Volume 60 - Number 4 - Winter 1994

E. Mortality

Studies that treat quantitative mortality data analytically. Methodological studies primarily concerned with mortality are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary. The main references to crude data are in the vital statistics items in S. Official Statistical Publications .

E.1. General Mortality

Studies of overall mortality and comparisons of several types of mortality. Studies dealing with two or more of the topics listed in this division are classified under the major section covered, or, if this is not self-evident, included here under General Mortality.

60:40119 Bernabeu Mestre, Josep. The role of mortality in the development of the population of Valencia. [El papel de la mortalidad en la evolucion de la poblacion valenciana.] ISBN 84-7784-994-3. 1991. 220 pp. Instituto de Cultura Juan Gil Albert: Alicante, Spain. In Spa.
This is one in a series of five volumes that are the proceedings of the Second Conference of the Asociacion de Demografia Historica, which was held in Alicante, Spain, in April 1990. This volume contains 14 papers on mortality in Valencia, Spain, from the seventeenth to twentieth century. One paper examines causes of death in France since 1925.
Correspondence: Instituto de Cultura Juan Gil Albert, Avenida Estacion 6, 03005 Alicante, Spain. Location: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Paris, France.

60:40120 Bernhardt, Eva M. Overcrowding and mortality from airborne infectious disease: the case of Stockholm 1895-1925. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 83, ISBN 91-7820-086-5. May 1994. 27 pp. Stockholm University, Demography Unit: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
The author uses data from housing censuses taken between 1895 and 1920 to examine the factors affecting the marked decline in mortality that occurred in Stockholm, Sweden, over this period. The tentative conclusions drawn are that the relief from overcrowding that occurred during this time period was not the most important factor affecting mortality, and that improvements in sanitation may have had more impact.
Correspondence: Stockholm University, Demography Unit, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40121 Farchi, Gino; Fidanza, F.; Mariotti, S.; Menotti, A. Is diet an independent risk factor for mortality? 20 year mortality in the Italian rural cohorts of the Seven Countries Study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 48, No. 1, 1994. 19-29 pp. Basingstoke, England. In Eng.
"The relation of diet to mortality is examined using the data of the Italian rural cohorts of the Seven Countries Study, a prospective investigation of factors related to cardiovascular disease. The present analysis includes 1,536 men aged 45-64 years, whose dietary habits and food consumption, including alcoholic beverages, were measured in 1965....Large differences in survival probabilities were observed for different dietary patterns....The dietary pattern that corresponded to the lowest mortality rate...was: more than 2,800 [calories per day], with more than 41% of the calories coming from carbohydrates, more than 9% from proteins, between 16% and 23% from unsaturated lipids, and between 13% and 19% from alcohol."
Correspondence: G. Farchi, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Laboratorio di Epidemiologia e Biostatistica, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40122 Gong, Hongmian; Dutt, Ashok K. Mortality and health care planning in China's cities. Asian Profile, Vol. 21, No. 3, Jun 1993. 189-200 pp. Hong Kong. In Eng.
"In this paper, socioeconomic factors affecting mortality and spatial pattern of health care planning in China's cities are analyzed to promote an understanding of Chinese health conditions and health care planning." Data are from the 1987 Statistical Yearbook of Chinese Cities. The results show that the cities with higher mortality have a higher provision of health services, and that the Chinese authorities have been able to focus efforts on developing health services in relatively backward areas.
Correspondence: A. K. Dutt, University of Akron, Department of Geography, Akron, OH 44325. Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

60:40123 Gonzalez Ugarte, M. Eugenia. Mortality and industrialization in the Basque country. Vizcaya, 1860-1930. [Mortalidad e industrializacion en el pais vasco. Vizcaya, 1860-1930.] Boletin de la Asociacion de Demografia Historica, Vol. 12, No. 1, 1994. 33-53 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"This paper examines the decline of mortality in Vizcaya [Spain]...the first Basque province to be industrialised at the beginning of the demographic transition. Making use of both the death and municipal population registers we analyse its diverse trajectory in two differentiated economic environments: those municipalities which played an important role in the industrial process and those rural municipalities which remained on the sidelines." The author compares life expectancies, causes of death, and sanitary conditions, and discusses some social consequences of industrialization.
Correspondence: M. E. Gonzalez Ugarte, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apartado 1397, 48080 Bilbao, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40124 Haybittle, John L. Should years lost always be equated with life expectancy? International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 23, No. 3, Jun 1994. 592-4 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The 'years lost' by a person dying prematurely from some cause is usually equated with life expectancy at the age of death derived from a life table for either the general population or a population in which the cause does not operate. It is suggested that this procedure may not always be valid....The calculation of years lost by individuals dying prematurely from smoking-related deaths [in the United States] is taken as an example....An alternative hypothesis, whereby smoking advances the age of death by an amount considerably less than the life expectancy, is examined."
Correspondence: J. L. Haybittle, MRC Cancer Trials Office, 5 Shaftesbury Road, Cambridge CB2 2BW, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40125 Hohn, Charlotte; Schwarz, Karl. Life expectancy in Germany today and tomorrow--and the consequences. [Lebenserwartung in Deutschland heute und morgen--und die Folgen.] In: Erfullt leben--in Gelassenheit sterben: Geschichte und Gegenwart, edited by Arthur E. Imhof and Rita Weinknecht. Berliner Historische Studien, Vol. 19, 1994. 183-96 pp. Duncker und Humblot: Berlin, Germany. In Ger.
The increase in life expectancy in Germany over the past century is reviewed, and projected changes up to the year 2019 are examined. Implications of demographic aging for areas such as health care costs, long-term care, and old-age security are discussed.
Correspondence: C. Hohn, Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung, Gustav-Stresemann-Ring, Postfach 5528, 6200 Wiesbaden, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40126 Huang, Rongqing. An investigation into the methods of mortality indexing using the data from China's fourth population census. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 5, No. 3, 1993. 193-203 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The intention of this paper is to explore the question of how the [1990 China] census data can be used to determine mortality indices by studying population mortality." The focus is on the various methods available for analyzing these data.
Correspondence: R. Huang, Beijing School of Economics, Population Research Institute, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40127 Huang, Runlong. An indirect estimate of the population mortality in Jiangsu Province and its model. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 6, No. 1, 1994. 69-83 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Based on the 10% advance sample data from the Jiangsu portion of the 1990 [Chinese] census, a simplified 1990 gender-specific life table is created in this study....Four indirect techniques are used...to estimate the population mortality in Jiangsu Province in recent years."
Correspondence: R. Huang, Nanjing College of Population Management, Department of Population Science, Nanjing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40128 Imhof, Arthur E.; Weinknecht, Rita. To live fulfilled--to die with composure: history and present. Papers from an interdisciplinary symposium held on November 23-25, 1993, at the Free University of Berlin. [Erfullt leben--in Gelassenheit sterben: Geschichte und Gegenwart. Beitrage eines interdisziplinaren Symposiums vom 23.-25. November 1993 an der Freien Universitat Berlin.] Berliner Historische Studien, Vol. 19, ISBN 3-428-07872-1. 1994. 507 pp. Duncker und Humblot: Berlin, Germany. In Ger.
This publication contains papers from a symposium held in Berlin, Germany, in November 1993 to examine implications of the large increase in life expectancy over the past three centuries. The focus is on the theme of living a fulfilled life and accepting the fact of mortality. Several of the papers deal with demographic aspects of mortality and life expectancy.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Duncker und Humblot GmbH, Postfach 41 03 29, 12113 Berlin, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40129 Meksi, Ermelinda; Dalla Zuanna, Gianpiero. Mortality in Albania (1950-1990). [La mortalite generale en Albanie (1950-1990).] Population, Vol. 49, No. 3, May-Jun 1994. 607-35 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The authors analyze mortality in Albania for the period 1950-1990 using census data. Aspects considered include age-specific death rates, life expectancy for males and females, excess mortality by sex, and child and adult mortality. The impact of political and socioeconomic conditions is examined.
Correspondence: E. Meksi, University of Tirane, Tirane, Albania. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40130 Silcocks, Paul. Estimating confidence limits on a standardised mortality ratio when the expected number is not error free. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 48, No. 3, Jun 1994. 313-7 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The aim was to demonstrate how the beta distribution may be used to find confidence limits on a standardised mortality ratio (SMR) when the expected number of events is subject to random variation and to compare these limits with those obtained with the standard exact approach used for SMRs and with a Fieller-based confidence interval."
Correspondence: P. Silcocks, University of Sheffield Medical School, Department of Public Health Medicine, Beech Hill Road, Sheffield S10 2RX, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40131 Sundin, Jan. From mortality risk to the prospect of life: the western way to a longer life. [Vom Sterberisiko zur Lebenschance: der abendlandische Weg zum langeren Leben.] In: Erfullt leben--in Gelassenheit sterben: Geschichte und Gegenwart, edited by Arthur E. Imhof and Rita Weinknecht. Berliner Historische Studien, Vol. 19, 1994. 113-28 pp. Duncker und Humblot: Berlin, Germany. In Ger.
Age- and sex-specific mortality trends in Sweden are analyzed for the period since 1750, with an emphasis on the years before 1900. Various explanations for mortality decline and differentials are discussed.
Correspondence: J. Sundin, Universitetet i Linkoping, Institut fur Themenforschung, 581 83 Linkoping, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40132 Tas, R. F. J. Decrease in the expectation of life at birth in the Netherlands during 1993. [Daling van de levensverwachting bij de geboorte in 1993.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 42, No. 6, Jun 1994. 6-8 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"With a few [exceptions] the age-specific mortality quotients based on observations during 1993 [in the Netherlands] were higher than the 1992-based ones. The increase is strongest in the lower and the higher ages....It can be shown that the most important contributors to the decrease of the expectation of life at birth for boys was due to increased mortality quotients in the age groups 55 1/2-<60 1/2 years or over. For girls the age groups 65 1/2-<70 1/2 or over are most important."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.2. Prenatal and Perinatal Mortality

Studies dealing primarily with fetal and neonatal mortality, except those dealing with spontaneous abortions, which are classified under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology , and those studies dealing with induced abortions, which are classified under F.4.5. Induced Abortion . Perinatal mortality is defined as mortality occurring between the twenty-eighth week of gestation and the seventh day of life.

60:40133 Wilcox, Allen J.; Skjaerven, Rolv; Irgens, Lorentz M. Harsh social conditions and perinatal survival: an age-period-cohort analysis of the World War II occupation of Norway. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 84, No. 9, Sep 1994. 1,463-7 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Data from Norwegian vital statistics and the Medical Birth Registry were used to describe perinatal mortality during World War II and also a generation later, among babies born to mothers who had themselves been born during the war." The results suggest that "harsh conditions in Norway during the occupation increased childhood mortality. However, perinatal mortality declined during that period. Likewise, no adverse effect was seen on the survival of babies born to mothers who had themselves been born during the war...."
Correspondence: A. J. Wilcox, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Epidemiology Branch, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

E.3. Infant and Childhood Mortality

Studies of infant mortality under one year of age, including neonatal mortality occurring after the seventh day of life, and childhood mortality after one year of age. The subject of infanticide, deliberate or implied, is also classified under this heading.

60:40134 Bentham, Graham. Population mixing and sudden infant death syndrome in England and Wales. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 23, No. 3, Jun 1994. 540-4 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author examines "whether there is an association between geographical variation in the incidence of SIDS and the degree of population mixing in different areas." The study is based on data for 403 local authority districts in England and Wales during the period 1979-1983. "It is concluded that geographical variations in SIDS deaths in England and Wales are strongly associated with differences in rates of population mixing as measured by migration."
Correspondence: G. Bentham, University of East Anglia, School of Environmental Sciences, Norwich NR4 7TJ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40135 Boisvert, Mireille; Mayer, Francine M. Infant mortality and consanguinity in an endogamous population in Quebec. [Mortalite infantile et consanguinite dans une population endogame du Quebec.] Population, Vol. 49, No. 3, May-Jun 1994. 685-724 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The population registers of the Isle de Coudres in Quebec [Canada] have been used to reconstitute families and their ancestors, and to classify them by the parameters needed to produce a distribution of infant deaths and to compute coefficients of kinship and consanguinity....Groups consisting, respectively, of related and unrelated individuals were constructed and matched, taking into account the different risks associated with infant mortality....In the 'related' group, infant mortality rates were significantly higher for females than for males, whereas the opposite holds for the 'unrelated' group. In the 'related' group, the proportion of children who died during their first week of life was higher (although the difference was not statistically significant), and first children faced greater risks of dying during their first year of life. The masculinity ratio at birth was significantly lower than in the control group, or in the population as a whole." The period studied is from 1800 to 1939.
Correspondence: M. Boisvert, Universite du Quebec, Centre pour l'Etude des Interactions Biologiques entre la Sante et l'Environnement, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3P8, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40136 Dang, Hui; Gao, Ersheng; Jin, Peihuan. Summary evaluations of risk factors related to infant mortality. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 5, No. 4, 1993. 303-12 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors discuss risk factors related to infant mortality. "The size and magnitude of these risk factors vary across different countries and regions. In order to more accurately describe the relationship between risk factors and infant mortality, risk factors should be quantified, making it possible to estimate the degree of risk associated with infant deaths. This article introduces some risk factors and their evaluation method."
Correspondence: H. Dang, Shanghai Medical University, Health and Statistics Faculty, 138 Yixueyuan Lu, Shanghai 200032, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40137 Dorsten, Linda E. Direct and indirect effects on infant mortality in a high-fertility U.S. population. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 13, No. 1, Mar 1994. 31-48 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This article examines the direct and indirect effects of social and demographic measures on [U.S.] infant mortality using data from a church directory of the Old Order Amish of the Lancaster, PA, Settlement. The sample includes all infant deaths and a simple random sample of survivors (total n=2,013). The results reveal that the death of the immediately prior sibling directly increases the risk of infant death nearly 30%, net of other factors. Also, the risk of mortality in the first year increases as birth order increases, particularly at the highest orders....Further analysis shows that families adapting more rapidly to external community pressures face a higher risk of infant death than families living in more stable areas."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1993 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: L. E. Dorsten, University of Maryland, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Baltimore, MD 21228-5398. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40138 Gao, Qingxin; Lui, Suichang; Ma, Baojing; Zhang, Weijie. An analysis of mortality causes of children under five years of age in 10 cities and counties in Henan Province in 1991. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 6, No. 1, 1994. 19-24 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"To better understand mortality of children under five years of age in Henan Province [China] and search for ways to lower children's mortality, a sample survey on 10 representative cities and counties was conducted from February to April 1992, under the auspices and support of the Department of Women and Children under the Ministry of Health and the Health Bureau of Henan Province. [This article] is an analysis of the data from the survey."
Correspondence: Q. Gao, Henan Provincial Hospital of Gynecology and Pediatrics, Henan, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40139 Huffman, Sandra L.; Martin, Luann. Child nutrition, birth spacing, and child mortality. In: Human reproductive ecology: interactions of environment, fertility, and behavior, edited by Kenneth L. Campbell and James W. Wood. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 709, 1994. 236-48 pp. New York Academy of Sciences: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper looks at the effect of nutrition on the two major childhood killers [in developing countries] diarrhea and acute respiratory infections--and its impact on child spacing. It also discusses the causes of malnutrition and the importance of improving child feeding in order to achieve further declines in child mortality and morbidity."
Correspondence: S. L. Huffman, Nurture/Center to Prevent Childhood Malnutrition, Suite 208, 4948 St. Elmo Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20814. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

60:40140 Mazzeo, Victoria. Infant mortality in the city of Buenos Aires (1856-1986). [Mortalidad infantil en la ciudad de Buenos Aires (1856-1986).] Biblioteca Politica Argentina, No. 440, ISBN 950-25-2434-9. 1993. 125 pp. Centro Editor de America Latina: Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa.
This report analyzes trends in infant mortality in the Argentine capital, Buenos Aires, from 1856 to 1986. Chapters are included on data quality, trends in infant mortality, causes of death, and the relation between socioeconomic conditions and infant mortality.
Correspondence: Centro Editor de America Latina, Tucuman 1736, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40141 Miah, M. Mizanur R. Factors influencing infant/child mortality in Bangladesh: implication for family planning programs and policies. International Journal of Sociology of the Family, Vol. 23, No. 2, Autumn 1993. 21-34 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This study examined a host of socio-economic and demographic factors (including their interactions) that determine infant/child mortality of married women at the different parity levels in Bangladesh [using data from] a multivariate analysis of the 1975-76 Bangladesh Fertility Survey....The major hypothesis of this research is that the higher the level of fertility of a married woman, the higher will be her experience of infant/child mortality. However, a woman's family planning practice may interact with fertility and affect the total infant/child deaths...."
Correspondence: M. M. R. Miah, Southern Illinois University, School of Social Work, Carbondale, IL 62901-4515. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40142 Michielutte, Robert; Moore, Mary L.; Meis, Paul J.; Ernest, J. M.; Wells, H. Bradley. Race differences in infant mortality from endogenous causes: a population-based study in North Carolina. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, Vol. 47, No. 2, 1994. 119-30 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This study examines the associations between race, birth weight, and mortality from endogenous causes for all singleton births born in 1984-1987 in a 20-county region of North Carolina....Overall, black infants were found to have approximately twice the mortality risk of white infants. Most of the excess black mortality risk is explained by the larger proportion of black infants born at lower birth weights."
Correspondence: R. Michielutte, Wake Forest University, Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Department of Family and Community Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40143 Morrow, Hallie W.; Chavez, Gilberto F.; Giannoni, Peggy P.; Shah, Rugmini S. Infant mortality and related risk factors among Asian Americans. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 84, No. 9, Sep 1994. 1,497-500 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This study "examines the prevalence of selected risk factors, the birthweight distribution, and the infant mortality experience among nine Asian ethnic subgroups in California between 1982 and 1987." Data are from the California Birth Cohort file, a computerized record of linked birth and death certificates. The results show that "a great deal of heterogeneity was found in risk factors and infant mortality rates among the various Asian ethnic subgroups. Paradoxically, although Asian ethnic subgroups had a higher perinatal risk profile, they had more favorable birth outcomes than did Whites."
Correspondence: G. F. Chavez, California Department of Health Services, Maternal and Child Health Branch, 714 P Street, Room 300, Sacramento, CA 95814. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

60:40144 Ndong, Isaiah; Gloyd, Stephen; Gale, James. An evaluation of vital registers as sources of data for infant mortality rates in Cameroon. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 23, No. 3, Jun 1994. 536-9 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This study was designed to evaluate the accuracy of vital registers as sources of data for infant mortality rates in Cameroon....A household census of births and infant deaths that occurred in Buea Subdivision between 1 November 1991 and 31 October 1992 was conducted to determine the proportion that were registered and the reasons why the remainder were not registered....[The authors conclude that] vital registers of birth and death are not an accurate source of data for infant mortality rates in Cameroon. Motivation for birth and death registration appear to be dependent on the perceived benefits."
Correspondence: I. Ndong, University of Washington, Department of Health Services, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40145 Nicoll, Angus; Timaeus, Ian; Kigadye, Rose-Mary; Walraven, Gijs; Killewo, Japhet. The impact of HIV-1 infection on mortality in children under 5 years of age in sub-Saharan Africa: a demographic and epidemiologic analysis. AIDS, Vol. 8, No. 7, 1994. 995-1,005 pp. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
The effects of the HIV-1 epidemic on mortality in children under five years of age in eastern, central, and southern Africa are explored. A life-table method is used to estimate mortality that allows for the effects of competing causes of death to be taken into account. Data are from a range of published and unpublished sources. The results indicate that there will be a substantial increase in child mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa as a result of HIV-1 infection. "In rural areas with low seroprevalence other diseases will remain the main cause of mortality. However, in urban areas families and health services will have to face considerably increased demands from ill and dying children."
Correspondence: A. Nicoll, Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, Public Health laboratory Services AIDS Centre, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5DF, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40146 Okojie, Christiana E. E. Some inter-relationships between maternal education and child survival in Nigeria: evidence from household surveys and focus group discussions. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population: Montreal 1993, Volume 4. 1993. 241-62 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"This paper examines some of the pathways through which maternal education influences child survival using evidence from household survey data and focus group sessions in some selected communities in Nigeria....The studies suggest that child mortality is lower among children of educated mothers, [and that] the lower mortality is a result of greater utilization of modern healthcare facilities by more educated mothers."
Correspondence: C. E. E. Okojie, University of Benin, Department of Economics and Statistics, Benin City, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40147 Palloni, Alberto; Pinto Aguirre, Guido; Lastiri, Santiago. The effects of breast-feeding and the pace of childbearing on early childhood mortality in Mexico. Bulletin of the Pan American Health Organization, Vol. 28, No. 2, Jun 1994. 93-111 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Using data from Mexico's Demographic and Health Survey, the authors examine the effects of breast-feeding and the pace of childbearing on early childhood mortality in a sample of 2,665 children born between 1982 and 1986. From a family planning perspective, they seek to assess the impact that changes in childbearing patterns and associated changes in breast-feeding patterns may have on infant and childhood mortality....To examine likely interactions between family planning, breast-feeding, and mortality, an integrated model was applied that simultaneously considered these and a range of other variables. The results suggest that the effects of improved birth spacing and maternal age at delivery associated with family planning are powerful enough to cause 20-40% reductions in infant mortality. However, the effects of reduced breast-feeding associated with family planning are great enough to offset more than 60% of these benefits."
Correspondence: A. Palloni, University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40148 Palloni, Alberto; Partin, Melissa. Trends and determinants of black-white differentials in infant mortality in the United States since 1964. Robert M. La Follette Institute of Public Affairs Working Paper, 50+ ed. No. 23, Jun 1994. 96, [50] pp. University of Wisconsin, Robert M. La Follette Institute of Public Affairs: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"This report focuses on three interrelated issues. First, we describe trends in infant mortality and birth outcomes in the U.S. during the period 1965-1990, placing special emphasis on differentials between Blacks and Whites....Second, we model the determinants of infant mortality and birthweight and use the estimates of such models to interpret time trends in absolute levels and in racial differentials....Third, we utilize the results of these models to explain very recent trends, e.g., those that emerge starting around 1980 or so, when Black-White differentials in infant mortality and rates of low birthweight appear to reverse several decades of continuous contraction."
Correspondence: University of Wisconsin, Robert M. La Follette Institute of Public Affairs, 1225 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40149 Pinnelli, Antonella; Nobile, Annunziata; Lapinch, Andis. Infant mortality in developed countries and the republics of the former Soviet Union: trends and determinants. [La mortalite infantile dans les pays developpes et les republiques de l'ancienne Union Sovietique: tendances et facteurs.] Population, Vol. 49, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1994. 369-94 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Following their successful conquest of infectious disease, lower infant mortality in developed countries is now mainly due to improved conditions in childbirth and to a lower death rate for children at risk....A factor analysis shows strong correlation between infant mortality and different aspects of economic and health-related development and the status of women. These indices can be used as a measure of progress in the republics of the former Soviet Union, in which socio-economic conditions are much less favourable than in the West."
Correspondence: A. Pinnelli, Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento de Scienze Demografiche, Via Nomentana 41, 00161 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40150 Prager, Kate. Infant mortality by birthweight and other characteristics: United States, 1985 birth cohort. Vital and Health Statistics, Series 20: Data from the National Vital Statistics System, No. 24, Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 94-1852. ISBN 0-8406-0489-0. LC 94-10819. Jul 1994. iv, 36 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
"U.S. infant mortality is analyzed for the 1985 birth cohort by birthweight, mother's age, prenatal care, and other characteristics. The effect of cohort and period on race-specific infant mortality rates is analyzed. The report also discusses the history of linked birth and infant death files in the Public Health Service and provides a detailed description of the methodology for creating linked files at the National Center for Health Statistics."
Correspondence: U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Mail Stop SSOP, Washington, D.C. 20402-9328. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40151 Rahman, M. Muzibur; Kabir, M.; Salam, M. A. The influence of socio-economic characteristics on subsequent infant and child mortality. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 39, No. 3, Sep 1993. 28-34 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"The results of this study provide empirical evidence for an association between socio-economic [and] demographic characteristics of the respondents and survival of the subsequent birth for the corresponding mortality of the first child. The mortality of the previous child is observed to be a very important predictor of neonatal, post-neonatal and infant mortality for the subsequent children." Data are for Comilla District, Bangladesh, and cover the period 1974-1982.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40152 Schmertmann, Carl P.; Sawyer, Diana O. Migration bias in indirect estimates of regional childhood mortality levels. Center for the Study of Population Working Paper, No. WPS 94-123, Mar 1994. 22, [14] pp. Florida State University, College of Social Sciences, Center for the Study of Population: Tallahassee, Florida. In Eng.
This study examines indirect techniques for the estimation of child mortality. "The authors: (1) investigate the possible magnitude of migration bias using a multiregional simulation model, (2) propose a modification to standard methods which should reduce bias in many circumstances, and (3) apply the modified technique to data from Brazil's 1980 Census. We find that migration bias can indeed be significant, and that in the specific case of Sao Paulo state, imported mortality information may result in overestimates of local mortality levels of 10-15% when using Brass-style methods."
Correspondence: Florida State University, Center for the Study of Population, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4063. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40153 Schroeder, D. G.; Brown, K. H. Nutritional status as a predictor of child survival: summarizing the association and quantifying its global impact. Bulletin of the World Health Organization/Bulletin de l'Organisation Mondiale de la Sante, Vol. 72, No. 4, 1994. 569-79 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"By pooling the results from five previously published prospective studies, we have obtained estimates of the relative risks of mortality among young children 6-24 months after they had been identified as having mild-to-moderate or severe malnutrition. These risk estimates, along with global malnutrition prevalence data, were then used to calculate the total number of young-childhood deaths 'attributable' to malnutrition in developing countries. Young children (6-60 months of age) with mild-to-moderate malnutrition...had 2.2 times the risk of dying during the follow-up period than their better nourished counterparts....Severely malnourished young children...had 6.8 times the risk of dying during the follow-up period than better nourished children. Each year approximately 2.3 million deaths of young children in developing countries (41% of the total for this age group) are associated with malnutrition."
Correspondence: D. G. Schroeder, Emory University, School of Public Health, Center for International Health, Atlanta, GA 30329. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40154 Sullivan, Jeremiah M.; Rutstein, Shea O.; Bicego, George T. Infant and child mortality. DHS Comparative Studies, No. 15, Jun 1994. vi, 57 pp. Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Calverton, Maryland. In Eng.
This report presents a set of childhood mortality statistics for 28 developing countries participating in Phase I of the DHS program. "Section 1 of this report describes the methodology used to collect mortality data in DHS surveys and to calculate mortality rates from the data. Section 2 presents statistics on the level of mortality for the period immediately preceding the surveys and on trends in mortality levels. Section 3 presents mortality differentials in terms of the demographic characteristics of children and mothers while Section 4 presents differentials in terms of the socioeconomic characteristics of households. Section 5 summarizes the results of this analysis."
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Suite 300, Calverton, MD 20705. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40155 Tam, Luis. Rural-to-urban migration in Bolivia and Peru: association with child mortality, breastfeeding cessation, maternal care, and contraception. DHS Working Paper, No. 8, Mar 1994. 29 pp. Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Calverton, Maryland. In Eng.
"The goals of the present study were to: ascertain whether the children of rural-to-urban migrant mothers have 0-23 month mortality rates similar to those of the offspring of urban and rural natives in Bolivia and Peru; [and] assess the association of the mother's migration status with her use of contraception, prenatal and modern birth delivery care, and the cessation of breastfeeding during the first 24 months of her child's life."
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Calverton, MD 20705. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40156 Wang, Zhenying. Relationship between birth rate and infant mortality under natural reproduction situations. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 5, No. 4, 1993. 313-22 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author investigates the relationship between infant mortality and the birth rate. "For this research, a number of countries with representative features are selected from different parts of the world. The study focuses on mortality and birth in these countries in the 25 year span between 1945 and 1970. A major reason for selecting these countries is that they are in a natural reproduction situation...[which] refers to a reproductive condition without any government intervention."
Correspondence: Z. Wang, People's University of China, Institute of Theoretical Research on Population, 39 Haidian Road, Haidian District, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.4. Mortality at Other Ages

Studies of age-specific mortality and of mortality in special groups defined by age.

60:40157 Himes, Christine L.; Preston, Samuel H.; Condran, Gretchen A. A relational model of mortality at older ages in low mortality countries. Population Studies, Vol. 48, No. 2, Jul 1994. 269-91 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper presents a relational model of age-specific death rates at ages 45-99. It is based upon death rates calculated for single years of age and five-year periods from 1950 to 1985 in 16 low-mortality countries....[Results suggest] that regional model life tables are losing utility as a tool for the study of old-age mortality in low-mortality countries. We demonstrate how the relational model can be used graphically to identify national idiosyncracies in old-age mortality. In addition, we show that data that failed our earlier quality check typically begin to exhibit an irregular pattern of deviations from the standard around the ages at which the data deteriorate."
Correspondence: C. L. Himes, Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6411. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40158 Mertens, Walter. Health and mortality trends among elderly populations: determinants and implications. IUSSP Policy and Research Paper, No. 3, ISBN 2-87108-034-8. 1994. 31 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
This monograph is based on papers presented at a conference on health and mortality among elderly populations, organized by the IUSSP Committee on Adult Mortality in collaboration with a number of other organizations. It "starts with a short overview of the remarkable decline in mortality at the older ages which recently occurred in the low mortality countries. It then proceeds to discuss three issues surrounding this unexpected trend which have important policy implications: 1) adequacy of data, concepts and methodologies to fully understand this trend; 2) the future course of mortality for the elderly; and 3) the prospects for the quality of life of the elderly. The monograph ends with an effort to distil a series of policy conclusions."
Correspondence: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, 34 rue des Augustins, 4000 Liege, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40159 Schott, Jurgen; Wiesner, Gerd; Casper, Waldtraut; Bergmann, Karl E. Mortality trends among the elderly in East and West Germany during the past decades. [Entwicklung der Mortalitat des alten Menschen in Ost -und Westdeutschland in den zuruckliegenden Jahrzehnten.] In: Erfullt leben--in Gelassenheit sterben: Geschichte und Gegenwart, edited by Arthur E. Imhof and Rita Weinknecht. Berliner Historische Studien, Vol. 19, 1994. 171-82 pp. Duncker und Humblot: Berlin, Germany. In Ger.
This article focuses on the extent to which increases in life expectancy in East and West Germany have been influenced by changes in the mortality of older people, particularly those aged 60-75 and over 75. The data are for the period 1950-1987.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40160 Tedebrand, Lars-Goran. Mortality of persons over age 80, Sweden 1750-1980. [Von der Sterblichkeit der uber 80jahrigen, Schweden 1750-1980.] In: Erfullt leben--in Gelassenheit sterben: Geschichte und Gegenwart, edited by Arthur E. Imhof and Rita Weinknecht. Berliner Historische Studien, Vol. 19, 1994. 129-43 pp. Duncker und Humblot: Berlin, Germany. In Ger.
Trends in the mortality and life expectancy of men and women aged 80 and over are analyzed for Sweden for the period 1750-1980. Comparisons are also made with other age groups. The data are from official statistics and the Demographic Database at Umea University.
Correspondence: L.-G. Tedebrand, Umea University, Center for Population Studies, 901 87 Umea, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.5. Life Tables

Studies that present actual life table data and all studies concerned primarily with life tables, including the appropriate methodological studies. Life table studies that are concerned with topics other than mortality are classified under the appropriate heading and cross-referenced to this heading.

60:40161 Uruguay. Direccion General de Estadistica y Censos (Montevideo, Uruguay); United Nations. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia [CELADE] (Santiago, Chile). Uruguay: complete life tables by sex and age, 1984-1986. [Uruguay: tablas completas de mortalidad por sexo y edad, 1984-1986.] CELADE Serie OI, No. 56, Pub. Order No. LC/DEM/G.103. 1991. 22 pp. Montevideo, Uruguay. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
Complete life tables are presented by age and sex for Uruguay for the years 1984-1986. Data from the 1985 census and other official sources are used. The results indicate that life expectancy is 68.26 years for males and 75.25 years for females.
Correspondence: Direccion General de Estadistica y Censos, Cuareim 2052, Montevideo, Uruguay. Location: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Paris, France.

60:40162 Vassin, Sergei. Epidemiological transition of mortality curves in terms of the Brass logit system. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 10, No. 1, 1994. 43-68 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The purpose of this paper is to examine the long-term trends of life tables in developed countries according to two parameters of the Brass system in order to find the range of variation, consistent with historical life tables (or, in other words, to define 'a field of epidemiological transition')." The author finds that "1) In the past, the mortality curves had U- and J-shapes, the latter being connected with the impact of demographic crises....2) The elimination of the crisis component at the first stage of the transition resulted in the transformation of the mortality curves towards the U-shape....3) At the second stage social control is established over premature mortality. As a result, life expectancy grows, and the shape of the curves moves towards the J-shape....4) In the past the male and female life tables usually did not differ from each other as regards the value of the Brass model parameters. However, in the last 30-40 years considerable sexual differences emerged both in the level and in the shape of the mortality curves."
Correspondence: S. Vassin, Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Social Forecasting, Centre of Demography and Human Ecology, Krasikova 32, 117418 Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.6. Differential Mortality

Studies on the ratio of mortality in different subgroups of a population, classified according to certain criteria, such as sex, social class, occupation, and marital status. Also includes studies on excess mortality and comparative mortality.

60:40163 Brandt, L. P. A.; Kirk, N. U.; Jensen, O. C.; Hansen, H. L. Mortality among Danish merchant seamen from 1970 to 1985. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Vol. 25, No. 6, 1994. 867-76 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A retrospective cohort study was performed to analyze the mortality patterns of Danish merchant seamen in the period 1970-1985. The population census in 1970 in Denmark was the source of information on individual occupation, age, and marital status. All men aged 20-64 years and economically active in 1970 were included. Computerized linkage with the Danish Mortality Register gave information about the deceased persons' date and cause of death....This study confirms earlier findings of high mortality among seafarers. Negative selection into the occupation, occupational environmental factors, and lack of health and safety promotion programs and education could be causes of the high mortality."
Correspondence: L. P. A. Brandt, Institute of Maritime Medicine, Niels Bohr Vej 9, 6700 Esbjerg, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40164 Carpenter, Lucy; Higgins, Craig; Douglas, Allison; Fraser, Patricia; Beral, Valerie; Smith, Peter. Combined analysis of mortality in three United Kingdom nuclear industry workforces, 1946-1988. Radiation Research, Vol. 138, No. 2, 1994. 224-38 pp. Charlottesville, Virginia. In Eng.
"Mortality during 1946-1988 has been analyzed in 75,006 employees of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, the Atomic Weapons Establishment and the Sellafield plant of British Nuclear Fuels. All-cause mortality was 19% lower than national rates among workers monitored for external radiation exposure and 18% lower among nonmonitored workers. Cancer mortality was also lower than national rates...."
Correspondence: L. Carpenter, University of Oxford, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Gibson Building, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford OX2 6HE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40165 Dahl, Espen; Kjaersgaard, Pal. Trends in socioeconomic mortality differentials in post-war Norway: evidence and interpretations. Sociology of Health and Illness, Vol. 15, No. 5, Nov 1993. 587-611 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The aim of the study was to describe changes in socioeconomic mortality differentials among adults in post-war Norway and to examine some selected interpretations. Three separate data sets were obtained. In each set, census information on occupational class was linked to subsequent mortality during three five-year periods, 1960-65, 1970-75 and 1980-85. The analysis showed a general decline in mortality but an increase in the socioeconomic mortality differentials among men...."
Correspondence: E. Dahl, Institute for Applied Social Science, P.O. Box 2947, Toyen, 0608 Oslo, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40166 Davis, Ronald M. Slowing the march of the Marlboro man. British Medical Journal, Vol. 309, No. 6959, Oct 8, 1994. 889-90 pp. London, England. In Eng.
After a brief review of global trends in cigarette smoking, mortality related to it, and cigarette advertising, the author outlines anti-smoking action taken in the United States over the past 18 months. He finds that "despite this feast of antitobacco proposals, pronouncements, and publicity the proverbial cup is still only half full. Most of the recent proposals are not yet final, and legal challenges to government actions are expected."
Correspondence: R. M. Davis, Michigan Department of Public Health, Lansing, MI 48909. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

60:40167 Dinkel, Reiner H. Mortality trends of birth cohorts in both German states: results and possible explanations. [Die Sterblichkeitsentwicklung der Geburtsjahrgange in den beiden deutschen Staaten: Ergebnisse und mogliche Erklarungshypothesen.] In: Erfullt leben--in Gelassenheit sterben: Geschichte und Gegenwart, edited by Arthur E. Imhof and Rita Weinknecht. Berliner Historische Studien, Vol. 19, 1994. 155-70 pp. Duncker und Humblot: Berlin, Germany. In Ger.
Life tables for cohorts born after 1900 are used to compare mortality trends in East and West Germany. An attempt is made to explain the observed differences by examining factors such as medical care, environmental pollution, behavioral and dietary patterns, and migration.
Correspondence: R. H. Dinkel, Winzererstrasse 49, 8000 Munich 40, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40168 Doll, Richard; Peto, Richard; Hall, Emma; Wheatley, Keith; Gray, Richard. Mortality in relation to consumption of alcohol: 13 years' observations on male British doctors. British Medical Journal, Vol. 309, No. 6959, Oct 8, 1994. 911-8 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Information about use of alcohol and of tobacco was obtained in 1978 from a group of male British doctors born between 1900 and 1930. Their deaths during 1978-91 were then monitored and related to their replies in 1978." Results indicate that "the consumption of alcohol appeared to reduce the risk of ischaemic heart disease, largely irrespective of amount....Progressively greater levels of consumption are associated with progressively higher all cause mortality."
Correspondence: R. Doll, Imperial Cancer Research Fund Cancer Studies Unit, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford 0X2 6HE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

60:40169 Doll, Richard; Peto, Richard; Wheatley, Keith; Gray, Richard; Sutherland, Isabelle. Mortality in relation to smoking: 40 years' observations on male British doctors. British Medical Journal, Vol. 309, No. 6959, Oct 8, 1994. 901-11 pp. London, England. In Eng.
This study assesses mortality associated with long-term tobacco use. About 35,000 male British doctors replied to a questionnaire in 1951 and have been followed up to 1991. Results indicate that "excess mortality associated with smoking was about twice as extreme during the second half of the study as it had been during the first half....Those who stopped smoking before middle age subsequently avoided almost all of the excess risk that they would otherwise have suffered, but even those who stopped smoking in middle age were subsequently at substantially less risk than those who continued to smoke."
Correspondence: R. Doll, Imperial Cancer Research Fund Cancer Studies Unit, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford 0X2 6HE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

60:40170 Eggerickx, Thierry; Tabutin, Dominique. Higher mortality rates among Belgian girls in 1890: a regional approach. [La surmortalite des filles en Belgique vers 1890: une approche regionale.] Population, Vol. 49, No. 3, May-Jun 1994. 657-83 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"This paper is designed to show the variations that occurred in mortality rates of 41 Belgian communes around 1890, taking account of their size and dominant type of production....Excess mortality of females between the ages of one and five years was recorded only in rural areas, whereas the excess was general between the ages of 5 and 20 years. However, the difference between the mortality of the sexes was smaller in an industrial and urban environment, where the mortality of males was particularly high. In the Walloon part of the country, housing and women's economic activity are closely linked with the excess mortality of girls....It is clear that the mortality rates of girls are higher than those of boys, irrespective of their environment, though variations exist which depend on the cultural background, the system of production, and the resulting social relations between the sexes."
Correspondence: T. Eggerickx, Universite Catholique de Louvain, 1 place Montesquieu, B.P. 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40171 Klasen, Stephan. "Missing women" reconsidered. World Development, Vol. 22, No. 7, Jul 1994. 1,061-71 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"One way to assess the magnitude of women's survival disadvantage in parts of the developing world is to estimate the number of 'missing women' that died as a result of excess female mortality. Sen and Coale provided two such estimates of 'missing women.' This paper compares and evaluates these two estimates and suggests modifications to arrive at a closer approximation of the size of women's survival disadvantage. The number and regional distribution of 'missing women' implied by these modified calculations is supported by other available demographic and economic data on gender discrimination."
Correspondence: S. Klasen, Harvard University, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

60:40172 Koskinen, Seppo; Martelin, Tuija. Why are mortality differentials among women smaller than among men? An analysis of Finnish data. [Porquoi les femmes sont-elles moins inegales que les hommes devant la mort? Une analyse de donnees finlandaises.] Population, Vol. 49, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1994. 395-413 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Socio-economic differentials in mortality are greater for women than for men. We investigate the extent to which this assertion depends on (1) the type of indices used to measure socio-economic status; (2) other socio-demographic variables that hide inequalities among women, whilst stressing those for men; and (3) differences in the structure of cause-specific mortality. The analysis is based on a comparison of death certificates for the period 1981-1985 and individual census schedules drawn from the Census of Finland of 1980."
Correspondence: S. Koskinen, University of Helsinki, Department of Sociology, P.O. Box 46, Hameentie 68B, 00014 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40173 Peto, Richard. Smoking and death: the past 40 years and the next 40. British Medical Journal, Vol. 309, No. 6959, Oct 8, 1994. 937-9 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The author reviews past research on the impact of smoking on mortality, with a focus on deaths due to lung cancer. He finds that "the old statement, based partly on the first 20 years of [a] study of British doctors, that 'at least a quarter' of all regular cigarette smokers would be killed by the habit now needs revision. In fact, the proportion is about one half...." The period covered is from 1947 to the present. The geographical focus is on the United Kingdom and the United States.
Correspondence: R. Peto, Imperial Cancer Research Fund Cancer Studies Unit, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford 0X2 6HE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

60:40174 Valkonen, Tapani. Socio-economic mortality differences in Europe. In: Population and family in the Low Countries 1993: late fertility and other current issues, edited by Gijs Beets et al. NIDI/CBGS Publication, No. 30, 1994. 127-50 pp. Swets and Zeitlinger: Berwyn, Pennsylvania/Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The article reviews current knowledge about the extent of socio-economic differences [in mortality] in Europe, as well as trends in these differences. Detailed data, including life expectancies at birth, are presented for Finland, the country for which the data are most complete. In all countries for which data are available, mortality is higher in the lower socio-economic classes. The differences are generally greater among males than among females. The extent of socio-economic differences in mortality varies between countries....Socio-economic mortality differences have increased in most countries for which data are available. The explanations suggested for socio-economic mortality differences are discussed."
Correspondence: T. Valkonen, University of Helsinki, Department of Sociology, P.O. Box 46, 00014 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40175 Vartiainen, Erkki; Puska, Pekka; Pekkanen, Juha; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Lonnqvist, Jouko; Ehnholm, Christian. Serum cholesterol concentration and mortality from accidents, suicide, and other violent causes. British Medical Journal, Vol. 309, No. 6952, Aug 13, 1994. 445-7 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The association between lower levels of cholesterol and mortality from accidents, suicides, and other violent deaths is explored using Finnish data. The data concern two randomly chosen independent cohorts of 10,898 men and 11,534 women born between 1913 and 1947. The results showed that "the risk of accidents, suicides, and other violent deaths was not related to serum cholesterol concentration, whereas such deaths were more prevalent in smokers and alcohol drinkers."
Correspondence: E. Vartiainen, National Public Health Institute, Mannerheimintie 166, 00300 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

60:40176 Wister, Andrew V.; Gee, Ellen M. Age at death due to ischemic heart disease: gender differences. Social Biology, Vol. 41, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1994. 110-26 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"This paper investigates gender differences in the timing of ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality among white Americans. Three age-at-death groupings are examined, using a model incorporating three types of independent variables: lifestyle, socioeconomic status, and biology/heredity. Logistic regression techniques are used to analyze National Mortality Followback Survey data. Three hypotheses drawn from the literature are tested: (1) that IHD mortality risks will vary by gender and across the life course; (2) that the independent variables will exert a lower mortality risk for women than for men at all ages of death; and (3) that differential risks by gender will be larger for younger age-at-death groups. Findings support the first and third hypotheses."
Correspondence: A. V. Wister, Simon Fraser University at Harbour Centre, Gerontology Program, Vancouver, British Columbia V6B 5K3, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.7. Mortality by Cause

Studies of demographic relevance on causes of death. Studies of morbidity and of public health measures are included only if they relate specifically to mortality. Also included are maternal mortality and comparisons of causes.

60:40177 Anandalakshmy, P. N.; Talwar, P. P.; Buckshee, K.; Hingorani, V. Demographic, socio-economic and medical factors affecting maternal mortality--an Indian experience. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 39, No. 3, Sep 1993. 1-4 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"In this paper an attempt has been made to examine the factors which affect maternal mortality [in India] through a case control investigation. Further, the relative importance of each of these factors has been studied by determining their relative risk using odds ratio....The data for the study [are from a]...sample comprised of 252 cases (maternal deaths) which occurred during 1983-1985 at the Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi...."
Correspondence: P. N. Anandalakshmy, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Statistics and Demography, New Delhi 110 029, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40178 Bah, Sulaiman M. Estimation of cause of death structure in Africa and contemporary theories of mortality. Population Studies Program Demographic Working Paper, No. DWP/001/94, Apr 1994. 27 pp. University of Zimbabwe, Department of Sociology, Population Studies Program: Harare, Zimbabwe. In Eng.
"This paper is a critical assessment of techniques used for the estimation of cause of death structure in Africa in the light of contemporary theories of mortality." The author's main contention is that methods based on the mortality experience of Western countries are inappropriate to Africa. "This argument is supported in the paper through a comparison of observed estimates of cause of death structure for some African populations with indirect estimates. It is proposed that a better approach is to use a residual method whereby one proceeds from nearly true estimates of cause of death rates to obtain estimates for unknown causes via the known general mortality."
Correspondence: University of Zimbabwe, Department of Sociology, Population Studies Program, Mt. Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40179 De Stefani, Eduardo; Fierro, Luis; Barrios, Enrique; Ranco, Alvaro. Cancer mortality trends in Uruguay 1953-1991. International Journal of Cancer, Vol. 56, No. 5, 1994. 634-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Cancer mortality trends in Uruguay are analyzed over the period 1953-1991 using official data. The results indicate that "among males, the principal increase was observed for lung cancer, followed by prostatic cancer. The rates were mainly stable in colon cancer and leukaemias, whereas gastric cancer showed a marked decline. Also, a recent decline was seen for oesophageal cancer. In females a steady decline in mortality was observed for all sites combined. Major decreases were seen for oesophageal, gastric, cervical and total uterine cancers. The only cancers showing significant increases were breast cancer, and lung cancer for the most recent period."
Correspondence: E. De Stefani, Registro Nacional de Cancer, Instituto Nacional de Oncologia, 8 de Octubre 3265, Montevideo, Uruguay. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40180 Echenberg, Myron. History and collective amnesia: the flu epidemic of 1918 in Senegal. [L'histoire et l'oubli collectif: l'epidemie de grippe de 1918 au Senegal.] In: Population, reproduction, societes: perspectives et enjeux de demographie sociale, edited by Dennis D. Cordell et al. 1993. 283-95 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre.
The reasons why neither available French colonial sources nor collective memory provide any evidence of the extensive mortality due to the 1918 flu epidemic that occurred in Senegal are explored. The author concludes that both local authorities and the general public were more concerned with the concurrent plague as a threat to human life. Consequently, the real threat posed by the flu epidemic was largely ignored.
Correspondence: M. Echenberg, McGill University, Department of History, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2K6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40181 Garenne, Michel. Sex differences in measles mortality: a world review. International Journal of Epidemiology, No. 3, Jun 1994. 632-42 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Sex differences in measles mortality are investigated using all national data on causes of death published by WHO since 1950. An index of excess mortality is used: the geometric mean of the female sex ratios of age-specific deaths rates from measles, from age 0 to 44 years....When pooled together, the results show an excess of female mortality from birth until age 50 years....Emphasis lies on the statistical power to prove that sex differences in measles mortality do exist, on the critical analysis of a case study in England and Wales, on the comparison with the overall pattern of sex differences and on available data on sex differences in incidence."
Correspondence: M. Garenne, Harvard University, School of Public Health, Department of Population and International Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40182 Gauvreau, Danielle. To give birth and to die from it: maternal mortality in Quebec before 1960. [Donner la vie et en mourir: la mortalite des femmes en couches au Quebec avant 1960.] In: Population, reproduction, societes: perspectives et enjeux de demographie sociale, edited by Dennis D. Cordell et al. 1993. 235-56 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre.
The development of medical practices and procedures designed to reduce maternal mortality is first described. The author then presents results from a survey on maternal mortality in the province of Quebec before 1960. The data are from the region of Saguenay during the years 1838 to 1960 and are from the SOREP database. A rapid improvement in mortality from this cause around 1940 is noted.
Correspondence: D. Gauvreau, Concordia University, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, 1455 de Maisonneuve West, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1M8, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40183 Hisnanick, John J. Comparative analysis of violent deaths in American Indians and Alaska natives. Social Biology, Vol. 41, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1994. 96-109 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"Accidents, injuries, and outcomes from adverse effects have been identified as the second leading cause of death for American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/AN). However, no studies have been done which analyze violent deaths (homicides, suicides, and other accidents) for this population with a focus on time trends. For this study, overall and gender-specific mortality rates due to violent deaths were computed for 1973-88. The results indicate that overall and gender-specific mortality rates for violent deaths in AI/AN have been decreasing on average per year....Similarly, age-adjusted rates have been declining, and at faster rates than those of the U.S. general population....However, the male-female ratio for homicides and other accidents has remained unchanged, and the ratio for suicide has been increasing. While the gap between age-adjusted rates [has] been narrowing, the age-adjusted rates of AI/AN have remained consistently above those of the U.S. general population."
Correspondence: J. J. Hisnanick, U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, Biometrics Division (008C12), Washington, D.C. 20420. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40184 Hogg, Robert S.; Schechter, Martin T.; Montaner, Julio S. G.; Goldstone, Irene; Craib, Kevin; O'Shaughnessy, Michael V. Impact of HIV infection and AIDS on death rates in British Columbia and Canada. Canadian Medical Association Journal, Vol. 150, No. 5, 1994. 711-7 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The impact of HIV infections and AIDS on death rates in British Columbia and Canada as a whole is assessed using official data for the period 1987-1991. The authors conclude that "from 1987 to 1991 the rate of death from HIV infection and AIDS in British Columbia was higher than the national average. In Vancouver HIV infection and AIDS have become the leading causes of premature death in men, exceeding heart disease, malignant neoplasms and accidents."
Correspondence: R. S. Hogg, British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, St. Pauls Hospital, 1081 Burrad Street, Vancouver, British Columbia V6Z 1Y6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40185 Lester, David. Patterns of suicide and homicide in America. ISBN 1-56072-148-0. LC 93-20946. 1993. 104 pp. Nova Science Publishers: Commack, New York. In Eng.
"The present book presents an examination of the variation in the suicide rate of the continental states of the U.S.A. It uses the theory of suicide proposed by Durkheim (1897) to explain societal suicide rates and follows him in applying it to regions within a nation." Comparisons are made with homicide rates. The method of data analysis employed is factor analysis.
Correspondence: Nova Science Publishers, 6080 Jericho Turnpike, Suite 207, Commack, NY 11725. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

60:40186 Li, Guohua; Smith, Gordon S.; Baker, Susan P. Drinking behavior in relation to cause of death among U.S. adults. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 84, No. 9, Sep 1994. 1,402-6 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study examines drinking behavior in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adult decedents aged 25 through 64 years and its association with cause of death." Data are from the 1986 National Mortality Followback Survey. The results indicate that "daily drinking, binge drinking, and heavier drinking were each associated with an increased likelihood of injury as the underlying cause of death. Persons who were young, male, Native American, or divorced or separated were more likely to drink frequently and heavily."
Correspondence: G. Li, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Injury Prevention Center, 624 North Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

60:40187 McCormick, Anna. The impact of human immunodeficiency virus on the population of England and Wales. Population Trends, No. 76, Summer 1994. 40-5 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This article considers the effect of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on mortality and on the population structure in England and Wales and discusses the likely effects in the future. The sources of data used for making estimates of the number of HIV-infected people, the number of AIDS cases, and of people who have died as a result of their infection are described...."
Correspondence: A. McCormick, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, Health Statistics, St. Catherine's House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40188 Mesle, France; Shkolnikov, Vladimir; Vallin, Jacques. Rapid increase in mortality from violent causes in Russia. [Brusque montee des morts violentes en Russie.] Population, Vol. 49, No. 3, May-Jun 1994. 780-90 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
Recent trends in life expectancy in Russia are reviewed. The authors deduce that the recent decline in life expectancy, particularly among men, is associated with an increase in violent deaths.
Correspondence: F. Mesle, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40189 Meyer, Robert E.; Buescher, Paul A. Maternal mortality related to induced abortion in North Carolina: a historical study. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 26, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1994. 179-80, 191 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study examines the impact of improved access to safe abortion on maternal mortality in North Carolina during the past 30 years." Results indicate that "during the period 1973-1977, when legal abortion first became available, the maternal mortality ratio (maternal deaths per 100,000 live births) for deaths related to induced abortion was almost 85% lower than the ratio during the previous five-year period. The decrease in abortion-related mortality had a substantial impact on the overall maternal mortality ratio during this period, accounting for about 46% of the total decline in maternal deaths. After 1977, the maternal mortality ratio for induced abortion declined to less than one death per 100,000 live births, while the mortality ratio for all other obstetric causes leveled off at about 10 deaths per 100,000 live births."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40190 Miles-Doan, Rebecca; Kelly, Susan. Inequalities in health care and excess mortality due to accidents in rural areas: the case of pedestrian injuries in Florida. Center for the Study of Population Working Paper, No. WPS 94-119, [1994]. 21, [3] pp. Florida State University, College of Social Sciences, Center for the Study of Population: Tallahassee, Florida. In Eng.
"This article investigates the extent to which the inequitable distribution of health care resources accounts for the excess mortality due to accidents in rural areas observed in previous studies." The data concern Florida.
Correspondence: Florida State University, Center for the Study of Population, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4063. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40191 Molnar, Laszlo D. Regional frequency of lung cancer and COLD-mortality. [A tudorak-es a KALB-mortalitas teruleti gyakorisaga.] Statisztikai Szemle, Vol. 72, No. 7, Jul 1994. 577-83 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
"The study analyses regional differences of lung cancer and chronic obstructive lung disease [COLD] mortality in 61 Hungarian towns between 1980 and 1989. The result of regional clustering with [the] Monte-Carlo method shows that regional distribution of lung cancer and chronic obstructive lung disease mortality is not random. Whereas the mortality rates by age group and sex hardly show correlation with air pollution data between 1980 and 1989, they are much higher in more industrialised areas than elsewhere."
Correspondence: L. D. Molnar, Osz Szabo J. u. 52, 1204 Budapest, Hungary. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40192 Murray, C. J. L.; Lopez, A. D. Global and regional cause-of-death patterns in 1990. Bulletin of the World Health Organization/Bulletin de l'Organisation Mondiale de la Sante, Vol. 72, No. 3, 1994. 447-80 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
A series of tables is presented that contain estimated deaths by age, sex, and cause for 1990 for the various regions of the world. Of the 50 or so million deaths occurring each year, about 39 million are in developing countries, and for the greater number of these deaths, adequate vital statistics data are lacking. The indirect techniques used for the estimates provided here are described.
Correspondence: C. J. L. Murray, Harvard University, School of Public Health, Center for Population and Development Studies, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40193 Noble, Barbara. Deaths associated with the use of alcohol, drugs, and volatile substances. Population Trends, No. 76, Summer 1994. 7-16 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The author examines causes of death linked to the misuse of alcohol, drugs, and volatile substance abuse (VSA) in Great Britain. "Deaths [caused] by misuse of alcohol, drugs, and VSA are not always easily identified on death certificates or in published data....However, there is no doubt that drug and alcohol-related deaths have both increased in recent years, particularly among young people. Government health promotion aimed at discouraging drinking above safe levels, and at preventing young people from experimenting with drugs and volatile substances, continues to be important."
Correspondence: B. Noble, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, Health Statistics, St. Catherine's House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40194 Riggs, Jack E. The cohort mortality perspective: the emperor's new clothes of epidemiology, an illustration using cancer mortality. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, Vol. 19, No. 2, 1994. 202-10 pp. San Diego, California. In Eng.
The author challenges the widely held assumption that increasing mortality in developed countries is attributable to exposure to increasing levels of carcinogenic influences. "Age-specific cancer mortality rates in the United States from 1962 to 1988 were portrayed in both cross-sectional and cohort manners. Both representations are consistent with the Strehler-Mildvan modification of the Gompertz relationship between aging and mortality. These observations suggest that environmental cohort effects are not responsible for rising cancer mortality. The cohort mortality perspective in epidemiology is inherently biased due to the effects of competing mortality."
Correspondence: J. E. Riggs, West Virginia University, School of Medicine, Departments of Neurology, Medicine, and Community Medicine, Morgantown, WV 26506-9180. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40195 Stewart, A. W.; Kuulasmaa, K.; Beaglehole, R. Ecological analysis of the association between mortality and major risk factors of cardiovascular disease. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 23, No. 3, Jun 1994. 505-16 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The WHO Multinational Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease (MONICA) Project has been established to measure trends in cardiovascular mortality and coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular disease morbidity and to assess the extent to which these trends are related to changes in known risk factors at the same time in defined communities in different countries. This cross-sectional study is based on data from the early part of the Project and assesses the association between mortality and population risk factor levels....Thirty-five populations of men and women aged 35-64 years are used in correlation analyses between four mortality measures (deaths from all causes, cardiovascular diseases, ischaemic heart disease and stroke) and three cardiovascular risk factors (regular cigarette smoking, blood pressure and total cholesterol)....This analysis has shown that accepted cardiovascular mortality risk factors measured cross-sectionally at the population level do not reflect well the variation in mortality between populations."
Correspondence: A. W. Stewart, University of Auckland, Department of Community Health, Private Bag 92019, Auckland, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40196 United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] (Atlanta, Georgia). Firearm-related years of potential life lost before age 65 years--United States, 1980-1991. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 43, No. 33, Aug 26, 1994. 609-11 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
Analysis of official data on firearm-related injuries in the United States is presented for the period 1980-1991. "In 1991, deaths from suicide and homicide combined were the third leading cause of years of potential life lost before age 65...in the United States. Firearms were used in 60.1% of all suicides, in 67.8% of all homicides, and in less than 2.0% of unintentional injury deaths. Firearm-related death rates increased during the late 1980s, particularly among adolescents and young adults."
Correspondence: U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Mailstop C-08, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40197 Vallenas, Guillermo. Maternal mortality in Peru. [La mortalidad materna en el Peru.] Revista Peruana de Poblacion, No. 3, 1993. 33-56 pp. Lima, Peru. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The author investigates maternal mortality in Peru using data from the second Demographic and Family Health Survey (ENDES-II) carried out in 1991-1992. "The inclusion of a module about adult mortality in the questionnaire of the ENDES II [made it possible] to estimate maternal mortality using a set of questions about the sisters of the women interviewed. The study highlights the inverse relation between levels of maternal mortality and education, [especially] the relevance of formal education for decreasing the incidence of maternal mortality."
Correspondence: G. Vallenas, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos de Lima, Avenida Republica de Chile 295, Oficina 506, Casilla 454, Lima, Peru. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40198 Vlajinac, Hristina D.; Adanja, Benko J.; Jarebinski, Mirjana S.; Sipetic, Sandra B. Cardiovascular disease mortality in Belgrade: trends from 1975-89. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 48, No. 3, Jun 1994. 254-7 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors analyze cardiovascular disease mortality in Belgrade, Yugoslavia, between 1975 and 1989, using national mortality data for the population aged 30-60 years. "Between 1975 and 1989...the increase in cardiovascular disease mortality was 7%...for men and 4% for women....Cardiovascular mortality trends in Belgrade are similar to those in most eastern European countries."
Correspondence: H. D. Vlajinac, Belgrade University, School of Medicine, Institute of Epidemiology, Visegradska 24, 11000 Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40199 Wasserman, D.; Varnik, A.; Eklund, G. Male suicides and alcohol consumption in the former USSR. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, Vol. 89, No. 5, 1994. 306-13 pp. Copenhagen, Denmark. In Eng.
The extent to which restrictions on the sale of alcohol affected the decline in the Soviet suicide rate which occurred from 1984 to 1988 is explored. "Regression analysis with alcohol consumption as the independent variable and suicide rates and violent death rates as dependent variables shows that suicide and alcohol consumption were positively correlated as were violent death and alcohol consumption....For most republics, alcohol seems to explain more than 50% of suicides."
Correspondence: Centre for Suicide Research and Prevention, Karolinska Hospital, Box 230, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40200 Way, Peter O.; Stanecki, Karen A. The impact of HIV/AIDS on world population. ISBN 0-16-043187-5. May 1994. 24, [15] pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report presents the method and results of incorporating AIDS mortality into the U.S. Census Bureau's population estimates and projections for selected countries of the world. It includes information on the impact of AIDS on fertility, mortality, and population....The HIV/AIDS epidemic as of mid-1992 is described in this report by region of the world. Transmission patterns, populations at risk and geographic variations are presented. The impact on infant, child and adult mortality; fertility; life expectancy; and population growth is demonstrated. The available information and the methodology and assumptions used for incorporating AIDS mortality into the population estimates and projections are described...."
Correspondence: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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