, January 1, 1992. [Gezinnen naar gezinsfase, 1 januari 1992.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 42, No. 5, May 1994. 30-9 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"In this article, family life-cycle categories [in the Netherlands] are defined by the ages of the youngest and the eldest child. The figures are from an enumeration from automated municipal population registers. For each inhabitant sex, year of birth, marital status, country of birth, family relationship and a number of other characteristics were obtained. The family relationship shows whether or not a person lives in a nuclear family and if so, what position they have therein (e.g. spouse, parent, child). On the basis of these data three types of nuclear families were defined...."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40417 Raduski, Nada. Serbian household structure according to socioeconomic characteristics. [Sastav domacinstva Srbije po socio-ekonomskim karakteristikama.] Stanovnistvo, Vol. 30-31, 1992-1993. 117-33 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
The author investigates "changes in the socio-economic structures of household and family, economic life, consumption and the general system of social values [in Serbia, Yugoslavia, since World War II]. During the process of accelerated desagrarization, intense spatial mobility related to the transfer of farmers to non-agricultural activities and to cities had a key role in changing the size of household units, their structure and social stratification. The social and demographic implications of such changes are multidimensional, affect the society as a whole and its macro institutions have a recurrent influence on the family."
Correspondence: N. Raduski, Univerzitet u Beogradu, Instituta Drustvenih Nauka, Centar za Demografska Istrazivanja, Narodnog Fronta 45, 11000 Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40418 Rallu, Jean-Louis; Gaymu, Joelle; Parant, Alain. Household trends, care for the elderly, and social security in France. In: Coping with sustained low fertility in France and the Netherlands, edited by Nico van Nimwegen, Jean-Claude Chesnais, and Pearl Dykstra. NIDI/CBGS Publication, No. 27, 1993. 257-94 pp. Swets and Zeitlinger: Berwyn, Pennsylvania/Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"We will discuss recent trends and short term projections of household and family composition [in France]. The situation of the elderly will be dealt with in the second section and social security costs will be addressed in the third section of this paper."
Correspondence: J.-L. Rallu, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40419 Rawlings, Steve W. Household and family characteristics: March 1993. Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, No. 477, Jun 1994. xix, 175, [30] pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This recurring annual report presents demographic data on [U.S.] households and families for March of 1993. It provides a summary of some of the major changes in household and family composition that have occurred since 1970. The 1993 estimates in this report are based on data from the March Annual Demographic Supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS)." Most of the data are provided by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin.
Correspondence: U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D.C. 20402. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40420 Renne, Elisha P. History in the making: an anthropological approach to the demographic analysis of child fostering in southwestern Nigeria. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population: Montreal 1993, Volume 4. 1993. 327-42 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"This paper proposes an application of recent anthropological thinking to the problem of integrating the particular with the general....[The author illustrates this approach using] patterns of child-fostering as presently practised in a rural Ekiti Yoruba village in southwestern Nigeria....I conclude with some remarks concerning the implications of change on child-fostering practices and fertility transition in southwestern Nigeria."
Correspondence: E. P. Renne, Australian National University, Health Transition Centre, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40421 Rychtarikova, Jitka. Czech and Slovak families in the European context. Journal of Family History, Vol. 19, No. 2, 1994. 131-47 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"During the past two decades most of the developed countries of Europe have witnessed changes in such family-related demographic phenomena as nuptiality, divorce, and fertility. For the time being, the Czech and Slovak Republics continue to exhibit patterns established earlier in history....As a result of recent profound political, social, and economic changes, it is reasonable to expect changes in demographic behavior as well. The first of these may be a marked decline in fertility along the lines already experienced by southern European countries."
Correspondence: J. Rychtarikova, Charles University, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Demography and Geodemography, Albertov 6, 12 843 Prague, Czech Republic. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40422 Schlesinger, Ben; Schlesinger, Rachel A. One-parent families in Europe: a review. International Journal of Sociology of the Family, Vol. 24, No. 2, Autumn 1994. 15-23 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"One parent families form about 10-15 percent of all families in most industrialized countries. This review examines a selected number of European studies related to one-parent families completed during the 1985-1992 period. The major findings are presented, and implications for further research are included."
Correspondence: B. Schlesinger, University of Toronto, 100 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M52 1A1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40423 Settles, Barbara H.; Hanks, Daniel E.; Sussman, Marvin B. Families on the move: migration, immigration, emigration, and mobility. Marriage and Family Review Series, ISBN 1-56024-445-0. LC 93-13376. 1993. 416 pp. Haworth Press: Binghamton, New York. In Eng.
This volume presents papers given at the Groves Conference on Marriage and the Family held in San Antonio, Texas, in April 1987. The papers were previously published in Marriage and Family Review, Vol. 19, Nos. 1-2 and 3-4; several of them have already been cited in Population Index.
Correspondence: Haworth Press, 10 Alice Street, Binghamton, NY 13904-1580. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40424 Sidramshettar, S. C. The small family norm: a sociological study of dual earner couples. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 39, No. 3, Sep 1993. 35-44 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"The present paper seeks to study the views of educated, employed couples about the small family norm with the purpose of analysing the process of change taking place in their marital and family lives." The data concern 100 couples in Dharwad, Karnataka, in India. The results suggest that, despite major changes in attitude toward family size associated with modernization, there are still strong prejudices against male and female infertility and in favor of male children.
Correspondence: S. C. Sidramshettar, Karnataka University, Department of Sociology, Pavate Nagar, Dharwad 580 003, Karnataka, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40425 Skaburskis, Andrejs. Determinants of Canadian headship rates. Urban Studies, Vol. 31, No. 8, Oct 1994. 1,377-89 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"This article shows how regional differences in household formation relate to differences in income and housing prices. It presents an assessment of the effect of housing prices and income expectations on household formation decisions [in Canada]. Gender differences are revealed. Differences between spatial and temporal variation in headship rate changes are illustrated, along with the inappropriateness of using coefficients obtained through cross-sectional analysis in forecasting exercises or impact assessments. Normative conclusions are developed."
Correspondence: A. Skaburskis, Queen's University, School of Urban and Regional Planning, Kingston, Ontario KL7 3N6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

60:40426 Stier, Haya; Tienda, Marta. Spouses or babies? Race, poverty, and pathways to family formation. Population Research Center Discussion Paper Series, No. 94-6, Mar 1994. 29, [16] pp. University of Chicago, National Opinion Research Center [NORC], Population Research Center: Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
The authors "analyze the Urban Poverty and Family Life Survey of Chicago and an urban subsample of the [U.S.] National Survey of Families and Households to consider whether and how the pathways to family formation differ among inner-city mothers and urban mothers generally, and to evaluate the influence of race and poverty in shaping the transition to adult family life."
Correspondence: University of Chicago, National Opinion Research Center, Population Research Center, 1155 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40427 Vanier Institute of the Family (Ottawa, Canada). Profiling Canada's families. ISBN 0-919520-55-3. 1994. xii, 148 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
This publication, which is also available in French, "identifies significant trends and forces affecting Canada's families and the changes they are undergoing....This book examines the details of Canadian family life by presenting charts and graphs coupled with written explications of the numbers and trends."
Correspondence: Vanier Institute of the Family, 120 Holland Avenue, Suite 300, Ottawa, Ontario K1Y 0X6, Canada. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

60:40428 Vaskovics, Laszlo A.; Garhammer, Manfred; Schneider, Norbert F.; Kabat vel Job, Otmar. Family and household structures in the former German Democratic Republic and the Federal Republic of Germany from 1980 to 1989--a comparison. [Familien- und Haushaltsstrukturen in der ehemaligen DDR und in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland von 1980 bis 1989--ein Vergleich.] Materialien zur Bevolkerungswissenschaft: Sonderheft, No. 24, 1994. 173 pp. Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung: Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger.
This publication provides a review and summary of the literature on family and household structures in the former East and West Germanys during 1980-1989. Topics covered include social structure and family policy, attitudes toward marriage and family, household and family types, family formation and dissolution, internal family relationships, and similarities and differences between family and household structures.
Correspondence: Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung, Gustav-Stresemann-Ring 6, Postfach 5528, 6200 Wiesbaden, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40429 Villeneuve-Gokalp, Catherine. Household servants. [Les gens de maison.] Population, Vol. 49, No. 3, May-Jun 1994. 774-80 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
An analysis of the characteristics of household servants in France after World War I is presented using data on 2,552 women born between 1911 and 1935. Data are from an INED survey carried out in 1981. The results show that domestic employment in households with few or no other servants was incompatible with prospects for developing a family life, and also show a rapid decline over time in employment of this kind.
Correspondence: C. Villeneuve-Gokalp, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40430 Visser, H. Children become adults. [Kinderen worden volwassen.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 42, No. 6, Jun 1994. 9-17 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"The 1993 Netherlands Fertility and Family Survey interviewed about 3,700 men and 4,500 women in the age-group of 18 to 43 years. Amongst others, information was collected with respect to leaving the parental home....Based on the collected information three groups of home leavers can be distinguished. The first group consists of children who leave their parents at a relatively young age....Secondly a group [of] home leavers can be distinguished who leave at a relatively old age (and some of them so far never did)....The third group which can be distinguished consists of children who leave their parents at an age at which about most of the children leave."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40431 Wojtkiewicz, Roger A. Parental structure experiences of children: exposure, transitions, and type at birth. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 13, No. 2, Jun 1994. 141-59 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper examines parental structure experiences during childhood and adolescence of non-Hispanic whites, blacks, Mexicans, and Puerto Ricans [in the United States] born 1957 to 1964. The study shows that the parental structure types most commonly experienced are mother-father, mother only, and mother-stepfather. The study also finds that a significant proportion of children move into a mother-only family and do not leave it. Finally, the study shows that the parental structure experiences of children are strongly influenced by their parental structure at birth."
Correspondence: R. A. Wojtkiewicz, Louisiana State University, Department of Sociology, 126 Stubbs Hall, Baton Rouge, LA 70803. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40432 Zeng, Yi; Liang, Zhiwu. Trend of change in various kinds of nuclear families in China since the 1980s. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 5, No. 3, 1993. 233-40 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"By using the latest data of 1% sampled data made in the Fourth Population Survey in 1990 and 1 [per 1,000], sampled data made in the Third Population Survey in 1982, we have attempted an analysis...of the trend of change of proportion among nuclear parents-families, separated-parents, single-parent and interval-generation families, as well as two-, three- and four-generation lineal and joint families in China during the 1980s, both as a nation and in all provinces, municipalities directly under the central government and autonomous regions."
Correspondence: Y. Zeng, Beijing University, Population Research Institute, 1 Loudouqiao, Hai Dian, Beijing 100871, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40433 Zhuang, Yan. The status of elderly women in families viewed from the rate of their heading the household. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 5, No. 4, 1993. 323-34 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author assesses the socioeconomic status of elderly women in China, with a focus on marital status, educational level, and employment. "In family and population studies, the methodology for research on household head rate is held as superior to household size and generation distribution indexes in understanding the change of family structures. This paper attempts to apply this methodology to the study of elderly women's familial status."
Correspondence: Y. Zhuang, Beijing Institute of Information Control, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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