Volume 60 - Number 3 - Fall 1994

K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations

Studies concerned with the relations between population factors as a whole and economic aspects. Relations affecting a single demographic variable and economic factors are coded under the variable concerned and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

K.1. Economic Development and Population

Studies concerned equally with economic and social development. Most studies on the microeconomics of the family will be found in G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population

Studies on economic and social development with a worldwide emphasis, together with those with no geographical emphasis.

60:30576 Barlow, Robin. Population growth and economic growth: some more correlations. Population and Development Review, Vol. 20, No. 1, Mar 1994. 153-65, 250, 252 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Several studies using national data have shown that per capita income growth rates are uncorrelated with population growth rates. These results have been interpreted as supporting the 'revisionist' position that slower population growth does not cause faster economic development. In this analysis, which draws on data from 86 countries, lagged fertility is added to the current rate of population growth as a predictor of the per capita income growth rate. The three-variable model shows per capita income growth to be negatively related to current population growth and positively related to lagged fertility. Statistical and economic explanations for this result are examined. Inferences are drawn about the relationship between the demographic transition and economic performance. Some implications for the debate between revisionists and Malthusians are noted."
Correspondence: R. Barlow, University of Michigan, School of Public Health, Department of Population Planning and International Health, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30577 Heerink, Nico. Population growth, income distribution, and economic development: theory, methodology, and empirical results. Population Economics, ISBN 0-387-57323-2. 1994. ix, 401 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
In this work "an attempt will be made to unravel the knot of interrelationships between population growth and income distribution. To this end, a multi-equation, macro-level model will be developed that is meant to represent some of the major relationships. The unknown parameters of the model will be estimated by means of econometric methods. The model concentrates on five 'central' variables, [which are]...the level of fertility, the level of mortality, the age and sex structure of a population, the degree of equality in the income distribution, and the average or total income level of a society. The model describes direct as well as indirect relationships between these five central variables. The indirect relationships go through variables like education, nutrition, labour force participation, and consumption....The purpose of the analysis is twofold: first, to obtain a better understanding of the various causal mechanisms through which population growth and income distribution are related to each other; and second, to obtain estimates of the strength of these mechanisms." The geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: Springer-Verlag, 536 Broadway, New York, NY 10012. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30578 McCarty, Therese A. Demographic diversity and the size of the public sector. Kyklos, Vol. 46, No. 2, 1993. 225-40 pp. Basel, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"We investigate the possibility that diversity in income, religion, and ethnicity affects the size of a country's public sector. Public provision of goods may be inefficient in the presence of diverse preferences about public sector spending, and voters may be unwilling to finance transfer payments to people whom they perceive as different from themselves. We find that ethnic diversity discourages transfer payments by central governments, and that income diversity discourages other public expenditure."
Correspondence: T. A. McCarty, Union College, Department of Economics, Schenectady, NY 12308. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

60:30579 Ogawa, Naohiro; Jones, Gavin W.; Williamson, Jeffrey G. Human resources in development along the Asia-Pacific Rim. South-East Asian Social Science Monographs, ISBN 0-19-588596-1. LC 92-17954. 1993. xxii, 419 pp. Oxford University Press, South-East Asian Publishing Unit: Singapore. In Eng.
This collective work is the product of a three-year research project carried out at Nihon University in Japan; the project culminated in an international symposium held in 1989. The focus was on the role of human resource development in the economic progress being achieved by the Asian countries bordering the Pacific Ocean. Separate attention is given to demographic trends in the region, changes in labor force participation, education, and health and aging.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, Unit 221, Ubi Avenue 4, Singapore 1440. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

60:30580 Sivamurthy, M. Population ageing and demographic dependency: a global analysis. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population: Montreal 1993, Volume 3. 1993. 9-23 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
Sex differentials in demographic aging are examined, and a method for estimating the relationship between age structure and total fertility rate is presented. Aspects of the dependency burden are explored, and a model for measuring this dependency is illustrated. The geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: M. Sivamurthy, United Nations Development Program, P.O. Box 982, Cairo, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30581 Taylor, Alan M.; Williamson, Jeffrey G. Capital flows to the New World as an intergenerational transfer. Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 102, No. 2, Apr 1994. 348-71 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"The late nineteenth century saw international mass migrations of capital and labor from the Old World to the New. Factors chased each other and the abundant resources at the frontier. Demographic structure also contributed to the massive capital flows from Britain to the New World. The dependency hypothesis is confirmed by estimation of savings functions in three New World economies (Argentina, Australia, and Canada) in which high dependency rates may have significantly depressed domestic savings rates and pulled in foreign investment: in effect an intergenerational transfer from old savers in the Old World to young savers in the New."
Correspondence: A. M. Taylor, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

60:30582 Williamson, Jeffrey G. Human capital deepening, inequality, and demographic events along the Asia-Pacific Rim. In: Human resources in development along the Asia-Pacific Rim, edited by Naohiro Ogawa, Gavin W. Jones, and Jeffrey G. Williamson. 1993. 129-58 pp. Oxford University Press, South-East Asian Publishing Unit: Singapore. In Eng.
The underlying mechanisms of economic growth along the Asia-Pacific Rim in the period since World War II are analyzed. The emphasis is on the relationships among human capital development, inequalities, and demographic trends. The author analyzes changes in the dependency burden over time and their implications for the various countries concerned, the increase in life expectancy, and changes in educational status and schooling. The differences among the countries in the region are discussed.
Correspondence: J. G. Williamson, Harvard University, Department of Economics, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

60:30583 Zang, Hyoungsoo. Essays on income distribution, demography, and economic growth. Pub. Order No. DA9407070. 1993. 159 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Brown University. "The first essay analyzes theoretically and empirically the role of fertility and income distribution in explaining disparities in per-capita output and growth rates across countries....The second essay studies the role of income distribution and technology transfer in the process of economic development....The third essay reexamines previous cross-section studies regarding the Kuznets hypothesis with focus on the international comparability of both income distribution and income data."
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 54(10).

K.1.2. Developing Countries

General studies on the relations between population factors and economic development in developing countries. Includes studies on dependency as they relate to developing countries.

60:30584 Food and Agriculture Organization [FAO] (Rome, Italy). Women, population and rural development. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 124, Nov 1993. 105-9 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This paper presents insights on 'population and development linkages', based on...women-focused projects among disadvantaged artisanal fishing communities, agro-forest communities and marginal low land communities, in several Asian countries over the past 10 years....The first part of the paper presents a review of some important developmental concerns. This is followed by a discussion of population stabilization and poverty alleviation. The paper concludes by considering issues relevant in designing developmental strategies under the 'women, population and rural development' framework."
Correspondence: Food and Agriculture Organization, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30585 Guest, Philip. Consequences of population change for human resources development. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 124, Nov 1993. 65-79 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This paper describes how population change is related to human resource development, in the context of countries of Asia and the Pacific. Education, health and employment are considered in relation to three broad stages of life: childhood, labour force ages and old-age. Particular focus is on the human resource development of women."
Correspondence: P. Guest, Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research, 25/25 Puthamonthon 4 Road, Salaya, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30586 Jones, Gavin W. Population and human resources development in Asia. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 124, Nov 1993. 80-91 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. Distributed by mod 28213. In Eng.
"The mid-1980s saw considerable ferment of ideas about human resources development, focused especially in the ESCAP region, culminating in the emergence of a new perspective [that emphasized]...the central role of human beings as the key factor in the development process;...balanced and integrated treatment of the supply and demand factors in relation to human resources development; and...participation in economic activity, particularly employment...." The author considers the implications of demographic change for human resources development; demographic factors in the attainment of national education goals; the role of female education; the dynamics of education and labor force interaction; and trends in nutrition, health, and family planning.
Correspondence: G. W. Jones, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Department of Demography, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30587 Kamuzora, C. L. Refining the issues for realistic population-development policies in Africa. African Review, Vol. 18, No. 1-2, 1991. 71-88 pp. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. In Eng.
"Varied population issues have sprung up as the population-development question has received more attention with time....This paper takes up [critical population] issues and refines them in the perspective of African realities for long-term development. It is argued that the assumptions on which the Coale-Hoover model is based are untenable in the African circumstances....The issues [considered in this paper] and having a common denominator, namely, reduction of current high fertility, are as follows: (a) old age structure and prospects for economic development; (b) the danger for Africa of rapid decline in fertility; (c) maternal and child health advantages; and, (d) environmental protection."
Correspondence: C. L. Kamuzora, University of Dar es Salaam, Department of Statistics, Demographic Unit, P.O. Box 35091, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

60:30588 Lin, Jiang. Parity and security: a simulation study of old-age support in rural China. Population and Development Review, Vol. 20, No. 2, Jun 1994. 423-48, 497, 499-500 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This study uses microsimulation models to examine the future distribution of the burden of old-age support across rural Chinese households, and explores various policy options to help most-stressed families support their elderly. Recognizing that the state's financial resources are limited, the article outlines a 'ladder' of economic options, beginning with plans targeted at families with the greatest burden and rising to those with lesser old-age dependency ratios. The results of this simulation study indicate that although the average burden of supporting the elderly will increase substantially, contrary to conventional belief most rural households, at any given time in the first half of the twenty-first century, will have to cope with at most moderate levels of old-age dependency, and very few families will face the hardship of excessively burdensome old-age dependency."
Correspondence: J. Lin, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6297. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30589 Pernia, Ernesto M. Economic growth performance of Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand: the human resource dimension. In: Human resources in development along the Asia-Pacific Rim, edited by Naohiro Ogawa, Gavin W. Jones, and Jeffrey G. Williamson. 1993. 159-74 pp. Oxford University Press, South-East Asian Publishing Unit: Singapore. In Eng.
"This chapter examines the economic growth performance of Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand during the post-war years, giving special attention to the underlying human resource factor....The chapter first takes an overview of macroeconomic performance from the 1950s to 1980s, highlighting the differences between the three countries. It then focuses on human resource developments in the three countries in order to better understand their links to economic growth. The penultimate section presents an econometric analysis using data on several Asian developing countries to lend further support to the central thesis of the chapter. The concluding section summarizes the main points of the chapter."
Correspondence: E. M. Pernia, Asian Development Bank, Manila, Philippines. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

60:30590 Raut, Laxmi K. Demographic links to savings in life cycle models: identification of issues for LDCs. Indian Economic Journal, Vol. 40, No. 1, Jul-Sep 1992. 116-38 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
The author attempts to determine if there is "any link between the recent pattern of demographic transition and intertemporal and inter-country variations in savings rate [in developing countries]....In section 2, I set up a simple discrete time life cycle framework. In section 3, I explain the issues related to age structure; in section 4, I discuss the effect of age specific savings function; in section 5, I discuss the general equilibrium effects of demographic factors; in section 6, I discuss the effects of life expectancies and child mortalities. In section 7, I discuss the nature of social security overages in LDCs, and the issues that are especially important for LDCs. In section 8, based on our discussions in the previous sections, I conclude the paper with a new approach to evaluation of demographic policies."
Correspondence: L. K. Raut, University of California at San Diego, Department of Economics-D008, La Jolla, CA 92093. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

60:30591 Rondinelli, Dennis A. Urbanization policy and economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa: the private sector's role in urban development. In: Urbanization in Africa: a handbook, edited by James D. Tarver. 1994. 365-87 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut. In Eng.
The relationship between urbanization and economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa is examined, with emphasis on the role that public policy might play in accelerating the pace of economic development. The author concludes that attempts to slow the pace of urban growth are futile, and that "the real opportunities for governments in the region lie in using public resources effectively to create conditions that will allow private enterprise to expand in cities and towns and to create effective systems of urban market centers that facilitate trade and generate employment for a rapidly expanding labor force."
Correspondence: D. A. Rondinelli, University of North Carolina, Kenan Institute of Private Enterprise, Kenan-Flagler Business School, Chapel Hill, NC 27599. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30592 Timmer, C. Peter. Population, poverty, and policies. American Economic Review, Vol. 84, No. 2, May 1994. 261-5 pp. Nashville, Tennessee. In Eng.
The author makes the case that agricultural development has a major role to play in efforts to break the vicious cycle of poverty, population growth, and environmental degradation in developing countries. He also suggests that "for agriculture to play this positive role, governments cannot allow agricultural investments to remain entirely a matter of response to private incentives generated by world markets."
Correspondence: C. P. Timmer, Harvard University, One Eliot Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

60:30593 Veron, Jacques. Population and development. [Population et developpement.] Que Sais-Je?, No. 2842, ISBN 2-13-046103-4. 1994. 128 pp. Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
This study concerns the relationship between population growth and socioeconomic development. The author begins by outlining the Malthusian theory that population will always tend to outgrow available resources. He then considers various topics relevant to this relationship including the food supply, manpower needs and incomes, health, urbanization, sustainable development, and international migration. He concludes with a chapter which focuses on the values that need to be achieved in successful development.
Correspondence: Presses Universitaires de France, 108 boulevard Saint-Germain, 75006 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.1.3. Developed Countries

Studies on the relations between population and economic factors as they affect the developed world. Also includes studies on the economic effects of a stationary or declining population, the effects of aging on the economy, retirement, and problems of economic dependency in developed countries.

60:30594 Baldwin, Richard; Venables, Anthony J. International migration, capital mobility and transitional dynamics. CEPR Discussion Paper, No. 796, Jun 1993. 26 pp. Centre for Economic Policy Research [CEPR]: London, England. In Eng.
"Much of recent thinking on the problems of the Central and East European countries (CEECs) centres on how long it will take them to catch up to OECD economies and how various policies will hasten or hinder the transition....This paper, using a highly stylized framework, focuses on a quite different set of issues: how the nature of the transition can effect the nature of the long-run equilibrium. The mechanism we focus on is factor mobility and factor complementarity."
Correspondence: Centre for Economic Policy Research, 25-28 Old Burlington Street, London W1X 1LB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30595 Bos, Dieter; Cnossen, Sijbren. Fiscal implications of an aging population. Population Economics, ISBN 0-387-55072-0. 1992. x, 191 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
The nine papers in this volume were originally presented at a conference held in Vaalsbroek, Netherlands, in the spring of 1990, and have been previously published in the Journal of Population Economics and cited in Population Index. They focus on the fiscal implications of population aging, with the geographical emphasis on developed countries.
Correspondence: Springer-Verlag, 536 Broadway, New York, NY 10012. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

60:30596 Dean, Christopher M. Rethinking dependency in an ageing society. New Zealand Population Review, Vol. 19, No. 1-2, May-Nov 1993. 143-72 pp. Wellington, New Zealand. In Eng.
"In order to advance understanding of 'dependency' this paper develops a modified dependency ratio, calculated for New Zealand for the years 1976-1991, using five-yearly census data. This is analysed by gender and disaggregated for its economic and demographic components, so as to assess the relative importance of each in determining the overall level of dependency. With the trends identified and the sensitivity of the modified dependency measure to labour market factors demonstrated, the last section of the paper draws conclusions regarding the direction that future policy initiatives could take, either as alternatives to or at least complements of current cost minimisation strategies."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30597 Dolado, Juan; Goria, Alessandra; Ichino, Andrea. Immigration, human capital and growth in the host country: evidence from pooled country data. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 7, No. 2, 1994. 193-215 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"Immigration, as a source of population growth, is traditionally associated, by neoclassical economics, with negative output and growth effects for the host economy in per capita terms. This paper explores how different these effects can be when the human capital brought in by immigrants upon arrival is explicitly considered in a Solow growth model augmented by human capital and migration. The main finding is that the negative output and growth effects of immigration tend to become less important the higher the imported immigrants' human capital relative to natives. In order to evaluate the order of magnitude of these effects, descriptive evidence, based on education data, and econometric evidence, based upon the estimation of the transition equation in the augmented Solow model, is provided for a set of OECD economies during the period 1960-1985."
Correspondence: J. Dolado, Banco de Espana, Alcala 50, 28014 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30598 Dolado, Juan J.; Goria, Alessandra; Ichino, Andrea. Immigration, human capital and growth in the host country: evidence from pooled country data. CEPR Discussion Paper, No. 875, Nov 1993. 33 pp. Centre for Economic Policy Research [CEPR]: London, England. In Eng.
"In this paper we provide a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the effects of migration on per capita growth and output. To do so we introduce migration in a Solow model of a closed economy augmented with human capital....[The model is tested by means of] an econometric analysis based on a pooled country dataset consisting of 23 OECD economies for the period 1960-1985."
Correspondence: Centre for Economic Policy Research, 25-28 Old Burlington Street, London W1X 1LB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30599 Kono, Shigemi. Social, economic and demographic consequences of ageing of population. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population: Montreal 1993, Volume 3. 1993. 3-7 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
Some aspects of demographic aging in developed countries are discussed, using the experiences of Japan since World War II.
Correspondence: S. Kono, Institute of Population Problems, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-45, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30600 McPherson, Mervyl J. Cohort vulnerability to lack of family support in old age. New Zealand Population Review, Vol. 19, No. 1-2, May-Nov 1993. 65-93 pp. Wellington, New Zealand. In Eng.
"This paper explores historical and projected 'demand' for support by elderly women, and potential 'supply' of assistance from middle-aged women, by taking into account such factors as the fertility histories of 'mother' and 'daughter' cohorts, the age gaps between such cohorts, and their employment and marital histories. Various measures are presented of the relationships, through to 2031, between possible numbers and ages of elderly women, and of unencumbered middle-aged 'carers'." The geographical focus is on New Zealand.
Correspondence: M. J. McPherson, Massey University, Department of Social Policy and Social Work, Private Bag 11-222, Palmerston North, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30601 Padoa Schioppa Kostoris, Fiorella. Demographic influences on the OECD labour market: Is there a problem? Are there solutions? Labour, Vol. 7, No. 1, Spring 1993. 181-208 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper is concerned with the possible economic effects of the demographic movements expected to emerge in the OECD area over the next 30 years. It is argued that the labour and product market implications of the changing population size and ageing are not as worrying as conventional wisdom believes, especially if counterbalancing economic policies are implemented. The most negative effect will probably concern a potential productivity slowdown, but ageing might also have some positive side-effects; implying, for example, declining youth unemployment."
Correspondence: F. Padoa Schioppa Kostoris, Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Via Nomentana 41, Rome 00161, Italy. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

60:30602 Stone, Leroy O. Social consequences of population ageing: the human support systems dimension. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population: Montreal 1993, Volume 3. 1993. 25-35 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The author uses data from the 1985 Canadian General Social Survey to determine effects of demographic aging on the dependency burden. He concludes that "population ageing in Canada will tend to be associated with a rising proportion of population among weaker primary potential support group structures, thus pointing to a potential for gradual decline in the aggregate helping capacity of informal support networks."
Correspondence: L. O. Stone, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch, R. H. Coats Building, 24th Floor, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30603 Wang, Ping; Yip, Chong K.; Scotese, Carol A. Fertility choice and economic growth: theory and evidence. Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 76, No. 2, May 1994. 255-66 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper examines a growth model with endogenous consumption, labor-leisure, and fertility. A fertility choice variable capturing both the quality and quantity of the family size enters the utility function positively, but it also generates time costs. Theoretical comparative dynamic results are derived for changes in exogenous production and utility parameters. Employing post-World War II United States data, we estimated the model using a structural VAR [vector autoregression model] with imposed long-run restrictions based on the theoretical predictions. The empirical results lend support to the endogeneity of fertility choice and present dynamic responses of each endogenous variable to employment, fertility, and output shocks."
Correspondence: P. Wang, Pennsylvania State University, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6411. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

60:30604 Wise, David A. Topics in the economics of aging. NBER Project Report, ISBN 0-226-90298-6. LC 91-40594. 1992. ix, 315 pp. University of Chicago Press: Chicago, Illinois/London, England. In Eng.
"This volume consists of papers presented at a conference held at the Boulders Resort in Carefree, Arizona, 5-7 April 1990. It is part of the National Bureau of Economic Research's ongoing project on the economics of aging." The main emphasis of the nine papers included is on financial aspects of retirement and the needs of the elderly. The primary geographical focus is on the United States, although one paper examines aging issues in Thailand and the Ivory Coast, and another the social security system in Japan.
Correspondence: University of Chicago Press, 5801 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

K.2. Population Growth and Natural Resources

Studies on the environment, quality of life, conservation, food production, etc., and their interrelations with population factors.

60:30605 Anderton, Douglas L.; Anderson, Andy B.; Oaks, John M.; Fraser, Michael R. Environmental equity: the demographics of dumping. Demography, Vol. 31, No. 2, May 1994. 229-48 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Research addressing 'environmental equity' and 'environmental racism' claims that [U.S.] facilities for treatment, storage, and disposal of hazardous wastes (TSDFs) are located disproportionately in minority areas. In the first comprehensive study of TSDFs to use census tract-level data, we find no nationally consistent and statistically significant differences between the racial or ethnic composition of tracts which contain commercial TSDFs and those which do not. TSDFs are more likely to be found in tracts with Hispanic groups, primarily in regions with the greatest percentage of Hispanics. Different geographic units of analysis elaborate on, but are consistent with, these results."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1994 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: D. L. Anderton, University of Massachusetts, Social and Demographic Research Institute, Box 34830, Amherst, MA 01003-4830. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30606 Collomb, Philippe; Guerin-Pace, France. Age and perceptions of the environment. [L'age et les perceptions de l'environnement.] Population et Societes, No. 289, Apr 1994. 1-2 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
The authors note that attitudes concerning the environment in France are primarily affected by the age of the respondent. They find that young people primarily want free access to an unexploited natural environment, while older people are primarily concerned with imposing controls to prevent environmental degradation.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30607 Cropper, Maureen; Griffiths, Charles. The interaction of population growth and environmental quality. American Economic Review, Vol. 84, No. 2, May 1994. 250-4 pp. Nashville, Tennessee. In Eng.
The effect of population pressure on deforestation in 64 developing countries is explored, using data from a number of published sources including those of the UN Food and Agriculture Organization. The main question posed is whether "holding constant per capita income and other relevant factors, population pressures have a significant effect on environmental degradation." The results for Africa and Latin America are statistically significant, indicating that higher incomes will somewhat reduce rates of deforestation, although not at a sufficient level to suggest that economic growth alone will solve environmental problems.
Correspondence: M. Cropper, World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

60:30608 Daly, Herman; Goodland, Robert. An ecological-economic assessment of deregulation of international commerce under GATT, Part 1. Population and Environment, Vol. 15, No. 5, May 1994. 395-427 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper discusses the ecological-economic implications of deregulation of trade as promoted by the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). This includes both environmental and socioeconomic factors, such as standards of living and equity. We outline fifteen overlapping problems with deregulation or 'free' trade. We argue that many environmental problems cannot be resolved equitably, efficiently, or sustainably by unregulated markets, and that there is no alternative to public intervention in certain situations."
Correspondence: H. Daly, University of Maryland, School of Public Affairs, College Park, MD 20742. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30609 Dubey, Rabindra N. Population environment and regional planning. ISBN 81-85613-55-9. LC 92-910817. 1992. x, 348 pp. Chugh Publications: Allahabad, India. In Eng.
The author studies the relationships among population, resources, and the environment in the Rohilkhand region of Uttar Pradesh, India. The data are from official sources, including the 1951 and 1981 censuses. Chapters are included on population growth, spatial distribution and population density, and the biological, socio-cultural, and economic characteristics of the population.
Correspondence: Chugh Publications, 2 Strachey Road, Civil Lines, Allahabad, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30610 Dyson, Tim. Population growth and food production: recent global and regional trends. Population and Development Review, Vol. 20, No. 2, Jun 1994. 397-411, 496-7, 499 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Considerable anxiety has recently been expressed that world cereal production has failed to keep up with population growth. The author argues that the downturn in global per capita cereal production since 1984 is largely explained by reductions in cereal cropland, especially in traditional grain-exporting countries, conditioned by the low price of cereals on the world market....Since cereals are only one category of foodstuff, trends in indexes of overall food production are also examined. These indicate that food output in the world and most of its regions continues to increase faster than population growth."
Correspondence: T. Dyson, London School of Economics and Political Science, Department of Population Studies, Houghton Street, Aldwych, London WC2A 2AE England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30611 Hern, Warren M. Is human culture carcinogenic for uncontrolled population growth and ecological destruction? BioScience, Vol. 43, No. 11, Dec 1993. 768-73 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"I [have] stated that the sum of human activities, viewed over the past tens of thousands of years, exhibits all four major characteristics of a malignant process: rapid, uncontrolled growth; invasion and destruction of adjacent tissues (ecosystems, in this case); metastasis (colonization and urbanization, in this case); and dedifferentiation (loss of distinctiveness in individual components)....The purpose of this article is to discuss the process by which human culture has brought about this malignant transformation in our relationship with the ecosystem, to show why it is important to examine and test the hypothesis that human activities have become malignant for the planet, and to discuss some of the implications of this hypothesis for the future."
This article is based on a presentation at a symposium entitled Demography and the Environment at the 1992 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: W. M. Hern, University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science, Boulder, CO 80309-0233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30612 Hossain, Monowar. Interrelationship between population, environment and development. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 124, Nov 1993. 13-8 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This paper reviews the status of the interrelationship between population, environment and development, and identifies the implications for world political and economic order and the achievement of sustainable development."
Correspondence: M. Hossain, Multidisciplinary Action Research Centre, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30613 Jolly, Carole L. Population change, land use, and the environment. Reproductive Health Matters, No. 1, May 1993. 13-25 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper evaluates current theories regarding the relationship between population change and land degradation in developing countries, critically reviews the literature, and suggests what demographers can contribute to testing these theories. I argue that the theories reviewed, while based on different notions of ecology, the economy, and human behaviour, are not mutually exclusive. Each explains an important component of the interaction between population change and land use. Together, they provide a framework to analyse resource allocation, scale, and distribution, and the effect of population growth on these three factors."
Correspondence: C. L. Jolly, National Research Council, Committee on Population, 2101 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20418. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30614 Kalipeni, Ezekiel. Population growth and environmental degradation in Malawi. Africa Insight, Vol. 22, No. 4, 1992. 273-82 pp. Pretoria, South Africa. In Eng.
"The aim of this article is to develop a simple conceptual framework within which the linkages and interrelationships between population growth and environmental degradation in sub-Saharan Africa, using Malawi as a specific case study, can be examined in greater depth. The basic argument is that environmental degradation currently under way in Malawi, and for that matter in other parts of Africa, can be linked directly to population growth and pressure on land as a result of deforestation, overgrazing, overuse of land for subsistence, and government development strategies that favour large-scale agricultural development."
Correspondence: E. Kalipeni, Colgate University, Department of Geography, Hamilton, NY 13346. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

60:30615 Mazur, Allan. How does population growth contribute to rising energy consumption in America? Population and Environment, Vol. 15, No. 5, May 1994. 371-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The contribution of American population growth to rising energy consumption is analyzed for the period 1947-91. Energy consumption is disaggregated into electricity and nonelectricity consumption, and by end-use sectors: residential and commercial, industrial, and transportation. Population growth has been relatively unimportant as a contributor to yearly fluctuations in energy consumption. However, whereas energy changes induced by nonpopulation factors are erratic, sometimes adding [to] consumption and sometimes subtracting, population growth consistently adds to consumption. As a result, depending upon which energy sector is considered, population growth may have a dominant role in the longterm growth of consumption."
Correspondence: A. Mazur, Syracuse University, Maxwell School, Public Affairs Program, Syracuse, NY 13244. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30616 Pimentel, David; Harman, Rebecca; Pacenza, Matthew; Pecarsky, Jason; Pimentel, Marcia. Natural resources and an optimum human population. Population and Environment, Vol. 15, No. 5, May 1994. 347-69 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The interdependencies of [the natural resources required to sustain human life] and their current and projected future status are analyzed in this paper. We propose an optimum population for the United States and the world based on a high standard of living while maintaining the sustainability of renewable resources and the environment. The goal is to determine the population size that will insure the possibility of individual prosperity for everyone while maintaining a quality environment."
Correspondence: D. Pimentel, Cornell University, Department of Entomology, Comstock Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-0901. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30617 Qu, Geping; Li, Jinchang. Population and the environment in China. ISBN 1-55587-435-5. LC 93-40821. 1994. xii, 217 pp. Lynne Rienner: Boulder, Colorado; Paul Chapman Publishing: London, England. In Eng.
This is a general study on the relationship between population growth and environmental problems in China. Separate chapters are included on land availability, forest resources, grassland resources, mineral resources, water resources, energy, and the living environment. China's policies developed to control the rate of population growth are also outlined.
Translated from the Chinese by Jiang Baozhong and Gu Ran.
Correspondence: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1800 30th Street, Boulder, CO 80301. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30618 Smil, Vaclav. How many people can the Earth feed? Population and Development Review, Vol. 20, No. 2, Jun 1994. 255-92, 495, 497-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Many attempts have been made to estimate the carrying capacity of the Earth, but the inherent complexities of nutritional, environmental, agricultural, and economic variables make all ultimate, single-value results questionable. In contrast, a conservative assessment of all important factors limited to a period of two or three generations can provide some revealing perspectives. By far the most important outcome of such an exercise is the identification of substantial inefficiencies throughout the food production and consumption chain....[The author concludes that] there appear to be no insurmountable obstacles to feeding the global population of about 10 billion people expected by the middle of the twenty-first century."
Correspondence: V. Smil, University of Manitoba, Department of Geography, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30619 Stycos, J. Mayone. Population and environment: the role of demographic data and projections. Population and Development Program Working Paper Series, No. 93.18, [1993]. 18 pp. Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program: Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
The problems involved in obtaining reliable data to enable the integration of efforts designed to protect the environment and influence population trends are discussed. The author not only identifies the lack of vital statistics data in developing countries but also the weakness of both the theoretical and empirical bases underlying long-range population projections.
Correspondence: Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program, 134 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30620 United Nations. Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis (New York, New York). Population, environment and development: proceedings of the United Nations Expert Group Meeting on Population, Environment and Development, United Nations headquarters, 20-24 January 1992. No. ST/ESA/SER.R/129, Pub. Order No. E.94.XIII.7. ISBN 92-1-151265-4. 1994. xii, 285 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This is a report from one of the preparatory meetings for the International Conference on Population and Development scheduled to be held in Cairo, Egypt, September 5-13, 1994. The meeting examined the environmental aspects of population and development, and this volume contains a number of background papers on such topics as sustainable development, economic and demographic linkages to environmental stress, how population change and socioeconomic development affect the rural and urban environments, the demographic effects of environmental stress, and policy issues. A number of recommendations for the conference are included.
Correspondence: UN Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, United Nations, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30621 United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]. Division of Industry, Human Settlements and Environment (Bangkok, Thailand). Population, environment and sustainable development. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 124, Nov 1993. 19-22 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This paper provides an overview of population and environmental problems in the ESCAP region. It traces the population-environment interrelationships that have resulted in environmental problems, examines the policy responses that have been made so far, and provides proposals to promote environmentally sound and sustainable development."
Correspondence: UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Division of Industry, Human Settlements and Environment, United Nations Building, Rajdamnern Nok Avenue, Bangkok 10200, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30622 Williams, Gavin. The World Bank, population control and the African environment. South African Sociological Review, Vol. 4, No. 2, Apr 1992. 2-29 pp. Rondebosch, South Africa. In Eng.
The author presents a critique of what he considers as overemphasis by the World Bank on population growth as a major obstacle to economic development in Sub-Saharan Africa. He also criticizes research on the relationships among population growth, agricultural development, and environmental degradation, which the Bank has commissioned in support of its development projects in the region.
Correspondence: G. Williams, Saint Peter's College, Oxford 0X1 2DL, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30623 Zaba, Basia; Clarke, John. Environment and population change. ISBN 2-87040-049-7. 1994. 491 pp. Ordina Editions: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"The papers in this book are a selection of those presented at the conference on Population and Environment, held at Exeter College, Oxford, [England] from the 9th to the 11th of September 1992." The papers are divided into five main sections, which are entitled overviews, carrying capacity, African case studies, health and mortality, and policy and politics.
Correspondence: Ordina Editions, 10 place Saint Jacques, 4000 Liege, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30624 Zhao, Songqiao. Geography of China: environment, resources, population, and development. Wiley Series in Advanced Regional Demography, ISBN 0-471-57758-8. LC 93-34414. 1994. xix, 332 pp. John Wiley and Sons: New York, New York/Chichester, England. In Eng.
This is a general introduction to the human geography of China. "Of particular interest is the analysis and interpretation of the direction, magnitude, and significance of population growth on the composition of the urban and rural sectors of the economy, on the standard of living in the twenty-first century, and on the probable impact of future natural and human-induced environmental stresses."
Correspondence: John Wiley and Sons, 605 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10158-0012. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation

Studies of employment and labor force statistics that are of demographic relevance. Includes studies of the labor force (employment status, occupation, and industry) and of the relations among employment, labor force participation, and population factors. Studies on the effect of female labor force participation on fertility are coded under F.1. General Fertility and cross-referenced here.

60:30625 Desai, Sonalde; Jain, Devaki. Maternal employment and changes in family dynamics: the social context of women's work in rural South India. Population and Development Review, Vol. 20, No. 1, Mar 1994. 115-36, 249-52 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The goal of this article is to examine the role of gender inequality within the political economy in shaping intrafamily dynamics associated with women's employment. In particular, we examine the relationship between maternal employment and child welfare in the context of gender inequality in the labor market, poverty, and lack of access to infrastructure in rural South India....Results from a household survey...suggest a need for grounding this line of research in a wider institutional context. When pervasive poverty and lack of access to modern conveniences are taken into account, mothers who do not work in the market in fact devote much time to domestic activities. Regardless of the type of maternal employment, therefore, most children spend several hours per day in the care of older siblings or grandmothers. Thus, the concern that maternal employment exposes children to inferior forms of alternate care is misplaced."
Correspondence: S. Desai, Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30626 Duleep, Harriet O.; Sanders, Seth. Identifying stable child status-work relationships for married women: insights from recent immigrants. Program for Research on Immigration Policy Discussion Paper, No. PRIP-UI-32, Feb 1994. 21, [11] pp. Urban Institute, Program for Research on Immigration Policy: Washington, D.C. Distributed by Urban Institute, Publications Office, P.O. Box 7273, Dept. C, Washington, D.C. 20044. In Eng.
Using micro data from the 5% 'A' Public Use Sample of the 1980 U.S. Census of Population, the authors test "the robustness of prior work history as a predictor of current labor supply by examining the dynamic labor supply of American-born white women and three ethnically distinct groups of...women who recently immigrated from countries with different cultural norms concerning fertility, child rearing, family roles, and the involvement of women in the labor force. Confirming previous research on ethnic differences in female labor supply, we find large intergroup differences in labor supply not conditioning on previous employment. However, when we account for labor supply in the previous year, intergroup differences in current employment rates narrow dramatically and similar child status-work relationships emerge."
Correspondence: H. O. Duleep, 4417 Yuma Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20016. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30627 Duleep, Harriet O.; Sanders, Seth. The decision to work by married immigrant women. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, Vol. 46, No. 4, Jul 1993. 67-80 pp. Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
"Using 1980 Census data, the authors analyze the labor force participation of married immigrant Asian women [in the United States] by country of origin, compared with that of married immigrant women from Europe and Canada. The results suggest the existence of a family investment strategy: evidence from both across groups and within groups indicates that a woman's decision to work is affected by whether she has a husband who invests in skills specific to the U.S. labor market, and also by the extent of that investment. Such a family response may help offset the low earnings of immigrant men who initially lack skills for which there is a demand in the American labor market."
Correspondence: H. O. Duleep, Urban Institute, P.O. Box 7273, Department C, Washington, D.C. 20044. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30628 Findeis, Jill L.; Lass, Daniel A. Labor decisions by agricultural households: interrelationships between off-farm labor supply and hired labor demand. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 94-08, [1994]. 27 pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"This research examines the interrelationships between farm operator off-farm labor supply and hired labor use [in the United States]. A two-stage approach...is used to examine: (a) principal farm operator off-farm labor supply when farms hire labor and when they do not, and (b) hired farm labor use when the principal farm operator works off-farm and when the operator does not."
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6411. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30629 Findeis, Jill L. Utilization of U.S. rural labor resources. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 94-07, [1994]. 30, [4] pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
This paper "assesses the current extent of use of labor resources in the nonmetropolitan U.S. and examines the implications of alternative industries and labor market structures for generating (adequate) employment and improving economic well-being....[It] first examines studies of underemployment, focusing on differences in labor market outcomes between demographic groups and then on the relationships between these outcomes and specific industries. Labor market research analyzing rural or nonmetro labor markets is then assessed."
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6411. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30630 Furuya, Kenichi; Clark, Robert L. Labour force developments and emerging human resource policies in Japan. In: Human resources in development along the Asia-Pacific Rim, edited by Naohiro Ogawa, Gavin W. Jones, and Jeffrey G. Williamson. 1993. 210-25 pp. Oxford University Press, South-East Asian Publishing Unit: Singapore. In Eng.
"This chapter reviews important demographic and human resource changes in the Japanese labour force during the 1950s to 1980s. The importance of these changes in influencing past economic growth is assessed and the prospects for the future are explored given the current trends in the labour force." The authors conclude that "to a considerable degree, the future economic success of Japan will depend on its ability to adapt to an ageing labour force. The days of a young, growing labour force in which educational attainment was increasing rapidly are over. Labour productivity and labour costs of production will depend on the effective management of an ageing labour force."
Correspondence: K. Furuya, Nihon University, College of Economics, Tokyo 102, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

60:30631 Gurak, Douglas T.; Kritz, Mary M. Context versus culture: household composition and employment among Dominican and Colombian women. Population and Development Program Working Paper Series, No. 93.07, May 1992. 13 pp. Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program: Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
"The present analysis seeks to explore in greater detail the extent to which context factors, in contrast to group-specific factors or culture, condition the relationship between household composition and labor force participation. To accomplish this, two immigrant hispanic groups in New York City (Colombians and Dominicans) are examined and their dynamics compared to those of one of the groups (Dominicans) in the origin context."
Correspondence: Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program, 134 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30632 Hayghe, Howard V.; Bianchi, Suzanne M. Married mothers' work patterns: the job-family compromise. Monthly Labor Review, Vol. 117, No. 6, Jun 1994. 24-30 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This article examines the issue of time spent in market work by looking at married [U.S.] mothers' work experience during calendar year 1992. The data are based on information collected yearly in March in the Current Population Survey....Differences in work experience by a variety of personal and family characteristics--including husbands' annual work experience--are also examined. Additionally, this article traces the broad trends in married mothers' work experience over the past 20 years." The authors find that "the amount of time married mothers spend working for pay affects, not only their families and children, but also mothers' personal economic outcomes."
Correspondence: H. V. Hayghe, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Division of Labor Force Statistics, Washington, D.C. 20212. Location: Princeton University Library (Docs).

60:30633 Henkens, Kene; Meijer, Liana; Siegers, Jacques. The labour supply of married and cohabiting women in the Netherlands, 1981-1989. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 9, No. 4, 1993. 331-52 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"In this article we investigate the differences in labour supply of married women and cohabiting women in the Netherlands; we try to answer the question how these differences can be explained. From this study, it can be concluded that differences between both categories of women in participation and in weekly hours worked can predominantly be explained by differences in characteristics (e.g. age, net wage rate, and age of children), than by differences in behaviour. The empirical results indicate that cohabiting women are more economically independent than married women. However for married women we found evidence that there was increased economic independence during the eighties; i.e. their weekly hours work has become less affected by the income of their partners."
Correspondence: K. Henkens, Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute, Postbus 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30634 Joesch, Jutta M. Children and the timing of women's paid work after childbirth: a further specification of the relationship. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 56, No. 2, May 1994. 429-40 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"The concept of opportunity cost of time, Cox hazards models, and data on 597 women from the 1983-1987 waves of the [U.S.] Panel Study of Income Dynamics are used to analyze when women start paid work following a birth. By the beginning of month 5 after delivery, half of the women had started paid work. Work status during pregnancy has the largest effect on the timing, but family income, the federal income tax rate, and home ownership also matter. Of several measures for children, having a second or fourth child are the only ones related to the timing of paid work, if work status during pregnancy is not controlled for."
Correspondence: J. M. Joesch, University of Utah, Department of Family and Consumer Studies, 228 AEB, Salt Lake City, UT 84112. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30635 Joshi, Heather; Hinde, P. R. Andrew. Employment after childbearing in post-war Britain: cohort-study evidence on contrasts within and across generations. European Sociological Review, Vol. 9, No. 3, Dec 1993. 203-27 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In post-war Britain, mothers have been returning to the labour-market after diminishing breaks around childbearing. Longitudinal data, mainly from two generations in the National Survey of the 1946 cohort, are used to describe and help explain the trend. Class and regional differences diminish over time, both in simple two-way analyses and in multiple (hazard) regression. Women's education and occupational attainments retain a positive effect on their chances of entering employment over the two generations. The weakening of class differentials is taken to signal a reduction in the income effect of a shifting labour-supply function."
Correspondence: H. Joshi, City University of London, Northhampton Square, London EC1V 0HB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

60:30636 Leinbach, Thomas R.; Smith, Adrian. Off-farm employment, land, and life cycle: transmigrant households in South Sumatra, Indonesia. Economic Geography, Vol. 70, No. 3, Jul 1994. 273-96 pp. Worcester, Massachusetts. In Eng.
This paper examines the role that off-farm employment (OFE) plays in the restructuring of peasant economies. In particular, we examine the incidence and pattern of labor allocation as it relates to landownership and family life cycle (FLC) stages in the Indonesian transmigration program....Using a sample of South Sumatran transmigration schemes, our findings show that both size of landholdings and the life cycle stage of the family influence labor allocation decisions....The results show how landownership and other means of production can influence the trade-off between children's education and the use of child labor at various stages in the FLC."
Correspondence: T. R. Leinbach, University of Kentucky, Department of Geography, Lexington, KY 40506-0027. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

60:30637 Lim, Lin Lean. The feminization of labour in the Asia-Pacific Rim countries: from contributing to economic dynamism to bearing the brunt of structural adjustments. In: Human resources in development along the Asia-Pacific Rim, edited by Naohiro Ogawa, Gavin W. Jones, and Jeffrey G. Williamson. 1993. 175-209 pp. Oxford University Press, South-East Asian Publishing Unit: Singapore. In Eng.
"This chapter examines changing labour force participation of women in the growth and adjustment processes in the ASEAN and East Asian countries in the 1960s-1980s. It analyses the extent to which and the conditions under which the female gender has influenced and been influenced by the economic performance in these countries. [The author concludes that] while female participation made available not only elastic labour supply at low cost, but also the unique human resource qualities that fuelled the economic spurt of these countries in the 1960s and 1970s, women appear to have borne the brunt of the economic reversal and structural adjustments of the 1980s."
Correspondence: L. L. Lim, International Labour Organization, Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, G.P.O. Box 1759, 10th Floor, UN Building, Sala Santitham, Bangkok 10200, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

60:30638 Marchand, Olivier. Women's labor force activity during the early 1990s. [L'activite professionnelle des femmes au debut des annees 1990.] Population, Vol. 48, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1993. 1,947-60 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
"In spite of a reduction in the length of their working life (longer education and earlier retirement), the number of economically active women in France increased between 1982 and 1990. This resulted from higher labour force participation between the ages of 25 and 55, where the [impact] of marital status on labour force participation has gradually declined. This trend has been found both among skilled workers, where women's working conditions tend to be similar to those of men, and also among the less skilled, temporary or part-time workers. But the appearance of women in the male-dominated tertiary sector has not affected the high concentration of women's jobs in particular occupations."
Correspondence: O. Marchand, Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, 18 boulevard Adolphe Pinard, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30639 Molinie, Anne-Francoise. Activity sectors and age groups. [Des secteurs et des ages.] Population, Vol. 48, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1993. 1,961-83 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
"In this article, which is based mainly on census data, the author analyses the age distributions of workers in different sectors of activity between 1975 and 1990 [in France]. Two models are used to estimate how both stability and changes in these age distributions are related to variations in numbers of workers, and population replacement."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30640 Nyberg, Anita. The social construction of married women's labour-force participation: the case of Sweden in the twentieth century. Continuity and Change, Vol. 9, No. 1, May 1994. 145-56 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"Data derived from censuses tell us that the proportion of married women in the labour-force has increased considerably in all European countries since the beginning of this century. However, this increase is to a great extent a social construction of reality based on prevailing ideologies rather than a description of fact....I shall present the change in ideology and compare some data showing the extent of married women's actual labour-force work with the data presented in the censuses of married women's labour-force participation. I conclude by charting the participation of women in the labour-force in Sweden in the first sixty years of this century as it would be measured if the present-day definition of 'labour-force' had been in effect then."
Correspondence: A. Nyberg, Linkoping University, Department of Technology and Social Change, 581 83 Linkoping, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30641 Ogawa, Naohiro; Tsuya, Noriko O.; Wongsith, Malinee; Choe, Ehn-Hyun. Health status of the elderly and their labour force participation in the developing countries along the Asia-Pacific Rim. In: Human resources in development along the Asia-Pacific Rim, edited by Naohiro Ogawa, Gavin W. Jones, and Jeffrey G. Williamson. 1993. 349-72 pp. Oxford University Press, South-East Asian Publishing Unit: Singapore. In Eng.
"This chapter examines the relationships between two key factors in human resource development, that is, the work pattern of the elderly and its relationship with their health status. To achieve this objective, micro-level data gathered in Thailand and South Korea are heavily drawn upon. To facilitate the statistical analysis which follows, the demographic profile of the aged population and their socio-economic status in developing countries along the [Asia-Pacific] Rim is first reviewed....Later...an attempt is made to analyse the effect of a change in the health status of elderly persons upon their labour force participation in [Thailand and South Korea] at different stages of economic development."
Correspondence: N. Ogawa, Nihon University, Population Research Institute, 3-2 Misaki-cho, 1-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

60:30642 Pischke, Jorn-Steffen; Velling, Johannes. Wage and employment effects of immigration to Germany: an analysis based on local labour markets. CEPR Discussion Paper, No. 935, Mar 1994. 34 pp. Centre for Economic Policy Research [CEPR]: London, England. In Eng.
"We analyse the impact of increased immigration on labour market outcomes of natives in [West] Germany using a dataset of county-level variables for the late 1980s. We study two measures of immigration, the change in the share of foreigners between 1985 and 1989, and one-year gross and net flows of immigrants to an area....Especially for unemployment we find large effects of an increased foreign share. We conjecture that these results might be spurious."
Correspondence: Centre for Economic Policy Research, 25-28 Old Burlington Street, London W1X 1LB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30643 Sacks, Michael P. Work force composition, patriarchy, and social change. In: Geographic perspectives on Soviet Central Asia, edited by Robert A. Lewis. 1992. 181-207 pp. Routledge: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
This chapter examines the relationships among regional, ethnic, and gender divisions in the work force of the former Soviet Central Asia. The nature of inequalities in the region and the ways in which work and family life may be suppressing out-migration of indigenous ethnic groups are considered.
Location: Rutgers University Library, New Brunswick, NJ.

60:30644 Schmidt, Christoph M. The earnings dynamics of immigrant labour. CEPR Discussion Paper, No. 763, Jan 1993. 30, [2] pp. Centre for Economic Policy Research [CEPR]: London, England. In Eng.
"Empirical evidence on the labour market performance of immigrants shows that migrant workers suffer from an initial earnings disadvantage compared to observationally equivalent native workers, but that their subsequent earnings tend to increase faster than native earnings....This paper proposes a contract theoretic model as an alternative to [a] productivity related [explanation]. It is argued here that the possible distinction of migrants according to their return propensities provides a natural experiment for tests for the underlying process. A test with [West] German data weakly supports the contract model."
Correspondence: Centre for Economic Policy Research, 25-28 Old Burlington Street, London W1X 1LB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30645 Teachman, Jay D.; Call, Vaughn R. A.; Carver, Karen P. Marital status and the duration of joblessness among white men. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 56, No. 2, May 1994. 415-28 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"In this article we investigate the relationship between men's marital status and duration of spells of joblessness. We outline a rationale for expecting men's marital status to be related to duration of joblessness and provide empirical estimates for a sample of 2,851 white men from Washington state followed from approximately ages 16-18 to approximately ages 29-31....Our results indicate that marital status is a significant predictor of length of time spent without a job. After leaving employment, married men spend significantly less time unemployed than do single men. Our results also suggest that there may be a direct causal effect associated with being married....There is...no support for the notion that marital status has an indirect causal influence on duration of joblessness."
Correspondence: J. D. Teachman, Washington State University, Department of Human Development, Pullman, WA 99164. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30646 van Dijk, Liset; Koot-du Buy, Alice H. E. B.; Siegers, Jacques J. Day-care supply by Dutch municipalities. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 9, No. 4, 1993. 315-30 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"In this article we report and discuss our investigation into differences in day-care supply among Dutch municipalities....A description of day care in the Netherlands in relation to female labour supply is given....Attention is given to the comparison of the Netherlands with other European countries....Hypotheses are formulated concerning differences in day-care supply among Dutch municipalities."
Correspondence: L. van Dijk, University of Utrecht, Department of Sociology, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


Copyright © 1994-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.