Volume 60 - Number 4 - Winter 1994

F. Fertility

Studies that treat quantitative fertility data analytically. References to crude data are coded under S. Official Statistical Publications . Methodological studies specifically concerned with fertility are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary.

F.1. General Fertility

Analytical studies of quantitative birth data and reproduction rates and studies of fertility and its concomitants. Studies of age at marriage, divorce, and factors influencing family size are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

60:40201 Afzal, Mohammad; Kayani, M. Framurz K.; Mohammad, Ali. An indirect view of the fertility changes in Pakistan. Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 32, No. 4, Pt. 2, Winter 1993. 1,081-96 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
An effort is made to apply indirect estimation techniques to estimate current Pakistani fertility levels using data from a number of recent surveys. Evidence is found for declining fertility rates. Questions concerning the validity of data from some surveys are also explored. A comment by Sultan S. Hashmi is included (pp. 1,094-6).
Correspondence: M. Afzal, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, P.O. Box 1091, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40202 Agounke, Akoua; Levi, Pierre; Pilon, Marc. Contemporary trends in reproductive strategies in Sub-Saharan Africa: the case of the Moba-Gurma of Togo. [Evolution contemporaine des schemas de reproduction en Afrique sub-saharienne: le cas des Moba-Gurma du Togo.] URD Document de Travail, No. 6, Nov 1991. 20 pp. Universite du Benin, Unite de Recherche Demographique [URD]: Lome, Togo. In Fre.
The dynamics of reproductive change among the Moba-Gurma of Togo are analyzed for the period from 1900 to the present. The differences in demographic behavior between those who have migrated to the capital, Lome, and those staying behind are noted. However, the fertility of urban migrants, who have generally achieved a measure of economic success in the city, remains higher than that of other similar population groups.
Correspondence: Universite du Benin, Unite de Recherche Demographique, B.P. 12971, Lome, Togo. Location: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Paris, France.

60:40203 Ali, S. Mubashir; Siyal, Hussain B.; Sultan, Mehboob. How similar are the determinants of mortality and fertility? Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 32, No. 4, Pt. 2, Winter 1993. 1,107-15 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
"Using the 1990-91 Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey data...an attempt is made to identify and investigate the similarities and the differences if any, in the determinants of both fertility and mortality [using multiple regression analysis]." The results indicate that "age, age at marriage and education of women beyond the primary level emerged as important determinants for both mortality and fertility at the aggregate and subaggregate level. Moreover, everbreastfed yielded a significant negative effect on mortality whereas, breastfeeding beyond 12 months exhibited a significant negative effect on fertility."
Correspondence: S. M. Ali, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, P.O. Box 1091, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40204 Anderson, Barbara A.; Silver, Brian D. Fertility and sex ratios at birth in China: the effects of parity and the sex composition of previous children, based on ethnic comparisons in Xinjiang. Population Studies Center Research Report, No. 94-301, Jan 1994. 24, [18] pp. University of Michigan, Population Studies Center: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
Data from the 1990 census of China for Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region are used to analyze the fertility of women who already have at least one surviving child. The focus is on the high sex ratio at birth. "Our research reveals very different patterns of gender-selective fertility behavior by the different nationalities both in the decision to have an additional child and in the gender of newborn children. These differences seem to be related in part to differences in family planning policy."
Correspondence: University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40205 Back, Kurt W. Demography and the ethics of artificial reproduction. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population: Montreal 1993, Volume 4. 1993. 209-16 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The author discusses sexual behavior and reproduction, with a focus on changes brought about by artificial means of reproduction. "This paper will show the implication of these changes [for] demography [due to] the ethical and legal problems that have sprung up in this field; this reasoning will lead to an organized presentation of these problems."
Correspondence: K. W. Back, Duke University, Durham, NC 27706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40206 Becker, Stan. Understanding seasonality in Bangladesh. In: Human reproductive ecology: interactions of environment, fertility, and behavior, edited by Kenneth L. Campbell and James W. Wood. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 709, 1994. 370-8 pp. New York Academy of Sciences: New York, New York. In Eng.
The causes of the extreme seasonality of births observed in Bangladesh are examined using data from the Matlab Demographic and Surveillance System. The author concludes that "seasonal patterns of fertility in Matlab, Bangladesh remain pronounced and can only partly be explained by variables measured to date (sexual intercourse frequency, absence of husband, and proportions of women menstruating)."
Correspondence: S. Becker, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Department of Population Dynamics, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205-2179. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

60:40207 Beets, Gijs. Demographic trends: the case of the Netherlands. In: Coping with sustained low fertility in France and the Netherlands, edited by Nico van Nimwegen, Jean-Claude Chesnais, and Pearl Dykstra. NIDI/CBGS Publication, No. 27, 1993. 13-42 pp. Swets and Zeitlinger: Berwyn, Pennsylvania/Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Since the mid-1970s, the Netherlands has been confronted with an unprecedented low fertility level, like many other Western countries. Sustained below-replacement fertility will in the long run lead to a decreasing population size, once immigration surpluses no longer counterbalance natural increase. But will fertility stay so low in the coming decades? This contribution describes demographic trends as derived from population statistics and/or demographic surveys in an attempt to understand what actually happened in our society. Moreover, the author attempts to 'explain' these trends. Finally, some insight is provided on expected future trends." Sections are included on fertility trends, family size and maternal age, the life course, contraception and abortion, nuptiality, immigrant fertility, and age-sex distribution and mortality.
Correspondence: G. Beets, Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute, Postbus 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40208 Blanchet, Didier; Ekert-Jaffe, Olivia. The demographic impact of family benefits: evidence from a micro-model and from macro-data. In: The family, the market and the state in ageing societies, edited by John Ermisch and Naohiro Ogawa. 1994. 79-104 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper presents two ways to evaluate the impact of family allowances on fertility. The first approach consists of an a priori evaluation derived from a small micro-model of fertility behaviour....This model tries to describe...how people plan the successive births of their children. Taking into account the discrete character of individual fertility decisions, it will pay particular attention to the aggregation of these individual decisions in determining the total level of fertility and its changes in response to changes in family policy. The second part is empirical and tests the macro-implications of the first model by analysing fertility and family benefits across OECD countries since the early 1970s. This is done by deriving from this first model an aggregate econometric model whose main explanatory variable will be female wages. Then, an index of family benefits is introduced and tested as a complementary variable. It is demonstrated that the empirical relationship between fertility and family allowances which is shown by this second approach agrees with the a priori evaluations of the first part, suggesting a moderate but not insignificant impact of family policy on demographic behaviour."
Correspondence: D. Blanchet, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40209 Blayo, Chantal; Sardon, Jean-Paul; Toulemon, Laurent. Demographic trends: the case of France. In: Coping with sustained low fertility in France and the Netherlands, edited by Nico van Nimwegen, Jean-Claude Chesnais, and Pearl Dykstra. NIDI/CBGS Publication, No. 27, 1993. 43-97 pp. Swets and Zeitlinger: Berwyn, Pennsylvania/Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
The authors analyze fertility trends in France since World War II, with a focus on possible reasons for current low birth rates. "A description of the decline of marriage as an institution is presented in the second section. The final section deals with the increase in life expectancy and its impact on the age structure." Trends in fertility, abortion, and contraception are described. "[These] demographic trends...will have a major impact on the social structure in France. The baby boom generation is now aging, and the newer generations are less numerous....France, like many other countries, will inevitably have to deal with an increase in the number of elderly around the year 2010."
Correspondence: C. Blayo, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40210 Brockerhoff, Martin; Yang, Xiushi. Impact of migration on fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa. Social Biology, Vol. 41, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1994. 19-43 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"The present study uses data from Demographic and Health Surveys in six countries--Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Senegal, Togo and Uganda--to assess the impact of long-term rural-urban female migration on fertility. Results of logit analyses indicate that in most countries women who leave the countryside represent the higher fertility segment of the rural population in the years before migration. Migrants' risk of conception declines dramatically in all countries around the time of migration and remains lower in the long run among most migrant groups than among rural and urban nonmigrants. Descriptive analyses suggest that the decline in migrant fertility is related to the rapid and pronounced improvement in standard of living experienced by migrants after settling in the urban area and may be due in part to temporary spousal separation."
Correspondence: M. Brockerhoff, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40211 Campbell, Kenneth L.; Wood, James W. Human reproductive ecology: interactions of environment, fertility, and behavior. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 709, ISBN 0-89766-841-3. LC 94-697. 1994. ix, 431 pp. New York Academy of Sciences: New York, New York. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of a conference held in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, May 21-24, 1994. The subject of the conference was human reproductive ecology, defined by the editors as "the study of the relationships among human procreative decisions, fecundity, fertility, and the biotic and abiotic conditions surrounding humans." The papers presented here are grouped under nine main headings, which are the seasonality of human reproduction, nutrition and human reproduction, biobehavioral interactions on human reproduction, reproductive epidemiology, public health implications of human reproductive ecology studies, data analyses and research design, issues in sample collections and laboratory analyses, case studies of environmental alterations of reproduction, and population growth and population regulation.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: New York Academy of Sciences, Marketing Department, 2 East 63rd Street, New York, NY 10021. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

60:40212 Carlson, Elwood. The economic context of past and future Bulgarian fertility. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 10, No. 1, 1994. 69-86 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Synthesis of Easterlin's work on cycles in period fertility with Kornai's description of classical socialist economic systems leads to a theoretical expectation that in such socialist systems, entry of large cohorts into the labour force will stimulate rather than depress period fertility. Since this expectation matches the historical experience of Bulgaria under communism extremely well, the basic logic is used to project alternate series of fertility rates to 2020 based on future changes in relative cohort size and two contrasting assumptions about the direction of the Bulgarian economy."
Correspondence: E. Carlson, University of South Carolina, Department of Sociology, Columbia, SC 29208. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40213 Castiglioni, Maria; Dalla Zuanna, Gianpiero. Innovation and tradition: reproductive and marital behaviour in Italy in the 1970s and 1980s. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 10, No. 2, 1994. 107-41 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Fertility, nuptiality, reproductive behaviour and living arrangements of never-married women and legally separated women [in Italy] are examined in order to underline differences [from] and similarities to other Western countries. Prospects for the future are also discussed to see whether Italy is in line with the frameworks recently proposed to interpret demographic changes. The results show that delay in the timing of events cannot provide a satisfactory explanation of Italian peculiarities."
Correspondence: M. Castiglioni, University of Padua, Department of Statistics, Via San Francesco 33, 35121 Padua, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40214 Cheng, Xianmin; Shi, Renbing. Social changes and the evolution of reproduction patterns in Xishuangbanna. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 6, No. 1, 1994. 25-36 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors analyze fertility patterns in Xishuangbanna, China, with a focus on differences in the periods before and after democratic reform in 1949. The effects of social class and social change are assessed.
Correspondence: X. Cheng, Sichuan University, Institute of Population Research, 29 Wangjianglu, Jiuyanqiao, Chengdu, Sichuan, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40215 Cigno, Alessandro. Economic considerations in the timing of births: theory and evidence. In: The family, the market and the state in ageing societies, edited by John Ermisch and Naohiro Ogawa. 1994. 64-78 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The economic factors affecting the timing of births in developed societies are explored. The author attempts to model the optimal timing of childbearing in the context of a woman's employment over the course of her career using data from the United Kingdom taken from the Women and Employment Survey carried out in 1980. The results show how these factors have influenced fertility trends in the United Kingdom since World War II.
Correspondence: A. Cigno, Universita degli Studi di Pisa, Facolta di Scienze Politiche, 56100 Pisa, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40216 Cleland, John; Phillips, James F.; Amin, Sajeda; Kamal, G. M. The determinants of reproductive change in Bangladesh: success in a challenging environment. World Bank Regional and Sectoral Studies, ISBN 0-8213-2849-2. LC 94-16613. 1994. xii, 187 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This study analyzes the causes of the recent steep fertility decline that has occurred in Bangladesh, a country which "appears to possess no features that are conducive to fertility decline, except for a strong, persistent government commitment to reducing population growth. The aims of this volume are threefold. First, we need to document with maximum precision the timing, magnitude, and nature of fertility change. This task is taken up in chapter 2. Having established the demographic facts, the second aim is to assess alternative explanations....In chapter 3 we review social and economic changes and their possible links to reduced demand or need for children. In chapter 4 the focus shifts to consideration of the role of the family planning program in reducing fertility. These strands of evidence are brought together in chapter 5, and conclusions are presented. The third aim is to spell out the implications of our analysis for future population policy and programs. The discussion also appears in chapter 5."
Correspondence: World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40217 Cohen, Barney; House, William J. Demographic behavior and poverty: micro-level evidence from Southern Sudan. World Development, Vol. 22, No. 7, Jul 1994. 1,031-44 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Using household-level data drawn from a 5% sample survey in urban Juba [Southern Sudan], this paper explores some of the complex interrelationships between indicators of poverty and demographic behavior." The primary emphasis is on fertility, including family planning, with attention given also to infant mortality. The results indicate that behavioral factors have only minor impact on fertility, and that pronatalist aspirations persist under conditions of high mobility and widespread poverty.
Correspondence: B. Cohen, National Research Council, 2101 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20418. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

60:40218 Cordell, Dennis D. Where are all the children? Low fertility in central Africa, 1890-1960. [Ou sont tous les enfants? La faible fecondite en centrafrique, 1890-1960.] In: Population, reproduction, societes: perspectives et enjeux de demographie sociale, edited by Dennis D. Cordell et al. 1993. 257-82 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre.
This is an analysis of the causes of the relatively low level of fertility occurring in parts of central Africa over the period 1890-1960. The area studied includes parts of the modern countries of Niger, Cameroon, Gabon, the Central African Republic, Sudan, and Zaire. The focus of the study is on two separate population groups, the Nzakara of the east central region and the Manza from the center of the region. Data are from a variety of colonial authorities. The importance of high and sometimes increasing infant mortality among the populations studied is noted.
Correspondence: D. D. Cordell, Southern Methodist University, Department of History, Dallas, TX 75275. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40219 Das Gupta, Monica. What motivates fertility decline? A case study from Punjab, India. In: Understanding reproductive change: Kenya, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Costa Rica, edited by Bertil Egero and Mikael Hammarskjold. 1994. 101-33 pp. Lund University Press: Lund, Sweden. In Eng.
The author discusses "the timing and pattern of the fertility decline and the determinants of fertility in [Punjab, India], followed by an examination of the reasons underlying the onset and the acceleration of the fertility decline. The concluding section brings the findings together in a review of the applicability to the Punjab case of several of the major theories of fertility decline in the literature."
Correspondence: M. Das Gupta, Harvard University, School of Public Health, Center for Population and Development Studies, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40220 De Santis, Gustavo. Modeling the effects of mortality on the estimation of fertility using the own-children method. [Una modellizzazione degli effetti della mortalita sulle stime di fecondita con il metodo dei figli propri.] In: Per una storia della popolazione italiana: problemi di metodo, by D. Argelli et al. 1993. 81-96 pp. Universita degli Studi di Bologna, Dipartimento di Scienze Statistiche Paolo Fortunati: Bologna, Italy. In Ita.
The effects of patterns of mortality on fertility are explored using the own-children method of fertility estimation. The simulations presented suggest that such estimates are relatively robust even with a wide range of different assumptions concerning mortality.
Correspondence: G. De Santis, Via G. Dei Marignolli 56, 50127 Florence, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40221 Delgado Perez, Margarita. Fertility in Spain by age group, 1975-1985. [La fecundidad en Espana por grupos de edad, 1975-1985.] Serie Documentos de Trabajo, No. 3, Feb 1990. ii, 128 pp. Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas [CSIC], Instituto de Demografia: Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
This analysis of trends in fertility by age in Spain over the period 1975-1985 is based on official statistical data. Following an initial consideration of these trends for Spain as a whole, the bulk of the report focuses on fertility in each of the 17 autonomous regions. The results indicate differences in the rate and timing of the fertility decline that occurred during this decade.
Correspondence: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Instituto de Demografia, Calle Amaniel 2, 28015 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40222 Denton, Frank T.; Feaver, Christine H.; Spencer, Byron G. Teachers and the birth rate: the demographic dynamics of a service population. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 7, No. 3, Jul 1994. 307-29 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"A theoretical model is developed in which the market for teachers is linked to the time path of fertility in the general population. The model is simple in its components but when the components are combined they form a complex long-memory dynamic system. Simulation experiments are carried out to investigate the effects of changes in fertility rates on supply-requirements imbalances in the teachers' market, the median age of teachers, and other variables. The model (and by implication, the real-world system) is found to be highly volatile in response to fertility variations."
Correspondence: F. T. Denton, McMaster University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40223 Dierckxsens, Wim. Costa Rica--the unfinished demographic transition. In: Understanding reproductive change: Kenya, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Costa Rica, edited by Bertil Egero and Mikael Hammarskjold. 1994. 135-63 pp. Lund University Press: Lund, Sweden. In Eng.
Costa Rica has experienced a substantial decline in fertility during the last three decades. This study focuses on the links between falling fertility and improvements in social services. Fertility decline was already well underway when in 1968 a national family planning program made possible a rapid diffusion of contraceptive use. During the economic and social crisis of the early 1980s, the fertility transition was temporarily halted. The author analyzes differential responses to the crisis, and the impact on childbearing of the subsequent growth of employment in the informal sector.
Correspondence: W. Dierckxsens, Tilburg University, Development Research Institute, P.O. Box 90153, 5000 LE Tilburg, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40224 Dordevic, Zivota. Commencement and centers of the fertility decline in peasant societies of nineteenth-century Serbia. [Poceci i zarista pada nataliteta u seoskom drustvu Srbije XIX veka.] Stanovnistvo, Vol. 30-31, 1992-1993. 161-9 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to identify the time and the area where fertility had began to decline in the peasant society of Serbia during the [nineteenth] century, and to point out the potential economic, social and psychological determinants. [The] author associates the decline of fertility with nuptiality, mortality and aging of the population in the peasant society."
Correspondence: Z. Dordevic, Ekonomski Institut, Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40225 Dupuis, Heleen M. Ethical aspects of late parenthood. In: Population and family in the Low Countries 1993: late fertility and other current issues, edited by Gijs Beets et al. NIDI/CBGS Publication, No. 30, 1994. 73-80 pp. Swets and Zeitlinger: Berwyn, Pennsylvania/Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This article examines the problems women [in the Netherlands] may encounter when attempting to combine a career and a family. These problems lead more and more to a postponement of motherhood, to the extent that fertility becomes a problem because of maternal age. Late motherhood is associated with medicalization and is morally problematic."
Correspondence: H. M. Dupuis, University of Leiden, Department of Medicine, Metamedica Section, P.O. Box 2087, 2301 CB Leiden, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40226 Egero, Bertil; Mburugu, Edward. Kenya: reproductive change under strain. In: Understanding reproductive change: Kenya, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Costa Rica, edited by Bertil Egero and Mikael Hammarskjold. 1994. 31-64 pp. Lund University Press: Lund, Sweden. In Eng.
The study explores the roots of Kenya's high-fertility regime in disruptions of pre-colonial family systems and social regulations of reproduction, and finds evidence that recent increases in birth control signify primarily a recapture of earlier birth-spacing patterns, and for older women, also an end to childbearing. The authors analyze the significance of women's growing awareness of and ability to adjust their reproduction in response to increasing constraints through land shortage, unemployment, and costs for schooling and other services.
Correspondence: B. Egero, University of Lund, Department of Sociology, Programme on Population and Development, Finngatan 16, 223 62 Lund, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40227 Egero, Bertil. Reproductive change is a social process. In: Understanding reproductive change: Kenya, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Costa Rica, edited by Bertil Egero and Mikael Hammarskjold. 1994. 9-30 pp. Lund University Press: Lund, Sweden. In Eng.
The author reviews papers presented in this volume on reproductive change in Kenya, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, and Costa Rica. "The focus of the studies is not only to assess reproductive change per se. More important, they address reproductive change as a social process influenced by both internal and external factors."
Correspondence: B. Egero, University of Lund, Department of Sociology, Programme on Population and Development, Finngatan 16, 223 62 Lund, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40228 Evers-Kiebooms, Gerry. Genetic risk, prenatal testing, and reproductive decision-making. In: Population and family in the Low Countries 1993: late fertility and other current issues, edited by Gijs Beets et al. NIDI/CBGS Publication, No. 30, 1994. 51-71 pp. Swets and Zeitlinger: Berwyn, Pennsylvania/Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The main aim of the present paper is to present data about the impact of increased genetic risk upon reproductive decision-making....The first part of this paper summarizes the results of a number of large follow-up studies evaluating the effect of genetic counseling on family planning decisions. The second part of the paper focuses on prenatal testing for congenital handicaps. After a theoretical discussion of this controversial and rapidly changing topic, the results of a recent study in Flanders [Belgium] are summarized, evaluating community attitudes towards prenatal testing."
Correspondence: G. Evers-Kiebooms, University Hospital Leuven, Center for Human Genetics, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40229 Gupta, Shashi P. Demographic differentials among the Rajputs and the Jats--a socio-biological study of rural Haryana. ISBN 81-7054-180-8. 1993. vi, 248 pp. Classical Publishing: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author investigates the impact of biological, socioeconomic, and psycho-cultural factors on fertility and mortality in Haryana, India. The effectiveness of the government family planning program in reducing fertility is assessed.
Correspondence: Classical Publishing, 28 Shopping Centre, Karampura, New Delhi 110 015, India. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

60:40230 Kahn, Joan R.; Whittington, Leslie A. The transition to parenthood in Puerto Rico: occupational status and the timing of first births. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 13, No. 2, Jun 1994. 121-40 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This study examines the relationship between occupational status and fertility timing during a period of rapid development in Puerto Rico. Our fundamental hypothesis is that women with higher status occupations face greater opportunity costs than those with less valued jobs and therefore will be more likely to postpone parenthood until later ages than women without such high costs. We test this hypothesis using event history techniques with data from the 1982 Puerto Rico Fertility and Family Planning Assessment, an island-wide survey of women between the ages of 15 and 49. The analysis examines the effects of occupational status on the timing of first births, and finds strong support for the basic hypothesis, especially regarding the postponement of teen births. After the teen years, the effects are less pronounced. Overall, it appears that employment opportunities have played an important role in childbearing decisions in Puerto Rico."
Correspondence: J. R. Kahn, University of Maryland, Department of Sociology, College Park, MD 20742-1315. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40231 Khan, Zubeda; Soomro, Ghulam Y. Estimates of birth intervals in Pakistan, with and without the WFS restrictions. Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 32, No. 3, Autumn 1993. 269-84 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
"Almost all the World Fertility Surveys (WFS), and those repeating a similar pattern of pregnancy history data collection, like the Population, Labour Force, and Migration Survey (PLM) carried out in Pakistan in 1979-80, covered information on proximate determinants for [only] the last closed and open birth intervals. This paper, based on the PLM data, discusses the methodological issue of data collection....[Two main questions are investigated:] To what extent does the selection of the last closed and open intervals affect the estimates of the levels of contraceptive use and breastfeeding duration? [and] Does the selectivity bias in data collection on the last closed and open intervals affect the pattern of relationships between these intermediate variables of fertility and other crucial socio-economic variables?"
Correspondence: Z. Khan, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, P.O. Box 1091, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40232 Kinoshita, Futoshi. Nuptiality and fertility of a preindustrial village in Japan. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population: Montreal 1993, Volume 4. 1993. 139-52 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"This paper analyzes [a historical document called] the shumon aratame-cho of a small village in northeastern Japan...and discusses marriage and fertility of Tokugawa peasants....[The author] argues that there are two possible causes for the increase in marital fertility of Yambe women: (1) an increase in infant and child mortality which shortened birth intervals by reducing the duration of postpartum infecundity; and (2) a transformation of labour from servants to day labourers resulting in increasing couples' exposure to the risk of childbearing."
Correspondence: F. Kinoshita, Konan Women's College, Konan, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40233 Kishor, Sunita. Fertility decline in Tamil Nadu, India. In: Understanding reproductive change: Kenya, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Costa Rica, edited by Bertil Egero and Mikael Hammarskjold. 1994. 65-100 pp. Lund University Press: Lund, Sweden. In Eng.
"The objective of this study is to evaluate the pace and timing of decline in fertility in Tamil Nadu [India] and to identify the socio-economic, cultural, and institutional factors responsible for it. To this end, we will trace the trends in fertility and other relevant demographic variables in Tamil Nadu, concentrating on the period 1970 to 1990....We will discuss Tamil Nadu's recent socio-political history, and compare Tamil Nadu's economic and social development in the post-independence period, to that of other major Indian states....Additionally, we examine the role of the official family planning program in promoting contraception in Tamil Nadu."
Correspondence: S. Kishor, Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Suite 300, Calverton, MD 21045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40234 Kravdal, Oystein. The importance of economic activity, economic potential and economic resources for the timing of first births in Norway. Population Studies, Vol. 48, No. 2, Jul 1994. 249-67 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this paper, the Norwegian Family and Occupation Survey of 1988 is used to draw some general conclusions about the importance of current educational and occupational activity, economic potential, and economic resources [for the timing of first births]....Another object is to learn whether recent trends in the timing of motherhood in Norway can be attributed to changes in work activity, education, and economic conditions among young adults, or to temporal shifts in the effects of these factors on fertility." The hazard model analysis "demonstrates that work experience strongly increases the rate of entry into parenthood in Norway....Moreover, the analysis confirms that longer time spent in school is an important explanation for the rising age at first birth. The birth intensity for a single woman decreases as her educational level and income potential improve."
Correspondence: O. Kravdal, Central Bureau of Statistics, Section for Demography and Analysis of Living Conditions, P.O. Box 8131 Dep., 0033 Oslo 1, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40235 Lam, David A.; Miron, Jeffrey A. Global patterns of seasonal variation in human fertility. In: Human reproductive ecology: interactions of environment, fertility, and behavior, edited by Kenneth L. Campbell and James W. Wood. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 709, 1994. 9-28 pp. New York Academy of Sciences: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper looks at seasonal patterns in births in populations around the world with a focus on two major issues. First, we examine the extent of systematic similarities and differences in seasonal patterns across populations. We pay particular attention to the well-defined but quite different patterns in the southern United States and northern Europe. We also examine the extent to which seasonal birth patterns in the southern hemisphere are a mirror image of patterns in the northern hemisphere. The second major issue we address is the extent to which temperature explains seasonal birth patterns and the differences in these patterns across countries."
Correspondence: D. A. Lam, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University, Ann Arbor, MI 48104-2590. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

60:40236 Lee, Ronald. Human fertility and population equilibrium. In: Human reproductive ecology: interactions of environment, fertility, and behavior, edited by Kenneth L. Campbell and James W. Wood. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 709, 1994. 396-407 pp. New York Academy of Sciences: New York, New York. In Eng.
The extent to which the size of preindustrial populations were governed by homeostatic mechanisms is explored. The author concludes that "in preindustrial settings, biological, economic, and social mechanisms caused fertility to respond to feedback signals from population size variation in such a way as to steer populations toward equilibrium levels. It is unlikely that the relevant signal was population density; more plausibly the signal was economic well being, which in turn responded to population density, among other influences. Numerous empirical studies provide persuasive evidence for such a fertility response. However, the response was relatively weak, so that populations responded only slowly to shocks. The half life of a shock-induced deviation from equilibrium was probably on the order of 70 years. Dynamic behavior of population size was discernibly affected only in the long run. Because of the presence of environmental external costs to childbearing, and because fertility response mechanisms were not necessarily intentional, the equilibrium population size and corresponding welfare need not have possessed any desirable properties. In developed countries, these equilibrating mechanisms are no longer in effect."
Correspondence: R. Lee, University of California, Department of Demography, 2232 Piedmont Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

60:40237 Lefebvre, Pierre; Brouillette, Liliane; Felteau, Claude. The effects of taxes and family allowances on fertility and work behavior of women in Canada: results from a discrete choice model. [Les effets des impots et des allocations familiales sur les comportements de fecondite et de travail des Canadiennes: resultats d'un modele de choix discrets.] Population, Vol. 49, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1994. 415-56 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"We use a nested polychotomous discrete choice model to estimate the responsiveness of the behaviour of 'married' women (couples) in Canada to variations in the expected flow of revenue resulting from changes in the parameters of the personal income tax and in the level of public monetary transfers conditional on the number of children. We suppose that married women or [those] living under common law, are faced with three types of sequential decisions: the fertility decision, the decision relative to the number of children to have and the decision concerning labour force participation....This empirical setting is used to simulate the effects of changes made to the fiscal exemptions in favor of families with dependent children and to family allowances on fertility, [female] labour force participation and the importance of net spending costs for the two levels of government."
Correspondence: P. Lefebvre, Universite du Quebec, C.P. 8888, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3P8, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40238 Levine, Richard J. Male factors contributing to the seasonality of human reproduction. In: Human reproductive ecology: interactions of environment, fertility, and behavior, edited by Kenneth L. Campbell and James W. Wood. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 709, 1994. 29-45 pp. New York Academy of Sciences: New York, New York. In Eng.
The author examines the possibility that male fertility is subject to seasonal variations, as is the case with many animals. He reviews "the evidence for seasonal variation in semen quality; proposes hypotheses for the etiology of the seasonal variation observed in sperm production; and speculates on the role of this variation in the seasonality of human reproduction." The geographical scope of the study is worldwide.
Correspondence: R. J. Levine, U.S. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Division of Epidemiology, Statistics, and Prevention Research, Building 6100, Room 7B03, Bethesda, MD 20892. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

60:40239 Li, Li. Chinese women's participation in fertility discussions. International Journal of Sociology of the Family, Vol. 23, No. 1, Spring 1993. 33-42 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"Using a sample of 6,654 Chinese women at their childbearing ages, this study examines the determinants of women's participation in fertility discussions with their husbands, and the impact of this participation on fertility. Findings support the hypothesis that the more a woman [is involved] in decision-making in fertility, the more likely she will end up with a small number of children. Furthermore, this study reveals that women's educational attainments and ages at marriage are the most important predictors of participating in fertility discussions."
Correspondence: L. Li, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Department of Sociology, Blacksburg, VA 24061. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40240 Livi Bacci, Massimo. Regional models of the demographic transition in Spain and Portugal. [Modelos regionales de la transicion demografica en Espana y Portugal.] ISBN 84-7784-991-9. 1991. 207 pp. Instituto de Cultura Juan Gil Albert: Alicante, Spain. In Spa.
This is one in a series of five volumes that are the proceedings of the Second Conference of the Asociacion de Demografia Historica, which was held in Alicante, Spain, in April 1990. This volume contains 11 papers on aspects of the demographic transition in Portugal and Spain from the eighteenth to the twentieth century. The papers are mostly in Spanish, with one paper in Portuguese.
Correspondence: Instituto de Cultura Juan Gil Albert, Avenida Estacion 6, 03005 Alicante, Spain. Location: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Paris, France.

60:40241 Lloyd, Cynthia B.; Gage-Brandon, Anastasia J. High fertility and children's schooling in Ghana: sex differences in parental contributions and educational outcomes. Population Studies, Vol. 48, No. 2, Jul 1994. 293-306 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper explores the linkages at the family level between sustained high fertility and children's schooling in Ghana, in the context of a constrained economic environment and rising school fees. The unique feature of the paper is its exploration of the operational significance of alternative definitions of 'sib size'--the number of 'same-mother' siblings and 'same-father' siblings--in relation to enrollment, grade attainment, and school drop-out for boys and girls of primary and secondary school age. The analysis is based on the first wave of the Ghana Living Standards Measurement Survey (GLSS) data, collected in 1987-88. The results of the statistical analysis lead to the conclusion that the co-existence of high fertility, rising school costs, and economic reversals is having a negative impact on the education of girls, in terms of drop-out rates and grade attainment."
Correspondence: C. B. Lloyd, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40242 Locoh, Therese. The beginnings of a fertility transition and changes in the family in an African urban environment: the example of Lome (Togo). [Debuts de la transition de la fecondite et mutations familiales en milieu urbain africain: le cas de Lome (Togo).] In: Population, reproduction, societes: perspectives et enjeux de demographie sociale, edited by Dennis D. Cordell et al. 1993. 175-95 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre.
This is an analysis of the many factors affecting fertility in Togo using data from a number of recent surveys, including the World Fertility Survey and the Demographic and Health Survey of 1985. The primary focus is on the capital city, Lome, but fertility differentials between rural and urban areas are also examined. Factors considered include changes in marriage patterns, the residential characteristics of married couples, polygamy, contraceptive usage, and induced abortion. The author concludes that the fertility differentials between town and country are primarily due to couples living apart from each other for long periods, and that fertility limitation by traditional means such as abstinence and breast-feeding is being replaced by a number of practices in which modern contraception plays only a minor role.
Correspondence: T. Locoh, Centre Francais sur la Population et le Developpement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Medecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40243 Maglad, Nour E. Fertility in rural Sudan: the effect of landholding and child mortality. Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 42, No. 4, Jul 1994. 761-72 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"The purpose of this article is to investigate the effect that child mortality and access to land have on fertility in rural Sudan." Data are from a random sample of 523 rural agricultural households. "Section II [of this article] offers some of the theoretical considerations relating to the demand for children, and in Section III the data, estimating problems, and methods are discussed. In Section IV I present the empirical results. A conclusion and some of the implications of the exercise are found in Section V."
Correspondence: N. E. Maglad, Yale University, Box 1987, Yale Station, 27 Hillhouse Avenue, New Haven, CT 06520. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

60:40244 Mazur, Robert E.; Mhloyi, Marvellous. Women's work and fertility in Zimbabwe: ending underdevelopment with change. In: Gender, work and population in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Aderanti Adepoju and Christine Oppong. 1994. 132-56 pp. James Currey: London, England; Heinemann: Portsmouth, New Hampshire. In Eng.
"The main objective of this chapter is to improve understanding of the nature of the relationships between women's work and fertility in contemporary Zimbabwe. Having achieved independence in 1980, Zimbabweans find themselves in an era of rapid social and economic change....The available evidence concerning the structure of the economy and the nature of economic activity is first examined, with an emphasis on women's complex patterns of involvement. After a brief look at demographic trends in Zimbabwe, the relationship between women's economic activities and status and fertility patterns and differentials in Zimbabawe is compared with that observed in other societies."
Correspondence: R. E. Mazur, Iowa State University, Department of Sociology, Ames, IA 50011-1070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40245 Miller, Jane E. Comment of James Gribble's "Birth intervals, gestational age, and low birth weight: are the relationships confounded?" Population Studies, Vol. 48, No. 2, Jul 1994. 359-63 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The author critically examines an article by James Gribble in which he "used data from the Mexican Social Security System (IMSS) to investigate whether the excess risks of low birthweight among infants born after short birth intervals were the result of confounding by gestation....I have two concerns with this argument: The first stems from apparent problems with the quality of the gestation data used in his analysis. The second is that several recent studies of less developed countries suggest that prematurity does act as a confounding factor in the relationship between short birth intervals and infant and child survival."
For the Gribble article, published in 1993, see 59:20229.
Correspondence: J. E. Miller, Rutgers University, Institute for Health, Health Care Policy, and Aging Research, 30 College Avenue, New Brunswick, NJ 08903-5070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40246 Ndiaye, Salif; Diouf, Papa D.; Ayad, Mohamed. Senegal Demographic and Health Survey (EDS-II), 1992/93. [Enquete Demographique et de Sante au Senegal (EDS-II), 1992/93.] Apr 1994. xxvii, 284 pp. Ministere de l'Economie, des Finances et du Plan, Direction de la Prevision et de la Statistique, Division des Statistiques Demographiques: Dakar, Senegal; Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Calverton, Maryland. In Fre.
The results of the second Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) carried out in Senegal in 1992-1993 are presented. The survey includes a nationally representative weighted sample of 3,528 households, from which 6,310 women aged 15-49 and 1,436 men were interviewed. Following introductory chapters on survey methodology, there are chapters on fertility, family planning, nuptiality and exposure to risk of pregnancy, fertility preferences, maternal and child health, breast-feeding and infant nutrition, mortality under five years of age, maternal mortality, the male survey, sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS, and community infrastructures.
Correspondence: Direction de la Prevision et de la Statistique, Point E, B.P. 116, Dakar, Senegal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40247 Paget, W. John; Timaeus, Ian M. A relational Gompertz model of male fertility: development and assessment. Population Studies, Vol. 48, No. 2, Jul 1994. 333-40 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Brass has proposed a relational Gompertz model of female fertility which, in combination with the standard fertility distribution developed by Booth, has proved useful in a range of applications, such as indirect estimation, demographic modelling, and population projections. This paper develops a standard distribution of male fertility for use in conjunction with the relational Gompertz model. The derivation of the standard takes advantage of the similarity between the shape of male and female fertility distributions. It entails 'stretching' the female standard, so that it extends to age 80, and then transforming it, using the Gompertz model into a pattern which is more typical of male fertility distributions in the developing world."
Correspondence: W. J. Paget, Swiss Federal Office of Public Health, Division of Medicine, Hess Strasse 27E, 3091 Bern-Liebefeld, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40248 Poirier, Jean. The political economy of the fertility decline in Guadeloupe. [L'economie politique de la baisse de la fecondite en Guadeloupe.] In: Population, reproduction, societes: perspectives et enjeux de demographie sociale, edited by Dennis D. Cordell et al. 1993. 107-25 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre.
An analysis of the rapid decline in fertility that occurred in Guadeloupe from the 1960s to the 1980s is presented, focusing on the relationship between this change and the rapid changes in Guadeloupe's economy occurring during the same period. The author notes that, primarily due to large-scale government intervention, the economy changed from being primarily agricultural to one that was of mixed urban orientation. The increasing opportunities for female employment associated with these changes is noted, as is its consequent affect of a decline in fertility.
Correspondence: J. Poirier, Universite de Ouagadougou, Unite d'Etude et de Recherche Demographiques, B.P. 7021, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40249 Prioux, France. The birth of the first child. [La naissance du premier enfant.] Population et Societes, No. 287, Feb 1994. 4 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
Trends in maternal age at first birth in France are reviewed, and comparisons are made with other European countries. Changes in the proportion of women who never have children are also considered.
Correspondence: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40250 Sardon, Jean-Paul. General fertility. [Fecondite generale.] La Population Europeenne en Chiffres, 1994. 13 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is the first in a planned series of reports presenting findings from the INED database known as the International Project of Demographic Analysis Related to Economic Developments. It provides selected data on fertility trends in 14 European countries, primarily for the period since 1950. The statistics include estimated fertility, completed fertility, and mean age at maternity.
Correspondence: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40251 Short, R. V. Human reproduction in an evolutionary context. In: Human reproductive ecology: interactions of environment, fertility, and behavior, edited by Kenneth L. Campbell and James W. Wood. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 709, 1994. 416-25 pp. New York Academy of Sciences: New York, New York. In Eng.
The factors that may have shaped the reproductive patterns of our hunter-gatherer ancestors are explored. Next, the author looks at ways in which modern civilizations may have interfered with these reproductive patterns and their consequences. Topics considered include earlier age at puberty, the abandonment of prolonged breast-feeding, and the increased risk of female reproductive diseases.
Correspondence: R. V. Short, Monash University, Department of Physiology, Melbourne, Victoria 3168, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

60:40252 Song, Ruilai. Community development and change of fertility rate: comments on the research concerning the investigation of the world's fertility rate. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 5, No. 3, 1993. 213-22 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author discusses "the correlation between social and economic variables pertaining to...community levels and planned parenthood...." The focus is on the extent and quality of existing research on the determinants of the fertility rate.
Correspondence: R. Song, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Population Research Institute, 5 Jianguomen Nei Da Jie 5 Hao, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40253 Stevenson, Joan; Everson, Phillip; Rogers, Laurine. Changes in fertility relative to starting, stopping, and spacing behaviors in a migrating Mennonite community, 1775-1889. Social Biology, Vol. 41, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1994. 83-93 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"Fertility change over time in a migrating Mennonite church congregation is reconstructed through genealogies developed from church registries of vital events during 1725-1924. The congregation was located in Prussia from 1725-1821, in Russia from 1822-1874, and in Kansas U.S.A. from 1875-1924. Age-specific marital fertility rates were relatively low and usually peaked for women aged 25-29. Total fertility rates ranged from 1.19 to 5.29. These relatively low figures for a natural fertility population may partly reflect underreporting of births and deaths of infants, but it also reflects the heterogeneity in fertility evident for this population....Fertility was lowest during residence late in Prussia and early in Russia, peaked during residence late in Russia, and has decreased slightly for women born in the United States."
Correspondence: J. Stevenson, Western Washington University, Department of Anthropology, Bellingham, WA 98225. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40254 Stupp, Paul W.; Warren, Charles W. Seasonal differences in pregnancy outcomes: United States, 1971-1989. In: Human reproductive ecology: interactions of environment, fertility, and behavior, edited by Kenneth L. Campbell and James W. Wood. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 709, 1994. 46-54 pp. New York Academy of Sciences: New York, New York. In Eng.
This study examines three questions concerning the seasonality of pregnancy outcomes in the United States: "Do live births and other pregnancy outcomes have consistent seasonal patterns when analyzed over an extended period of time--1971-1989? Can the seasonal patterns be represented by a simple parameterized model? [and] Can the different seasonal patterns for different pregnancy outcomes be explained by the seasonality of conceptions?" They conclude that "in the United States, conceptions follow a consistent seasonal pattern with the peak in November and December. The reasons for seasonal variation in the occurrence of conceptions remains to be determined."
Correspondence: P. W. Stupp, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Reproductive Health, Atlanta, GA 30341-3724. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

60:40255 Sullon, Alfredo. Fertility, contraception, and infant mortality in the rural area of Piura. [Fecundidad, anticoncepcion y mortalidad infantil en el area rural de Piura.] Revista Peruana de Poblacion, No. 3, 1993. 89-120 pp. Lima, Peru. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The author measures levels of fertility and infant mortality in rural areas of Piura, Peru, using data from the country's 1989 rural health survey. The extent of contraceptive use and method choice was also examined. "The study analyses reproductive and mortality patterns, considering three social groups of population with relevant differences: agriculturist producers, salaried agriculturists, and salaried non agriculturists."
Correspondence: A. Sullon, Universidad Nacional de Piura, Cuzco 323, Apartado 295, Piura, Peru. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40256 Sumangala, M.; Nagarajan, B. S. Economics of child-labour and fertility (study of peninsular India). ISBN 81-7018-733-8. 1993. xxviii, 220 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
The relationship between child labor and fertility behavior in India is explored using census data for 1961, 1971, and 1981 from the state of Tamil Nadu. Additional data are from a household survey carried out in 1986-1987. The study "aims to cover major aspects of child labour--age, sex, type of occupation, wage level, job security and also occupational and health problems--to analyse their influence on parental fertility and also adoption of birth control measures. The inter-relationship has been analysed using two approaches viz. (a) current child labour, and (b) labour value of children on fertility."
Correspondence: B. R. Publishing, 29/9 Nangia Park, Shakti Nagar, Delhi 110 007, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40257 Sundstrom, Marianne. More children and more paid work: birth-leave-work strategies of Swedish women in the 1980s. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 82, ISBN 91-7820-084-9. Feb 1994. 30 pp. Stockholm University, Demography Unit: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"In the 1980s, hours worked as well as child-bearing increased among Swedish women. This paper uses longitudinal data from the Swedish Telephone Company to analyze to what extent this outcome can be explained by Swedish women making use of the flexibility of parental leave scheme to choose appropriate birth-leave-work strategies."
Correspondence: Stockholm University, Demography Unit, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40258 Tsuya, Noriko O. Progression to second and third births in rural Jilin, China: trends and covariates. Jinkogaku Kenkyu/Journal of Population Studies, No. 17, May 1994. 15-32 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng. with sum. in Jpn.
"Using data from the 1985 Survey on Rural Fertility and Living Standards, this study examines the patterns and covariates of progression to second and third births in rural areas of Jilin Province, China." Factors considered include sex of living children, mortality of previous children, women's occupation and education, and year of birth.
Correspondence: N. O. Tsuya, Nihon University, Tokyo 102, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

60:40259 Tu, Ping. Fertility pattern of women in China: a parity progression analysis. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 5, No. 4, 1993. 281-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Using the 1% sample data from China's fourth census and [the] period parity progression method...,this paper analyzes the reproductive age and parity patterns of Chinese women. In addition to the commonly used period parity progression and the total fertility rate obtained through the usage of this method, some other frequently ignored means of deducing and calculating statistical indexes are introduced here."
Correspondence: P. Tu, Beijing University, Population Institute, Hai Dian, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40260 Weir, David R. New estimates of nuptiality and marital fertility in France, 1740-1911. Population Studies, Vol. 48, No. 2, Pub. Order No. 31. Jul 1994. 307-31 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper produces new annual estimates of the Princeton indices of overall fertility, nuptiality, marital, and non-marital fertility for France from 1740 to 1911. To do so, it first develops a method to reconstruct (back-project) a closed female population by age (above age 10) and marital status from a good terminal census and registration data on deaths and marriages by age and marital status....From this new longer perspective we observe that slow declines in nuptiality from 1740 to 1820 gave way to a marital fertility transition beginning in the 1790s. After 1820, nuptiality rose but the marital fertility decline dominated the movement of total fertility. These general trends were punctuated by plateaus in marital fertility from 1800 to 1820 and 1850 to 1875, and in nuptiality from 1875 to 1895."
Correspondence: D. R. Weir, University of Chicago, National Opinion Research Center, Population Research Center, 1155 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637-2799. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40261 Zaky, Hassan; Wong, Rebeca; Sirageldin, Ismail. Testing for the onset of fertility decline: an illustration with the case of Egypt. Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 32, No. 3, Autumn 1993. 285-301 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
"This paper describes and illustrates how the economic household production model can be taken as a frame of reference to test the stage of the fertility transition for a given society. Egypt during the 1970s and early 1980s is taken as the setting to illustrate the test....The illustration exercise shows that the Egyptian household fertility behaviour during this period fits poorly with the model specification corresponding to a post-transition society. We find that fertility by the end of the 1970s was not endogenous to other household decisions, and conclude that a sustained decline in fertility was unlikely without this endogeneity."
Correspondence: H. Zaky, Cairo University, Faculty of Economics and Political Sciences, Department of Statistics, Giza, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40262 Zavala de Cosio, Maria E. Fertility change in Mexico and the politics of population. [Cambios de fecundidad en Mexico y politicas de poblacion.] Boletin Editorial de el Colegio de Mexico, No. 47-48, Jan-Apr 1993. 27-32 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
Mexico's demographic transition, begun in the 1930s, is reviewed. The author predicts that the transition will not be complete until well after the year 2000. She goes on to examine the politics of population, and the results of government family planning and economic development efforts. Data are from civil registers, censuses, and retrospective fertility surveys.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40263 Zhang, Junsen. Socioeconomic determinants of fertility in Hebei province, China: an application of the sequential logit model. Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 43, No. 1, Oct 1994. 67-90 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
Microdata from Phase 1 of the 1985 Chinese In-Depth Fertility Survey are used to analyze socioeconomic and demographic factors affecting fertility at each birth parity. The author attempts to model the fertility decision in a sequential framework, in which it is assumed that at each parity level a couple decides whether or not to have another child by taking into consideration all available information. The model is developed using data for the province of Hebei. The results indicate that occupational status of husband and place of childhood are important factors, as are mortality and sex of previous children. The author also attempts to assess the impact of the country's family planning program on fertility.
Correspondence: J. Zhang, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

F.2. Differential Fertility

Studies on differences in fertility patterns and levels in subgroups of a population. Also included are studies on age-specific fertility, such as teenage pregnancy.

60:40264 Castro Martin, Teresa; Juarez, Fatima. Women's education and fertility in Latin America: exploring the significance of education for women's lives. DHS Working Paper, No. 10, May 1994. 23 pp. Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Calverton, Maryland. In Eng.
"This study has provided an overview of the association of female education and fertility using current data for nine Latin American countries. Although fertility differentials by education have narrowed with respect to a decade ago...,childbearing patterns of different educational strata remain disparate....The analysis showed that reproductive preferences do not differ much among educational groups, whereas contraceptive behavior differs widely."
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Calverton, MD 20705. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40265 Ignegongba, Keumaye. Fertility and ethnicity in Mauritania. [Fecondite et ethnie en Mauritanie.] ISBN 2-9507117-0-7. 1992. 216 pp. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherche sur la Population pour le Developpement [CERPOD]: Bamako, Mali; Universite Rene Descartes (Paris V), Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches sur les Populations Africaines et Asiatiques [CERPAA]: Paris, France. In Fre.
This doctoral dissertation examines ethnic demographic differentials in Mauritania, focusing on the differences in fertility between the two major ethnic groups--Arabs and black Africans. The approach is interdisciplinary, and data are primarily taken from official sources and available surveys. The author concludes that differences in nuptiality patterns are the major cause of the observed fertility differences.
Correspondence: Centre d'Etudes et de Recherche sur la Population pour le Developpement, B.P. 1530, Bamako, Mali. Location: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Paris, France.

60:40266 Kahn, Joan R. Immigrant and native fertility during the 1980s: adaptation and expectations for the future. International Migration Review, Vol. 28, No. 3, Fall 1994. 501-19 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article compares both the fertility behavior and expectations for future childbearing of foreign and native-born women in the United States using data from the 1980 U.S. Census and the 1986 and 1988 June Current Population Surveys. The goals are to first analyze the sources of the growing fertility gap between immigrant and native women and then to explore the extent to which immigrants adapt (or intend to adapt) their fertility once in the United States. The results show that the immigrant-native fertility gap has increased during the 1980s--not because immigrant fertility has increased, but rather because fertility dropped at a faster rate for natives than for immigrants. The relatively high fertility of immigrants compared to natives can be completely explained by compositional differences with respect to age, education, income and ethnicity."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1991 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: J. R. Kahn, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40267 Kalmuss, Debra S.; Namerow, Pearila B. Subsequent childbearing among teenage mothers: the determinants of a closely spaced second birth. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 26, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1994. 149-53, 159 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this article, we use data from the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) to examine the pace of subsequent childbearing among young mothers....The primary aim...is to assess the determinants of closely spaced births among young mothers. Our models focus on teenage mothers because they are the group of women for whom a rapid second birth is most likely to impede ultimate socioeconomic attainment and familial stability....Consistent with previous research, we find that teenage mothers with more educated parents were less likely than others to have had a rapid second birth, and that those who grew up in a large family were marginally more likely than others to have done so. Likewise, our findings provide strong evidence that the frequently observed racial and ethnic differences in fertility patterns are related at least in part to economic differentials."
Correspondence: D. S. Kalmuss, Columbia University, Center for Population and Family Health, 60 Haven Avenue B-3, New York, NY 10032. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40268 Meekers, Dominique; Gage, Anastasia J.; Li, Zhan. Preparing adolescents for adulthood: family life education and school expulsion in Kenya. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 1993-09, Apr 1993. 26 pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"In this paper, we use data from a sample of 154 Kenyan primary and secondary schools to study differentials in the extent to which various types of schools are affected by pregnancy-related school dropouts, and variations in school policies that deal with this issue."
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6211. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40269 Muhuri, Pradip K.; Blanc, Ann K.; Rutstein, Shea O. Socioeconomic differentials in fertility. DHS Comparative Studies, No. 13, May 1994. viii, 79 pp. Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Calverton, Maryland. In Eng.
"The primary objective of this study is to examine socioeconomic differentials in fertility in 33 countries where Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) were conducted in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Following a description of the data and the methodology employed, several measures of fertility are presented according to women's level of education, current work status, residence, migration status, and husband's education and occupation. Finally, trends in socioeconomic differentials in fertility are examined in 21 countries for which data are available from both the World Fertility Survey (WFS) and DHS."
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Suite 300, Calverton, MD 20705. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40270 Poukouta, Prosper. The fertility of the Herero of Ngamiland: is there evidence of recent decline? Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 94-19, Jul 1994. 38 pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
An analysis of recent trends in fertility among the Herero of rural northwestern Botswana is presented using data from a survey carried out by the author in 1993 and other sources. The results suggest that, in contrast to Botswana as a whole, where fertility has declined, fertility has increased in recent years among the Herero as part of a general strategy to cope with harsh socioeconomic conditions caused by drought.
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6211. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40271 Xie, Zhenming. Major causes of the regional difference in fertility rate: factor analysis of 72 counties and county-level cities in Anhui Province. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 5, No. 4, 1993. 357-67 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author compares fertility rates among 72 counties and county-level cities in Anhui Province, China. "The many causes of fertility difference...may be categorized into two major groups: social, economic and cultural factors; and population control (mainly birth control) factors....This paper uses modern statistical methods and techniques, proposes necessary hypotheses and, through factor analysis, transforms the myriad of indexes related to economy, culture and population control in the 72 counties and cities into two indices....Following the factor analysis, the counties and cities are then categorized into groups and types according to the values of these two indices."
Correspondence: Z. Xie, China Population Information and Research Center, P.O. Box 2444, Beijing 100081, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology

Studies on infertility, as well as studies of spontaneous abortion, prematurity, and other relevant pathologies of pregnancy.

60:40272 Beets, Gijs; te Velde, Egbert; Verloove-Vanhorick, Pauline; Merkus, Hans; Bruinse, Hein. Medical complications of aging fertility. In: Population and family in the Low Countries 1993: late fertility and other current issues, edited by Gijs Beets et al. NIDI/CBGS Publication, No. 30, 1994. 1-23 pp. Swets and Zeitlinger: Berwyn, Pennsylvania/Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This contribution deals with the demographic facts around the 'aging of fertility', the 'medical explanation' of increasing complications with the increase in age at motherhood, and medical complications as such: increasing number of couples with fertility problems, increasing demand for assisted reproduction, rising probabilities of multiple pregnancies, complications during pregnancy (including preterm births), frequencies of prenatal diagnostics, and the increasing incidence of breast cancer." The geographical focus is on the Netherlands.
Correspondence: G. Beets, Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute, Postbus 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40273 Cates, Willard; Wasserheit, Judith N.; Marchbanks, Polly A. Pelvic inflammatory disease and tubal infertility: the preventable conditions. In: Human reproductive ecology: interactions of environment, fertility, and behavior, edited by Kenneth L. Campbell and James W. Wood. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 709, 1994. 179-95 pp. New York Academy of Sciences: New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors review the literature on pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and its effect on subsequent tubal infertility. They conclude that "data strongly implicate sexually transmitted infections as a primary etiology of tubal infertility, acting through the intermediary of PID....[They suggest that] interventions to prevent lower genital tract STD may be the most cost-effective way to reduce eventual upper genital tract infection and subsequent tubal infertility."
Correspondence: W. Cates, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Epidemiology Program Office, Division of Training, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

60:40274 Lamb, Emmet J.; Bennett, Sean. Epidemiologic studies of male factors in infertility. In: Human reproductive ecology: interactions of environment, fertility, and behavior, edited by Kenneth L. Campbell and James W. Wood. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 709, 1994. 165-78 pp. New York Academy of Sciences: New York, New York. In Eng.
Factors affecting the increase in male infertility are examined. The authors examine both data-collection issues and methods of data analysis. They then consider the various ways in which exposure to toxic substances may cause infertility.
Correspondence: E. J. Lamb, Stanford University School of Medicine, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Stanford, CA 94305. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

60:40275 Menken, Jane; Larsen, Ulla. Estimating the incidence and prevalence and analyzing the correlates of infertility and sterility. In: Human reproductive ecology: interactions of environment, fertility, and behavior, edited by Kenneth L. Campbell and James W. Wood. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 709, 1994. 249-65 pp. New York Academy of Sciences: New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this paper, we will consider aspects of the study of sterility and infertility, focusing primarily on measurement, and present an illustrative analysis of time trends in sterility in Cameroon and of covariates related to both prevalence and incidence of sterility by age....We will emphasize the strengths and weakness of each approach and, where appropriate, refer to the basic articles that provide the technical underpinnings for these comments. We will also point out those methods that require information on women who have reached the end of their reproductive period (complete histories) and those that can be applied currently, that is, to women who have not yet reached age 50 and whose reproductive histories are incomplete."
Correspondence: U. Larsen, State University of New York, Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3600. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

60:40276 Weinberg, Clarice R.; Baird, Donna D.; Wilcox, Allen J. Bias in retrospective studies of spontaneous abortion based on the outcome of the most recent pregnancy. In: Human reproductive ecology: interactions of environment, fertility, and behavior, edited by Kenneth L. Campbell and James W. Wood. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 709, 1994. 280-6 pp. New York Academy of Sciences: New York, New York. In Eng.
The purpose of this paper is to describe potential biases inherent in the approach to the study of spontaneous abortion, which relies on ascertaining the outcome of the most recent pregnancy, with particular reference to reproductive behaviors that may covary with the exposure of interest. "The first section describes the basis for the problem by reference to interpregnancy intervals and gives some realistic examples to show how large the bias can be. The second describes data where the time since conception is related to the outcome, based on a recent study [carried out in Chicago, Illinois] of women married to men who were exposed to diethylstilbestrol in utero. The final section discusses some of the implications of this kind of bias for reproductive epidemiology."
Correspondence: C. R. Weinberg, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Statistics and Biomathematics Branch, Mail Drop A3-03, P.O. Box 12233, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

F.4. Actions and Activities Directly Affecting Fertility

Studies concerning activities, including family planning programs, that are primarily designed to influence fertility.

F.4.1. General Fertility Control and Contraception

General aspects of fertility control, primarily those concerned with family planning and family planning programs.

60:40277 Ayad, Mohamed; Wilkinson, Marilyn; McNiff, Melissa. Sources of contraceptive methods. DHS Comparative Studies, No. 11, Jun 1994. viii, 49 pp. Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Calverton, Maryland. In Eng.
"This report examines the sources of modern contraception using data from 25 surveys carried out during the first five-year phase of the DHS program (DHS-I). The following sections define the different sources of contraception and discuss the limitations of the data before presenting the results of the analysis and drawing some general conclusions. Appendix A briefly describes the government position on population and family planning. Appendix B presents detailed information on contraceptive sources for each country surveyed. Appendix C presents information on the proportion of women, both users and nonusers, who know of a source for modern contraceptive methods. Appendix D provides information on sources of information about periodic abstinence."
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Suite 300, Calverton, MD 20705. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40278 Baburajan, P. K.; Verma, Ravi K. Psycho-social determinants of contraceptive initiation in India. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 39, No. 3, Sep 1993. 5-12 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"An attempt has been made in the present paper to examine the psycho-social factors associated with contraceptive initiation [in India]." Factors considered include perception of ideal family size, age at marriage, women's education, knowledge of family planning methods, and income.
Correspondence: P. K. Baburajan, Mode Research Consultancy, 25 B, C Block, Vasant Vihar, New Delhi 100 057, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40279 Bankole, Akinrinola. The role of mass media in family planning promotion in Nigeria. DHS Working Paper, No. 11, Apr 1994. 24 pp. Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Calverton, Maryland. In Eng.
"In this study, we examine the role of mass media in the national task of promoting family planning and fertility decline....The question is: Does the Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey show the strong positive relationship between mass media and reproductive behavior found in other DHS countries with similar data (e.g., Ghana and Kenya in sub-Saharan Africa)?"
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Calverton, MD 20705. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40280 Brindis, Claire; Starbuck-Morales, Susan; Wolfe, Amy L.; McCarter, Virginia. Characteristics associated with contraceptive use among adolescent females in school-based family planning programs. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 26, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1994. 160-4 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors report on "a reproductive health outcome study in four [U.S.] clinics as part of a larger evaluation of nine school-based centers. Using multiple linear regression analysis, we studied the association of the family planning clients' level of contraceptive use with six specific service and provider characteristics." Results for 162 young female clients indicate that "students' consistency of contraceptive use is associated with only a few specific service and provider characteristics....Contraceptive use is not related to whether contraceptives are dispensed on site, whether health education and counseling are provided by a health educator, whether contraceptive services are part of a comprehensive array of services that include medical or counseling services, or whether a family planning visit results in the dispensing of contraceptives or a prescription for contraceptives."
Correspondence: C. Brindis, University of California, Institute for Health Policy Studies, Center for Reproductive Health Policy Research, San Francisco, CA 94143. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40281 Farooqui, M. Naseem I.; Sheikh, Khalid H. Demand side of Pakistan's population welfare programme. Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 32, No. 4, Pt. 2, Winter 1993. 1,125-37 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
"The following...will first briefly review Pakistan's Population Welfare Programme along with the provision of programme services and demand creation by the programme itself. Next will be the discussion of programme impact and the probable role of demand creation. Lastly in order to identify the highly important role of demand for the creation of knowledge and use, impact of demand on knowledge and use of contraception in Pakistan will be empirically examined." A comment by Rafiq Shah is included (pp. 1,136-7).
Correspondence: M. N. I. Farooqui, National Institute of Population Studies, House No. 8, Street 70, F-8/3, P.O. Box 2197, Islamabad, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40282 Frank, Margaret L.; Bateman, Louise; Poindexter, Alfred N. The attitudes of clinic staff as factors in women's selection of Norplant implants for their contraception. Women and Health, Vol. 21, No. 4, 1994. 75-88 pp. Binghamton, New York. In Eng.
"Medical and counseling staff at 13 family planning clinics in Texas, U.S.A., were surveyed regarding their opinions and level of information about the contraceptive Norplant. These responses were used to assess the relationships between clinicians' information and attitudes about the contraceptive and the use of that method by their patients....Significant variations in the numbers of patients receiving Norplant from individual providers, and in the proportion receiving the method from certain clinics, were associated with responses to some attitudinal questions. These findings suggest that the opinions about Norplant held by personnel staffing family planning clinics influence the method selection of their patients."
Correspondence: A. N. Poindexter, Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40283 Gaal, Gergely; Strenyer, Ibolya. Changes in the demography in China. Part 1: social issues regarding family planning. [Valtozasok Kinaban a demografia tukreben. I. Csaladtervezessel osszefuggo tarsadalmi kerdesek.] Demografia, Vol. 37, No. 1, 1994. 85-99 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng.
"The article studies [demographic] changes in China. The first part presents social issues with relation to family planning, with special regard to the changes [in] sexual behaviour....The article studies the changes in the microcommunity relationships of the Chinese society...[such as] transforming young people's attitudes towards sex and marriage, early marriage, the life of singles, divorce, the increase in bigamy and the remarriage of the elderly in China."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40284 Gule, Gugulethu. A review of family planning in Sub-Saharan Africa. African Population Paper, No. 2, Aug 1994. 27 pp. African Population and Environment Institute [APEI]: Nairobi, Kenya. In Eng.
A review of family planning in Sub-Saharan Africa is presented. "Although sub-Saharan Africa...remains the world region where high fertility persists, there exist pockets of fertility decline. For most countries of the region, the total fertility rate is generally above 6; knowledge of contraceptives is much higher than its use; and in the countries with rising contraceptive prevalence rates, fertility decline is already taking place....The four countries where fertility transition has occurred--namely Zimbabwe, Botswana, South Africa and Kenya--exemplify successful family planning programmes, in the last country supported by a long-standing population policy."
Correspondence: African Population and Environment Institute, P.O. Box 14405, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40285 Huang, Runlong. Population control and community economic development in southern Jiangsu. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 5, No. 4, 1993. 289-95 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author investigates the impact of community economic development on family planning in southern Jiangsu, China. It is found that "township and community enterprises in the Sunan area, characterized by rural industrial production, have accelerated the work of population control in the countryside and at the same time improved cultural and material lives for local residents."
Correspondence: R. Huang, Nanjing Population Administration College, Population Department, Nanjing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40286 Huntington, Dale; Aplogan, Aristide. The integration of family planning and childhood immunization services in Togo. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 25, No. 3, May-Jun 1994. 176-83 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The use of an unobtrusive referral message that linked family planning and the Expanded Program of Immunizations (EPI) services was tested in an operations research study in Togo. The introduction of the referral message was accompanied by an 18-percent increase in awareness of available family planning services and an increase in the average monthly number of new family planning clients of 54 percent. These positive results indicate that the use of referral can have a significant and dramatic impact on family planning services in a relatively short time. In Togo, no evidence existed of a negative impact on EPI services, and a majority of the EPI providers reported satisfaction with the effect of the referral message at the close of the study."
Correspondence: D. Huntington, Population Council, 6(A) Giza Street, P.O. Box 115, Dokki, 12211 Giza, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40287 Ingelhammar, E.; Moller, A.; Svanberg, B.; Tornbom, M.; Lilja, H.; Hamberger, L. The use of contraceptive methods among women seeking a legal abortion. Contraception, Vol. 50, No. 2, Aug 1994. 143-52 pp. Woburn, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"In a simple random sample study of 404 women [in Sweden] 20 to 29 years of age, 201 applying for abortion and 203 continuing their pregnancies, all were interviewed personally and requested to complete a questionnaire. The aim of the study was to analyse the use and experience of contraceptives among the abortion applicants in this age group, and to compare their experience with that of women in a matched control group. The most important reasons given for desisting in the use of contraceptives were the experience of side effects, worry about the side effects, and the 'human failure' factor involved even with methods of contraception such as pills, which generally are regarded as safe."
Correspondence: E. Ingelhammar, University of Goteborg, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vasaparken, 411 24 Goteborg, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40288 Jitsukawa, Mariko; Djerassi, Carl. Birth control in Japan: realities and prognosis. Science, Vol. 265, No. 5175, Aug 19, 1994. 1,048-51 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
A review of the current contraception situation in Japan is presented. The authors note that the use of steroid oral contraceptives still has not been legalized and discuss the reasons why this change has not been made. The case is made for the legalization of oral contraceptives. The implications of the current situation for Japanese international population assistance are also considered.
Correspondence: M. Jitsukawa, Stanford University, Asia/Pacific Research Center, Department of Anthropology, Stanford, CA 94305-6055. Location: Princeton University Library (SQ).

60:40289 Kambic, R. T.; Notare, T. Roman Catholic Church-sponsored natural family planning services in the United States. Advances in Contraception, Vol. 10, No. 2, Jun 1994. 85-92 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Our objective was to determine the level and quality of natural family planning [NFP] service provided by Roman Catholic Diocese-related programs in the United States....From 1988 to 1992, 78 dioceses ever reported and 96 never reported. The majority of clients were avoiding pregnancy and receiving follow-up. An average of 18,061 women were taught by these programs each year in the reporting period. [The authors conclude that] without greater commitment of resources, it is likely that NFP will continue to be a marginal method of family planning in the United States."
Correspondence: R. T. Kambic, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Department of Population Dynamics, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40290 McCann, Carole R. Birth control politics in the United States, 1916-1945. ISBN 0-8014-2490-9. LC 93-42738. 1994. xi, 242 pp. Cornell University Press: Ithaca, New York/London, England. In Eng.
This is a study of the birth control movement in the United States from 1916 to 1945, and the process by which contraception was legalized and made available in more than 800 clinics nationwide. Particular attention is given to the reasons why, "as the movement developed...its feminist vision of voluntary motherhood was eclipsed by the apparently gender-neutral (and nonfeminist) goal of 'planned parenthood.' " The author also examines how gender, race, and class politics affected the development of the family planning movement in general. The actions of Margaret Sanger, one of the movement's primary leaders, are highlighted.
Correspondence: Cornell University Press, Sage House, 512 East State Street, Ithaca, NY 14850. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40291 McFarlane, Carmen P.; Friedman, Jay S.; Morris, Leo. Contraceptive Prevalence Survey, Jamaica, 1993. Executive summary: main findings of the survey. Jun 1994. [iii], 33 pp. National Family Planning Board: Kingston, Jamaica; U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]: Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
"The present report summarizes the findings of the contraceptive prevalence survey (JCPS) carried out in Jamaica in 1993." Separate chapters are included on fertility; contraception, including knowledge, usage, condom usage, sources of contraception, opinions, and needs; and young adults.
Correspondence: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40292 Moreno, Lorenzo. Residential mobility and contraceptive use in northeastern Brazil. DHS Working Paper, No. 9, Feb 1994. 36 pp. Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Calverton, Maryland. In Eng.
"Several aspects of the relationship between residential mobility and contraceptive choice and use in northeastern Brazil, based on the 1991 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), are investigated in this paper....The document examines three main issues: (1) whether the contraceptive practices of women who change their residence to more urbanized centers are selective at origin, (2) whether a change in residence is associated with a modification in contraceptive use, and (3) whether migrants adapt to the contraceptive regime of their destination."
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Calverton, MD 20705. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40293 Mostajo, Patricia; Foreit, Karen. Analysis of the demand for family planning. [Analisis de la demanda de planificacion familiar.] Revista Peruana de Poblacion, No. 2, 1993. 39-64 pp. Lima, Peru. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"In order to contribute to the strategic planning of family planning programmes, the demand of contraceptive methods in Peru is analyzed. The information is based on the 2nd Demographic and Health Survey 1991-92 (ENDES). It proposes the concept of 'range of appropriate methods' for each programmatic group of users."
Correspondence: P. Mostajo, Instituto Andino de Estudios de Poblacion, Peru. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40294 Munz, Rainer; Ulrich, Ralf. Population growth and family planning in developing countries. [Bevolkerungswachstum und Familienplanung in Entwicklungslandern.] Demographie Aktuell, No. 4, 1994. iv, 58 pp. Humboldt-Universitat zu Berlin, Philosophische Fakultat III, Institut fur Soziologie, Lehrstuhl Bevolkerungswissenschaft: Berlin, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
"This study investigates the conditions influencing fertility decline in developing countries and discusses potential policy levers for governments and NGOs [nongovernmental organizations]." A theoretical model of fertility decline is outlined, empirical evidence of the unmet need for family planning is discussed, and experiences with family planning programs are examined.
Correspondence: Humboldt-Universitat zu Berlin, Philosophische Fakultat III, Institut fur Soziologie, Lehrstuhl Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40295 Okun, Barbara S. Evaluating methods for detecting fertility control: Coale and Trussell's model and Cohort Parity Analysis. Population Studies, Vol. 48, No. 2, Jul 1994. 193-222 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In their attempts to distinguish empirically between the innovation/diffusion and adaptation views of fertility transition, researchers have pointed out that evidence of fertility control practised by a significant proportion of women in pre-transition populations would render claims that fertility fell as a result of innovative behaviour less convincing. This paper uses simulation techniques to evaluate the ability of two indirect measures of fertility control, Coale and Trussell's model (M & m) and Cohort Parity Analysis (CPA), to identify the presence or absence of fertility controllers, as well as to detect changes in the extent of control. We conclude that neither M & m nor CPA can be relied on to identify accurately a minority of controllers in a population of interest. These findings suggest the need for a reassessment of some of the evidence cited in the debate over alternative theories of fertility decline."
Correspondence: B. S. Okun, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Department of Demography, Mount Scopus, 91905 Jerusalem, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40296 Olaleye, David O.; Bankole, Akinrinola. The impact of mass media family planning promotion on contraceptive behavior of women in Ghana. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 13, No. 2, Jun 1994. 161-77 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper examines the influence of media messages about family planning, and attitudes toward media promotion of family planning, on contraceptive behavior of married women in Ghana. It also examines the problem of reverse causation that arises in studies of this nature when the data used provide no information on the temporal order of the actual time that respondents were exposed to family planning information in the mass media and the time of adoption of contraceptive behavior. The results show that exposure to media messages on contraception exerts strong impact on current practice of, and intention to use, contraception....The study [also] demonstrates that while being exposed to media messages significantly affects a woman's contraceptive behavior, the reverse does not seem to be the case."
Correspondence: D. O. Olaleye, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40297 Rama Rao, G.; Moulasha, K.; Sureender, S. Knowledge, attitude and practice of family planning among fishermen in Tamil Nadu. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 39, No. 3, Sep 1993. 50-4 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"Since very little is known about the demographic condition, fertility and family planning behaviour of the fishermen community in India in general and Tamil Nadu in particular, an attempt has been made to study family planning behaviour among this community....The study reveals good knowledge and favourable attitudes (80 per cent) towards family planning among the fishermen community of coastal Tamil Nadu. However, only 37.8 per cent were found to have accepted some form of family planning...."
Correspondence: G. Rama Rao, International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Bombay 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40298 Saha, Tulshi D. Community resources and reproductive behaviour in rural Bangladesh. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 9, No. 1, Mar 1994. 3-18 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This study identifies significant effects of community factors on contraceptive behaviour [in Bangladesh]. Women living in communities containing commercial establishments are more likely to be using contraceptives. Also, the better the linkage of the community with the urban centre, the higher is contraceptive use. The results demonstrate that agricultural organization and production can have a substantial impact on fertility. The availability and accessibility of family planning services not only influence contraceptive behaviour, but also are conditioned by individual motivation."
Correspondence: T. D. Saha, Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Calverton, MD 20705. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40299 Shah, Iqbal H. The advance of the contraceptive revolution. World Health Statistics Quarterly/Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales, Vol. 47, No. 1, 1994. 9-15 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This article reviews the levels and trends in the use of contraceptives and presents estimates for future demand for family planning. In addition, it describes contraceptive use by specific method." The geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: I. H. Shah, World Health Organization, Special Programme of Research, Development, and Research Training in Human Reproduction, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40300 Tuan, Chi-Hsien; Mahadevan, Kuttan; Jayasree, R.; Zhao, Xioahua. Status of women and family planning in China and India. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population: Montreal 1993, Volume 4. 1993. 163-71 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"An attempt is made in this paper to examine the status of women in China and India together...[with its] influence on acceptance of contraception....The paper focuses on the differential status of women based on education, employment, age at marriage, [and] sex discrimination [against] women...."
Correspondence: C.-H. Tuan, East-West Center, East-West Population Institute, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40301 Turshen, Meredeth; Bretin, Helene; Thebaud-Mony, Annie. The prescription of contraceptives for immigrant women in France. [Prescription de contraception aux femmes immigrees en France.] In: Population, reproduction, societes: perspectives et enjeux de demographie sociale, edited by Dennis D. Cordell et al. 1993. 217-34 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre.
Results of an analysis of contraceptive methods practiced by 1,035 immigrant women who accepted contraceptive services in a suburb north of Paris between 1986 and 1990 are presented. The authors suggest that differences in the method of contraception prescribed by doctors for immigrant women as opposed to those prescribed for French nationals suggest that contraception is being used as a method of social control rather than as a tool for the increased freedom of women.
Correspondence: M. Turshen, Rutgers University, School of Public Health, New Brunswick, NJ 08903. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40302 Ulin, Priscilla R.; Hardee, Karen; Bailey, Patricia; Williamson, Nancy. The impact of family planning on women's lives: expanding the research agenda. World Health Statistics Quarterly/Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales, Vol. 47, No. 1, 1994. 6-8 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
"This article calls for an expansion of family planning research to include the experience of women in a social context of changing roles and relationships....Work is needed to develop and evaluate research models and to refine methodologies to study and document the impact of family planning on women beyond their physical health."
Correspondence: P. R. Ulin, Family Health International, One Triangle Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40303 Ullah, M. Shahid; Chakraborty, Nitai. The use of modern and traditional methods of fertility control in Bangladesh: a multivariate analysis. Contraception, Vol. 50, No. 4, Oct 1994. 363-72 pp. Woburn, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"An attempt has been made to study the use pattern of traditional and modern methods of fertility control among currently married women of reproductive ages utilizing the 1989 BFS [Bangladesh Fertility Survey] data. Bivariate analysis has been employed to study the differentials in the use pattern by some selected demographic and socio-economic characteristics." The results indicate that knowledge of contraception is almost universal. Of the 31% of women of reproductive age using contraception, 23% use modern methods and 8% use traditional methods.
Correspondence: M. S. Ullah, University of Dhaka, Institute of Statistical Research and Training, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40304 Wade, Karen B.; Sevilla, Francisco; Labbok, Miriam H. Integrating the lactational amenorrhea method into a family planning program in Ecuador. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 25, No. 3, May-Jun 1994. 162-75 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper reports the results of a 12-month implementation study documenting the process of integrating the Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM) into a multiple-method family planning service-delivery organization, the Centro Medico de Orientacion y Planificacion Familiar (CEMOPLAF), in Ecuador. LAM was introduced as a family planning option in four CEMOPLAF clinics. LAM was accepted by 133 breastfeeding women during the program's first five months, representing about one-third of postpartum clients....This case study presents preliminary evidence that LAM can play a role in linking postpartum child health and child spacing...;that it can be introduced as a family planning option in multiple-method settings; that it is attractive to first-time users of a family planning method; that it may be used for more timely introductions of other methods such as the IUD and sterilization; and that the method is used at a level comparable with other temporary methods."
Correspondence: K. B. Wade, Claremont Graduate School, Institute for Applied Social and Policy Research, 160 East Tenth Street, Suite 4, Claremont, CA 91711-4168. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40305 Whelan, Robert. Choices in childbearing: when does family planning become population control? ISBN 0-946680-42-6. 1992. vii, 56 pp. Committee on Population and the Economy: London, England. In Eng.
"It is the argument of this monograph that the public [has] been misled concerning the nature and impact of population control programmes on parents, particularly women, in the developing countries. This has been achieved by distorting the use of the term 'family planning' until it ceases to represent what we would understand by it in the rich nations of the West." The focus is on the use of force, coercion, and incentives to carry out agendas for controlling population growth. Separate chapters are also included on India and China.
Correspondence: Committee on Population and the Economy, 13 Norfolk House, Courtlands, Sheen Road, Richmond, Surrey TW10 5AT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.2. Clinical Aspects & Use-Effectiveness Studies

Selected studies on the medical aspects of fertility control methods, including studies on side effects and use-effectiveness.

60:40306 Bardin, C. Wayne; Mishell, Daniel R. Proceedings from the fourth international conference on IUDs. ISBN 0-7506-9585-4. 1994. vii, 341 pp. Butterworth-Heinemann: Newton, Massachusetts/London, England. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of an international conference on IUDs. Following an initial review of IUD use throughout the world, the 30 papers are grouped under the headings of performance of IUDs, understanding IUDs, IUDs in the United States, factors limiting IUD use, medical problems and their prevention, special issues, designing IUD services, and individual IUDs.
Correspondence: Butterworth-Heinemann, 313 Washington Street, Newton, MA 02158. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40307 Chi, I.-C. A bill of health for the IUD: where do we go from here? Advances in Contraception, Vol. 10, No. 2, Jun 1994. 121-31 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Although intrauterine devices (IUDs) are a highly cost-effective contraceptive method, they have been unfortunately associated with increased risk of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). However, new studies, including a 1992 World Health Organization (WHO) report, have demonstrated that there is little evidence of a causal link between IUD use and PID....This paper examines the evidence, focusing on the 1992 WHO study, and looks to the future with suggestions for IUD research and programmatic approaches in the hope of vindicating the IUD's reputation and broadening the indications for its use."
Correspondence: I.-C. Chi, Family Health International, P.O. Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40308 Haspels, Ary A. Emergency contraception: a review. Contraception, Vol. 50, No. 2, Aug 1994. 101-8 pp. Woburn, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The author briefly reviews the use of postcoital contraception in emergency situations in the Netherlands. Side effects and mechanisms of action are described for several hormonal methods.
Correspondence: A. A. Haspels, University of Utrecht, Department of Gynecology, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40309 Kambic, R. T.; Lanctot, C. A.; Wesley, R. Trial of a new method of natural family planning in Liberia. Advances in Contraception, Vol. 10, No. 2, Jun 1994. 111-9 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This paper describes the evaluation of a new method of natural family planning (NFP) in Liberia. The Modified Mucus Method (MMM) was developed to address the need for a simple method of charting for poor and illiterate women. The acceptance, use, and cost-effectiveness of the MMM were compared with standard NFP methods, the sympto-thermal and ovulation method (ST/OM), used in the same population."
Correspondence: R. T. Kambic, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Department of Population Dynamics, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40310 Kawachi, Ichiro; Colditz, Graham A.; Hankinson, Sue. Long-term benefits and risks of alternative methods of fertility control in the United States. Contraception, Vol. 50, No. 1, Jul 1994. 1-16 pp. Woburn, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"A risk-benefit analysis of five alternative approaches to fertility control among U.S. women over the age of 30 was performed: tubal ligation, vasectomy, intrauterine device, barrier method (condom), and combined oral contraceptives. Taken into account were age-specific probabilities of contraceptive failure, fecundability, spontaneous abortion, reproductive mortality...,life table mortality, and mortality from specific cancer sites...and cardiovascular disease. Relative to women using no contraceptive precautions, the use of any method of contraception between the ages of 30 and 50 was associated with net benefit in terms of averted deaths. However, when duration of observation was extended up to age 80, we predicted an excess of about 880 deaths from prostate cancer per 100,000 users of vasectomy. Other methods continued to be associated with net benefit....It was concluded that the non-reproductive risks and benefits of contraceptive methods continue to be relevant long after the reproductive years."
Correspondence: I. Kawachi, Channing Laboratory, 180 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115-5899. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40311 Labbok, M. H.; Perez, A.; Valdes, V.; Sevilla, F.; Wade, K.; Laukaran, V. H.; Cooney, K. A.; Coly, S.; Sanders, C.; Queenan, J. T. The lactational amenorrhea method (LAM): a postpartum introductory family planning method with policy and program implications. Advances in Contraception, Vol. 10, No. 2, Jun 1994. 93-109 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The development, efficacy, and sequelae of the [lactational amenorrhea] method are presented using data from several [Chilean] studies....LAM is an additional efficacious postpartum method that, by design, encourages both improved breastfeeding practices as well as timely introduction of complementary family planning during breastfeeding. Since it builds on the widespread existing belief that breastfeeding does provide fertility suppression, it attracts new users to consider family planning for the first time. It is appropriate in all family planning settings and in most health services, and expands family planning options."
Correspondence: M. H. Labbok, Georgetown University, Institute for Reproductive Health, Breastfeeding and MCH Division, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2115 Wisconsin Avenue, Suite 602, Washington, D.C. 20007. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40312 Reproductive Health Matters (London, England). Contraceptive safety and effectiveness: re-evaluating women's needs and professional criteria. Reproductive Health Matters, No. 3, May 1994. 135 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
This issue concerns contraceptive safety and effectiveness. It contains articles from various perspectives, with emphasis on women's needs and professional criteria. The geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: Reproductive Health Matters, 1 London Bridge Street, London SE1 9SG, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.3. Evaluation of Programs

Studies evaluating either the demographic impact or other criteria of effectiveness of family planning programs.

60:40313 Leon, Federico R.; Quiroz, Gustavo; Brazzoduro, Alfredo. The reliability of simulated clients' quality-of-care ratings. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 25, No. 3, May-Jun 1994. 184-90 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study examined the reliability of quality-of-care ratings in a Peruvian community-based distribution program by using pairs of concealed observers--a simulated client and a companion. Average interrater agreement, measured by intraclass correlation, was .50, indicating that ratings are not reliable enough for the evaluation of a single provider by a single rater. The study results suggest that checklist-item scores referring to specific provider behaviors will be more reliable and useful than ratings."
Correspondence: F. R. Leon, Population Council, Paseo Padre Constancio Bollar 225, El Olivar de San Isidro, Lima 27, Peru. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40314 Liao, Tim F. A theoretical framework of collective action for the evaluation of family planning programs. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 13, No. 1, Mar 1994. 49-67 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"In this article I establish a theoretical framework for the evaluation of family planning programs by synthesizing the literature on the theory of collective action. Because of the characteristics of collective action--indivisibility and externality--noncooperation (free riding) is bound to occur. Faced with the problem of free riding, a good family planning program should ideally apply selective incentives, localize the costs and benefits, and invest in social capital. The relations among these three factors, cooperation, and fertility are also spelled out."
Correspondence: T. F. Liao, University of Illinois, Department of Sociology, 326 Lincoln Hall, 702 South Wright Street, Urbana, IL 61801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40315 Rajan, S. Irudaya. China's one-child policy: implication for population aging. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 29, No. 38, Sep 17, 1994. 2,502-6 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
The success of China's one-child policy in curtailing population growth is assessed. The author notes that the policy has been more effective in urban than rural areas, and that abortion is widely utilized to maintain one-family norms. The implications of the widely utilized policy for demographic aging are reviewed.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

60:40316 Ram, F.; Pathak, K. B. Evaluation of family planning in India using different approaches: an assessment. 1993. 46, [9] pp. International Institute for Population Sciences: Bombay, India. In Eng.
The objectives of this study are: "i) To measure the direct and indirect effects of family planning programme on fertility; ii) To examine the effect of programme inputs and socio-economic development on performance of family planning programme; [and] iii) To examine inconsistency in changes in couples protection rate and fertility change." A variety of alternative methods of evaluating program effectiveness are considered. The results indicate that there has been significant change in birth order distribution throughout India, and that this change is strongly related to program performance.
Correspondence: International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Bombay 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40317 Robey, Bryant; Piotrow, Phyllis T.; Salter, Cynthia. Family planning lessons and challenges: making programs work. Population Reports, Series J: Family Planning Programs, No. 40, Aug 1994. 27 pp. Johns Hopkins University, Center for Communication Programs, Population Information Program [PIP]: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
This report presents the consensus of informed opinion on lessons learned from global family planning programs and the challenges they face in the future. The report suggests that "to meet the need for family planning in developing countries, programs will need to serve at least 650 million married women by the end of the decade....These programs now help 400 million women in developing countries to control their own fertility, but their work is far from over. They will need to serve at least another 250 million women before the year 2000...." It is also estimated that 120 million married women in developing countries, about two in every five women, want to control their fertility but cannot do so.
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins University, Center for Communication Programs, Population Information Program, 111 Market Place, Suite 310, Baltimore, MD 21202-4012. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40318 Ross, John A.; Mauldin, W. Parker. Effort and achievement in national family planning programmes. World Health Forum, Vol. 15, No. 3, 1994. 251-7 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
The authors present results from an analysis of national family planning programs undertaken over the period 1972-1989 in developing countries. The results show that these programs have made impressive progress over the past 25 years, and that fertility rates in the countries concerned have fallen dramatically. However, they conclude that major efforts are still required if the unmet need for family planning services is to be met.
Correspondence: J. A. Ross, Futures Group, 80 Glastonbury Boulevard, Glastonbury, CT 06033. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40319 Ross, John A.; Mauldin, W. Parker. Measuring the effort levels of family planning programmes (profile of 30 programme effort scores, 1982 and 1989). World Health Statistics Quarterly/Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales, Vol. 47, No. 1, 1994. 61-125 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This is a report on the profiles of 30 measures of effort for national family planning programmes, and what the profiles suggest of improved management. We have generated 30 indices that measure the effort levels of some 100 national family planning programmes, and we examine these here to see which ones best differentiate between stronger and weaker programmes. We also compare ratings in 1982 to ratings in 1989, to determine whether score profiles are stable over time, and to learn how profiles change as countries improve their programmes."
Correspondence: J. A. Ross, Futures Group, 1050 17th Street NW, Suite 1000, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.4. Attitudes Toward Fertility & Fertility Control

Studies concerned with the interrelations between fertility control and attitudinal variables, including studies on wanted and unwanted pregnancy and children, motivation for parenthood, sex preference, and voluntary childlessness. Studies on knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of family planning and attitudes toward family size are classified under this heading.

60:40320 Abu, Katharine. Family planning and welfare in northern Ghana. In: Gender, work and population in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Aderanti Adepoju and Christine Oppong. 1994. 191-208 pp. James Currey: London, England; Heinemann: Portsmouth, New Hampshire. In Eng.
"This paper draws upon a body of qualitative data on reproductive issues collected in the town of Tamale [Ghana] over the past decade. Using both focused biographies and focus groups, data have been collected from women and men, literate and non-literate, of the major ethnic groups of northern Ghana. Findings are analysed in the light of the published data available from the Ghana Fertility Survey (GFS). The chapter also examines the different ways in which reproductive issues affect the women and men of two of the main ethnic groupings of northern Ghana, and the effects of socioeconomic status on reproductive perspectives and attitudes to contraceptive use. Finally, the influence of research method on findings is examined, and the views of local family planning workers are given....Research findings indicate, and family planning workers concur, that the level of demand for information and potential demand for services is not at present being adequately met by the family planning agencies' outreach programmes."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40321 Chen, Ping. Quantitative measure of sex preference and the study of its relation to fertility rate. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 5, No. 3, 1993. 223-32 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article attempts to analyze the influence of sex preference upon fertility rate [in China], on the basis of a study of the thinking and methods of quantitative measure of sex preference as well as expression in different aspects of sex preference and its correlation with child-bearing behavior."
Correspondence: P. Chen, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Population Research Institute, 5 Jianguomen Nei Da Jie 5 Hao, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40322 Isiugo-Abanihe, Uche C. Reproductive motivation and family-size preferences among Nigerian men. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 25, No. 3, May-Jun 1994. 149-61 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Data collected from 3,073 couples in four Nigerian cities and one semiurban settlement were used to examine reproductive decisionmaking and male motivation for large family size. The report concludes that the characteristic male-dominant and patrilineal traditions support large family size and that men's reproductive motivation, to a large extent, affects the reproductive behavior of their wives....Male education, age at marriage, monogamy, interspousal communication, and intention not to rely on children for old-age support are significantly related to smaller actual family size and preferences for smaller families, while being in a male-dominant family setting has a strong relation with large family size and preferences for larger families."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1993 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: U. C. Isiugo-Abanihe, University of Ibadan, Department of Sociology, Ibadan, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40323 Kabir, M.; Amin, Ruhul; Ahmed, Ashraf U.; Chowdhury, Jamir. Factors affecting desired family size in Bangladesh. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 26, No. 3, Jul 1994. 369-75 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Factors affecting desired family size in rural Bangladesh are examined using data from contraceptive prevalence surveys conducted between 1983 and 1991. The analysis suggests that mothers having two sons and one daughter are more inclined to perceive their family as complete than those having three sons and no daughter. Logistic regression analysis indicates that important determinants of desire for more children are age of woman, current contraceptive use status, work status, and family planning worker's visit. The policy implications of these findings are discussed."
Correspondence: M. Kabir, Jahangirnagar University, Department of Statistics, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40324 Knowles, James C.; Akin, John S.; Guilkey, David K. The impact of population policies: comment. Population and Development Review, Vol. 20, No. 3, Sep 1994. 611-30 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The authors critically examine an article by Lant H. Pritchett that asserted "on the basis of empirical findings, that variations in fertility desires account for most of the variation in fertility rates across countries and that access to contraception contributes at best a significant but numerically small (i.e., 2-3 percent) independent effect....We believe Pritchett's empirical analysis to be seriously flawed by his use of an essentially tautological statistical model....We have chosen to focus our comment on the inappropriateness of the statistical model itself." A reply by Pritchett is included (pp. 621-30).
For the article by Pritchett, published in 1994, see 60:30236.
Correspondence: J. C. Knowles, Abt Associates, Bethesda, MD. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40325 Langer, Lilly M.; Zimmerman, Rick S.; Katz, Jennifer A. Which is more important to high school students: preventing pregnancy or preventing AIDS? Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 26, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1994. 154-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A sample of about 2,900 high school students in greater Miami, Florida, was surveyed to determine their attitudes toward pregnancy prevention vs. AIDS prevention and how these attitudes affect condom use. Female, Hispanic and black respondents were the most likely to consider pregnancy and AIDS prevention to be equally important. White non-Hispanics and males were relatively more likely to believe that preventing pregnancy is less important than preventing AIDS, whereas males and females involved in a steady relationship placed more emphasis on pregnancy prevention than AIDS prevention. The more knowledge about HIV and AIDS a respondent had, the less importance he or she placed on pregnancy prevention, and as the importance of preventing pregnancy declined, so did the frequency of condom use. Males who were in a steady dating relationship and perceived pregnancy prevention as more important than AIDS prevention were the most likely to report using condoms often."
Correspondence: L. M. Langer, Florida International University, University Park, Miami, FL 33199. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40326 Mahmood, Naushin; Zahid, G. M. The demand for fertility control in Pakistan. Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 32, No. 4, Pt. 2, Winter 1993. 1,097-106 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
The authors attempt to assess the level of demand for family planning among various socioeconomic groups in Pakistan using data from three KAP surveys carried out in 1975, 1979-1980, and 1984-1985, as well as the Demographic and Health Survey of 1990-1991. The results of the analysis indicate "high levels of fertility, desired family size and low contraceptive use. Based on surveys,...we found that a substantial proportion of currently married women above age 35 report that they want no more children, (between 50 and 60 percent) only a small minority of these women are users of contraception, leaving a large gap between the potential demand for and actual use of contraception." A comment is included by Jamila Naeem (pp. 1,105-6).
Correspondence: N. Mahmood, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, P.O. Box 1091, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40327 Miller, Warren B. The relationship between childbearing motivations and attitude toward abortion among married men and women. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 26, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1994. 165-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Relationships between positive and negative childbearing motivations and an abortion attitude index are examined among [U.S.] men and women from 401 married couples--half of whom had one child and half of whom were childless. A multivariate model tests for differences in these relationships, as well as in the association of the attitude index with personality traits, personal value systems and age, across both gender and parity groups. The results indicate that three of the four measures of negative childbearing motivation and one of the five measures of positive childbearing motivation are associated with a more accepting attitude toward abortion. These relationships are independent of the effects of personality, personal values and age, and are the same for both males and females and for respondents with no children and [those with] one child."
Correspondence: W. B. Miller, Transnational Family Research Institute, 69 Georgia Avenue, Palo Alto, CA 94306. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40328 Nath, Dilip C.; Land, Kenneth C. Sex preference and third birth intervals in a traditional Indian society. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 26, No. 3, Jul 1994. 377-88 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"In this study, the effects of various sociodemographic covariates, particularly sex preference, on the length of the third birth interval are examined for the scheduled caste population in Assam, India. Life table and hazards regression techniques are applied to retrospective sample data. The analysis shows that couples having two surviving sons are less likely to have a third child than those without a surviving son and those with only one surviving son. Age at first marriage, length of preceding birth intervals, age of mother, and household income have strong effects on the length of the third birth interval."
Correspondence: D. C. Nath, Duke University, Department of Sociology, Durham, NC 27706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40329 Petrovic, Mina. Investigation of individual attitudes toward ideal, wanted, and actual number of children. [Istrazivanje stavova o idealnom, zeljenom i realizovanom broju dece.] Stanovnistvo, Vol. 30-31, 1992-1993. 21-44 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
"[The] first part of this paper deals with theoretical presumptions and outlines the results of research on individual attitudes towards ideal and wanted number of children....The second part...presents the results of a broader investigation on parenthood that includes attitudes about ideal, wanted and the realised number of children. The investigation was performed in Belgrade in late 1991."
Correspondence: M. Petrovic, Univerzitet u Beogradu, Instituta Drustvenih Nauka, Centar za Demografska Istrazivanja, Narodnog Fronta 45, 11000 Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40330 Pong, Suet-ling. Sex preference and fertility in Peninsular Malaysia. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 25, No. 3, May-Jun 1994. 137-48 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study uses data from the Second Malaysian Family Life Survey, conducted in 1988, to examine parents' preferences for the sex of their children within each of Malaysia's three ethnic groups. While Malay and Indian parents do not show a consistent sex preference, Chinese parents prefer to have all sons, or a combination of sons and daughters, with more sons than daughters, or at least an equal number of them. Son preference among the Chinese does not seem to be a constraint to fertility decline among that population. Since 1970, Chinese fertility has dropped rapidly; at the same time, Chinese son preference has become more pronounced. Evidence indicates that further reductions in Chinese fertility, through the reduction in sex preference, would be small."
Correspondence: S.-l. Pong, Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6411. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40331 Pong, Suet-ling. Who wants daughters? Sex preference and ethnicity in Peninsular Malaysia. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 1993-08, Apr 1993. 36, [16] pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"This article explores two related questions about parents' preferences for the sex of their children in Peninsular Malaysia. First, to what degree does sex preference prevail within each of Malaysia's three ethnic groups? Second, are there ethnic differences in whether preference is towards sons or towards daughters?" Data are from the Second Malaysian Family Life Survey carried out in 1988-1989.
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6211. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.5. Induced Abortion

Studies on induced abortion, including those on attitudes, with the exception of studies primarily concerned with government regulation of abortion, which are coded under M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility . Studies of spontaneous abortion appear under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology .

60:40332 Association Nationale des Centres d'Interruption de Grossesse et de Contraception [ANCIC] (Paris, France). The tenth national study event on abortion and contraception. [Dixiemes journees nationales d'etudes sur l'avortement et la contraception.] 1993. 162 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
These are the proceedings of the tenth conference of the French National Association of Abortion Centers, held in 1993. Sessions are included on prescriptions for contraceptives, RU 486, and sterilization and contraception.
Correspondence: Association Nationale des Centres d'Interruption de Grossesse et de Contraception, 157 avenue Arthur Honneger, 60100 Creil, France. Location: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Paris, France.

60:40333 Barrig, Maruja; Li, Dina; Ramos, Virgilio; Vallenas, Sandra. Concerning abortion. [Aproximaciones al aborto.] 1993. 113 pp. Asociacion Servicios Urbanos y Mujeres de Bajos Ingresos [SUMBI]: Lima, Peru; Population Council: New York, New York. In Spa.
This study concerns the induced abortion situation in Peru. It describes five abortion case histories, reviews the social and economic costs of abortion for women in different situations, and discusses the procedure's social consequences.
Correspondence: Asociacion Servicios Urbanos y Mujeres de Bajos Ingresos, Petit Thouars 994, Oficina 308, Lima, Peru. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40334 Enigl, Marianne; Perthold, Sabine. The female body as a battlefield: new contributions to the abortion discussion. [Der weibliche Korper als Schlachtfeld: neue Beitrage zur Abtreibungsdiskussion.] ISBN 3-900478-62-7. 1993. 208 pp. Promedia: Vienna, Austria. In Ger.
This book is a collection of papers by various authors. The first section focuses on theoretical positions regarding abortion. Part 2 includes a global overview of the number of abortions and a comparison of abortion laws in Romania, the former USSR, France, Switzerland, and the Netherlands. Part 3 deals with abortion laws and attitudes in Austria and Germany.
Correspondence: Promedia, Landesgerichtsstrasse 20, 1010 Vienna, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40335 Fort, Alfredo L. The social context of abortion in the mountains and forests of Peru. [El contexto social del aborto en la sierra y selva del Peru.] Revista Peruana de Poblacion, No. 3, 1993. 57-70 pp. Lima, Peru. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"Abortion issues are studied in two cities of Peru--Cuzco and Iquitos--as part of a deeper research which analyses attitudes and values related to human reproduction." Aspects considered include attitudes toward abortion, methods of induced abortion, type of practitioner used, legalization of abortion, and support and use of family planning.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40336 Francome, Colin. Gynaecologists and abortion in Northern Ireland. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 26, No. 3, Jul 1994. 389-94 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The evidence from gynaecologists in Northern Ireland shows confusion in interpretation and practice of abortion law, with some women even being denied abortion after rape. Over two-thirds of gynaecologists supported a change in the law which would leave the abortion decision to the woman and her doctor, but less than half wanted the introduction of the British law."
Correspondence: C. Francome, Middlesex University, The Burroughs, London NW4 4BT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40337 Jelen, Ted G.; Chandler, Marthe A. Abortion politics in the United States and Canada: studies in public opinion. ISBN 0-275-94561-8. LC 93-43074. 1994. vi, 223 pp. Praeger: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
This is a selection of 10 studies by different authors on the public debate about abortion in Canada and the United States. Some consideration is given to the implications of such a debate, which involves basic values such as religion, sexuality, gender roles, and the value of life. Whether the abortion issue can be resolved in the context of democratic societies is discussed.
Correspondence: Praeger Publishers, 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40338 Lynxwiler, John; Wilson, Michele. A case study of race differences among late abortion patients. Women and Health, Vol. 21, No. 4, 1994. 43-56 pp. Binghamton, New York. In Eng.
"We examine 240 [U.S.] women who underwent abortions in the second trimester of their pregnancy. The analysis focuses on characteristics that distinguish between black and white women....Variables that are associated with black and white women who delay their abortion decision include attitudes toward legal abortion, religiosity, household income, the presence of other children, residence patterns, an unwillingness to disclose the pregnancy, and social support for their decision. Discussion of the findings focuses on the role played by cultural experiences."
Correspondence: J. Lynxwiler, University of Central Florida, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, P.O. Box 25000, Orlando, FL 32816-1360. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40339 Muhsam, H. V. How long before birth does the baby become a human being: ethics, laws, and practice of abortion. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population: Montreal 1993, Volume 4. 1993. 217-26 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The author discusses ethical arguments concerning induced abortion, with a focus on definitions of the onset of life, prenatal development, laws and practice, and biological aspects.
Correspondence: H. V. Muhsam, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Mount Scopus Campus, Jerusalem 91905, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40340 Peplow, P. V. RU486 combined with PGE1 analog in voluntary termination of early pregnancy--a comparison of recent findings with gemeprost or misoprostol. Contraception, Vol. 50, No. 1, Jul 1994. 69-75 pp. Woburn, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"The aim of this paper has been to carefully examine the findings of studies performed over the last 6 years using combinations of RU486/gemeprost or RU486/misoprostol in regard to (i) time to complete expulsion of the conceptus and (ii) duration of vaginal bleeding. The data reported for the various combination treatments consisting of a single dose of RU486 followed by gemeprost or misoprostol have been compared using appropriate statistical tests. These parameters are important in regard to women's views on medical methods for terminating pregnancy."
Correspondence: P. V. Peplow, University of Otago, Department of Anatomy, Dunedin, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40341 Rademakers, Jany. Abortion in the Netherlands, 1989-1990: a yearly report from the national abortion register. [Abortus in Nederland, 1989/1990: jaarverslag van de landelijke abortusregistratie.] ISBN 90-70632-12-8. 1992. x, 62 pp. Stimezo-Onderzoek: Utrecht, Netherlands. In Dut; Eng.
Data are presented on induced abortion in the Netherlands in 1989, 1990, and 1991. The statistics concern country of origin, age, marital status, ethnic group, fertility history, and contraceptive practice of abortion clients. The author notes an increase in abortion rates among Dutch nationals that may be due to changes in contraceptive behavior.
Correspondence: Stemizo-Onderzoek, Pieterstraat 11, 3512 JT Utrecht, Netherlands. Location: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Paris, France.

60:40342 Rasevic, Mirjana. Reproductive behavior and induced abortion. [Reproduktivno ponasanje i namerni prekid trudnoce.] Stanovnistvo, Vol. 30-31, 1992-1993. 45-62 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
The author discusses the continuing need for induced abortion in spite of the existence of improved contraceptive methods. The impact on the incidence of abortion of factors such as early intercourse, lower desired family size, cohabitation, fear of contraception, and individual attitudes is considered. The geographical focus of the study is worldwide.
Correspondence: M. Rasevic, Univerzitet u Beogradu, Instituta Drustvenih Nauka, Centar za Demografska Istrazivanja, Narodnog Fronta 45, 11000 Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40343 Rolston, Bill; Eggert, Anna. Abortion in the new Europe: a comparative handbook. ISBN 0-313-28723-6. LC 93-44510. 1994. xxx, 312 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
This is a series of country studies by various authors on induced abortion in contemporary Europe. Following a general introduction, each study is divided into three parts, which deal with the history of abortion law, current law and practice, and the future. Chapters are included on Austria, Belgium, Britain, Bulgaria, the Czech and Slovak Republics, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the USSR.
Correspondence: Greenwood Press, 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40344 Skjeldestad, Finn E.; Borgan, Jens-Kristian; Daltveit, Anne K.; Nymoen, Erik H. Induced abortion: effects of marital status, age and parity on choice of pregnancy termination. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, Vol. 73, No. 3, 1994. 255-60 pp. Copenhagen, Denmark. In Eng.
The impact of marital status, age, and parity on the decision to terminate a pregnancy is examined using national surveillance data concerning all women giving birth or terminating pregnancies in Norway between 1979 and 1990. "From the first three-year period 1979-81 to the last three-year period 1988-90 there was a decreasing tendency to choose abortion among unmarried pregnant women above 20 years of age and married women with two or more children. In the other strata of marital status, age and parity there were no changes over the time period, except for married women 20-24 years of age which was the only group that showed an increasing abortion tendency over the time period."
Correspondence: F. E. Skjeldestad, University Hospital of Trondheim, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 7006 Trondheim, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

60:40345 Skjeldestad, Finn E. When pregnant--why induced abortion? Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine, Vol. 22, No. 1, 1994. 68-73 pp. Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
The aim of this paper was "to study social differences between women seeking induced abortion (cases) and women completing their pregnancy (controls)....Data were collected through a structured personal interview of 404 abortion-seeking women and 404 women giving birth at the...University Hospital of Trondheim, Norway during 1983....The prospect of single parenthood was the strongest determinant in describing the difference between abortion-seeking women and women giving birth. In addition, variables such as parity, age, housing situation, previous abortion history, attitudes towards abortion and occupational status were all found to be significant when describing the differences between the two study groups."
Correspondence: F. E. Skjeldestad, University Hospital of Trondheim, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, 7006 Trondheim, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40346 Sureender, S.; Moulasha, K. MTP in India: an observation. Health and Population: Perspectives and Issues, Vol. 16, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1993. 65-73 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng. with sum. in Hin.
"An attempt has been made in the present study to know the prevalence of abortion during the period 1976-77 and 1988-89 in the major States of India. In addition, abortions done during 12-20 weeks of pregnancies and the major reasons given by these women who opted for abortion have also been analysed." Data are from official sources. The results indicate that contraceptive failure was the primary reason for abortion in both periods, and also that the incidence of abortion has declined over time.
Correspondence: S. Sureender, International Institute for Population Studies, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Bombay 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility

Studies on lactation, nutrition, fecundability, sex behavior, menarche and menopause, and other biological factors or social customs as they affect fertility directly. Factors affecting contraceptive practice and factors affecting fertility indirectly are not included here.

60:40347 Baird, Donna D.; Weinberg, Clarice R.; Schwingl, Pamela; Wilcox, Allen J. Selection bias associated with contraceptive practice in time-to-pregnancy studies. In: Human reproductive ecology: interactions of environment, fertility, and behavior, edited by Kenneth L. Campbell and James W. Wood. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 709, 1994. 156-64 pp. New York Academy of Sciences: New York, New York. In Eng.
Some problems associated with the measurement of the time required by couples to achieve a desired pregnancy are examined. The authors use survivorship methods to analyze time-to-pregnancy data. They conclude that "prospective studies of time to pregnancy can provide very accurate measures of the number of menstrual cycles required to conceive, but if they only enroll women who have stopped using contraception in order to conceive they are vulnerable to unmeasurable selection bias."
Correspondence: D. D. Baird, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Epidemiology Branch, Mail Drop A3-05, P.O. Box 12233, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

60:40348 Becker, Stan; Begum, Suraiya. Reliability study of reporting of days since last sexual intercourse in Matlab, Bangladesh. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 26, No. 3, Jul 1994. 291-9 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The accuracy of responses to a question on the frequency of sexual intercourse in the 4-week period prior to an interview is expected to be low. This paper examines the reliability of an alternative question: 'How many days since you last had sexual intercourse?'. This was a part of a larger longitudinal study of fertility dynamics in Matlab, Bangladesh. The response pairs of 61 women who were asked the same question by an interviewer and on the next day by a supervisor, were analysed....Of the pairs of two responses, 78% had a difference of 3 days or less."
Correspondence: S. Becker, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Department of Population Dynamics, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40349 Benavente, Luis; Campos, Miguel. Interrelations among lactation, fertility, and infant mortality in Peruvian women not using contraceptives. [Interrelacion entre lactancia, fecundidad y mortalidad infantil en mujeres peruanas no usuarias de anticonceptivos.] Revista Peruana de Poblacion, No. 2, 1993. 113-46 pp. Lima, Peru. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This article summarizes the results of a project about the interrelationships among breast-feeding, fertility and child mortality [among] Peruvian women who do not use contraceptives. The results show the breast-feeding patterns in the different regions of the country....Prolonged breast-feeding is associated with a long inter-genesic interval [and]...with low child mortality."
Correspondence: L. Benavente, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Apartado 5045, Lima 100, Peru. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40350 Benefo, Kofi D.; Tsui, Amy O.; De Graft Johnson, Joseph. Ethnic differentials in child-spacing ideals and practices in Ghana. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 26, No. 3, Jul 1994. 311-26 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This study examines the relationship between ethnicity and [postpartum] abstinence using data from the 1988 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. There is considerable diversity in the length of abstinence, although only for one ethnic group, the Mole-Dagbani and other Ghanaians, is abstinence, both actual and ideal, very long. Respondents in most ethnic groups believe their abstinence to be adequate. A key motivation for abstinence is the unwillingness to have sexual intercourse with nursing mothers. Education, urbanisation, changes in marriage patterns and religious traditions are major factors shaping the ethnic differentials in abstinence."
Correspondence: K. D. Benefo, Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40351 Campbell, Benjamin C.; Udry, J. Richard. Implications of hormonal influences on sexual behavior for demographic models of reproduction. In: Human reproductive ecology: interactions of environment, fertility, and behavior, edited by Kenneth L. Campbell and James W. Wood. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 709, 1994. 117-27 pp. New York Academy of Sciences: New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors examine the role of testosterone in sexual behavior among normal women. "We examine the evidence for androgenic effects on female sexual behavior, relate them to ovarian processes over the reproductive span, and finally consider their implications for demographic models of fecundability....To structure our discussion of the implications of androgenic effects of female sexual motivation, we will break female reproduction into three broad segments: adolescence, mature reproductive function, and reproductive senescence."
Correspondence: B. C. Campbell, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square, CB8120, 143 West Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

60:40352 Cumming, David C.; Wheeler, Garry D.; Harber, Vicki J. Physical activity, nutrition, and reproduction. In: Human reproductive ecology: interactions of environment, fertility, and behavior, edited by Kenneth L. Campbell and James W. Wood. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 709, 1994. 55-76 pp. New York Academy of Sciences: New York, New York. In Eng.
"The purpose of the present review is to examine the effects of physical activity on reproductive function in women and in men, and to discuss the etiology of reproductive dysfunction with particular reference to the influence of nutritional status."
Correspondence: D. C. Cumming, University of Alberta, 1D1 W. Mackenzie Health Sciences Centre, Edmonton, Alberta T6J 2R7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

60:40353 DaVanzo, Julie; Sine, Jeffrey; Peterson, Christine; Haaga, John. Reversal of the decline in breastfeeding in Peninsular Malaysia? Ethnic and educational differentials and data quality issues. Social Biology, Vol. 41, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1994. 61-77 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"Data from the First and Second Malaysian Family Life Surveys in 1976 and 1988, respectively, are analyzed to examine long-term trends in breastfeeding in Peninsular Malaysia, educational and ethnic differences therein, and the quality of retrospective data on infant feeding....Over time, the percentages of births to subgroups with higher rates of breastfeeding--particularly Malays and more highly educated women--have increased. However, there is also evidence of changes in rates of breastfeeding within these subgroups. Many Malaysian infants have a total duration of breastfeeding (including with supplementation) considerably shorter than WHO's recommended four months of exclusive (unsupplemented) breastfeeding. Moreover, nearly all breastfed infants are first given supplementary food or beverage shortly after birth."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1991 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: J. DaVanzo, RAND, 1700 Main Street, P.O. Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40354 Frank, Odile; Bianchi, P. Grace; Campana, Aldo. The end of fertility: age, fecundity and fecundability in women. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 26, No. 3, Jul 1994. 349-68 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper reviews the demographic and biological information on declining fecundity with age, and proposes that, at least in developed societies, the biologically well-based notions of maternal age are now challenged by new technologies that override biological constraints, but challenge current value judgements regarding pregnancy and age. Four sources of information on age and fecundity will be reviewed: data based on study of the menopause; the results of observations on artificial insemination; new behavioural information from surveys on sexual behaviour; and new findings from the practical application of assisted reproduction technology."
Correspondence: O. Frank, World Health Organization, Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40355 Lodewijckx, Edith; Schoenmaeckers, Ronald C. Changes in fertility as a result of prior pregnancy-related experiences: an exploratory analysis. In: Population and family in the Low Countries 1993: late fertility and other current issues, edited by Gijs Beets et al. NIDI/CBGS Publication, No. 30, 1994. 25-49 pp. Swets and Zeitlinger: Berwyn, Pennsylvania/Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Changes in intensity and timing of fertility as a result of prior pregnancy-related experiences are described and further controlled for age at first delivery....Regardless of age, intrauterine mortality clearly results in fertility-compensating behaviour. Medical interventions have a negative effect on fertility, especially a prolonged conception waiting time. Whereas the effect of waiting time increases with increasing age, the effect of experiencing medical interventions actually decreases and even disappears at higher ages. The ultimate effect on changes in achieved family size appears to be very limited. The data stem from the NEGO IV and NEGO V surveys, carried out in Flanders [Belgium] in 1982/83 and 1991, respectively."
Correspondence: E. Lodewijckx, Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudien, Markiesstraat 1, 1000 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40356 Lunn, Peter G. Lactation and other metabolic loads affecting human reproduction. In: Human reproductive ecology: interactions of environment, fertility, and behavior, edited by Kenneth L. Campbell and James W. Wood. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 709, 1994. 77-85 pp. New York Academy of Sciences: New York, New York. In Eng.
This is a review of recent literature on the relationship between maternal nutritional status and fecundity. The survey confirms that "nutritional stress in lactating mothers will lead to prolonged lactational amenorrhea and subfecundity. Either a better diet or a reduction in maternal workload during lactation can be expected to shorten the duration of lactational infecundity. However, the extent of the interaction between nutrition and fecundity will only be resolved by careful measurements of appropriate and sensitive parameters."
Correspondence: P. G. Lunn, Medical Research Council, Dunn Nutrition Laboratory, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 1XJ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

60:40357 Madani, Khalid A.; Khashoggi, Rufaida H.; Al-Nowaisser, Abdulrahman A.; Nasrat, Hassan A.; Khalil, Muhammed H. Lactation amenorrhea in Saudi women. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 48, No. 3, Jun 1994. 286-9 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The study aimed to investigate some aspects of breast feeding, namely--lactation amenorrhea, the average interval between pregnancies, and the extent of knowledge that an average Saudi woman has about breast feeding....[It is concluded that] the lack of adequate information on breast feeding and the short interval between births are local problems which should be considered by the health authorities."
Correspondence: K. A. Madani, P.O. Box 2183, Jeddah 21451, Saudi Arabia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40358 McNeilly, Alan S.; Tay, Clem C. K.; Glasier, Anna. Physiological mechanisms underlying lactational amenorrhea. In: Human reproductive ecology: interactions of environment, fertility, and behavior, edited by Kenneth L. Campbell and James W. Wood. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 709, 1994. 145-55 pp. New York Academy of Sciences: New York, New York. In Eng.
"The major purpose of this short review is to summarize our knowledge on the mechanisms by which the suckling stimulus inhibits ovarian activity." They conclude that "breastfeeding delays the resumption of normal ovarian cycles by disrupting the pattern of pulsatile release of GnRH from the hypothalamus and hence LH from the pituitary....The mechanism of suckling-induced disruption of GnRH release remains unknown."
Correspondence: A. S. McNeilly, University of Edinburgh, Centre for Reproductive Biology Unit, 37 Chalmers Street, Edinburgh EH3 9EW, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

60:40359 Ofosu, Yaw. Breast-feeding and birth spacing: erosion of West African traditions. In: Gender, work and population in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Aderanti Adepoju and Christine Oppong. 1994. 173-90 pp. James Currey: London, England; Heinemann: Portsmouth, New Hampshire. In Eng.
"In this chapter, the changes in post-partum behaviour and some of its consequences are examined, using information from a number of recent fertility surveys undertaken in the West African subregion. In addition, an exploratory analysis of the relationships between the two post-partum variables [breast feeding and sexual abstinence] and a number of 'explanatory' variables is undertaken, with a view to obtaining an indication of the pattern of change. The object of this exercise is to identify the subpopulations most likely to experience the greatest changes in traditional post-partum behaviour." The author finds that "ethnicity remains an important determinant of the durations of breast-feeding and post-partum sexual abstinence."
Correspondence: Y. Ofosu, International Labour Office, 4 route des Morillons, 1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40360 Weinstein, Maxine; Stark, Marya. Behavioral and biological determinants of fecundability. In: Human reproductive ecology: interactions of environment, fertility, and behavior, edited by Kenneth L. Campbell and James W. Wood. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 709, 1994. 128-44 pp. New York Academy of Sciences: New York, New York. In Eng.
The behavioral and physiological factors that influence fecundability are reviewed. Factors considered include the frequency and timing of insemination, characteristics of the cycle, the length of the fertile period and the likelihood of conception given that insemination has occurred, and fetal loss. A review of possible sources of empirical data concludes the study.
Correspondence: M. Weinstein, Georgetown University, Department of Demography, 231 Poulton Hall, 37th and O Streets NW, Washington, D.C. 20057-1043. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

60:40361 Wood, James W. Maternal nutrition and reproduction: why demographers and physiologists disagree about a fundamental relationship. In: Human reproductive ecology: interactions of environment, fertility, and behavior, edited by Kenneth L. Campbell and James W. Wood. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 709, 1994. 101-16 pp. New York Academy of Sciences: New York, New York. In Eng.
The author examines why physiologists, who generally believe that the reproductive effects of maternal undernutrition are large, differ from demographers, who generally discount these effects as unimportant. He concludes that "the studies done to date...have been so deficient and difficult to compare--and this includes both demographic and physiological studies--that no firm conclusions are as yet possible save that severe malnutrition probably does have an effect. As far as more subtle forms of undernutrition are concerned, the question remains open."
Correspondence: J. W. Wood, Pennsylvania State University, Department of Anthropology, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

F.6. Fertility Outside Marriage

Studies on nonmarital fertility, including illegitimacy. Studies of common-law marriage and other forms of cohabitation or voluntary single parenthood are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

60:40362 Brewster, Karin L. Race differences in sexual activity among adolescent women: the role of neighborhood characteristics. American Sociological Review, Vol. 59, No. 3, Jun 1994. 408-24 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"In this study, I explore the role of neighborhood characteristics in determining race differences in the nonmarital sexual activity of [U.S.] adolescents....The impact of neighborhood characteristics on the race difference in sexual activity is posited to be a function of the pervasive racial segregation characterizing housing patterns in the United States. The results suggests that the race difference in the risk of first intercourse reflects race differences in access to economic resources and exposure to successful adult role models."
Correspondence: K. L. Brewster, Florida State University, Center for the Study of Population, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4063. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40363 Flanagan, Niamh; Richardson, Valerie. Unmarried mothers: a social profile. ISBN 1-870089-81-2. 1992. 118 pp. University College, Social Science Research Centre, Department of Social Policy and Social Work: Dublin, Ireland; National Maternity Hospital, Social Work Research Unit: Dublin, Ireland. In Eng.
"Since the late 1950s the number of children delivered to unmarried women in Ireland has increased tenfold. In the same period the number of children placed for adoption doubled initially, then returned to the level of the 1950s. While such trends come as no surprise they tell little, if anything, about the mothers involved. This study looks beyond the macro trends to examine the social profile of a significant group in Irish society. Using national and international data and a study population of over 5,000 unmarried women who delivered in the National Maternity Hospital, Dublin, the study documents the parenting decision, parental awareness and support, the women's relationships with their partners and other issues."
Correspondence: University College, Social Science Research Centre, Department of Social Policy and Social Work, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

60:40364 Gage, Anastasia; Meekers, Dominique. The social supports for unmarried mothers. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 94-12, May 1994. 32 pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"In this paper, we explore the social supports for unmarried mothers in Botswana, Namibia and Zambia using data from the Demographic and Health Surveys. The first section of the paper examines the living arrangements of unmarried mothers, because their patterns of family structure may reflect the economic and social resources that affect their children's welfare. Next, we examine the role of the family in providing childcare and childrearing assistance to unmarried mothers. In the final section, we explore issues pertaining to partner support."
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6211. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40365 Gage, Anastasia J.; Meekers, Dominique. Sexual activity before marriage in Sub-Saharan Africa. Social Biology, Vol. 41, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1994. 44-60 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"Using data from the Demographic and Health Surveys, the authors investigated sexual activity among never-married women aged 15-24 in Botswana, Burundi, Ghana, Kenya, Liberia, and Zimbabwe. While there are important cross-country differentials, in most countries the majority of unmarried adolescents have been sexually active. Contrary to the common belief that teenage premarital sexual activity is a new phenomenon caused by socioeconomic development, particularly Western education, the data show that in most countries sexual activity among unmarried adolescents was also common in the past, and that increases across cohorts have occurred mostly in countries where the prevalence was already high. For most countries, there is little support for theories claiming that education is associated with loose morals and high levels of premarital sexual activity."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1992 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: A. J. Gage, Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Suite 300, Calverton, MD 20705. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40366 Manning, Wendy D. The linkage between premarital fertility and cohabitation in the U.S. NSFH Working Paper, No. 52, Jul 1992. 38, [5] pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"Data from the National Survey of Families and Households were used to examine the relationship between premarital fertility and cohabitation among never-married white and black women in the United States." The results suggest that "the linkage between cohabitation and premarital fertility may be more pronounced in recent years with the prevalence of cohabitation prior to marriage, delay of first marriages, and increased sexual activity of young adults."
This paper was originally presented at the 1992 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40367 Russell, Margo. Women, children and marriage in Swaziland. International Journal of Sociology of the Family, Vol. 23, No. 1, Spring 1993. 43-57 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author discusses reasons for the high rate of premarital births in Swaziland and considers the implications of the pattern. "The high rate of births before marriage in Swaziland is not a new phenomenon but an established pattern....However changing economic circumstances now render children less valuable than they were, and this is reflected in changing emphasis of rites of marriage....It is also reflected in women's kin's insistence that children receive their father's name, thereby increasing the likelihood that fathers will appropriate them."
Correspondence: M. Russell, University of Stellenbosch, Department of Sociology, Stellenbosch 7600, Cape Province, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40368 Sly, David F.; Wu, Chingfa; Rahman, Abdul. HIV transmission risk implications of estimates of premarital conceptions: the case of Indonesia. Center for the Study of Population Working Paper, No. WPS 94-121, [1994]. 18, [6] pp. Florida State University, College of Social Sciences, Center for the Study of Population: Tallahassee, Florida. In Eng.
"Using data from the 1987 Indonesian Contraceptive Prevalence Survey...we use marital month of first birth to derive estimates of premarital conceptions for marriage cohorts. The estimates produced suggest that the level of premarital sexual intercourse has been rising steadily since the late 1950s, but particularly fast since the mid to late 1970s....The implications of these observations for the development and targeting of intervention programs is discussed."
Correspondence: Florida State University, Center for the Study of Population, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4063. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40369 Tarver, James D.; Miller, H. Max. Fertility outside marriage in a developing country: Botswana. [La fecondite hors mariage dans un pays en developpement: le Botswana.] Population, Vol. 49, No. 3, May-Jun 1994. 798-800 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
An analysis of nonmarital fertility in Botswana is presented using data primarily taken from the Botswana Family Health Survey of 1988. Reasons for the increase in fertility outside marriage in recent years are discussed.
Correspondence: J. D. Tarver, Howard University, 2400 Sixth Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20059. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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