Volume 60 - Number 3 - Fall 1994

H. Migration

Studies that treat quantitative data on migration analytically. Methodological studies concerned primarily with migration are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , as appropriate. Includes some consideration of policy aspects, but studies relating primarily to policies designed to affect migration are coded under M.3. Measures Affecting Migration .

H.1. General Migration

Studies that concern both international and internal migration.

60:30393 Ascoli, Luca; Bonifazi, Corrado. The new dimension in international migration: information networks and migration plans in a city in the north of Ghana. [La nuova realta delle migrazioni internazionali: reti informative e progetti migratori in una citta del nord del Ghana.] Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione Working Paper, No. 04/93, 1994. 58 pp. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione [IRP]: Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
This is an analysis of migration expectations and information gathered from 142 men between the ages of 18 and 50 and living in Bolgatanga, northern Ghana. The results indicate a significant potential for migration, in that 72.5 percent of those interviewed want to go and work in the large cities in the south of the country, and 81.7 percent intend to eventually go abroad to work. The existence of a growing network of family and friends for migrants already located in developed countries is noted.
Correspondence: Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione, Viale Beethoven 56, 00144 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30394 Assar, Hamid H. Family migration in Iran: the role of women and kinship ties, 1976-1986. Pub. Order No. DA9403049. 1993. 177 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study, prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, "is an economic and statistical analysis of family migration in Iran....Two principle concerns of this study are to evaluate whether the labor force participation and nonmarket activities of wives are dominant factors in family migration, and whether the presence of strong ties to kinship group at the region of birth is a salient factor in determining the probability of household migration."
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 54(8).

60:30395 Courgeau, Daniel. From the group to the individual: what can be learned from migratory behavior. [Du groupe a l'individu: l'exemple des comportements migratoires.] Population, Vol. 49, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1994. 7-25 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The hypotheses, objectives, formulations and characteristics which social scientists use in their research differ greatly, depending on whether they are studying group or individual behavior. At the aggregate level, they tend to use the overall characteristics of the group to figure out its behavior. Conversely, at the individual level, they focus on various elements of each person's biography. This article attempts to link the results obtained at these two levels of aggregation both from a theoretical and a practical point of view. It uses data from a biographical survey which have been [analyzed] both from the individual and the aggregate point of view, to study migration behaviour." The data concern individuals aged 45-69 who were interviewed in France in 1981.
Correspondence: D. Courgeau, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30396 De Rose, Carlo. Family and migration strategies in the Senegal basin. [Famiglia e strategie migratorie nel bacino del Senegal.] Studi Emigrazione/Etudes Migrations, Vol. 31, No. 113, Mar 1994. 107-32 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
A comparison of migration patterns among the Soninke and Toucouleur ethnic groups that inhabit the Senegal river region is presented using data from a 1991-1992 survey of 3,400 rural families. "The differences primarily regard the duration and the destination in their migration patterns. Those differences are then analyzed according to family's subsistence strategies and multi-level activity as well as the system of social relationships which develop between the emigrant and his/her family or community of origin."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30397 Dunlop, John B. Will a large-scale migration of Russians to the Russian Republic take place over the current decade? International Migration Review, Vol. 27, No. 3, Fall 1993. 605-29 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
The author discusses "the likely scale of in-migration from the other former union republics into the Russian Republic over the remainder of this decade....I believe that during the 1990s there will be continued mass in-migration into Russia from the seven former union republics of Central Asia and the Transcaucasus....I also foresee that Russians will continue to leave such inhospitable milieux as southern Kazakhstan and western Ukraine."
Correspondence: J. B. Dunlop, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30398 Gill, H. Leroy; Haurin, Donald R.; Phillips, Jeff. Mobility and fertility in the military. Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 75, No. 2, Jun 1994. 340-53 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"This paper uses a survey of military couples [in the United States] to study the relationship between moves to a new geographical location and the number and timing of births. The analysis finds that each move permanently reduces a woman's wage by 2.8 percent, lowering the cost in foregone earnings of time devoted to child care, and thereby increasing expected completed fertility. Also, because a move depresses a woman's potential current wage, it raises the probability of birth near the time of a move."
Correspondence: H. L. Gill, Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 54533. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

60:30399 Illes, Sandor. Migration units among those moving into the town of Paszto. [Vandorlasi egysegek a Pasztora koltozok koreben.] Demografia, Vol. 36, No. 4, 1993. 454-63 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng.
Results of a summary of migration to the town of Paszto, Hungary, between 1989 and 1991 are presented. The focus is on families that migrated as a unit rather than on individuals. The author notes that families in fact seem to be more mobile than individuals.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30400 Ojha, V. P.; Pandey, Himanshu. A modified probability model for out-migration. Janasamkhya, Vol. 9, No. 1-2, Jun 1991. 75-81 pp. Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
"In this paper an attempt is made to describe the probability model of the total number of migrants [at the household level]. The suitability of the model is tested through observed data [for India]."
Correspondence: V. P. Ojha, University of Gorakhpur, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Gorakhpur, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30401 Perera, P. D. A. Migration and its implications for socio-economic development policies. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 124, Nov 1993. 126-33 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This paper considers migration and its implications for socio-economic development policies in Asia. It notes the factors and processes involved in growing urbanization and international migration, examines some of the problems associated with migration flows, and suggests ways to deal with them. Although there are common problems related to internal and international migration, their magnitude and intensity differ and are country-specific."
Correspondence: P. D. A. Perera, Marga Institute, Social Development and Human Resource Studies Division, P.O.B. 601, 61 Isipathana Mawatha, Colombo, Sri Lanka. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30402 Petrova, T. P. The mechanism of migratory exchange: research methods. [Mekhanizm migratsionnogo obmena: metody issledovaniya.] ISBN 5-12-002182-4. LC 92-244815. 1992. 138 pp. Naukova Dumka: Kiev, Ukraine. In Rus.
This study explores the available methodology for analyzing, modeling, and forecasting trends in migration. The geographical focus is on migration both within the Ukraine and between the Ukraine and other parts of the former Soviet Union. Alternative methods of projecting future trends are considered, and the effects of using different methods on labor force projections in the countries concerned are reviewed.
Correspondence: Naukova Dumka, Ul. Repina 3, 252601 Kiev 4, Ukraine. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

60:30403 Schnell, Izhak; Graicer, Iris. Rejuvenation of population in Tel-Aviv inner city. Geographical Journal, Vol. 160, No. 2, Jul 1994. 185-97 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The characteristics of in-migration to Tel Aviv, Israel, are analyzed for the period 1962-1988. The authors conclude that "the formation of a new in-migration stream to the inner city...in the 1960s does not fit the gentrification model. Instead, groups of the new middle class were attracted to the inner city where they replaced the elderly middle-class households that were in the final stages of their life cycles. Gentrification in the southern fringe of the inner city is merely a by-product of the major process."
Correspondence: I. Schnell, Tel Aviv University, Department of Geography, P.O.B. 39040, Ramat Aviv, 699578 Tel Aviv, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

60:30404 Shin, Chang-Ho. Migration cost externality and interregional equilibrium. Annals of Regional Science, Vol. 28, No. 2, 1994. 139-51 pp. Secaucus, New Jersey/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"This paper will investigate the characteristics of population allocation between two regions in the presence of migration cost. It will also examine both populations and the non-migration range of the initial population in which migration does not occur, in social optimum and market equilibrium with central government intervention, to reveal migration cost externality, and to propose a remedy for it." The author finds that "migration cost gives the social planner an additional burden of population reallocation, and it has an important effect upon an individual's decisions on migration in a decentralized market mechanism."
Correspondence: C.-H. Shin, Seoul Development Institute, Seoul 135-090, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

60:30405 Vijverberg, Wim P. M. Labour market performance as a determinant of migration. Economica, Vol. 60, No. 238, May 1993. 143-60 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Are migrants more productive workers than non-migrants? Such a comparison concerns both observed and unobservable productivity factors. This paper focuses on the correlation between unobservable factors at places of origin and destination. A human capital model of migration demonstrates that more productive workers at the origin would migrate only if the correlation between origin and destination factors is strongly positive. Longitudinal data from Cote d'Ivoire suggest that, indeed, the more productive workers do migrate. Furthermore, people migrate generally towards cities. Therefore, rural areas lose their productive workers; urban areas may gain in productivity from the geographical shifts in population."
Correspondence: W. P. M. Vijverberg, University of Texas at Dallas, Box 830688, Richardson, TX 75083-0688. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

H.2. International Migration

Studies concerned with international migration, including the brain drain.

60:30406 Abella, Manolo I. Turning points in labor migration. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 3, No. 1, 1994. 202 pp. Scalabrini Migration Center: Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"The articles that are contained in this special issue...came from papers commissioned by the ILO and presented at the Conference on Turning Points in International Labour Migration in April 1993, co-organized with the Korea Labor Institute and the United Nations University. What gave birth to these articles is the observation that the successfully industrializing countries of East Asia appear to have passed through a 'migration transition' within a relatively short period of time. The transition involved the decline in the absolute as well as relative levels of net emigration from these countries soon after they reached full employment....[The focus of these papers is on] finding out how migration transition may be understood in terms of standard macroeconomic theory."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Scalabrini Migration Center, P.O. Box 10541 Broadway Centrum, 1113 Quezon City, Philippines. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30407 Addleton, Jonathan S. Undermining the centre: the Gulf migration and Pakistan. ISBN 0-19-577418-3. 1992. xiv, 232 pp. Oxford University Press: Karachi, Pakistan. In Eng.
This study analyzes the large-scale migration of labor from Pakistan to the Middle East during the 1970s and 1980s. Specifically, the author examines why this migration happened and assesses its impact on Pakistan. He concludes that "in Pakistan,...large-scale labour migration was followed by a series of significant economic and political impacts, some of which had the effect of subverting long accepted central government planning priorities, diminishing the impact of official investment decisions, undermining preferred modes of development and, on occasion, rendering the central government almost irrelevant. Individuals, households, and communities that had previously been only marginally involved in the national economy participated in migration in a massive way. At the same time, migration to the Middle East introduced an element of informal, diffused decision-making that had heretofore been largely absent. The unexpected result was that a government which first accepted migration and then actively sought to promote it ultimately found its own role as the prime mover and shaper of national development diminished."
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, 5 Bangalore Town, Sharae Faisal, P.O. Box 13033, Karachi 75350, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

60:30408 Alburo, Florian A. Trade and turning points in labor migration. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 3, No. 1, 1994. 49-80 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"This article examines the relationship between trade and migration for the Philippines, South Korea and Thailand using three methods: (1) a comparison of graphic representations of trade and migration flows; (2) postulation and testing of a statistical relationship; and (3) a comparison of revealed comparative advantage for goods with that for services. In addition, trade and migration flows are presented for other Asian countries, namely Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. The results reveal a correlation between turning points in trade and migration that supports the existing view that these flows are substitutes."
Correspondence: F. A. Alburo, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30409 Bedford, Richard. Migration and restructuring: reflections on New Zealand in the 1980s. New Zealand Population Review, Vol. 19, No. 1-2, May-Nov 1993. 1-14 pp. Wellington, New Zealand. In Eng.
"This paper reviews in general terms some developments during the 1980s in the main components of New Zealand's contemporary migration system: trans-Tasman movements, immigration from the Pacific Islands, Asian migration to New Zealand, European immigration, and internal population movements. Discussion then returns to the internationalisation of New Zealand's society and economy in the context of issues to do with data collection, especially the vexed question of monitoring flows into and out of the country under the proposed single customs and immigration border for Australia and New Zealand."
Correspondence: R. Bedford, University of Waikato, Department of Geography, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30410 Bonifazi, Corrado. From the third world to Italy: the experience of a new immigration country, between growth of push factors and containment policies. Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione Working Paper, No. 05/93, 1994. 21 pp. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione [IRP]: Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The transformation during the 1980s of Italy into a country of immigration, particularly from developing countries, is explored. The author notes that "in less than twenty years the number of Third World citizens processing a sojourn permit has increased 15 times, going from 33,700 in 1975 to 517,300 in 1992." He also notes that the immigrants come from a wide range of developing countries rather than from any specific country or region. The development of Italian immigration policy in response to these changes is described.
Correspondence: Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione, Viale Beethoven 56, 00144 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30411 Cohen, Yinon; Tyree, Andrea. Palestinian and Jewish Israeli-born immigrants in the United States. International Migration Review, Vol. 28, No. 2, Summer 1994. 243-55 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article considers both Arab and Jewish emigration from Israel to the United States, relying on the 5 percent Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) of the 1980 U.S. census. Using the ancestry and language questions to identify Jews and Arabs, we found that over 30 percent of Israeli-born Americans are Palestinian-Arab natives of Israel, the West Bank, and Gaza Strip. While the Jews are of higher educational levels, hold better jobs and enjoy higher incomes than their Arab counterparts, both groups have relatively high socioeconomic characteristics. Both have high rates of self-employment, particularly the Palestinian-Arabs, who appear to serve as middlemen minority in the grocery store business in the cities where they reside. The fact that nearly a third of Israeli-born immigrants are Arabs accounts for the occupational diversity previously observed of Israelis in America but does not account for their income diversity as much as does differences between early and recent immigrants."
Correspondence: Y. Cohen, Tel Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv, 69 978 Tel Aviv, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30412 Cornelius, Wayne A. The "new" immigration and the politics of cultural diversity in the United States and Japan. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 2, No. 4, 1993. 439-50 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"Certain parallels between the recent experience of Japan and that of the United States with immigration from Third World countries are increasingly evident. In this discussion, I shall focus on these key similarities rather than the obvious differences between the two countries, in terms of culture, economy, political system, and 'immigration profile'." Aspects considered include the structural nature of the demand for foreign labor, the composition of immigrant stocks and flows, public tolerance, and contradictions in government policies.
Correspondence: W. A. Cornelius, University of California, Department of Political Science, 1333 Landfair Road, San Diego, CA 92130. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30413 Cornelius, Wayne A.; Martin, Philip L. The uncertain connection: free trade and rural Mexican migration to the United States. International Migration Review, Vol. 27, No. 3, Fall 1993. 484-512 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"Will a North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) decrease Mexican migration to the United States, as the U.S. and Mexican governments assert, or increase migration beyond the movement that would otherwise occur, as NAFTA critics allege? This article argues that it is easy to overestimate the additional emigration from rural Mexico owing to NAFTA-related economic restructuring in Mexico. The available evidence suggests four major reasons why Mexican emigration may not increase massively, despite extensive restructuring and displacement from traditional agriculture....NAFTA-related economic displacement in Mexico may yield an initial wave of migration to test the U.S. labor market, but this migration should soon diminish if the jobs that these migrants seek shift to Mexico."
Correspondence: W. A. Cornelius, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30414 Diamantides, N. D. The macrodynamics of international migration as a socio-cultural diffusion process. Part B: applications. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Vol. 42, No. 4, Dec 1992. 385-408 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study formulates a model of the macrodynamics of international migration using a differential equation to capture the push-pull forces that propel it. The model's architecture rests on the functioning of information feedback between settled friends and family at the destination and potential emigrants at the origin....Two specific paradigms of diverse nature serve to demonstrate the model's tenets and pertinence, one being Greek emigration to the United States since 1820, and the other total out-migration from Cyprus since statehood (1946)."
For Part A, also published in 1992, see 59:20523.
Correspondence: N. D. Diamantides, Kent State University, Department of Geography, P.O. Box 5190, Kent, OH 44242-0001. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30415 Duleep, Harriet O.; Regets, Mark C. The elusive concept of immigrant quality. Program for Research on Immigration Policy Discussion Paper, No. PRIP-UI-28, May 1994. 25, [4] pp. Urban Institute, Program for Research on Immigration Policy: Washington, D.C. Distributed by Urban Institute, Publications Office, P.O. Box 7273, Dept. C, Washington, D.C. 20044. In Eng.
The authors examine the literature on the quality of U.S. immigrants, as measured by entry wages, and how this indicator has changed over time. They conclude that "entry earnings are a poor measure of quality if they are not a good predictor of immigrants' U.S. life-cycle earnings patterns. This article presents strong evidence of a systematic and important inverse relationship between initial immigrant earnings and subsequent earnings growth."
Correspondence: H. O. Duleep, 4417 Yuma Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20016. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30416 Espenshade, Thomas J. A stone's throw from Ellis Island. Economic implications of immigration to New Jersey. ISBN 0-8191-9416-6. LC 93-39234. 1994. x, 441 pp. University Press of America: Lanham, Maryland/London, England. In Eng.
This is a collection of eight studies that concern the economic impact on the state of New Jersey of recent immigration. "Three specific economic issues are explored: (1) job competition--do immigrant workers displace native workers, particularly at the low end of the skill ladder? (2) wage depression--does the increased size of the labor pool caused by immigration set in motion market forces that in turn cause the wages of native workers to fall? and (3) fiscal impacts--what is the net effect of the increased flow of immigrants on the use of government services and the growth of government revenues?" The primary data source is public-use microdata samples from the 1980 U.S. census.
Correspondence: University Press of America, 4720 Boston Way, Lanham, MD 20706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30417 Fang, Di. The impact of a new structural change on the attainment patterns of Japanese immigrants in the 1980s. Population and Development Program Working Paper Series, No. 93.06, [1993]. 15, [8] pp. Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program: Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
"This study examines the impact of economic activities of Japan in the United States on the socioeconomic attainments of Japanese immigrants....The results suggest the importance of a new structural change, the economic globalization of Japan in the 1980s, in explaining the patterns of socioeconomic attainments of Japanese immigrants."
This paper was originally presented at the 1993 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program, 134 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30418 Fields, Gary S. The migration transition in Asia. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 3, No. 1, 1994. 7-30 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"This theoretical discussion of the migration transition in Asia develops a framework to understand the turning point from labor exporter to labor importer experienced by the Asian NIES [newly industrialized economies] (Hong Kong, Korea, Singapore and Taiwan). The author concludes that the NIEs' demand for labor curve shifted rapidly, primarily due to export-led growth of a labor-intensive character. Because these economies are well integrated, improvements in labor market conditions in individual sectors are transmitted to all workers, discouraging emigration."
Correspondence: G. S. Fields, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30419 Funkhouser, Edward; Ramos, Fernando A. The choice of migration destination: Dominican and Cuban immigrants to the mainland United States and Puerto Rico. International Migration Review, Vol. 27, No. 3, Fall 1993. 537-56 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"Puerto Rico provides an alternative destination for immigrants from the Spanish-speaking Caribbean because the culture is similar to that in the source country. In this study, we use the 1980 [U.S.] Census of Population to examine the importance of relative earnings and culture in the choice of destination. The main finding is the similar pattern of choice of location for immigrants from the Dominican Republic and Cuba. The more educated and more professional immigrants are found in either Puerto Rico or outside the enclave on the [U.S.] mainland. Within this group, those with less time remaining in the labor market and lower English ability are found in Puerto Rico. We find that not all differences in location decision are attributable to differences in reward structure by location."
Correspondence: E. Funkhouser, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30420 Gehrig, Anette; Schmidt, Christoph M.; Zimmermann, Klaus F. Mass migration, unions and fiscal migration policy. CEPR Discussion Paper, No. 727, Oct 1992. 20, [3] pp. Centre for Economic Policy Research [CEPR]: London, England. In Eng.
"Much of the migration literature focuses on the determination of the size of the immigration flow given a fixed minimum wage and the level of unemployment in the destination area. By contrast, this paper concentrates on the mechanism of wage determination in the receiving country....In particular, we model labour market imperfections by considering a single monopoly union acting on behalf of the economy's complete work force."
Correspondence: Center for Economic Policy Research, 25-28 Old Burlington Street, London W1X 1LB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30421 Globerman, Steven. The immigration dilemma. ISBN 0-88975-150-1. 1992. xii, 260 pp. Fraser Institute: Vancouver, Canada. In Eng.
This is a collection of 10 studies by different authors on aspects of immigration to Canada. "The contributions in this book indicate that extreme positions on either side of the debate are unsupportable. On balance, immigration has made modest positive contributions to the economy, while social tensions created by immigration have also been relatively modest. However, the trend towards accepting more refugees and other immigrants selected for their non-economic attributes suggests that future economic benefits will be smaller than in the past. Moreover, problems with integrating new Canadians will be greater given that they are less proficient in the official languages than earlier generations of immigrants and also possess more limited job skills."
Correspondence: Fraser Institute, 2nd Floor, 626 Bute Street, Vancouver, British Columbia V6E 3M1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

60:30422 Goldring, Luin. Mexico-U.S. migration and the transnationalization of political and social space: perspectives from rural Mexico. [La migracion Mexico-EUA y la transnacionalizacion del espacio politico y social: perspectivas desde el Mexico rural.] Estudios Sociologicos, Vol. 10, No. 29, May-Aug 1992. 315-40 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
The author examines the role migrants from Mexico to the United States continue to play in the development of the regions they leave behind. The effect of remittances on the public and private sectors in the states of Zacatecas and Michoacan is analyzed as an illustration.
Correspondence: L. Goldring, University of Illinois, Department of Sociology, 1007 West Harrison Street, Chicago, IL 60607-7140. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30423 Hourani, Albert; Shehadi, Nadim. The Lebanese in the world: a century of emigration. ISBN 1-85043-303-8. 1992. xxiv, 741 pp. Centre for Lebanese Studies: London, England; I. B. Tauris: London, England. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of a conference held in Oxford, England, in September 1989, on emigration from Lebanon during the period from the nineteenth century to the present. The papers are organized into five main parts that concern (1) historical aspects of this migration, (2) the Americas, (3) Australia, (4) Africa, and (5) emigration during the recent civil war.
Correspondence: I. B. Tauris, 45 Bloomsbury Square, London WC1 2HY, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

60:30424 Kohnert, Dirk. African refugees and migrants: "invasion of welfare-state Europe"? [Afrikanische Fluchtlinge und Migranten: "Sturm auf die Wohlstandsfeste Europa"?] Vierteljahresberichte/Problems of International Cooperation, No. 132, Jun 1993. 179-92 pp. Bonn, Germany. In Ger.
Migration and refugee movements from Sub-Saharan Africa to Europe are analyzed. Topics discussed include the volume of migration, countries of destination, the relationship of this migration to movements from other third world countries and Eastern Europe and to migration within Africa, causes of migration, major paths of migrants, costs and benefits of migration, and policy aspects.
Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

60:30425 Korner, Heiko. East-West migration--a new mass migration? [Die Ost-West-Migration--eine neue Volkerwanderung?] Wirtschaftsdienst, Vol. 73, No. 2, Feb 1993. 79-85 pp. Baden-Baden, Germany. In Ger.
The political and economic causes of increased migration from eastern and southern Europe to Germany are examined. The question of whether this migration will continue in the future is discussed, and policy options are considered.
Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

60:30426 Kritz, Mary M. International migration trends in a changing world. Population and Development Program Working Paper Series, No. 93.08, 1993. 15, [10] pp. Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program: Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
"This paper first examines recent trends in international migration in selected receiving countries....An argument is developed that international migration has to be understood as an integral component of growing interdependence among nations as a corollary of other ties and exchanges between countries. Since the policy dynamics underlying permanent and temporary immigration differ, as well as data on those flows, trends in permanent and temporary migration countries are discussed separately."
Correspondence: Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program, 134 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30427 Kunin, Roslyn. Foreign students, visitors and immigration to British Columbia. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 2, No. 4, 1993. 451-65 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"This report has provided a brief outline of business immigration to Canada and to British Columbia from several source countries in the Asian Pacific Rim. The importance of business immigration to Canada in general, and British Columbia in particular, is [examined]....Even with the limited data currently available, this brief study indicates a very high statistical relationship between business immigration and other less formal and less permanent movements of people such as student flows and visitors."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30428 Lam, Kit-Chun. Outmigration of foreign-born members in Canada. Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue Canadienne d'Economique, Vol. 27, No. 2, May 1994. 352-70 pp. Kingston, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper studies the partial effect of various socio-economic characteristics on the rate of outmigration of the foreign-born from the Canadian population. The data sets used are based on the microdata of the 1971 and 1981 censuses of population. It is found that migrants with high school education have the highest propensity to outmigrate, while those with less than high school education have the lowest. The propensity to outmigrate is positively related to the age of the migrant. Males tend to have a higher propensity to outmigrate, while having a command of official languages reduces the propensity to outmigrate."
Correspondence: K.-C. Lam, Hong Kong Baptist College, 224 Waterloo Road, Kowloon, Hong Kong. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30429 Latuch, Mikolaj. Employment and earnings of Poles abroad. [Zatrudnianie i zarobkowanie Polakow za granica.] Biuletyn IGS, Vol. 36, No. 1-2, 1993. 7-24 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The earnings of both legal and illegal Polish migrants abroad are analyzed. The characteristics of foreign employment are noted, which include its unstable nature and a general lack of safety regulations. Consideration is also given to the brain drain element. The difficulties inherent in analyzing temporary labor migration overseas are noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30430 Madinier, Chantal. The native-born population of French overseas departments. [Les originaires des departements d'outre-mer.] Population, Vol. 48, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1993. 1,855-68 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
"In 1990, the population of the French overseas departments (DOMs) (Guadeloupe, Martinique, French Guiana, and Reunion) was 1,459,000. Annual growth rates at two per cent were four times those in metropolitan France. However, the direction of the migration flow has recently been reversed, since, for the first time in 25 years, in-migrants have out-numbered out-migrants....In certain age groups, e.g. between the ages of 20 and 39, the portion of native-born expatriates living in metropolitan France reaches nearly 50 per cent. The employment situation favours native-born expatriates living in metropolitan France over native-born residence in the DOMs."
Correspondence: C. Madinier, Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, 18 boulevard Adolphe Pinard, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30431 Martinez Velasco, German. Guatemalan immigration and population in Chiapas. [Migracion y poblamiento guatemalteco en Chiapas.] Mesoamerica, Vol. 14, No. 25, Jun 1993. 73-100 pp. South Woodstock, Vermont/Antigua, Guatemala. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"Based on primary sources, this essay demonstrates the importance of the sociodemographic stratum occupied by Guatemalans living in the frontier area where Guatemala borders Chiapas [Mexico]....Historically, the main economic impetus for Guatemalan migration to Chiapas has been the labor requirements of coffee culture. This article describes the importance of movement from low income rural populations into Chiapan borderlands, with special emphasis on the naturalization process of the 1930s, whereby Guatemalan immigrants to the coffee growing region acquired Mexican citizenship."
Correspondence: G. Martinez Velasco, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Estudios Latinoamericanos, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30432 Massey, Douglas S.; Goldring, Luin; Durand, Jorge. Continuities in transnational migration: an analysis of nineteen Mexican communities. American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 99, No. 6, May 1994. 1,492-533 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"Researchers working in Mexican communities have observed both regularities and inconsistencies in the way that transnational migration develops over time. This article presents a theory that accounts for these uniformities and discrepancies and proposes a method to compare the process of migration across communities. It also argues that studies must report and control for the prevalence of migration within communities. Data from 19 Mexican communities show that predictable demographic, social, and economic changes accompany increases in migratory prevalence. Although international migration begins within a narrow range of each community's socioeconomic structure, over time it broadens to incorporate other social groups."
Correspondence: D. S. Massey, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3178 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

60:30433 Nayyar, Deepak. International labor movements, trade flows and migration transitions: a theoretical perspective. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 3, No. 1, 1994. 31-47 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"This article presents a theoretical analysis of how the processes of industrialization and development interact with international trade in goods or services to influence a country's turning point from labor exporter to labor importer. It is concluded that trade in goods complements capital movements but substitutes for labor movements, whereas trade in services and labor movements complement each other. The proposed analytical framework suggests that both international trade and migration may contribute to, but cannot lead to, a development process that brings about a migration transition in surplus labor economies."
Correspondence: D. Nayyar, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Mehrauli Road, New Delhi 110 067, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30434 Nicolaas, H. Emigration of Turks and Moroccans still at a low level. [Emigratie van Turken en Marokkanen blijft laag.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 42, No. 4, Apr 1994. 9-11 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The author discusses the migration of Turks and Moroccans in the Netherlands from 1977 to 1993, with a focus on age of migrants, length of stay, and return migration.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30435 Pang, Eng Fong. An eclectic approach to turning points in migration. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 3, No. 1, 1994. 81-91 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"The eclectic approach to migration transition presented in this article emphasizes that a country's net migration position evolves as it develops, but in ways that reflect its initial economic and sociocultural conditions and subsequent policies and economic progress. Not one but several turning points exist, influenced by economic factors such as level of development, wage differentials, and trade and investment ties, as well as social and institutional factors such as a nation's homogeneity and its migration policies. To exemplify, the migration experiences of various Asia-Pacific countries are compared."
Correspondence: E. F. Pang, National University of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore 0511. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30436 Park, Young-bum. The turning point in international migration and economic development in Korea. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 3, No. 1, 1994. 149-74 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"This article aims to analyze the factors which led to the transition in international migration in [the Republic of] Korea. Three issues are explored. First, it is argued that Korea has passed the turning point since Korea needs to accept foreign labor for unskilled jobs for some sectors of the economy. Second, we analyze factors which led Korea to reach this turning point in international migration in the context of demographic change and industrial upgrading. Third, Korea's overseas employment as well as its policy of guestworkers are also discussed in the context of the country's structural adjustment. Then, policy options concerning foreign labor import are suggested."
Correspondence: Y.-b. Park, Korea Labor Institute, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30437 Pellet, Lea B. Still sons of the shaking earth: Mexicans and Guatemalans in the East Coast migrant labor stream. Migration World, Vol. 22, No. 2-3, 1994. 28-31 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
The author reports on a survey of 375 undocumented migrants from Guatemala and Mexico working along the U.S. mid-Atlantic coast. The focus was on "documenting sojourning versus settling behaviors and intentions of migrants from Latin American homelands and assessing risk for acquiring and transmitting AIDS, sexual, and communicable diseases by internationally commuting migrants....The researchers also sought to learn why migrants come to the east coast and how living here is different from [other] parts of the country...."
Correspondence: L. B. Pellet, Christopher Newport University, Newport News, VA. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30438 Penninx, Rinus; Schoorl, Jeannette; van Praag, Carlo. The impact of international migration on receiving countries: the case of the Netherlands. NIDI/CBGS Publication, No. 28, ISBN 90-265-1344-5. 1993. 240 pp. Swets and Zeitlinger: Berwyn, Pennsylvania/Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This book has been prepared within the framework of a series of national monographs on the impact of international migration on receiving countries, initiated by the Committee for International Cooperation in National Research in Demography (CICRED) and the International Organization for Migration (IOM). It combines analyses of both the demographic and the socio-economic, cultural, and political impacts of migration on Dutch society. In Part I, the growth of the population of foreign descent and the changes in its demographic composition are described, as well as trends in and backgrounds of international migration, fertility, mortality, nuptiality, and naturalization. Part II focuses on ethnic minorities. The development of the social position of ethnic minorities is depicted, using an analytical model that includes as main indicators labour, income, social security, education, and housing....The main conclusions are summarized in Part III, and a cautious attempt is made to forecast future developments and their consequences."
Correspondence: Swets and Zeitlinger, Heereweg 347B, 2161 CA Lisse, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30439 Piche, Victor. The demo-political debate in Quebec: inclusion or exclusion? [Le discours demo-politique au Quebec: inclusion ou exclusion?] Sociologie et Societes, Vol. 24, No. 2, Autumn 1992. 143-50 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The purpose of this paper is to present some aspects of a current research project on the evolution of demographic thought on immigration and integration [in Quebec, Canada], especially since the beginning of the 1960s. The paper is divided into two parts: the first is a brief consideration of the concept of integration in demography; the second presents four propositions which we believe characterize demo-political discourse at the present time. In brief, these four propositions are: 1) immigration today is unique in the history of Quebec; 2) immigration is not a solution to apprehended demographic decline; 3) immigration is linked to Quebec's capacity to receive new immigrants; and 4) the state is the leader in policy matters. In conclusion, regarding the 'inclusion/exclusion' duality, we suggest that demo-political discourse leans more heavily toward exclusion than toward inclusion."
Correspondence: V. Piche, Universite de Montreal, Departement de Demographie, C.P. 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30440 Poot, Jacques. The role of trans-Tasman migration in forecasting the New Zealand population. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 2, No. 4, 1993. 395-416 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"This article argues that, for the short to medium term, [New Zealand population] projections can be improved upon by adopting econometric methodologies which take explicitly into account the demographic-economic two-way interaction in certain components of international migration. Specifically, the article summarizes research on the causes and consequences of trans-Tasman migration, which is the dominant component of the volatility in New Zealand's net migration. It is shown how these findings can aid population forecasting."
Correspondence: J. Poot, Victoria University, P.O. Box 600, Wellington, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30441 Poulain, Michel. Confronting the statistics on intra-European migration: toward greater harmonization? [Confrontation des statistiques de migrations intra-europeennes: vers plus d'harmonisation?] European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 9, No. 4, 1993. 353-81 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"Each international migration stream can be enumerated twice: at the time of departure from the country of emigration and at the time of arrival in the country of immigration. In practice, errors in international migration statistics are a major obstacle to the accurate analysis of migration flows. In connection with the process of harmonization set in train by Eurostat several years ago, a method of correcting defective migration data is proposed here, which makes use of this double enumeration. The method is applied to available data in a preliminary analysis. The correction factors presented here through this mathematical approach should turn out to be useful in more than one respect: to illuminate substantial problems of incompatibility of migration data and to follow the progress of the harmonization of those data."
Correspondence: M. Poulain, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie, 1 place Montesquieu, B.P. 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30442 Ravn, Morten O. Labour migration: a strategic approach. Okonomisk Institut Memo, No. 1992-11, Aug 1992. 31 pp. Aarhus Universitet, Okonomisk Institut: Aarhus, Denmark. In Eng.
"The paper analyzes the determinants and consequences of labor migration [in Europe] using a job market search model in which workers can move to other countries given that some cost is paid. This yields many important insights concerning the labour migration choice. One salient result is that with free mobility especially small economies may face serious problems." This is true both for receiving and sending small countries.
Correspondence: Aarhus Universitet, Okonomisk Institut, Building 350, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30443 Skeldon, Ronald. International migration and the ESCAP region: a policy-oriented approach. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 124, Nov 1993. 113-25 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"In the 1990s, the major issue of concern in Asia and the Pacific is not going to be fertility but population movement, and particularly the movement from one country to another....This paper seeks to identify the major issues in international population migration that will be of concern to policy-makers in the ESCAP region."
Correspondence: R. Skeldon, University of Hong Kong, Department of Geography and Geology, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30444 Skeldon, Ronald. Turning points in labor migration: the case of Hong Kong. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 3, No. 1, 1994. 93-118 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"The Hong Kong experience of emigration and immigration does not fit neatly into models of migration transition. As a city-state with a small rural population, it has exhibited different developmental characteristics from the larger Asian newly industrialized economies. Geopolitical factors have also played a key role in 'patterns' of migration, such as restrictive immigration policies in receiving countries. Also significant are individual considerations of political and economic risk, as evidenced by the current rise in the emigration of skilled and professional workers prior to the return of Hong Kong to China. The author concludes that, rather than a simple turning point in labor migration, there may be multiple turning points in a complex sequence of change."
Correspondence: R. Skeldon, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30445 Spencer, Sarah. Immigration as an economic asset: the German experience. ISBN 1-85856-010-1. 1994. xxviii, 108 pp. Trentham Books: Stoke-on-Trent, England; Institute for Public Policy Research [IPPR]: London, England. In Eng.
This is a collection of studies by five German economists and social scientists on the economic impact of migration to Germany since World War II. "The evidence--that immigrants have made a substantial contribution to the growth of the German economy, that the amount immigrants pay in taxes exceeds the amount they draw in welfare benefits, that migrants have not usually displaced German workers--has important implications for developing future immigration policies and for changing public attitudes."
Correspondence: Trentham Books, Westview House, 734 London Road, Oakhill, Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire ST4 5NP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30446 Sprangers, A. H. Residents originating from the member states of the European Community. [Personen afkomstig uit de andere lidstaten van de Europese Unie.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 42, No. 4, Apr 1994. 15-7 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"On 1 January 1992 there were 725 thousand persons residing in the Netherlands who, with respect to their country of birth or their father's or mother's country of birth, had a 'European Union background'. Some 283 thousand of them were born in another Union member state. Among them, the 128 thousand people born in Germany were the most numerous."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30447 Straubhaar, Thomas; Zimmermann, Klaus F. Towards a European migration policy. CEPR Discussion Paper, No. 641, Mar 1992. 42 pp. Centre for Economic Policy Research [CEPR]: London, England. In Eng.
"The objective of our paper is to show why migration will be one of the most important factors in affecting the human resources in Europe of the next century. We will provide some evidence that (i) immigration flows from the outside into the EC [European Community] will increase, (ii) migration flows within the EC will decrease, (iii) immigration from the outside is likely to be beneficial for the EC, and (iv) the EC needs a common immigration policy to collect the benefits from migration."
Correspondence: Centre for Economic Policy Research, 25-28 Old Burlington Street, London W1X 1LB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30448 Tas, R. F. J. Record year for Dutch nationality grants in 1993. [Recordaantal naturalisaties in 1993.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 42, No. 4, Apr 1994. 12-14 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"The annual number of non-Dutch nationals who obtained Dutch nationality other than by birth increased from more than 37 thousand in 1992 to more than 43 thousand in 1993. This strong rise was mainly due to the possibility since 1992 [of keeping one's] original nationality [when] obtaining [Dutch citizenship]." Information on migrants is included by age, country of origin, and type of regulation.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30449 Thapa, Gopal B. Impacts of emigration on mountain watersheds: the upper Pokhara Valley, Nepal. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 2, No. 4, 1993. 417-38 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"Confronted with adverse physical conditions, marginal landholdings and scarce non-farming employment opportunities, farmers in the Upper Pokhara Valley had opted for temporary emigration as an alternative strategy for fulfilling their subsistence requirements. This had caused somewhat malign effects on watershed due to dwindling farm management practices and increasing dependency on common resources....Findings of this study are envisaged to be conducive to the formulation of a comprehensive watershed management strategy, including population planning....[It is suggested] that both overpopulation and depopulation could be instrumental in watershed degradation, especially in mountainous areas where labor is a critical factor in the use and management of farmlands."
Correspondence: G. B. Thapa, Asian Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 2754, Bangkok 10501, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30450 Tribalat, Michele. Chronicle of immigration. [Chronique de l'immigration.] Population, Vol. 49, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1994. 161-210 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The author first describes the legislative changes affecting immigration adopted in France in 1993. Next, 1992 immigration flows are summarized, with consideration given to migrant characteristics, country of origin, migrant dependents, and refugees. A final section analyzes 1990 census data on immigrants living in collective households.
For a previous study concerning 1991, see 59:20565.
Correspondence: M. Tribalat, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30451 Tribalat, Michele. Immigrants and population related to their arrival in France according to the 1990 census. [Les immigres au recensement de 1990 et les populations liees a leur installation en France.] Population, Vol. 48, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1993. 1,911-46 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
"The total contribution made by foreign immigrants to the French population is based on the number of individuals born outside France, irrespective of their present nationality. The census identifies these people adequately. However, limiting the study to the foreign population results in bias, when the relative impact of different migration streams is assessed, and the behaviour and influence of immigrants studied. In particular, it magnifies the impact of African compared with European immigration....Moreover, as the immigrant population depends on continuing migration waves for its growth, it ages much faster and becomes extinct much sooner....The census can also be used to study the contribution made by foreigners, especially young foreigners, on French soil."
Correspondence: M. Tribalat, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30452 Tribalat, Michele. Setting the record straight. [Mise au point.] Population et Societes, No. 291, Jun 1994. 1-4 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
The author attempts to clarify the precise meaning of various terms used in the current debate over immigration taking place in France. The focus is on how confusion can arise when attempts are made to estimate the percentage of the resident population who are immigrants.
Correspondence: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30453 van Hoorn, W. D. The growing influence of external migration on Dutch population growth. [Buitenlandse migratie steeds belangrijker factor in bevolkingsgroei.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 42, No. 3, Mar 1994. 17-8 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"In the last three decades, about one fifth of the population growth in the Netherlands was due to external migration. At the moment this is about one third and is still increasing. After 2020 mortality will be higher than fertility, but the positive net migration will cause some further growth of the population. This situation will last until about 2030. Thereafter the number of inhabitants will decrease."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30454 Vasuprasat, Pracha. Turning points in international labor migration: a case study of Thailand. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 3, No. 1, 1994. 175-202 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"This article describes the dynamics of the structural transformation of the Thai economy, labor migration and direct foreign investment and proposes an econometric model to explain the migration phenomenon. Though migration shifts have been significantly influenced by political factors such as the Gulf crisis and tensions with Saudi Arabia, economic factors such as the Thai government's liberalization of markets and the expansion of trade and direct foreign investment have contributed to changes in labor market needs. The economic conditions of a shift from net exporter to net importer for labor are posited in the model. The empirical results reveal a turning point in labor migration from Thailand and also confirm the contribution of commodity export in place of labor export in creating employment and income."
Correspondence: P. Vasuprasat, International Labour Organisation, Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, G.P.O. Box 1759, 10th Floor, UN Building, Sala Santitham, Bangkok 10200, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30455 Verhaeren, Raphael-Emmanuel. Future trends in international migration to Europe. International Migration Review, Vol. 27, No. 3, Fall 1993. 630-8 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
The author discusses future trends in international migration to Europe, with a focus on the impact of the economic situation on labor force needs and resources. Aspects considered include changes in foreign direct investments, changes in the size of the European labor market, and the potential emigration of the labor force in underdeveloped countries.
Correspondence: R.-E. Verhaeren, Universite Pierre Mendes, Grenoble, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30456 Watanabe, Susumu. The Lewisian turning point and international migration: the case of Japan. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 3, No. 1, 1994. 119-47 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"This article critically examines the Lewisian turning point [concerning the availability of unlimited manpower resources] in light of Japan's experience since the mid-1800s. Japan reached its Lewisian turning point around 1960. Contrary to the assumptions of the theory however, the findings for Japan indicate that political factors have been more determinative of the rate of migration than purely economic ones. Prior to its turning point in 1960, international relations, war and forced repatriation were the decisive factors. Recently, though the inflow of foreign workers to fill labor shortages has increased, so also has the outflow of Japanese to accompany direct foreign investment."
Correspondence: S. Watanabe, Tokyo International University, Tokyo, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.3. Internal Migration

Studies concerned with internal migration.

60:30457 Baccaini, Brigitte; Courgeau, Daniel; Desplanques, Guy. Internal migration in France from 1982 to 1990: a comparison with previous periods. [Les migrations internes en France de 1982 a 1990: comparison avec les periodes anterieures.] Population, Vol. 48, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1993. 1,771-89 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The authors examine trends in internal migration in France between 1954 and 1990. After a period of increase (1954-1972), migratory flows began to slow down. This decline leveled off somewhat between 1982 and 1990. "The changes appear more striking and more complex when trends in net movements within regions and a fortiori figures of in-migration and out-migration are studied. In some regions it proved possible to identify similarities in migration behaviour....Different patterns were found in the Northern regions and the outer areas of the Paris region. Finally, in a significant block in the Southern region, there was marked synchronization of behaviour throughout the period from 1954 to 1990."
Correspondence: B. Baccaini, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30458 Baccaini, Brigitte. Regional attraction and repulsion between 1982 and 1990: a comparison with the period 1975-1982 and characteristics of different age groups. [Regions attractives et regions repulsives entre 1982 et 1990: comparison avec la periode 1975-1982 et specificite des differentes classes d'ages.] Population, Vol. 48, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1993. 1,791-811 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
"So-called 'gravity' models have been used to analyze migration flows by eliminating the influence of distance between areas and the size of the populations studied. Applying such a model to French interregional migration between 1982 and 1990 shows that the impact of distance is greater for young people than for adults, and especially for retired persons. Estimates based on indices of attraction and repulsion in the various regions (calculated from residual data of the model) show some significant trends during the periods 1975-1982 and 1982-1990....Analysis of 'residual flows' indicates preferred directions and 'barrier effects' between regions."
Correspondence: B. Baccaini, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30459 Burnley, Ian H. Migration and mobility issues in Australia and New Zealand in the 1990s. New Zealand Population Review, Vol. 19, No. 1-2, May-Nov 1993. 15-31 pp. Wellington, New Zealand. In Eng.
"This paper considers internal and intra-urban mobility issues in Australia and New Zealand, the many gaps in current knowledge, what research questions should be asked, and what we need to know to inform social and economic policy. Both countries are considered together because of there being effectively open borders between them, the likelihood of greater economic integration between the two countries, and evidence of growing relationships between trans-Tasman, other international migration and internal movements of people. Suggestions are made as to which census methodologies and survey approaches might elicit responses to at least some key questions pertaining to migration and its structural, ethnic, class, gender and familial aspects."
Correspondence: I. H. Burnley, University of New South Wales, Department of Geography, P.O. Box 1, Kensington, NSW 2033, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30460 Cardenas, Mauricio; Ponton, Adriana; Trujillo, Juan P. Convergence and interdepartmental migration in Colombia: 1950-1989. [Convergencia y migraciones interdepartamentales en Colombia: 1950-1989.] Coyuntura Economica, Vol. 23, No. 1, Apr 1993. 111-37 pp. Bogota, Colombia. In Spa.
The authors analyze departmental data for Colombia, with the aim of determining three things: whether there has been a postwar tendency toward convergence in the income of inhabitants of different departments; the fundamental determinants of interdepartmental migration; and the role of migratory flows from the perspective of convergence among departments.
Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

60:30461 Carter, Jack. Elderly cohort migration patterns: methodological prescriptions for future research. Garland Studies on the Elderly in America, ISBN 0-8153-1652-6. LC 93-48508. 1994. xi, 90 pp. Garland Publishing: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
This analysis of migration of the elderly in the United States for the period 1940-1980 begins with a literature review. Then "the effects of age, period, and cohort on the volume of migration/mobility will be assessed. Characteristics of cohort components, i.e., the age groups making up each cohort at successive periods, will be expressed in terms of determinants of migration derived from the elderly migration/local mobility literature and those developed by the author. Hypotheses will be developed and tested which set forth the expected effects of cohort component characteristics on migration/mobility levels. Inter- and intracohort differences in these effects will also be considered."
Correspondence: Garland Publishing, 717 Fifth Avenue, Suite 2500, New York, NY 10022. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30462 De Jong, Gordon F.; Richter, Kerry; Isarabhakdi, Pimonpan. Gender, values, and intentions to move in a developing country. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 94-11, Apr 1994. 17, [8] pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"This paper analyzes the intentions to move of male and female labor force age adults in Northeastern Thailand. We seek to extend the scientific literature on migration decision making in a developing country context in three ways: 1) by explicitly testing gender-specific models of intentions to move; 2) by exploring the determinants of change in intentions to move; and 3) by including gender-specific measures of migration-related values and the expectancies of attaining these values in the origin community in an explanatory model which includes individual, household, and community-levels factors."
This paper was originally presented at the 1994 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6411. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30463 Ebanks, G. Edward. The socioeconomic determinants of internal migration, with particular reference to the Latin American and Caribbean region. [Determinantes socioeconomicos de la migracion interna, con especial referencia a la region de America Latina y el Caribe.] CELADE Serie E, No. 38, Pub. Order No. LC/DEM/G.143. Dec 1993. 87 pp. UN Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia [CELADE]: Santiago, Chile. In Spa.
This is an analysis of both individual and family migration in Latin America and the Caribbean, the emphasis being on internal migration and its socioeconomic determinants. The importance of taking internal migration into account in the evaluation of efforts toward decentralization currently under way in many countries of the region is noted. Attention is also given to the methodological difficulties inherent in the study of internal migration.
Correspondence: UN Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia, Edificio Naciones Unidas, Avenida Dag Hammarskjold, Casilla 91, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30464 Gagnon, France. An assessment of internal migration toward Montreal in the nineteenth century. [Les migrations internes vers Montreal au XIXe siecle: un bilan.] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 21, No. 2, Autumn 1992. 31-49 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"This text first of all considers the quantitative aspects of this migratory phenomenon, demonstrating that it underwent a change of rhythm starting in the 1840s and that the 1850s and 1880s were the decades where the pace was strongest. The article also places this mobility with respect to Montreal's overall demographic context in the [nineteenth] century. A profile of the migrants is then reconstructed, as best enabled by the current state of research. The following themes are subsequently discussed: place of origin of the migrants, their demographic and professional characteristics, the causes for their migration and their integration into the place of arrival."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30465 Gibbs, Robert M. The information effects of origin on migrants' job search behavior. Journal of Regional Science, Vol. 34, No. 2, May 1994. 163-78 pp. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"Migrants are generally assumed to gather specific information about the destination primarily through physical contact, or through family, friends, and acquaintances. In this paper, I propose an additional source of information: similarities between origin and destination labor markets. Data from the 1983-1987 PSID [Panel Study of Income Dynamics] are used in a two-stage least squares model of postmove search duration in the U.S. Rural-to-urban migrants (except for rural Southerners) exhibit significantly lower search duration than other groups, controlling for productivity-related characteristics and postmove earnings. In addition, employment growth differences between origin and destination are found to be better predictors of search duration than are differences in average earnings."
Correspondence: R. M. Gibbs, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, 1301 New York Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20005-4786. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

60:30466 Hou, Feng; Beaujot, Roderic. The differentiation of determinants among return, onward and primary migrants in Canada. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 21, No. 1, 1994. 1-19 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This study examines the differences in the determinants that distinguish interprovincial primary, return and onward migrants in Canada. Using the individual file of the 1986 Census Public Use Sample, analyses are conducted both at macro or aggregate level in comparing migration across provinces, and at micro level in terms of individual propensity to undertake various types of migration. Compared to primary migrants, return migrants tend to be less educated and less economically motivated. However, it is difficult to distinguish returns due to disappointment from those involving a planned life cycle strategy. Onward migrants are more educated than primary migrants and they appear to be responding to a broader set of factors which would imply a more careful consideration of alternatives."
Correspondence: F. Hou, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30467 Ishikawa, Yoshitaka. An introductory study of transfer migration. NUPRI Research Paper Series, No. 64, Feb 1994. vi, 34 pp. Nihon University, Population Research Institute: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
The author explores "migrations due to intraorganizational job transfers...in contemporary Japan...by using the results of a survey conducted by the Institute of Population Problems in 1986. By examining the relationship between reason of last migration and migrant's attributes, we have outlined the characteristic features of Japan's transfer migrants. After discussing the effect of distance and its relationship to the urban hierarchical system, the possible empirical regularities of transfer migration in general are sought."
Correspondence: Nihon University, Population Research Institute, 3-2 Misaki-cho, 1 chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30468 Kritz, Mary M.; Nogle, June M. Social capital and internal migration among the foreign born in the United States. Population and Development Program Working Paper Series, No. 93.10, May 1993. 20 pp. Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program: Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
Factors affecting internal migration of the foreign born within the United States are analyzed, using data found in the five-percent files from the Public Use Microdata Sample of the 1980 U.S. census. The authors "examine how concentration of a relatively large number of others of the same nativity affects intrastate and interstate migration choices of immigrants. Nativity concentration can be viewed as a form of social capital that affects immigrants' perceptions of their economic, social and psychological wellbeing and thus influences their willingness to live elsewhere."
Correspondence: Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program, 134 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30469 Le Jeannic, Thomas. The role of migration in the population dynamics of the Ile-de-France. [Role des migrations dans le peuplement de l'Ile-de-France.] Population, Vol. 48, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1993. 1,813-54 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
"In its migration exchange with the provinces the Ile-de-France has remained in deficit, but the deficit has clearly become smaller since 1982. Arrivals have increased and departures decreased for the first time since 1954. The geographical distribution of migrants' origins in the Ile-de-France has not varied. It tends to gain population from other big cities and the north-east whilst part of its population tends to leave for the rural and coastal districts and neighbouring areas of the Paris basin."
Correspondence: T. Le Jeannic, Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, 18 boulevard Adolphe Pinard, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30470 Lee, Barrett A.; Oropesa, R. S.; Kanan, James W. Neighborhood context and residential mobility. Demography, Vol. 31, No. 2, May 1994. 249-70 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper extends the search for neighborhood contextual effects [in the United States] to residential mobility. We propose that neighborhood consists of subjective and objective domains, both of which are crosscut by substantive (social/physical) and temporal (current/change) dimensions. Measures of neighborhood characteristics consistent with our conceptualization are used to estimate the impact of context on mobility thoughts and on actual mobility in a sample of Nashville [Tennessee] residents. Although individual statuses such as age and tenure remain important antecedents of mobility, subjective features of neighborhood context also play a role--albeit limited and indirect--in the decision to move or to stay."
Correspondence: B. A. Lee, Pennsylvania State University, Department of Sociology, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30471 Liaw, Kao-Lee; Kawabe, Hiroshi. The dependence of marriage migrations in Japan on personal factors and ecological variables. Mathematical Population Studies, Vol. 4, No. 4, 1994. 235-58 pp. New York, New York/Yverdon, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The purpose of this paper is to explain the interprefectural migrations at marriage in Japan by personal factors and ecological variables, using a multivariate statistical model called the nested logit model....The research is based on the micro data from a national survey on the life-course migration history of household heads and spouses, conducted in 1986 by the Institute of Population Problems in the Ministry of Health and Welfare...." Factors considered include partners' prefecture of residence, coresidence with parents, nativity, education, sibling status, period of marriage, income, gender, employment, and population density.
Correspondence: K.-L. Liaw, McMaster University, Department of Geography, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30472 Mielke, James H.; Relethford, John H.; Eriksson, Aldur W. Temporal trends in migration in the Aland Islands: effects of population size and geographic distance. Human Biology, Vol. 66, No. 3, Jun 1994. 399-410 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
"Using a model developed by Relethford...,we assess temporal trends (1750-1949) in marital migration in the Aland Islands, Finland, in relation to both geographic distance and population size. The 200-year time period was divided into four 50-year periods. For all time periods both geographic distance and population size are important determinants of migration among 15 Lutheran parishes....Even though both the geographic distance and population size parameters are statistically significant, the analysis suggests that geographic distance has a greater relative effect on migration than population size."
For the study by Relethford, published in 1992, see 59:30413.
Correspondence: J. H. Mielke, University of Kansas, Department of Anthropology, Lawrence, KS 66045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30473 Miller, Ann R. Estimating interregional migration in the United States from sample data: a procedural note. Historical Methods, Vol. 27, No. 1, Winter 1994. 5-23 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author examines newly available machine-readable samples from historical U.S. censuses. "The issue at hand is the use of data newly provided by the samples to improve our knowledge of the redistribution of the native-born population; the Public Use Samples (PUS) for 1900...and 1910....The procedures for developing the estimates are outlined: first, an evaluation of data from the two samples in the context of the use to which they are put here; second, the need to weight and the method used in weighting sample frequencies to produce comparable aggregates for the two dates; and, third, how estimates of 'net' migrants are derived from these aggregates. A fourth section presents a brief analysis of net intercensal migration between 1900 and 1910 as indicated by the estimates. The conclusion suggests other general areas in which the procedure may be helpful...."
Correspondence: A. R. Miller, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6297. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30474 Newbold, K. Bruce; Liaw, Kao-Lee. Return and onward interprovincial migration through economic boom and bust in Canada, from 1976-81 to 1981-86. Geographical Analysis, Vol. 26, No. 3, Jul 1994. 228-45 pp. Columbus, Ohio. In Eng.
"This paper applies a three-level nested logit model to the micro data of the 1981 and 1986 Canadian census to study the effects of personal factors and provincial attributes on the interprovincial migration patterns of the non-native young adults (aged 20-44) through the economic boom of 1976-81 and the economic bust of 1981-86. We found strong evidence that through both boom and bust periods, both return and onward migrations were in the 'right' direction, in that they responded to economic variables in a rational way. However, the large proportion of migrants choosing to make a return migration indicates the importance of the province of birth in the mental map of the potential migrants. We also found that the selectivities in the migration behaviors with respect to certain personal factors (especially education) remained basically the same through both boom and bust periods."
Correspondence: K. B. Newbold, McMaster University, Department of Geography, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

60:30475 Nogle, June M. Rationality and internal migration for immigrants to Canada: the influence of networks on migration. Population and Development Program Working Paper Series, No. 93.13, [1993]. 24 pp. Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program: Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
The author analyzes factors affecting the continued internal migration of recent immigrants to Canada, using data from the Longitudinal Study of the Economic and Social Adaptation of Immigrants to Life in Canada for the period 1969-1974. The emphasis is on noneconomic factors that may influence the decision to migrate.
This paper was originally presented at the 1992 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program, 134 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30476 Sharma, H. L. Some probability models describing the variation in the number of out-migration at micro level. Janasamkhya, Vol. 9, No. 1-2, Jun 1991. 43-60 pp. Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
"Under certain simplifying assumptions, some probability models describing the variation in...out-migration at [the] micro level...are developed. The parameters involved in the models are estimated with the help of method of moments....The maximum likelihood estimates are also derived along with their asymptotic variances and covariances. The results are illustrated using an example involving demographic data [for India]."
Correspondence: H. L. Sharma, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6297. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30477 Torikai, Yukihiro. Development of the Philippine frontier--labor absorption and internal migration to Palawan province. Southeast Asian Studies, Vol. 31, No. 3, Dec 1993. 255-84 pp. Kyoto, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
An analysis of migration to participate in the expanding fishing industry in Palawan province, the Philippines, is presented, using data collected during fieldwork undertaken in the spring of 1991. The author notes that this labor-intensive migration primarily attracts young males from other rural areas with some skills in fishing or agriculture. The importance of migrant networks in generating further migration to the area is noted. The role of government financing for motorized fishing boats in order to encourage migration is described, and the implications of overfishing for future migration are considered.
Correspondence: Y. Torikai, School of Humanities and Culture, 1117 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-12, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30478 Woon, Yuen-fong. Circulatory mobility in post-Mao China: temporary migrants in Kaiping county, Pearl River Delta region. International Migration Review, Vol. 27, No. 3, Fall 1993. 578-604 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"Since the 1980s, it has been possible for the Chinese peasant household to diversify its economic base by making use of its social networks to place members in a distant community as migrant workers. Through a microstudy of 50 such migrants in Kaiping County in the Pearl River Delta region, this article illustrates the interplay between macro, meso, and micro factors in the causes and processes of circulatory mobility in post-Mao China. It is found that Hong Kong's search for cheap labor, the PRC's household registration system, and Kaiping's strong localism provide the context in which migrants and their households have to adjust. The particular behavior pattern of these migrants also bears the stamp of their rational household decision-making processes as well as their feelings of moral obligation toward their kin in their community of origin."
Correspondence: Y.-f. Woon, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 2Y2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.4. Settlement and Resettlement

Studies on international and internal settlement and resettlement, including programs concerned with refugees and their settlement and with forced migrations.

60:30479 Alcala Moya, Graciela. Immigrants, fishermen, and women in Puerto Madero, Chiapas, Mexico. [Migrantes, pescadores y mujeres en Puerto Madero, Chiapas, Mexico.] Mesoamerica, Vol. 14, No. 25, Jun 1993. 101-14 pp. South Woodstock, Vermont/Antigua, Guatemala. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This essay addresses the ways in which Mexican fishermen of the communities of southern Soconusco express their solidarity with Central American immigrants in flight from the violence and misery in their native countries. After describing the general characteristics of fishing activities in Puerto Madero, Chiapas, the author analyzes the motives of fishing boat owners, entrepreneurs, local authorities, and fishermen who accommodate immigrants into the fishing trade. However, neither simply learning a fisherman's trade nor establishing work relationships is enough to ensure the immigrants' complete integration into Mexican life: this is achieved only through marriage or by establishing long-term relationships with Soconuscan women."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30480 Carmon, N. Achieving population dispersal through tailor-made community planning: an Israeli experiment in the Galilee region. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 26, No. 4, Apr 1994. 639-56 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The author describes a program designed to encourage population dispersal that was carried out in the central Galilee region of Israel during the 1980s. The program involved setting up 52 small communities with the appropriate infrastructures to attract young, well-educated settlers. "The plan succeeded in attracting the desired type of population...to the region, and the newcomers viewed the new communities as their permanent homes. Based on this experience and on the analysis of relevant literature, a development strategy of tailor-made community planning is hereby recommended for future projects. It is especially appropriate in the context of developed countries with a slow to zero population growth and with spreading social norms of the postindustrial society."
Correspondence: N. Carmon, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Faculty of Architecture and Town Planning, Center for Urban and Regional Studies, Haifa 32000, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

60:30481 Dunlop, John B. Will the Russians return from the near abroad? Post-Soviet Geography, Vol. 35, No. 4, Apr 1994. 204-15 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
The author "examines a range of issues surrounding the involuntary migration of Russian populations from the non-Russian republics of the former USSR. Among the questions addressed are possible magnitudes of in-migration into Russia (with special attention paid to conditions in one of the major source regions, Central Asia), attitudes in Russia regarding appropriate policy with respect to treatment of co-nationals in the near abroad and whether their return to Russia would have a positive or negative impact, and conditions in areas of Russia that presently are absorbing the greatest numbers of migrants. The assertion that Russian policy should seek aggressively to prevent the out-migration of Russian populations [from] the near abroad is assessed critically."
Correspondence: J. B. Dunlop, Hoover Institution, Stanford, CA 94305-6010. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

60:30482 European Communities. Statistical Office [EUROSTAT] (Luxembourg). Asylum-seekers in the EU: better data needed. EUROSTAT Rapid Reports: Population and Social Conditions, No. 1994-1, Pub. Order No. CA-NK-94-001-EN-C. 1994. 8 pp. Luxembourg. In Eng.
This report describes the two related concepts of asylum-seekers and refugees, and the availability of data on both in the countries of the European Community. The need for closer coordination among the countries to improve the quality of such data is noted.
Correspondence: European Communities, Statistical Office, Batiment Jean Monnet, 2920 Luxembourg. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30483 Grossman, David. Arab and Jewish settlement processes in west Samaria. Pennsylvania Geographer, Vol. 29, No. 1, Spring/Summer 1991. 29-37 pp. Indiana, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"Renewed Arab settlement of Samaria began about a century ago, motivated by a desire to obtain subsistence needs. Recently, residential considerations and accessibility to employment have become more important to Arab populations. In contrast, Jewish colonization of Samaria, initiated only after 1975, was originally motivated by ideological considerations but is now dominated by the desire to acquire low cost housing in areas accessible to Israel's urban core....This article examines and explains the processes of Arab and Jewish settlement in Samaria, their modifications and the resulting patterns. Its purpose is to identify processes rather than to recommend policies to cope with them."
Correspondence: D. Grossman, Bar-Ilan University, Department of Geography, 52 100 Ramat-Gan, Israel. Location: Dartmouth College Library, Hanover, NH.

60:30484 United States. General Accounting Office [GAO] (Washington, D.C.). Vietnamese Amerasian resettlement: education, employment, and family outcomes in the United States. Pub. Order No. GAO/PEMD-94-15. Mar 1994. 81 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This report to the U.S. Congress describes the resettlement of 75,000 Amerasians and their families who left Viet Nam for the United States under the provisions of the 1987 Amerasian Homecoming Act. "In the present report, we focus on the outcomes for Amerasians and their families after resettlement has taken place, particularly with regard to education, employment, housing, and health care. We also examine the factors that have been helpful or harmful to the successful resettlement of Amerasians."
Correspondence: U.S. General Accounting Office, P.O. Box 6015, Gaithersburg, MD 20884-6015. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.5. Temporary Migration

Migration, both internal and international, in which the stay is temporary. Includes return migration, transit migration, commuting, and seasonal migration.

60:30485 Duleep, Harriet O. Social security and the emigration of immigrants. Program for Research on Immigration Policy Discussion Paper, No. PRIP-UI-27, May 1994. 31, [4] pp. Urban Institute, Program for Research on Immigration Policy: Washington, D.C. Distributed by Urban Institute, Publications Office, P.O. Box 7273, Dept. C, Washington, D.C. 20044. In Eng.
"This article describes the general assumptions related to emigration [from the United States] that underlie projections of Social Security's financial status and examines how closely these assumptions fit research findings." She concludes that as a greater percentage of recent immigrants come from developing rather than developed countries, the rate of emigration of immigrants is likely to decline.
Correspondence: H. O. Duleep, 4417 Yuma Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20016. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30486 Dustmann, Christian. Return intentions of migrants: theory and evidence. CEPR Discussion Paper, No. 906, Feb 1994. 31 pp. Centre for Economic Policy Research [CEPR]: London, England. In Eng.
"This paper analyses the return intentions of migrant workers....The analysis emphasizes three explanations of why it should be optimal to migrate only temporarily: differences in relative prices in the host and home country, the possibility of accumulating human capital abroad, which is only earnings effective back home, and complementarities between consumption and the environment where consumption takes place. Some hypotheses implied by the theory are empirically tested, using micro data on migrant workers in [West] Germany."
Correspondence: Centre for Economic Policy Research, 25-28 Old Burlington Street, London W1X 1LB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30487 Lidgard, Jacqueline M. Neglected international migrants: a study of returning New Zealanders. New Zealand Population Review, Vol. 19, No. 1-2, May-Nov 1993. 94-124 pp. Wellington, New Zealand. In Eng.
"Since the early 1980s return migration of New Zealanders has been bringing back to the country over 20,000 citizens each year. However, return migration is a process that has been largely ignored in the literature on international migration to New Zealand. With the assistance of the Immigration Service and Statistics New Zealand, contact was established with a nation-wide group of New Zealanders who returned in November 1990. This paper describes how the study was conducted, and reports findings on the returnees and their motives."
Correspondence: J. M. Lidgard, University of Waikato, Department of Geography, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.6. Rural-Urban Migration

Migration from rural to urban areas (the rural exodus), both internal and international. Reverse or turnaround migration is also included.

60:30488 Brockerhoff, Martin; Eu, Hongsook. Demographic and socioeconomic determinants of female rural to urban migration in Sub-Saharan Africa. International Migration Review, Vol. 27, No. 3, Fall 1993. 557-77 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"Data from eight recent Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) in sub-Saharan Africa are used to assess whether fertility, child mortality and other individual-level characteristics motivate or constrain long-term female migration from rural to urban and other rural areas. Findings indicate that the likelihood of rural-urban and rural-rural migration is lowered in most countries when the woman has had two or more recent births, but not when she has had only one birth. Child mortality experience moderately reduces the risk of migration in most countries. The likelihood of rural-urban migration is greatly increased when the woman has attended school, is not married, is in her twenties, or does not belong to the largest ethnic group."
Correspondence: M. Brockerhoff, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30489 Courtney, Richard S. Integrating spatial and hierarchical approaches to the study of the population turnaround phenomenon: a case study of the upper Midwest. Pub. Order No. DA9401236. 1993. 172 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
In this study, prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Ohio State University, the author argues that "the population turnaround [in the United States] must be conceptualized as being a spatio-temporo-hierarchical process and that any methodology designed to identify the turnaround must integrate these dimensions. Such an integrative methodology is developed through an application of the Expansion Method. The model is tested on data for the urban system of the Upper Midwest [for the period 1950-1990]."
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 54(8).

60:30490 Price-Spartlen, Townsand. African American community development and migration streams: patterns of change in twentieth century metropolitan migration. Pub. Order No. DA9409357. 1993. 231 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This research examines the effects of community development characteristics on the 20th century metropolitan migration of African Americans to 132 urban counties in the United States....The results support the hypothesized influence of a self-perpetuating 'migration momentum' on urban African American migration....Results [also] supported the empirical significance of network saturation...,the interaction of time and community development." The study was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Washington.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 54(10).

60:30491 Szasz, Ivonne. Immigrant women and the labor market in Santiago. [Mujeres inmigrantes y mercado de trabajo en Santiago.] CELADE Serie E, No. 39, Pub. Order No. LC/DEM/G.136. Mar 1994. 194 pp. UN Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia [CELADE]: Santiago, Chile. In Spa.
The author examines rural-urban labor migration by women in Latin America, focusing on flows to Santiago, Chile. Consideration is given to migrant characteristics and motivation, female labor force participation from 1952 to 1990, and current occupational status.
Correspondence: UN Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia, Edificio Naciones Unidas, Avenida Dag Hammarskjold, Casilla 91, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30492 Weeks, John. Economic aspects of rural-urban migration. In: Urbanization in Africa: a handbook, edited by James D. Tarver. 1994. 388-407 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut. In Eng.
The economic causes of rural-urban migration in Sub-Saharan Africa are explored. The author notes that the initial attraction for migrants was the large gap in income between urban and rural areas. However, as economic conditions changed in the 1970s, and monetary economies shrank and cheap land supplies dried up, the complexity of migration to towns increased. The author concludes that "by the 1990s African rural-to-urban migration represented an irreversible process associated with profound structural changes in towns and the countryside."
Correspondence: J. Weeks, University of London, School of Oriental and African Studies, Department of Economics, Thornhaugh Street, Russell Square, London WC1H 0XG, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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