Volume 60 - Number 3 - Fall 1994

L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations

Studies concerned with the relations between population factors as a whole and noneconomic factors. Relations affecting a single demographic variable are coded under the variable concerned and not in this division. Studies concerned equally with economic and social factors are coded under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population .

L.1. General Social Development and Population

Studies on interrelations with education, religion, social change, and socioeconomic status.

60:30647 Chang, Tan Poo. Implications of changing family structures on old-age support in Asia. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 124, Nov 1993. 160-5 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"In many developing countries of Asia and the Pacific, ageing is now emerging as a cause of concern as the proportion and number of older persons has begun to grow, and is projected to continue doing so over the coming decades....The tempo of ageing varies considerably across Asian countries who are at differing stages of socioeconomic development and with differing social and cultural systems." The author examines types of old-age support and care; the implications of changing family structures, including the effects of industrialization, urbanization, migration, changing marriage patterns, declining fertility and mortality, and health and other social changes; and strengthening family support for old age.
Correspondence: T. P. Chang, University of Malaya, Faculty of Economics and Administration, Lembah Pantai, 59100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30648 Denton, Frank T.; Feaver, Christine H.; Spencer, Byron G. Teachers and the birth rate: the demographic dynamics of a service population. QSEP Research Report, No. 301, Sep 1993. 40 pp. McMaster University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Program for Quantitative Studies in Economics and Population: Hamilton, Canada. In Eng.
"A theoretical model is developed in which the market for teachers is linked to the time path of fertility in the general population....Simulation experiments are carried out to investigate the effects of changes in fertility rates on supply/requirements imbalances in the teachers' market, the median age of teachers, and other variables."
Correspondence: McMaster University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Program for Quantitative Studies in Economics and Population, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30649 Jones, Gavin W. Dilemmas in expanding education for faster economic growth: Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand. In: Human resources in development along the Asia-Pacific Rim, edited by Naohiro Ogawa, Gavin W. Jones, and Jeffrey G. Williamson. 1993. 229-58 pp. Oxford University Press, South-East Asian Publishing Unit: Singapore. In Eng.
The relationship between economic development and the expansion of education systems in Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand is explored. In particular "this chapter [addresses] certain issues regarding the employment of the better educated which are occupying the minds of politicians and planners throughout the region."
Correspondence: G. W. Jones, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Division of Demography and Sociology, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

60:30650 Kaiser, Robert J. Social mobilization in Soviet Central Asia. In: Geographic perspectives on Soviet Central Asia, edited by Robert A. Lewis. 1992. 251-78 pp. Routledge: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
"The purpose of this chapter is to examine the social mobilization of the indigenous nations of Soviet Central Asia and Kazakhstan, and the extent to which this has resulted in a 'Sovietization' of the population. Social mobilization is defined as 'the process in which major clusters of old social, economic and psychological commitments are eroded and broken and people become available for new patterns of socialization and behaviour'....This process may be viewed as resulting in the social integration of a nation's population into the modernized sectors of Soviet society."
Location: Rutgers University Library, New Brunswick, NJ.

60:30651 Karim, Raj A. Policies and programmes for fully involving women in development. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 124, Nov 1993. 53-61 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
The author discusses "the importance of concerted efforts to fully involve women in the development process and to provide them the necessary support to enable this process to be a reality." Aspects considered include integrating women's concerns into development planning; education and training; female labor force participation; institutional and social support; health and family planning; protective legislation; research and monitoring; and roles of international agencies and regional cooperation. National development plans and policies in selected ESCAP countries are briefly reviewed.
Correspondence: R. A. Karim, National Population and Family Development Board, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30652 Kritz, Mary M.; Makinwa-Adebusoye, Paulina. Women's resource control and demand for children in Africa. Population and Development Program Working Paper Series, No. 93.09, [1993]. 16, [4] pp. Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program: Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
"This paper explores the possibility that women's position in some African societies may be a factor that will shape fertility patterns in the region. In particular, we examine the hypothesis that the demand for children is lower in African societies that allow women to participate in economic activities and control their earnings." The focus of the study is on the social organization of the family and women's work in two Nigerian ethnic groups, the Hausa and Yoruba, using survey data gathered in 1991.
Correspondence: Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program, 134 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30653 Kurien, Prema A. Ethnicity, migration and social change: a study of three emigrant communities in Kerala, India. Pub. Order No. DA9406971. 1993. 262 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This dissertation, based on field work carried out between June 1989 and December 1990, is a qualitative study of the variation in patterns of social change manifested by three ethnically different villages in Kerala, India which had a large out-migration to the Middle Eastern region. The primary focus is a discussion and analysis of the three patterns of migration and the ensuing differences in economic behavior, ritual and cultural changes, and gender relationships in the communities. The argument is that these variations in the outcome of migration were due to the mediating role of ethnicity...." The study was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Brown University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 54(10).

60:30654 Livenais, Patrick; Vaugelade, Jacques. Education, demographic change, and development. [Education, changements demographiques et developpement.] Collection Colloques et Seminaires, ISBN 2-7099-1172-8. 1993. 237 pp. Institut Francais de Recherche Scientifique pour le Developpement en Cooperation [ORSTOM]: Paris, France. In Fre.
These are the proceedings of the fourth international demographic conference organized by ORSTOM, held in Paris on September 11-13, 1991. The 23 papers reproduced here focus on aspects of education, population change, and development in developing countries. Three of the papers concern Asia, one the Caribbean, and the rest Africa. The works are divided into three sections: the first is primarily methodological and concerns the development of population education; the second looks at the demand for education in general in countries with rapidly growing populations and economic constraints; and the third section covers the implications for education policies.
Correspondence: Institut Francais de Recherche Scientifique pour le Developpement en Cooperation, 213 rue La Fayette, 75480 Paris Cedex 10, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30655 Rofman, Rafael P. Social security and income distribution: mortality and equity in pension plans. Pub. Order No. DA9408100. 1993. 274 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This dissertation has two major objectives: to develop a simple methodology applicable to different Social Security systems in order to assess the distributive effect they have and the effect mortality differentials have on them, and to apply this methodology in an evaluation of the U.S. Social Security system." The study was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of California at Berkeley.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 54(10).

60:30656 Smith, Kenneth W. Social security in periods of demographic uncertainty: a theoretical and empirical analysis. Pub. Order No. DA9332697. 1993. 131 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Wisconsin at Madison. "Three essays explore the effect of population growth on social security (SS) [in the United States]. The first essay considers the SS program in a public choice framework....In the second essay a time series analysis examines the relationship between SS financing policy and demographics and demographic expectations....The final essay examines the efficacy of SS as a means of income insurance."
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 54(10).

L.2. Demographic and Political Factors

Studies on the political aspects of population growth, including the demographic impact of war.

60:30657 Dixon-Mueller, Ruth; Germain, Adrienne. Population policy and feminist political action in three developing countries. Population and Development Review, Vol. 20, Suppl., 1994. 197-219 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This chapter examines the impact of women's political action on population, family planning, and health policies during the 1980s in Brazil, Nigeria, and the Philippines. These three countries have been selected because they represent similar processes of democratization and economic crisis but different regions, population policies, demographic processes, and levels of women's political mobilization."
Correspondence: R. Dixon-Mueller, International Women's Health Coalition, 24 East 21st Street, New York, NY 10010. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30658 Eberstadt, Nicholas. Demographic shocks after Communism: Eastern Germany, 1989-93. Population and Development Review, Vol. 20, No. 1, Mar 1994. 137-52, 250, 252 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This note reviews trends in fertility, nuptiality, and mortality between 1989 and 1993 for the population within the territory previously administered by the German Democratic Republic. The momentous political events witnessed in this region during this period (the collapse of the Berlin Wall and downfall of Communist rule; the rapid transition from centrally planned to 'social market' economy; the accession through unification into the Federal Republic of Germany) find their counterpart in an upheaval of local demographic trends. During the years in question, Eastern Germany fertility rates underwent an extraordinary decline. Marriage rates were similarly affected. Perhaps most unexpectedly, age-specific mortality rates for many male and female age groups appear to have risen--this, despite ostensible increases in per capita consumption and improvements in medical services owing to unification."
Correspondence: N. Eberstadt, Harvard University, School of Public Health, Center for Population and Development Studies, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30659 Fargues, Philippe. Demography and politics in the Arab world. Population. English Selection, Vol. 5, 1993. 1-20 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
The author investigates the relation between politics and demography in the contemporary Arab world. He "[takes] into account not only population growth but also population size and structure, and [relates] these not only to crises but also to a broad array of political events and contexts...." Aspects considered include the value of population size, the ambivalence of differential growth, and Islam and the population pyramid.
Correspondence: P. Fargues, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30660 Jones, Philip N.; Wild, Trevor. Opening the frontier: recent spatial impacts in the former inner-German border zone. Regional Studies, Vol. 28, No. 3, 1994. 259-73 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
The authors examine the 1989 removal of the frontier region (Zonenrandgebiet) along the eastern border of the former Federal Republic of Germany. "The paper examines the socio-economic impacts on the North Bavarian section of the Zonenrandgebiet, which is characterized by its dispersed industrial base and lack of higher-order urban centres. Evidence is presented of rapid upturns in population growth and economic activity, together with a large inflow of commuters from the former East Germany and Czechoslovakia, following frontier opening. Traffic, environmental pressures and living costs have also increased. Both positive and negative impacts are strongest in districts contiguous with the former frontier. Long-term development prospects hinge on its newly-gained centrality within Germany. Substantial local benefits are anticipated...,but they are unlikely to induce a major reshaping of the German space-economy; this will be dominated by the rivalry between the largest metropolitan centres."
Correspondence: P. N. Jones, University of Hull, School of Geography and Earth Resources, Hull HU6 7RX, England. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

60:30661 Kokole, Omari H. The politics of fertility in Africa. Population and Development Review, Vol. 20, Suppl., 1994. 73-88 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this article, the political and cultural constraints that have impeded family planning programs in Africa are identified and analyzed. Particular attention is paid to the interplay between indigenous values and Western values, within a range of cultural, political, military, and economic variables." Factors considered include cultural values and procreation, the politics of high fertility, ethnic competition and population politics, dual societies and competitive fertility, and the demography of apartheid. "Demonstrably, political factors, especially ethnic rivalries in Africa's inchoate nation-states, impede the adoption of national policies intended to curtail human fertility....Possible solutions range from the decentralization of political power (distributing power to the various ethnic groups) to nation building used as a strategy to forge a national identity that would transcend ethnic loyalties. The expansion of secular modern education is a further possible solution."
Correspondence: O. H. Kokole, State University of New York, Institute of Global Cultural Studies, Binghamton, NY 13901. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30662 McIntosh, C. Alison; Finkle, Jason L. The politics of family planning: issues for the future. Population and Development Review, Vol. 20, Suppl., 1994. 265-75 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors provide a summary of papers in this volume on the politics of population . "The central thesis of the volume is that while population policy continues to generate political differences, the nature of the debate in recent years has changed in a fundamental way....The difference today is that while almost all leaders of developing countries recognize the advantages to be gained from reducing population growth, the primary means for achieving this result--family planning programs--has become a matter of heated political controversy."
Correspondence: C. A. McIntosh, University of Michigan, Population Fellows Program, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30663 Murphy-Lawless, Jo. Fertility, bodies and politics: the Irish case. Reproductive Health Matters, No. 2, Nov 1993. 53-64 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Women's reproductive rights in Ireland are discussed, with a focus on recent fertility trends, changes in abortion law, family planning, women's autonomy, and political and social viewpoints. Some comparisons are made with the situation in other European countries.
Correspondence: J. Murphy-Lawless, Trinity College, Centre for Women's Studies, Dublin 2, Ireland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30664 Myers, George C.; Agree, Emily M. Social and political implications of population ageing: ageing of the electorate. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population: Montreal 1993, Volume 3. 1993. 37-49 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The effects of demographic aging on the age distribution of voters and on voting behavior in developed countries are discussed. Data from West Germany, Sweden, and the United States are used to illustrate the analysis.
Correspondence: G. C. Myers, Duke University, Center for Demographic Studies, 2117 Campus Drive, Durham, NC 27706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30665 Pirozhkov, Sergei; Safarova, Gaiane. Demographic regularities and irregularities: the population age structure. In: Demographic trends and patterns in the Soviet Union before 1991, edited by Wolfgang Lutz, Sergei Scherbov, and Andrei Volkov. 1994. 441-60 pp. Routledge: New York, New York/London, England; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
The stable population method is used to estimate population losses during World War II in the former Soviet Union. An analysis of shifts in age and sex distributions from 1896 to 1989 is presented. The authors conclude that "an important characteristic of change in the USSR population age distribution consisted in significant deformations of separate age cohorts due to crisis phenomena. The approximate estimates of population losses during the 1930s and 1940s described in this chapter...include indirect losses expressed in decreases in the number of births of subsequent generations."
Correspondence: S. Pirozhkov, National Institute for Strategic Research, Kiev, Ukraine. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30666 Tallon, Fabrice. Demographic pressure: a factor in political instability. [La pression demographique: un facteur de destabilisation politique.] Imbonezamuryango/Famille, Sante, Developpement, Vol. 23, 1991. 19-24 pp. Kigali, Rwanda. In Fre.
A review of population trends in Rwanda is presented. They include the growing pressure on available land and resources due to an increase in the numbers of people and cattle. The author finds that this pressure, combined with ethnic tensions, has created an explosive political situation. He concludes that political stability is possible only if a vigorous population policy is implemented.
Correspondence: F. Tallon, UN Office National de la Population, B.P. 914, Kigali, Rwanda. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

60:30667 Warwick, Donald P. The politics of research on fertility control. Population and Development Review, Vol. 20, Suppl., 1994. 179-93 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This chapter explores the impact of politics on population research and of population research on politics. It poses two central questions: (1) How does politics affect the accuracy and honesty of research on fertility control? and (2) What are the political uses of studies on fertility control? The primary focus is on the politics-research nexus in the United States."
Correspondence: D. P. Warwick, Harvard Institute for International Development, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30668 Williams, James D. Using demographic analysis to fix political geography. Applied Demography, Vol. 8, No. 3, Winter 1994. 1-3 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author describes the use of demographic analysis to solve redistricting problems in New Mexico following the 1990 U.S. census.
Correspondence: J. D. Williams, New Mexico State University, Department of Sociology, Las Cruces, NM 88003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.3. Demographic Factors and Health

Studies on nutrition and health, including psychological aspects and sex behavior. Studies that are concerned with the impact of these factors on fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility .

60:30669 Achio, Mayra; DeVries, Henny; Garcia, Cathalina; Gomez, Miguel; Gross, Socorro; Lindeboom, Wietze; Rosero, Luis; Ramirez, Helena; Grummer-Strawn, Larry; Morris, Leo; Stupp, Paul; Gomez, Victor M. Fertility and family formation: National Survey of Reproductive Health, 1993. [Fecundidad y formacion de la familia: Encuesta Nacional de Salud Reproductiva de 1993.] May 1994. xxvi, [204] pp. Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social, Departamento de Medicina Preventiva, Programa Salud Reproductiva: San Jose, Costa Rica. In Spa.
Results from the National Survey of Reproductive Health undertaken in Costa Rica in 1993, and involving 3,618 women aged 15-49, are presented. The report includes chapters on the demographic transition, the methodology of the survey, housing characteristics of those surveyed, the health status of women of reproductive age, nuptiality, sex behavior of those aged 15-24, fertility, health status of children under five, family planning, family planning services, and reproductive attitudes.
Correspondence: Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social, Departamento de Medicina Preventiva, Programa Salud Reproductiva, Apartado 1434-1011 Y-Griega, San Jose, Costa Rica. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30670 Aggleton, Peter; O'Reilly, Kevin; Slutkin, Gary; Davies, Peter. Risking everything? Risk behavior, behavior change, and AIDS. Science, Vol. 265, No. 5170, Jul 15, 1994. 341-5 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors review the current state of the global AIDS epidemic and find that "inquiry into the determinants of risk-related sexual behavior is important for the development of interventions to reduce the incidence of new cases of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Recent social and behavioral research has revealed much about the individual and social factors influencing risk-taking. Findings from these studies have been important in the development of new educational and community-based interventions for communities at risk in developed and developing worlds."
Correspondence: P. Aggleton, World Health Organization, Global Programme on AIDS, Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SQ).

60:30671 Al-Mazrou, Yagob; Farid, Samir. Reproductive patterns and child survival in Saudi Arabia. 1993. xvii, 227 pp. Ministry of Health: Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; Council of Health Ministers of G.C.C. States: Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In Eng.
"This volume brings together the results of further detailed analysis of data from the Saudi Arabia National Child Health Survey (NCHS) which was implemented in 1987....The Principal Report of the NCHS...presented basic tables and provided a descriptive and situational account of the bio-demographic factors associated with child survival in Saudi Arabia. This volume consists of reports on further analysis of data collected in the NCHS on the levels, trends and differentials in nuptiality and fertility, and the determinants of maternal health care, breastfeeding, prevalence of diarrhea and infant and child mortality."
For the principal report, published in 1991 and by the same authors, see 60:10633.
Correspondence: Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30672 Anderson, Roy M.; May, Robert M. Understanding the AIDS pandemic. Scientific American, Vol. 266, No. 5, May 1992. 58-66 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors outline the use of mathematical models in the study of the complex relations between the epidemiology of HIV infection and AIDS in individuals and the spread of the disease within communities. "Mathematical models chart a slow but continuous development of the AIDS epidemic over many decades. Because they reveal a pattern where the numbers of cases of HIV infection (and thence of AIDS) increase faster as time goes on, in compound-interest fashion, the models have an important role to play in convincing governments and international aid agencies of the wisdom of acting now, not later."
Correspondence: R. M. Anderson, London University, Imperial College, Department of Biology, London SW7 2AZ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

60:30673 Bah, Sulaiman M. Dynamics of morbidity and mortality in Africa and implications for health care planning. Pub. Order No. DANN81299. ISBN 0-315-81299-0. 1993. 255 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study, prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Western Ontario, "aims to tie together the empirical, theoretical and policy oriented aspects dealing with the dynamics of morbidity and mortality in Africa....As data availability in Africa is poor, [separate submodels are constructed]...for the indirect estimation of morbidity and of mortality....A specific application...is in health care planning."
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 54(8).

60:30674 Barnum, Howard; Greenberg, Robert E. Cancers. In: Disease control priorities in developing countries, edited by Dean T. Jamison et al. 1993. 529-59 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England; World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Despite its importance in adult mortality, cancer has not been considered in shaping health policy in most developing countries. The discussion that follows provides a brief survey of the epidemiology of cancer and gives suggestions for incorporating cancer planning in health policy. The appendix provides a review of the salient characteristics of ten of the most important cancers and the environmental, behavioral, physiological, and occupational circumstances--collectively referred to as risk factors--that have been associated with their occurrence."
Correspondence: H. Barnum, World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30675 Bobadilla, Jose L.; Frenk, Julio; Lozano, Rafael; Frejka, Tomas; Stern, Claudio. The epidemiologic transition and health priorities. In: Disease control priorities in developing countries, edited by Dean T. Jamison et al. 1993. 51-63 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England; World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"In this chapter we attempt to apply the theory of the epidemiologic transition to explain the recent transformations and the future evolution of health needs in populations. We particularly refer to middle-income countries, where such transition adopts specific forms and where the gap between the changing character of health problems and the adequacy of the social response is of significant concern. Among the middle-income countries, Mexico is used to illustrate the basic information and methods required to incorporate demographic and epidemiologic criteria into the process of planning for health services and related programs."
Correspondence: J. L. Bobadilla, World Bank, Population, Health, and Nutrition Department, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30676 Brookmeyer, Ron; Gail, Mitchell H. AIDS epidemiology: a quantitative approach. Monographs in Epidemiology and Biostatistics, No. 22, ISBN 0-19-507641-9. LC 92-48337. 1994. xvi, 354 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The purpose of this book is to review the contribution of statistical science to our understanding of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and to summarize and interpret the major epidemiological findings." Chapters are included on risk factors for infection and the probability of HIV transmission, surveys to determine seroprevalence and seroincidence, screening and accuracy of tests for HIV, statistical issues in surveillance of AIDS incidence, back-calculation procedures for estimating and projecting AIDS incidence, epidemic transmission models, and synthesizing data sources and methods for assessing the scope of the epidemic.
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, 200 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

60:30677 Bunker, John P.; Frazier, Howard S.; Mosteller, Frederick. Improving health: measuring effects of medical care. Milbank Quarterly, Vol. 72, No. 2, 1994. 225-58 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The contributions of individual medical interventions to life expectancy and quality in the United States are estimated in this article. From these estimates, an inventory of the benefits to health of medical care is created. The results indicate that "an aggregate effect of medical care on life expectancy is found to be roughly five years during this century, with a further potential of two years. Although there is no overall index of quality of life analogous to life expectancy, our inventory demonstrates the enormous burden of pain, suffering, and dysfunction that afflicts the population for which medical care can provide a large measure of relief." An appendix containing a discussion of the methods used and their limitations is included (pp. 255-8).
Correspondence: J. P. Bunker, King's College School of Medicine and Dentistry, CRC Trials Center, Rayne Institute, 123 Coldharbour Lane, London SE5 9NU, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30678 de Beer, J.; Visser, H. The effect of future demographic development on medical consumption. [Effecten van toekomstige demografische ontwikkelingen op medische consumptie.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 42, No. 3, Mar 1994. 22-9 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The effect of demographic trends in the Netherlands from 1990 to 2030 on the demand for health services is analyzed. The author attempts to calculate the impact of both population growth and demographic aging on this demand.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30679 Dean, Kathryn. Population health research: linking theory and methods. ISBN 0-8039-8751-X. LC 93-084880. 1993. ix, 246 pp. Sage Publications: Thousand Oaks, California/London, England. In Eng.
This collection of 11 studies by various authors "offers a comprehensive introduction to the methodological basis of population health research, and a critical assessment of theoretical issues affecting the quality of research on health behaviour. In research into the many factors that shape human health or illness, the traditional emphasis has been on experimental design and the statistical effects of specific factors. This book provides evidence of the limitations of these traditional approaches and demonstrates the value of theory-guided, multi-method approaches for research into the complex forces affecting health, health-related behaviour and the effectiveness of the health services. Appropriate analytical models as mechanisms for building theoretical knowledge are an important theme." The approach is interdisciplinary.
Correspondence: Sage Publications, 6 Bonhill Street, London EC2A 4PU, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30680 Engle, Patrice L.; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Gorman, Kathleen; Pollitt, Ernesto. Demographic and socio-economic changes in families in four Guatemalan villages, 1967-1987. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, Vol. 14, No. 3, 1993. 237-45 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"The Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP) carried out a longitudinal study of the effects of nutritional improvements on growth and development in early childhood in four villages in eastern Guatemala, 1969-1977, with a preparatory survey in 1967 and a follow-up study of the participants in 1988-1989. This paper examines differences among the four villages in education, occupation, quality of housing, and demographic profiles over a 20-year period....The results suggest gradual improvement in all the villages on a number of indicators. However, the two pairs of village were not comparable on all measures; of particular concern for the interpretation of effects on cognitive development are differences in education."
Correspondence: P. L. Engle, California Polytechnic State University, Department of Psychology and Human Development, San Luis Obispo, CA 93407. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30681 Garnett, Geoffrey P.; Anderson, Roy M. Factors controlling the spread of HIV in heterosexual communities in developing countries: patterns of mixing between different age and sexual activity classes. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London: B. Biological Sciences, Vol. 342, No. 1300, 1993. 137-59 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The paper describes the development and analysis of a mathematical model of the spread and demographic impact of HIV in heterosexual communities in developing countries....Summary parameters are derived to represent different mixing patterns, ranging from assortative via random to disassortative, as are methods to ensure that particular mixing patterns between different age and sexual classes (stratified on the basis of rates of sexual partner change) meet constraints that balance the supply and demand for sexual partners as AIDS induced mortality influences the demographic structure of a population....Simulated patterns of HIV spread across the two sexes and various age classes are compared with observed patterns in Uganda. The [principal] conclusion of the study is that the pattern of mixing between age and sexual activity classes, combined with the assumptions made to balance supply and demand between the sexes have a very major influence on the predicted pattern of HIV spread and the demographic impact of AIDS."
Correspondence: G. P. Garnett, London University, Imperial College, Parasite Epidemiology Research Group, London SW7 2BB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30682 Giffin, Karen. Women's health and the privatization of fertility control in Brazil. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 39, No. 3, Aug 1994. 355-60 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author examines the impact of the privatization of family planning programs on women's reproductive health in Brazil. She finds that "while both the rate of contraceptive use and the types of methods used (oral contraceptives and surgical sterilization) are modern, the privatization of fertility control has resulted in a complete separation between fertility control and health care for poor women, who are the vast majority. Evidence indicates that many, perhaps most, women accumulate the health effects of totally uncontrolled and incorrect use of oral contraceptives, including unwanted pregnancies and illegal abortions, in the end resorting to clandestine surgical sterilization, which is usually performed through unnecessary caesarean section. Data on reproductive morbidity and mortality, however, are virtually non-existent....As a result, a gender approach to reproductive health care is now being proposed for government programmes. The Brazilian case serves as an example of the limits faced by such programmes when adopted in a wider context of unfavorable political conditions."
Correspondence: K. Giffin, Escola Nacional de Saude Publica, Departamento de Ciencias Sociais, Rua Leopoldo Bulhoes 1480, 21041-210 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

60:30683 Goldman, Noreen; Pebley, Anne R. Childhood immunization and pregnancy-related services in Guatemala. Health Transition Review, Vol. 4, No. 1, Apr 1994. 29-44 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"In this paper we examine the experience of one poor country, Guatemala, that provided childhood immunization partly through a major national campaign, and provided pregnancy-related services through government health facilities, during the 1980s. Specifically, we compare the breadth of coverage of these two types of services using national sample survey data collected in 1987....[Results indicate] first, that immunization is more likely to be used by hard-to-reach segments of the population, including those living in remote areas and at a distance from health facilities, the indigenous population, and poorly educated mothers; and secondly, that immunization is less strongly related to social, economic, ethnic, and geographic factors than is the use of physicians or nurses during pregnancy and delivery."
Correspondence: N. Goldman, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30684 Goldstein, Alice; Watkins, Susan C.; Spector, Ann R. Childhood health-care practices among Italians and Jews in the United States, 1910-1940. Health Transition Review, Vol. 4, No. 1, Apr 1994. 54-62 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper examines attitudes toward childhood health-care practices among urban Italian and Jewish families in the United States in the first part of the twentieth century....Jewish women were more likely to turn rapidly to professional medical assistance, typically from Jewish doctors, whereas Italian women were more likely to rely longer on common sense before eventually seeking professional medical intervention outside the family and ethnic group. These differences are evident both in the respondents' recollections of their mothers' and their own child-care practices, and suggest persistent ethnic cultures. That differences in child care are consistent with the mortality differences documented in other sources supports previous speculations about the importance of child care, and thus the role of culture in health transitions....Our respondents were 55 Jewish and 30 Italian women between ages 70 and 97, who were interviewed over the course of several months in 1990-91."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1993 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: A. Goldstein, Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30685 Gomez Gomez, Elsa. Gender, women, and health in the Americas. Scientific Publication, No. 541, ISBN 92-75-11541-9. 1993. xix, 280 pp. Pan American Health Organization [PAHO]: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This collection of works on women and health examines two well-known paradoxes regarding sex differences in the context of health. The first involves the fact that although women can expect to live longer than men, they will also be sick more often during their lifetime. The second deals with the fact that, although women are represented in the health sector in greater numbers than are males, most positions of highest power, prestige, and remuneration in the sector are held by men....This publication's main analytical emphasis is on detecting and examining the inequalities between sexes, which, in terms of certain aspects of the health situation and the delivery of health services, translate into discrimination against women or place women at a disadvantage." The geographical focus is on Latin America and the Caribbean.
Correspondence: Pan American Health Organization, 525 23rd Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30686 Holloway, Marguerite. Trends in women's health: a global view. Scientific American, Vol. 271, No. 2, Aug 1994. 76-83 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author reviews gender inequalities in health care practices worldwide and their effect on women's well being. She examines sex-selective abortion, the etiology of AIDS and heart disease in women, adolescent pregnancy, the need for attention to men's roles in the family planning process, and changing attitudes toward female genital mutilation.
Correspondence: M. Holloway, Scientific American, 415 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10017-1111. Location: Princeton University Library (SW).

60:30687 Inaba, Hisashi. Calculating R[0] for HIV infection via pair formation. Institute of Population Problems Working Paper Series, No. 19, Feb 1994. 27 pp. Institute of Population Problems: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"In this paper we first formulate a dynamical model for [the] HIV/AIDS epidemic spread by pair formation in heterosexual populations. Host populations are structured by duration since infection and duration of pair. Next, based on the pair formation model, we investigate the invasion problem of the HIV epidemic. To this aim, we formulate the linearized equation around the disease-free steady state and calculate the basic reproduction ratio...under some conditions of simplification. Finally we discuss effects of persistence of pairs and variable infectivity on [the basic reproduction ratio]."
Correspondence: Institute of Population Problems, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-45, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30688 Jamison, Dean T.; Mosley, W. Henry; Measham, Anthony R.; Bobadilla, Jose L. Disease control priorities in developing countries. World Bank Book, ISBN 0-19-520990-7. LC 92-48723. 1993. xvii, 746 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England; World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This book provides information on interventions for the most common diseases and injuries occurring in developing countries, and is designed to help those countries develop essential health services. Following three introductory chapters on causes of death around the world and the epidemiological transition, the remaining 25 contributions are organized into sections on infectious disease, reproductive health and malnutrition, and emerging problems.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, 200 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30689 Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning [JOICFP] (Tokyo, Japan). A grassroots movement to improve the quality of life: integrating family planning with health care and community development activities. JOICFP Documentary Series, No. 19, Mar 1994. 120 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
This report describes a Japanese-supported project integrating family planning with health care and other community development activities in China over the period 1982-1993. The project emphasizes health education through the use of parasite control, and is now active in 18 areas of 16 provinces in China. This report is a product of a conference held in Beijing in honor of the project's tenth anniversary.
Correspondence: Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning, Hoken Kaikan Bekkan, 1-1 Ichigaya Sadohara-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30690 Joshi, Arun R. Maternal schooling and child health: preliminary analysis of the intervening mechanisms in rural Nepal. Health Transition Review, Vol. 4, No. 1, Apr 1994. 1-28 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This article provides evidence from a community-level study in rural Nepal of the mechanisms by which schooling affects maternal behaviour and infant and child health. Two hypotheses concerning the mechanisms are identified and tested. It was found that schooling equips women with specific skills and dispositions or identity which significantly predict two principal domains of health-care behaviour: use of medical services; and changes in household health behaviour. It was also found that women with schooling had healthier children using height-for-age as an indicator of health."
Correspondence: A. R. Joshi, World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30691 Miller, Jane E. Birth order, interpregnancy interval and birth outcomes among Filipino infants. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 26, No. 2, Apr 1994. 243-59 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This study examines the effects of birth order and interpregnancy interval on birthweight, gestational age, weight-for-gestational age, infant length, and weight-for-length in a sample of 2,063 births from a longitudinal study in the Philippines. First births are the most disadvantaged of any birth order/spacing group. The risks associated with short intervals...and high birth order...are confined to infants who have both attributes....This pattern is observed for all five birth outcomes and neonatal mortality, and persists in models that control for mother's age, education, smoking, family health history and nutritional status. Since fewer than 2% of births are both short interval and high birth order, the potential reduction in the incidence of low birthweight or neonatal mortality from avoiding this category of high-risk births is quite small (1-2%)."
Correspondence: J. E. Miller, Rutgers University, Institute for Health, Health Care Policy, and Aging Research, New Brunswick, NJ 08903-5070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30692 Mosley, W. Henry; Bobadilla, Jose L.; Jamison, Dean T. The health transition: implications for health policy in developing countries. In: Disease control priorities in developing countries, edited by Dean T. Jamison et al. 1993. 673-99 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England; World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Our purpose in this chapter is to explore, in a more general way, the implications of the epidemiologic and health transition for health policy. We begin by reviewing the global health transition and its constituent demographic and epidemiologic transitions. We then turn to discussion of the implications of these transitions for national governments and, in closing, we explore implications for international aid." The geographical focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: W. H. Mosley, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Department of Population Dynamics, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30693 Nanda, Arun; Nossikov, Anatoly; Prokhorskas, Remigijus; Shabanah, Mirvet H. A. Health in the central and eastern countries of the WHO European Region: an overview. World Health Statistics Quarterly/Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales, Vol. 46, No. 3, 1993. 158-65 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The authors review the health situation in the countries of central and eastern Europe and the newly independent states of the former USSR (CCEE/NIS). "The enormous social, political and economic changes that began in the CCEE/NIS in the late 1980s included the revelation and public discussion of a widening health gap between these countries and the other Member States of the European Region....Diverging trends in life expectancy became evident in the mid-1970s, and the gap continued to widen in the 1980s for all major causes of death, particularly cardiovascular diseases. The situation is worse in the NIS than in the CCEE, and worst in the central Asian countries....There is no single reason for the health gap, but contributory factors include the increasing prevalence of major risk factors in lifestyles and the environment and the low efficiency and effectiveness of health care systems."
Correspondence: A. Nanda, World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe, Epidemiology, Statistics and Health Information Unit, Copenhagen, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30694 Orubuloye, I. O.; Caldwell, John C.; Caldwell, Pat; Santow, Gigi. Sexual networking and AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa: behavioural research and the social context. Health Transition Series, No. 4, ISBN 0-7315-1901-9. 1994. x, 275 pp. Australian National University, Health Transition Centre: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
This is a collection of studies, most of which have been previously published, on aspects of sexual networking and AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa. It is primarily designed as a resource tool to be used in African universities and research centers. The first part contains eight studies resulting from field research in Nigeria from 1989 to 1993. The second part has six studies on the social context of AIDS.
Correspondence: Australian National University, Health Transition Centre, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30695 Over, Mead; Piot, Peter. HIV infection and sexually transmitted diseases. In: Disease control priorities in developing countries, edited by Dean T. Jamison et al. 1993. 455-527 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England; World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Our objective in this chapter is to examine the case for assigning a high priority to the prevention (primary and secondary) of the spread of STDs [sexually transmitted diseases], including AIDS and its causative agent, HIV. Although it would be possible and in some ways more convenient to separate the discussion of AIDS from that of other STDs, a central theme of this chapter is the examination of the epidemiological, medical, and economic arguments for integrating AIDS prevention efforts with efforts to combat other STDs." The geographical focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: M. Over, World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30696 Paiva, Vera. Sexuality, condom use and gender norms among Brazilian teenagers. Reproductive Health Matters, No. 2, Nov 1993. 98-109 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The author explores the social and cultural context of AIDS and sexual decision-making in Brazil, with a focus on sexuality, condom use, and gender norms among teenagers. She reports on "an action-research project aimed at AIDS prevention among 14-20 year old youths, in a poor section of the city of Sao Paulo....Our aim with this project was to develop activities that would have an impact on teenagers' everyday lives....Our standpoint was that general information, not culturally sensitive information, was not enough to stimulate safer sex practices or condom use....We aimed to educate about AIDS by working through AIDS symbolism, sexuality and reproduction."
Correspondence: V. Paiva, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Institute of Psychology, Av. Dr. Arnaldo 715, 01255 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30697 Pearson, Thomas A.; Jamison, Dean T.; Trejo-Gutierrez, Jorge. Cardiovascular disease. In: Disease control priorities in developing countries, edited by Dean T. Jamison et al. 1993. 577-94 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England; World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"We begin this chapter with a brief discussion of the etiology and pathogenesis of atherosclerotic and hypertensive cardiovascular disease, emphasizing the role of the modifiable risk factors as targets for preventive strategies. We then review trends in these diseases, making projections into the twenty-first century. Finally, we discuss preventive and case management strategies as appropriate to countries with limited health care resources."
Correspondence: T. A. Pearson, Columbia University, Morningside Heights, New York, NY 10027. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30698 Piha, Tapani; Besselink, Eefje; Lopez, Alan D. Tobacco or health. World Health Statistics Quarterly/Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales, Vol. 46, No. 3, 1993. 188-94 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This overview of the tobacco situation gives information on consumption and production, smoking prevalence, mortality and morbidity, legislation and policies to reduce tobacco use [in the CCEE/NIS, the countries of central and eastern Europe and newly independent states of the former USSR]....Tobacco smoking is the major cause of premature death among men in the CCEE/NIS....When smoking is combined with other types of harmful health behaviour and environmental influences, the result is some of the highest mortality rates from lung cancer and other diseases in the world."
Correspondence: T. Piha, World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30699 Power, Chris. National trends in birth weight: implications for future adult disease. British Medical Journal, Vol. 308, No. 6939, May 14, 1994. 1,270-1 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Trends in average birth weight in the United Kingdom since 1975 are examined, with a focus on the implications for future adult disease. "Although the general trend is towards heavier births, very low birth weights ([less than] 1500g) are also increasing....Very low weight births are important in relation to infant deaths, but as they constitute a small proportion of survivors (under 1%) this increase is unlikely to have a major impact on population levels of adult disease."
Correspondence: C. Power, Institute of Child Health, Epidemiology and Biostatistics, London WC1N 1EH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

60:30700 Rosero-Bixby, Luis. Physical accessibility to health facilities in Costa Rica. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population: Montreal 1993, Volume 3. 1993. 185-90 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"This paper estimates physical accessibility to health services in Costa Rican communities and identifies target geographic areas for opening new health facilities. The analyses use geographic information system (GIS) methods and [rely] on the concept of population potential. The paper aims at illustrating the use of simple GIS techniques for solving an important problem with demographic connotations." The computer program featured, OSU Map-for-the-PC, generates maps.
Correspondence: L. Rosero-Bixby, Universidad de Costa Rica, Instituto de Investigaciones en Salud, San Jose, Costa Rica. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30701 Sepkowitz, Samuel. Why infant very low birthweight rates have failed to decline in the United States vital statistics. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 23, No. 2, Apr 1994. 321-6 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author investigates reasons for the apparent failure to reduce very low birth weight [VLBW] rates in the United States. "The weights of livebirths and foetal deaths (27,944 births) at a community hospital during three 5-year periods, 1973-1987, were examined for trends in low birthweight (LBW) distribution, and they were contrasted with the U.S. Vital Statistics....Increasing registration of births in the U.S. may have hidden a marked improvement in the VLBW problem. More complete registration of births and changes in the perception of viability appear responsible for the artefact."
Correspondence: S. Sepkowitz, 5300 North Meridian, Oklahoma City, OK 73112. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30702 Sills, Yole G. The AIDS pandemic: social perspectives. Contributions in Medical Studies, No. 38, ISBN 0-313-28606-X. LC 93-25064. 1993. ix, 247 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"This book seeks to give the general reader an overview of the social, economic, and political impact that AIDS is having throughout the world....[It] offers a summary of recent writings about AIDS and a framework for thinking about and assessing the AIDS pandemic....The sources used for this summary cover a wide range of fields, principally anthropology, demography, economics, epidemiology, history, medicine, political science, public health, social psychology, and sociology." Separate chapters are included on AIDS in developing countries and in the United States.
Correspondence: Greenwood Press, 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

60:30703 Stanley, Kenneth. Control of tobacco production and use. In: Disease control priorities in developing countries, edited by Dean T. Jamison et al. 1993. 703-23 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England; World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Tobacco production and consumption influence various sectors of society in different ways, some negatively and some positively. As a result, it is important to consider the perspectives of these various sectors, including the individual tobacco user, the tobacco grower, the tobacco industry, the health community, and governments. My objective in this chapter is to review the influence of tobacco on each sector, to determine the health and economic effect of tobacco, and to evaluate strategies to control its use." Considerable attention is given to the effect of tobacco use on mortality.
Correspondence: K. Stanley, Harvard University, School of Public Health, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30704 Stupp, Paul W.; Macke, Beth A.; Monteith, Richard; Paradez, Sandra. Ethnicity and the use of health services in Belize. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 26, No. 2, Apr 1994. 165-77 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Data from the 1991 Belize Family Health Survey show differentials in the use of maternal and child health services between ethnic groups (Creole, Mestizo, Maya/Ketchi and Garifuna). Multivariate analysis is used to explore whether such differentials can truly be attributed to ethnicity or to other characteristics that distinguish the ethnic groups. Health services considered are: family planning, place of delivery (hospital/other), postpartum and newborn check-ups after a birth, and immunisations for children. The language usually spoken in the household is found to be important for interpreting ethnic differentials....There are no ethnic differentials for immunisations. Programmatic implications of these results are discussed."
Correspondence: P. W. Stupp, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Reproductive Health (C06), Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30705 United Nations. Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis (New York, New York). AIDS and the demography of Africa. No. ST/ESA/SER.A/137, Pub. Order No. E.94.XIII.11. ISBN 92-1-151268-9. May 1994. x, 72 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This report expands on the analyses made concerning the demographic impact of AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa in the 1992 revision of the UN publication entitled World Population Prospects. It includes 15 countries where HIV seroprevalence was estimated to surpass one percent of the adult population in 1990. "In considering the demographic impact of the AIDS epidemic, a more detailed evaluation of changes in the age distribution of both the population and deaths is presented. It also reviews the epidemiology of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and considers its likely social and economic impacts in sub-Saharan Africa."
For the revision of World Population Prospects, see 59:40076.
Correspondence: UN Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, Population Division, United Nations, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30706 Vanderlin, Jane M. Maternal and child health: the present and the future. ISBN 0-933438-21-4. 1994. vi, 72 pp. Association for Population/Family Planning Libraries and Information Centers--International [APLIC]: New York, New York. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of the twenty-sixth annual conference of APLIC, held in Cincinnati, Ohio, March 29-April 1, 1993. The keynote address, included in this publication, concerns the current status and future prospects of maternal and child health in the United States. Other papers consider the political dimensions of women's reproductive health and improving women's access to safe abortion care around the world.
Correspondence: Association for Population/Family Planning Libraries and Information Centers--International, c/o Population Council Library, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30707 Wallace, R. A fractal model of HIV transmission on complex socio-geographic networks. Part 2: spread from a ghettoized 'core group' into a 'general population'. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 26, No. 5, 1994. 767-78 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Study of the initial stages of HIV transmission along a 'sociogeographic network'--a large, complex, spatially focused social network with possibly fractal geometry--is extended to include interaction between a low-dimensional ghettoized 'core group' within which the disease spreads very rapidly and a higher dimensional, more loosely structured 'general population' in which spread is relatively slow. A mathematical modeling exercise suggests that contextually modulated interaction between them can be highly nonlinear and may greatly increase the initial rate of disease transmission within the general population. This work contributes to a growing body of literature which suggests that programs to control HIV infection within the majority heterosexual population of the United States will fail spectacularly without particular focus on the coupled physical and social stabilization and rehabilitation of the urban ghettoes of marginalized populations which are the present, and rapidly expanding, disease epicenters. Evidence suggests their continued disintegration can both increase disease rates within the epicenters and increase the coupling between core groups and general populations by creating large numbers of spatially or economically displaced refugees."
For Part 1, published in 1993, see 59:20762.
Correspondence: R. Wallace, PISCS Incorporated, 549 West 123rd Street, Suite 16F, New York, NY 10027. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

60:30708 Way, Peter O. African HIV/AIDS and urbanization. In: Urbanization in Africa: a handbook, edited by James D. Tarver. 1994. 423-38 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut. In Eng.
An analysis of the relationship between urbanization and the spread of HIV infections and AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa is presented using data from the U.S. Bureau of the Census's HIV/AIDS Surveillance Data Base. The author concludes that "the process of urbanization has clearly contributed to the spread of HIV infections and AIDS in Africa over the past decade. As populations increasingly abandon their rural roots and head for the bright lights of the city, they frequently have adopted a lifestyle and behaviors that have placed them at increased risk for HIV infection." However, he also notes that only about one-third of the region's population currently lives in urban areas. He suggests that strong and effective intervention programs that can bring about behavioral change, "including consistent condom use, prompt and appropriate treatment of sexually transmitted diseases, and a reduction in the number of casual partners, can substantially modify the potential path of an epidemic in a population."
Correspondence: P. O. Way, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Center for International Research, Suitland, MD 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30709 Way, Peter O.; Stanecki, Karen A. An epidemiological review of HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa. CIR Staff Paper, No. 72, Mar 1994. ix, 53 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Center for International Research: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report examines the distribution of HIV infection among various population groups in Sub-Saharan Africa and looks at trends over time in selected countries in the region. The report also looks at the likely current and future impact of AIDS on population growth and other demographic measures. Data presented in this report are taken from the HIV/AIDS Surveillance Data Base, developed and maintained at the U.S. Bureau of the Census."
Correspondence: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Center for International Research, Washington, D.C. 20233-3700. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30710 World Health Organization [WHO] (Geneva, Switzerland). AIDS: social, economic and population consequences. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 124, Nov 1993. 143-7 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"Following a brief review of the epidemiology of the disease, a global overview of the [AIDS] epidemic is presented, followed by an account of recent developments in Asia and the Pacific. The potential demographic, economic, and social consequences of the HIV/AIDS epidemic for sustainable development are also discussed."
Correspondence: World Health Organization, Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30711 Yemen. Central Statistical Organization (Sana'a, Yemen); Pan Arab Project for Child Development (Cairo, Egypt); Macro International. Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS] (Calverton, Maryland). Yemen Demographic and Maternal and Child Health Survey, 1991/1992. Mar 1994. xvi, 272 pp. Sana'a, Yemen. In Eng.
This report concerns a survey carried out in Yemen in 1991 and 1992 as part of the DHS program. The survey included 5,687 ever-married women aged 15-49 and 6,715 children under age 5. Chapters are included on population characteristics, fertility, family planning, nuptiality and exposure to risk of pregnancy, fertility preferences, maternal health care, child feeding and weaning practices, child vaccinations, morbidity and accidents in children, treatment of child illness, and infant and child mortality.
Correspondence: Lisa Longeiret, Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Suite 300, Calverton, MD 20705. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics

Studies on consanguinity and isolates, inbreeding, and twinning.

60:30712 De Braekeleer, Marc; Bellis, Gil. Genealogies and family reconstitution in human genetics. [Genealogies et reconstitutions de familles en genetique humaine.] INED Dossiers et Recherches, No. 43, Jun 1994. 64 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
This report presents primary applications of data from genealogies and techniques of family reconstitution to human genetics. A distinction is made between research and clinical applications. The advantages and limitations of this approach are illustrated using data on the French-Canadian population of Quebec.
Correspondence: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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