Volume 60 - Number 3 - Fall 1994

F. Fertility

Studies that treat quantitative fertility data analytically. References to crude data are coded under S. Official Statistical Publications . Methodological studies specifically concerned with fertility are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary.

F.1. General Fertility

Analytical studies of quantitative birth data and reproduction rates and studies of fertility and its concomitants. Studies of age at marriage, divorce, and factors influencing family size are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

60:30178 Ahn, Namkee; Shariff, Abusaleh. A comparative study of socioeconomic and demographic determinants of fertility in Togo and Uganda. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 20, No. 1, Mar 1994. 14-7, 22 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
This study "uses DHS [Demographic and Health Survey] data to investigate the socioeconomic and demographic determinants of fertility in Togo and Uganda and to examine reasons for the differences between the two countries." Results indicate that "in both countries, women younger than 25 and those educated beyond the primary level are having their first birth later than are older women and women with less education. These differentials are more pronounced in Togo, where they suggest the beginning of voluntary control of fertility, than in Uganda. In Togo, women's education has a large and increasingly negative effect on the tempo of progression to subsequent births...;in Uganda, women's education has no effect. The death of the previous child has a large positive effect on the probability of a short birth interval; this effect is considerably larger in Togo than in Uganda. Furthermore, the community level of infant mortality is positively associated with the probability of an early subsequent birth in Togo, while the opposite is true in Uganda."
Correspondence: N. Ahn, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apartado 1397, 48080 Bilbao, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30179 Amin, R.; Ahmed, A.; Chowdhury, J.; Kabir, M.; Hill, R. Recent evidence on trends and differentials in Bangladesh fertility: an update. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 26, No. 2, Apr 1994. 235-41 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"A comparison of contraceptive and fertility data for 1985-91 with data for 1983 shows that fertility has continued to decline in Bangladesh, in all segments of society. The magnitude of decline varied according to educational level, region and urban-rural locality. The percentage decline in total marital fertility rate was somewhat higher among urban than rural residents; educated women showed greater declines than uneducated, increasing the overall educational differences in total fertility by 1991. Factors contributing to the recent decline in fertility are discussed."
Correspondence: R. Amin, Morgan State University, Institute for Urban Research, Hillen Road and Coldspring Lane, Baltimore, MD 21239-9972. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30180 Andolsek-Jeras, L.; Kozuh-Novak, M.; Obersnel-Kveder, D.; Pinter, B. Fertility survey in Slovenia, 1989. Advances in Contraceptive Delivery Systems, Vol. 9, No. 2-3, 1993. 79-91 pp. Kiawah Island, South Carolina. In Eng.
"This study presents the findings of the first survey on fertility, contraception and abortion, conducted in 1989 among 1,117 residents (519 men, 598 women) of Slovenia, 15-44 years of age. The survey is part of an interdisciplinary research project on social/medical/demographic aspects of low fertility in Slovenia. The main objectives of the medical part of the survey were to elucidate the reasons for negative events in reproductive behavior (e.g. abortion) and insufficient use of effective contraceptive methods....The results of this first survey show that [the] modern concept of family planning has not become the accepted life style for the majority of Slovenians, although virtually all respondents expressed positive attitudes towards family planning."
Correspondence: L. Andolsek-Jeras, University Medical Centre, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Slajmerjeva 3, 61000 Ljubljana, Slovenia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30181 Anichkin, Alexandr; Vishnevsky, Anatoli. Three types of fertility behavior in the USSR. In: Demographic trends and patterns in the Soviet Union before 1991, edited by Wolfgang Lutz, Sergei Scherbov, and Andrei Volkov. 1994. 41-56 pp. Routledge: New York, New York/London, England; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
Evidence of the fertility transition in three republics of the former Soviet Union are examined and compared. Data covering crude birth rates, age-specific fertility, fertility, and cohort fertility are analyzed for Azerbaijan, Estonia, and Tajikistan. The location of each republic within the stages of the fertility transition is assessed, and some projections are discussed.
Correspondence: A. Anichkin, Russian Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Labor and Employment, Institute for Employment Studies, Center of Demography and Human Ecology, Leninsky Pr. 14, 117901 Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30182 Baksh, Michael; Neumann, Charlotte G.; Paolisso, Michael; Trostle, Richard M.; Jansen, A. A. J. The influence of reproductive status on rural Kenyan women's time use. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 39, No. 3, Aug 1994. 345-54 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"To determine the effects that pregnancy and infant care have on Embu women's commercial, agricultural and household activities, time use patterns were studied for women at different stages of pregnancy and lactation. Time allocation data were collected from 169 households [in Kenya], visited at random intervals over a year, by use of the spot observations technique....Analyses of Embu women's time use by reproductive status reveal that the demands of pregnancy and lactation require women to decrease the amount of time spent on subsistence agriculture, commercial activities, housework, and tending animals; and to devote more time to resting, breastfeeding, and child care....This data [provides] insight into how pregnancy and lactation require women to adjust their time allocation between reproductive and farm labor activities. This decrease in time spent on subsistence agriculture, commercial activities, and household work increases the risk of household economic insecurity during the woman's reproductive years."
Correspondence: M. Baksh, University of California, School of Public Health, Los Angeles, CA 90024. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

60:30183 Balakrishnan, T. R.; Lapierre-Adamcyk, Evelyne; Krotki, Karol J. Family and childbearing in Canada: a demographic analysis. ISBN 0-8020-2856-X. 1993. xiv, 329 pp. University of Toronto Press: Toronto, Canada. In Eng.
This study on family and fertility in Canada is based on data from the Canadian National Fertility Survey of 1984, which involved telephone interviews of a sample of 5,315 women aged 18-49. Topics covered include current and expected fertility, sociocultural and economic factors affecting fertility, nuptiality, attitudes toward family and marriage, attitudes toward abortion, contraceptive practice, and intergenerational relations and fertility.
Correspondence: University of Toronto Press, Front Campus, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30184 Barrere, Bernard; Schoemaker, Juan; Barrere, Monique; Habiyakare, Tite; Kabagwira, Athanasie; Ngendakumana, Mathias. Demographic and Health Survey, Rwanda, 1992. [Enquete Demographique et de Sante, Rwanda, 1992.] Feb 1994. xxii, 218 pp. Office National de la Population: Kigali, Rwanda; Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Calverton, Maryland. In Fre.
Results are presented from the 1992 Demographic and Health Survey carried out in Rwanda, which included a national sample of 6,252 households, and involved 6,551 women aged 15-49 and 598 husbands. Following introductory chapters on the country and the survey, there are chapters on fertility, family planning, nuptiality and exposure to risk of pregnancy, fertility preferences, maternal and child health, breast-feeding and infant nutrition, and mortality among children under five.
Correspondence: L. Longeiret, Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Suite 300, Calverton, MD 20705. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30185 Bender, Rosemary; Ford, David. Births in Canada, 1992. [Naissances au Canada, 1992.] Health Reports/Rapports sur la Sante, Vol. 5, No. 4, 1993. 341-7 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
Data on births in Canada in 1992 are presented by province and territory, age of mother, mean age and birth order and marital status of mother. Some data on multiple births and international comparisons are also included.
Correspondence: R. Bender, Statistics Canada, Canadian Centre for Health Information, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30186 Benefo, Kofi D.; Schultz, T. Paul. Determinants of fertility and child mortality in Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana. Living Standards Measurement Study Working Paper, No. 103, ISBN 0-8213-2789-5. LC 94-4997. May 1994. xii, 88 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper examines the relationship between child mortality and fertility in...Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana. We first explore separately the reduced form determinants of fertility and child mortality, as explained by individual, household and community characteristics. Fertility is somewhat higher in Cote d'Ivoire than in Ghana and appears not to have changed recently in either country. Child mortality is high, with about 16 percent of children dying before their fifth birthday. Women's education beyond the primary level is associated with substantially lower fertility in both countries. However, in Cote d'Ivoire, income, assets and mother's height are positively related to fertility, while in Ghana they are associated with lower fertility. These results suggests that Ghana is farther along in its fertility transition than is Cote d'Ivoire."
Correspondence: World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30187 Blacker, John. Some thoughts on the evidence of fertility decline in eastern and southern Africa. Population and Development Review, Vol. 20, No. 1, Mar 1994. 200-5 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author discusses problems involved in analyzing data on fertility change in Sub-Saharan Africa, with a focus on recently published reports from the National Academy of Sciences' Panel on Population Dynamics of Sub-Saharan Africa. The quality of data from various surveys is assessed.
Correspondence: J. Blacker, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies, 99 Gower Street, London WC1E 6AZ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30188 Booth, Heather. The estimation of levels and trends in age at first birth and age at first marriage in the Pacific Islands. Working Papers in Demography, No. 45, 1994. 40 pp. Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"A parallel procedure to the computation of the singulate mean age at marriage is adopted to derive the mean age at first birth from data on proportions nulliparous. The method is applied to four Pacific Island populations for which time series of data are available....Comparison is made with age at first marriage, providing an estimate of the interval between first marriage and first birth." The populations covered are from the Cook Islands, Fiji, and Kiribati.
Correspondence: Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30189 Brunetti, Pierre-Marie; Morabia, Alfredo; Campana, Aldo; Marcus-Steiff, Joachim. Biometric study of reproductive conditions in the general population: method and initial results. [Etude biometrique du fonctionnement reproductif dans la population generale: methode et premiers resultats.] Population, Vol. 49, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1994. 27-60 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"An in-depth medical survey involving 300 women having completed their 29th year was carried out [in France] to derive a statistical description of sexual and reproductive activity, its psycho-social and physiological context and its results. All major reproductive events were dated, including a parameter usually left out of epidemiological studies, namely, exposures to pregnancy. One quarter of the women in the total sample are childless at age 29. 60% of these women are so voluntarily by resorting to continuous contraception, 17% as a result of an abortion, 12% for lack of a partner and 11% on account of a physiological impossibility."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30190 Caldwell, John C. Fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa: status and prospects. Population and Development Review, Vol. 20, No. 1, Mar 1994. 179-87 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author discusses the recent publication of seven volumes on various aspects of demography in Sub-Saharan Africa. The volumes resulted from the work of a panel appointed in 1989 by the National Academy of Sciences' Committee on Population. "This review concentrates on the debate as to whether there will be a general decline in fertility in sub-Saharan Africa and whether the chief instrument in this decline will be family planning programs. Attention will first be paid to the flagship volume, Demographic Change in Sub-Saharan Africa...,before focusing on Factors Affecting Contraceptive Use in Sub-Saharan Africa...,together with asides to two other volumes, those on Kenya and adolescent fertility, to secure supporting evidence for the argument."
Correspondence: J. C. Caldwell, Australian National University, Health Transition Centre, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30191 Calot, Gerard. Relationships between cohort and period demographic indicators: the translation problem revisited. Population. English Selection, Vol. 5, 1993. 183-221 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
The author evaluates the relationship between cohort and period demographic indicators, with applications to data on the history of fertility in France.
This is a revised version of the article previously published in French and cited in 59:10209.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30192 Campbell, Eugene K. Fertility, family size preferences and future fertility prospects of men in the western area of Sierra Leone. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 26, No. 2, Apr 1994. 273-7 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines the current fertility of men and women in the Western area of Sierra Leone and the prospects for future fertility behaviour. Probably due to the effect of rapid economic decline in Sierra Leone since 1980, the desired family size has fallen. But indications are that the preferred completed family size is lower than the desired family size."
Correspondence: E. K. Campbell, University of Botswana, Department of Demography, Private Bag 0022, Gaborone, Botswana. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30193 Chahnazarian, Anouch. The recent fertility rise in Haiti: new trends in favour of marital union? Population. English Selection, Vol. 5, 1993. 43-72 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
"In developing countries, modernization of society has often gone together with a rise in fertility. A decline in sterility or, more commonly, in breastfeeding is often behind this trend, which has in some cases been blocked by the effect of later marriage. In Haiti, the recent fertility rise seems to be of a radically different nature, resulting from a combination of earlier entry into sexual union and greater stability of unions....We shall investigate here the reality of this apparent rise in Haitian fertility, and attempt to identify the probable causes and the social groups primarily concerned....First, we present the data sources and the measures of fertility used, second, the fertility trends and levels for the whole country, and third, a differential analysis of fertility by residence and education." Remarks by Y. Courbage and a response by the author are included (pp. 68-72).
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30194 Chi, Peter S. K.; Hsin, Ping-Lung. Family structure and fertility behavior in Taiwan. Population and Development Program Working Paper Series, No. 93.05, 1993. 13 pp. Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program: Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
"In the present study, we will use...recent [data] from Taiwan to re-examine the relationships between family structure and fertility behavior. Our analysis is from a life-course perspective, using the dynamic models of event history analysis." Data are from the Taiwan Human Resources Survey and are for June 1990.
Correspondence: Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program, 134 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30195 Coale, Ansley J. Nuptiality and fertility in USSR republics and neighboring populations. In: Demographic trends and patterns in the Soviet Union before 1991, edited by Wolfgang Lutz, Sergei Scherbov, and Andrei Volkov. 1994. 3-17 pp. Routledge: New York, New York/London, England; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
"This paper is a comparison of the evolution of nuptiality and fertility in the republics of the Soviet Union with selected neighboring populations in Europe and in Asia, especially in the Chinese province that borders on the Central Asian republics. Changes in the mean age at first marriage and in the total fertility rate in the European republics of the USSR are compared with the changes in selected European countries....The paper shows that different patterns of age at marriage have been associated with differences in marital fertility, and that the modern transition in fertility has been different in populations with different mean ages when first married."
Correspondence: A. J. Coale, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30196 Cochrane, Susan; Sai, Frederick. Excess fertility. In: Disease control priorities in developing countries, edited by Dean T. Jamison et al. 1993. 333-61 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England; World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"In the first part of this chapter, we document the current levels and trends of fertility in the various regions of the world. We shall then use these levels to determine the levels of excess fertility by different definitions from the point of view of society as a whole....Although we give considerable attention to the measurement of excess fertility, in the rest of the chapter we follow the outline laid out for the other chapters in the collection: the costs of excess fertility are examined, strategies and costs of preventing excess fertility are estimated and case management is discussed, and finally funding and research priorities are identified."
Correspondence: S. Cochrane, World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30197 Courbage, Youssef. Unpredictable Egyptian fertility. [L'imprevisible fecondite egyptienne.] Population, Vol. 49, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1994. 212-22 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
Fertility trends in Egypt are analyzed for the period since 1950. The author notes that fertility declined moderately until 1970, then fluctuated at relatively high levels until a further decline occurred in the late 1980s. The relative ineffectiveness of population policy and programs to achieve sustained fertility reduction is noted.
Correspondence: Y. Courbage, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30198 Darsky, Leonid E. Quantum and timing of births in the USSR. In: Demographic trends and patterns in the Soviet Union before 1991, edited by Wolfgang Lutz, Sergei Scherbov, and Andrei Volkov. 1994. 57-69 pp. Routledge: New York, New York/London, England; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
Using data from a 1985 survey covering five percent of the population of the former Soviet Union, the author analyzes cohort rates of fertility, birth intervals, and parity progression ratios. Cohort analysis is also conducted by nationality, and used to compare Soviet rates with other developed countries. A trend among all republics toward European fertility patterns is projected.
Correspondence: L. E. Darsky, State Committee of the Russian Federation on Statistics, Institute of Statistics and Economic Research, Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30199 De Wit, Margaret L. Educational attainment and timing of childbearing among recent cohorts of Canadian women. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 94-3, ISBN 0-7714-1626-1. Feb 1994. 24 pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
"This research examines factors associated with the timing and risk of first and second births in Canada, focusing primarily on the role of women's educational attainment. The Accelerated Failure Time Model (AFT) is applied to data from the 1984 Canadian Fertility Survey (CFS) in order to determine how educational attainment...influences the timing of childbearing and whether the importance of this variable varies according to birth cohorts. The results suggest that...educational attainment is an important predictor of birth timing."
Correspondence: University of Western Ontario, Department of Sociology, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30200 Decroly, Jean-Michel; Grasland, Claude. Boundaries, political systems and fertility in Europe. Population. English Selection, Vol. 5, 1993. 101-19 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
"We propose considering cross-border discontinuities in the context of homogeneous regions, that is, focusing on the detection and explanation of significant levels of organization of space by societies [in Europe]....We attempt to isolate macro-structures, which will provide us with an intermediary or systemic explanation for the behaviour observed....Our preoccupation here is whether countries or political blocs constitute levels of spatial organization. We can pose the question this way: do different areas in a same country show behavioural patterns which are, on average, more similar than those of areas in different countries?...We shall examine the distribution of total fertility (TFRs) in 724 areas of Europe in 1980 and 1988."
Correspondence: J. M. Decroly, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus de la Plaine CP 246, Boulevard du Triomphe, 1050 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30201 Delooz, Pierre. Population growth and fertility. The current situation. [Crescita demografica e natalita. Il punto della situazione.] KOS: Rivista di Scienza e Etica, Vol. 10, No. 100, 1994. 47-51 pp. Milan, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng.
This is a general review of current trends in fertility and family planning in developing countries, based on the results of recent surveys such as the World Fertility Survey and the Demographic and Health Surveys. The author notes that data show a general increase in contraceptive usage and a decrease in completed fertility from six children in the 1960s to four children today. Furthermore, apart from Sub-Saharan Africa, most women want fewer children. "These are signs not only of the profound changes in family planning but also of a new attitude that is gradually becoming more and more widespread."
Correspondence: P. Delooz, Ferme de la Chapelle, 4910 La Reid, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30202 Dow, Thomas E.; Archer, Linda; Khasiani, Shanyisa; Kekovole, John. Wealth flow and fertility decline in rural Kenya, 1981-92. Population and Development Review, Vol. 20, No. 2, Jun 1994. 343-64, 496, 498 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"In 1981 and 1992 identical questionnaires measuring lineal and lateral wealth flows and emotional nucleation were administered to comparable samples of male household heads in rural Kenya. The 1981 results, showing limited evidence of economic or emotional nucleation within the household, were consistent with the prevailing high fertility. By 1992, fertility had declined significantly but without a corresponding shift in nucleation levels. Economic and social forces appear to be depressing fertility in a similar way at all levels of nucleation. More specifically, it appears that severe economic constraints have necessitated a redefinition of affordable fertility levels in all subgroups and that a resurgent family planning program has been able to supply the contraceptive means necessary to realize these reduced fertility intentions."
Correspondence: T. E. Dow, State University of New York, State University College at Purchase, Department of Sociology, Purchase, NY 10577. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30203 Dzekedzeke, Kumbutso; Nyangu, Nelson. Fertility patterns and their determinants in Zambia: findings from the Zambia Demographic and Health Survey. In: DHS Regional Analysis Workshop for Anglophone Africa: fertility trends and determinants in six African countries. Apr 1994. 145-79 pp. Calverton, Maryland. In Eng.
The authors analyze data from the 1992 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey in order to assess fertility trends and determinants. In addition, transitions to first marriage and first birth are examined, and fertility regulation and reproductive preferences are discussed.
Correspondence: K. Dzekedzeke, Central Statistical Office, P.O. Box 31908, Lusaka, Zambia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30204 Egero, Bertil; Hammarskjold, Mikael. Understanding reproductive change: Kenya, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Costa Rica. ISBN 91-7966-262-5. 1994. 167 pp. Lund University Press: Lund, Sweden; Chartwell Bratt: Bromley, England. In Eng.
This collection of four case studies examines the reasons for the trend toward lower fertility in developing countries. The focus is on identifying the forces that motivate people living under very different conditions to reduce the size of their families. "Kenya is one of the few countries in Sub-Saharan Africa displaying a distinct trend to lower fertility. In India, Tamil Nadu and Punjab are widely different in socio-economic development, yet both have seen significant reductions in fertility. In Costa Rica, a stable trend of fertility decline was halted with the economic stagnation around 1980, only to resume in recent years. In an introductory chapter, the country studies are analysed against current understanding of the demographic transition as it took place in Europe, and the more recent processes in East and South-East Asia. Conclusions are offered on implications for policy."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Lund University Press, P.O. Box 141, 221 00 Lund, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30205 European Communities. Statistical Office [EUROSTAT] (Luxembourg). Fertility: measurement and changes in the European Community. [Messung und Entwicklung der Fruchtbarkeit in der Europaischen Gemeinschaft/La fecondite: mesure et evolution dans la Communaute Europeenne.] Population and Social Conditions, Theme 3: Series D, Studies and Analyses, ISBN 92-826-4515-0. 1992. 169 pp. Luxembourg. In Eng; Fre; Ger.
The system of software and statistical files set up by EUROSTAT to monitor demographic developments in EC member countries is described. This system, known as Syscodem, currently includes data on the population, births, and marriages, and will eventually be expanded to include deaths and divorces. The application of this system to the analysis of recent changes in fertility is then illustrated, and estimates are presented of the total fertility rate, age-specific fertility, and cohort fertility.
Correspondence: European Communities, Office for Official Publications, 2920 Luxembourg. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30206 Forrest, Jacqueline D. Epidemiology of unintended pregnancy and contraceptive use. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Supplement, Vol. 170, No. 5, Pt. 2, May 1994. 1,485-9 pp. St. Louis, Missouri. In Eng.
"Of the 6.4 million pregnancies occurring in the United States in 1988, more than half (56%) were unintended. An equal proportion of unintended pregnancies end in abortion (44%) as with birth (43%), and both options have great personal and social consequences. The level of unintended pregnancy appears to have increased during the last decade after consistent decreases since the early 1960s. Decreasing both the periods of contraceptive nonuse and contraceptive misuse will help lower the rate of unintended pregnancy in this country."
Correspondence: J. D. Forrest, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30207 Gregson, Simon. Will HIV become a major determinant of fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa? Journal of Development Studies, Vol. 30, No. 3, Apr 1994. 650-79 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"A widely used demographic model of fertility, based on the proximate determinants, is described. The model is fitted for three contrasting sub-Saharan African countries, using data from the 1980s round of Demographic and Health surveys, to establish a baseline profile of fertility for the period immediately before any widespread behavioural changes in response to the spread of HIV can plausibly have taken place. Regional variations in the relative significance of the different proximate determinants are noted, and considered in a discussion of the mechanisms through which HIV could influence future fertility levels. It is tentatively suggested that severe HIV epidemics are most likely to exert a downward pressure on fertility." Data concern Nigeria, Uganda, and Zimbabwe.
Correspondence: S. Gregson, London University, Imperial College, Department of Biology, Parasite Epidemiology Research Group, London SW7 2BB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

60:30208 Guend, Abdelhani. Political discourse, religious discourse, and fertility change in Algeria. [Discours politique, discours religieux et transition de la fecondite en Algerie.] In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population: Montreal 1993, Volume 3. 1993. 75-86 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Fre.
The impact of Islamic law on fertility and reproductive behavior in Algeria is discussed. The development of political thought on population issues is also described. Consideration is given to laws concerning marriage age, sexual abstinence, coital frequency, contraception, sexual sterilization, and induced abortion.
Correspondence: A. Guend, Universite de Blida, Institut des Sciences Sociales, Route de Soumaa Blida, B.P. 270, Blida, Algeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30209 Katus, Kalev. Fertility transition in Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. In: Demographic trends and patterns in the Soviet Union before 1991, edited by Wolfgang Lutz, Sergei Scherbov, and Andrei Volkov. 1994. 89-111 pp. Routledge: New York, New York/London, England; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
"This article focuses on the fertility transition in the Baltic states--Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania....For the study of the regional differences, the analysis is mainly based on the Princeton European Fertility Project indexes at the county level....[The author finds that] Estonia and Latvia...have experienced a rather early fertility transition. The pre-transitional fertility situation, as well as the timing of the fertility decline in these Baltic states, has differed from the pattern in Eastern Europe and, especially, in Russia. The case of Lithuania is closer to Eastern Europe than to neighboring Latvia and Estonia. This specific history of the fertility transition in the Baltic states was one factor contributing to the great heterogeneity of the populations in the Soviet Union." Data cover the period 1730-1943.
Correspondence: K. Katus, Estonian Interuniversity Population Research Centre, P.O. Box 3012, 200090 Tallinn, Estonia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30210 Kenya. National Council for Population and Development (Nairobi, Kenya); Kenya. Central Bureau of Statistics (Nairobi, Kenya); Macro International. Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS] (Calverton, Maryland). Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, 1993. May 1994. xxiv, 278 pp. Nairobi, Kenya. In Eng.
Results are presented from the second national demographic and health survey conducted in Kenya. This survey, carried out in 1993, involved a nationally representative sample of 7,540 women aged 15-49 and 2,336 men aged 20-54. It was designed "to provide information on levels and trends of fertility, infant and child mortality, family planning knowledge and use, maternal and child health, and knowledge of AIDS. In addition, the male survey obtained data on men's knowledge and attitudes towards family planning and awareness of AIDS." The results reinforce "evidence of a major decline in fertility which was first revealed by the findings of the 1989 [survey]. Fertility continues to decline and family planning use has increased. However, the disparity between knowledge and use of family planning remains quite wide. There are indications that infant and under five child mortality rates are increasing, which in part might be attributed to the increase in AIDS prevalence."
For the 1989 survey, see 56:10223.
Correspondence: National Council for Population and Development, P.O. Box 30478, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30211 Khalifa, Mona; Farahat, Ahmed. Factors affecting the probability and timing of parity progression in Egypt. Egyptian Population and Family Planning Review, Vol. 27, No. 1, Jun 1993. 1-18 pp. Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"In this paper we use data from the Egyptian Fertility Survey (EFS) carried out in 1980 as part of the World Fertility Survey....The results show that there has been a significant decline in period fertility since the early 1960s....The primary analysis of the results shows that the decline in total fertility was initially caused by rising age at marriage and that this was followed by a period in which the two dimensions of total fertility, namely the proportion married among women of childbearing ages and the rates of marital fertility, have worked in such a way as to reinforce each other....The observed decline in the level of fertility may be regarded as a result of the interaction of intermediate variables which lead to variations in the chances of conception and live birth."
Correspondence: M. Khalifa, Cairo University, Department of Statistics, P.O. Box 1055, Khartoum, Sudan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30212 Kisanje, Molly; Kalule, Josephine K. The estimation of potential demand for contraception and the implication for fertility in Uganda. In: DHS Regional Analysis Workshop for Anglophone Africa: fertility trends and determinants in six African countries. Apr 1994. 121-43 pp. Calverton, Maryland. In Eng.
The authors examine fertility levels and determinants in Uganda, using data from the 1988-1989 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey. They also discuss "the existing demand for family planning and on that basis make estimates of the appropriate contraceptive method mix that would be required to meet the current demand of contraception in Uganda."
Correspondence: M. Kisanje, Family Planning Association of Uganda, Kampala, Uganda. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30213 Komba, Aldegunda S.; Aboud, Said M. Fertility levels, trends, and socioeconomic differentials: findings from the Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey. In: DHS Regional Analysis Workshop for Anglophone Africa: fertility trends and determinants in six African countries. Apr 1994. 87-120 pp. Calverton, Maryland. In Eng.
The authors use data from the 1991-1992 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey to investigate fertility levels, trends, and determinants. Fertility regulation and reproductive preferences are also discussed. A multivariate analysis is used to determine which socioeconomic factors most affect fertility.
Correspondence: A. S. Komba, Bureau of Statistics, Ministry of Economic Affairs and Development Planning, P.O. Box 796, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30214 Konate, Desire L.; Sinare, Tinga; Seroussi, Michka. Demographic and Health Survey, Burkina Faso, 1993. [Enquete Demographique et de Sante, Burkina Faso, 1993.] Jun 1994. xxiv, 296 pp. Institut National de la Statistique et de la Demographie: Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso; Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Calverton, Maryland. In Fre.
This report provides the main results of the 1992 Demographic and Health Survey carried out in Burkina Faso. The survey involved 5,143 households, 6,354 women aged 15-49, and 1,845 men over age 18. Following chapters describing the country and survey methodology, chapters are included on household characteristics, fertility, family planning, nuptiality and exposure to risk of pregnancy, fertility preferences, maternal and child health, breast-feeding and nutrition, mortality among children under five, the male survey, AIDS, and the availability of community services.
Correspondence: Institut National de la Statistique et de la Demographie, B.P. 374, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30215 Kono, Shigemi; Hayase, Yasuko. Fertility in the developing countries: a comparative study of the Demographic and Health Surveys. IDE Statistical Data Series, No. 66, 1994. [xvii], 310 pp. Institute of Developing Economies [IDE]: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng. with sum. in Jpn.
An analysis of fertility differentials and the determinants of population growth in developing countries is presented, based on data from 28 countries that took part in Phase I of the Demographic and Health Surveys program. "The present volume focussed on comparative studies on the levels and trends of fertility, proximate determinants of fertility (marriage, family planning--contraceptive prevalence, infant mortality, breast feeding), socio-economic determinants (income, women's education, women's employment) and reproductive behaviour...." Case studies are included on Bangladesh, Indonesia, Japan, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, and Thailand, and on the effects of mass media on contraception and fertility in Africa.
Correspondence: Institute of Developing Economies, 42 Ichigaya-Hommura-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30216 Kouaouci, Ali. Fertility in Algeria between 1970 and 1986: trends and factors. Population. English Selection, Vol. 5, 1993. 21-42 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
"Around 1970, the Algerian birth rates reached a record high of some 50 per 1,000. Three factors were responsible for this situation: the large proportion of women of reproductive age, very early marriage and very high marital fertility. The results of the Algerian national survey conducted at the time...constitute a statistically reliable body of data which can be used to define 'natural fertility' and to measure its components. A new survey taken in 1986 provided information on the changes which had emerged during these fifteen years....We propose to estimate to what extent the different components of birth and fertility rates have contributed to population growth during this period of rapid change."
Correspondence: A. Kouaouci, Universite de Blida, Route de Soumaa Blida, B.P. 270, Blida, Algeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30217 Kouaouci, Ali. Religiosity, secularism, and fundamentalism: impacts on demographic behavior and policy. [Sentiments religieux, secularisation et fondamentalisme: incidences sur le comportement et la politique demographique.] In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population: Montreal 1993, Volume 3. 1993. 53-60 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Fre.
The author reviews recent literature on the impact of religion on fertility and contraceptive usage. Data from Algeria and selected developing countries are cited in the analysis. The need to improve women's educational status in order to lower fertility is stressed.
Correspondence: A. Kouaouci, Universite de Blida, Institut des Sciences Sociales, Route de Soumaa Blida, B.P. 270, Blida, Algeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30218 Lam, David A.; Miron, Jeffrey A.; Riley, Ann. Modeling seasonality in fecundability, conceptions, and births. Demography, Vol. 31, No. 2, May 1994. 321-46 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper develops a model of seasonal fluctuations in fecundability, conceptions, and births. We begin with a model of individual fecundability that combines behavioral and biological components, with particular attention to the roles of coital frequency, sperm concentration, fetal loss, and contraception. The individual-level model is then expanded into a model of seasonal fluctuations in births at the population level, which accounts explicitly for seasonal fluctuations in the size of the susceptible population. We illustrate the use of the model by analyzing proposed explanations of [U.S.] birth seasonality that rely on extreme summer heat."
Correspondence: D. A. Lam, University of Michigan, Department of Economics, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48104-2590. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30219 Lee, Ronald D.; Galloway, Patrick R.; Hammel, Eugene A. Fertility decline in Prussia: estimating influences on supply, demand, and degree of control. Demography, Vol. 31, No. 2, May 1994. 347-73 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"In this paper we construct a new model of fertility determinants, based on the insights of Easterlin and Crimmins's...framework and in a form suitable for analysis of aggregate data. We then estimate and test the model on a uniquely rich and detailed data set for Prussia, 1875 to 1910....The results suggest that structural socioeconomic change can explain much of the fertility transition. The structural change exerted its influence primarily by reducing the desired number of children and, to a lesser extent, by increasing the willingness and ability of the population to implement their desires through limiting births."
Correspondence: R. D. Lee, University of California, Department of Demography, 2232 Piedmont Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30220 Lerchl, A.; Simoni, M.; Nieschlag, E. Changes in seasonality of birth rates in Germany from 1951 to 1990. Naturwissenschaften, Vol. 80, No. 11, 1993. 516-8 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"When comparing the seasonality of birth rates in the city of Munster, Germany, during three different periods (1890-1899, 1965-1974, and 1981-1990), we observed...[that] while both 1890/99 and 1965/74 the maxima were located in February or March, this annual rhythm was...reversed in 1981/90 with the maximum now falling in September. Because of this unexpected result, we investigated whether this trend extended to the rest of Germany as well....Whether...sociopolitical developments have contributed to the apparent change in birth seasonality remains to be seen. In conclusion, we tend to believe that the seasonality of birth rhythms in Germany has undergone marked alterations during the past decades, possibly due to a shift from biological to social reasons."
Correspondence: A. Lerchl, Reproduktionsmedizin der Universitat, Steinfurter Strasse 107, 48149 Munster, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30221 Lutz, Wolfgang; Scherbov, Sergei. Survey of fertility trends in the republics of the Soviet Union: 1959-1990. In: Demographic trends and patterns in the Soviet Union before 1991, edited by Wolfgang Lutz, Sergei Scherbov, and Andrei Volkov. 1994. 19-40 pp. Routledge: New York, New York/London, England; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
The authors survey fertility trends in the 15 constituent republics of the former Soviet Union from 1959 to 1990. A movement toward a two-child family norm is noted in the European republics. Data analyzed include crude birth rates, cohort fertility, and parity-specific fertility rates. Data are from official and other published sources.
Correspondence: W. Lutz, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Schlossplatz 1, 2361 Laxenburg, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30222 Macro International. Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS] (Calverton, Maryland). DHS Regional Analysis Workshop for Anglophone Africa: fertility trends and determinants in six African countries. Apr 1994. vi, 215 pp. Calverton, Maryland. In Eng.
"This volume contains papers on fertility patterns in six sub-Saharan African countries. The papers were written by participants in the [1992] Demographic and Health Surveys Program (DHS) Regional Analysis Workshop for Anglophone Africa....The primary objectives of the [workshop]...were for participants to carry out an analysis of the course of fertility and its determinants in their countries, to interpret this evidence in the context of the policy and socioeconomic environment, and to identify and explore in depth fertility-related topics of particular policy or program relevance."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Calverton, MD 20705. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30223 Makinwa-Adebusoye, Paulina K.; Feyisetan, Bamikale J. The quantum and tempo of fertility in Nigeria. In: DHS Regional Analysis Workshop for Anglophone Africa: fertility trends and determinants in six African countries. Apr 1994. 41-86 pp. Calverton, Maryland. In Eng.
The authors discuss fertility trends and determinants in Nigeria, based on the 1990 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. They first assess the quality of data from the survey questionnaires. They then briefly describe the characteristics of the women surveyed. Fertility levels and trends are examined, and fertility regulation and reproductive preferences are analyzed.
Correspondence: P. K. Makinwa-Adebusoye, Nigerian Institute for Social and Economic Research, PMB 5, University Post Office, Ibadan, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30224 Mauldin, W. Parker; Ross, John A. Prospects and programs for fertility reduction, 1990-2015. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 25, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1994. 77-95 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors investigate "the likelihood that each of the 37 developing countries with populations of 15 million or more in 1990 will reach replacement fertility by the year 2015....For this article, a composite index was used as the basis for predicting future levels of total fertility. The index was constructed from socioeconomic variables (life expectancy at birth, infant mortality rates, percent adult literacy, ratio of children enrolled in primary or secondary school, percent of the labor force in nonagricultural occupations, gross national product per capita, and percent of the population living in urban areas), total fertility rates for the years 1985-90, total fertility rate decline from 1960-65 to 1985-90, family planning program effort scores in 1989, and the level of contraceptive prevalence in 1990. Eight countries are classified as certain to reach replacement fertility by 2015, and an additional thirteen probably will also. Five countries are classified as possibly reaching replacement fertility, and eleven as unlikely to do so."
Correspondence: W. P. Mauldin, Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30225 Mbacke, Cheikh. Family planning programs and fertility transition in Sub-Saharan Africa. Population and Development Review, Vol. 20, No. 1, Mar 1994. 188-93 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author comments on the publication of Population Dynamics of Sub-Saharan Africa, a seven-volume set resulting from the work of a panel appointed by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in 1989. "The pessimism about the possibility of significant and rapid fertility decline in sub-Saharan Africa that characterizes much demographic research is a reflection of the inadequacy of the general framework of demographic theory for analyzing demographic change in Africa. In the following, I argue that this theoretical framework, which appears to have molded the NAS panel's expectations for the future, is handicapped by its lack of historical perspective."
Correspondence: C. Mbacke, Rockefeller Foundation, Population Sciences, 1133 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10021-6399. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30226 McNicoll, Geoffrey. Institutional analysis of fertility. Population Council Research Division Working Paper, No. 62, 1994. 41 pp. Population Council, Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"I shall sketch [the]...institutional context of population trends and policies. My brief is to discuss fertility; the obvious focus dictated by present realities is on the processes of fertility transition from high to low levels that can be observed in the contemporary world and the strategies that may hasten that transition."
Correspondence: Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30227 Muganzi, Zibeon; Takona, Timothy. Fertility decline and demand for family planning in Kenya. In: DHS Regional Analysis Workshop for Anglophone Africa: fertility trends and determinants in six African countries. Apr 1994. 1-39 pp. Calverton, Maryland. In Eng.
The authors analyze the recent fertility decline in Kenya and discuss awareness, approval, and practice of family planning. They assess factors that determine demand and unmet need for family planning. The study is based on the 1989 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey.
Correspondence: Z. Muganzi, University of Nairobi, Population Studies and Research Institute, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30228 Muhwava, William B.; Muvandi, Ityai. Breastfeeding, contraceptive use, and fertility in Zimbabwe: a further analysis of the Demographic and Health Survey. In: DHS Regional Analysis Workshop for Anglophone Africa: fertility trends and determinants in six African countries. Apr 1994. 181-215 pp. Calverton, Maryland. In Eng.
"The objectives of this analysis were as follows: to document recent fertility trends in Zimbabwe...;to make an analysis of trends and subnational fertility differentials using the data from the Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey (ZDHS); to show the policy implications of fertility trends; to analyze the proximate determinants of fertility in Zimbabwe; to assess the effect of socioeconomic variables on fertility; and to examine the relationship between fertility and breastfeeding."
Correspondence: W. B. Muhwava, University of Zimbabwe, Department of Sociology, Population Studies Programme, Harare, Zimbabwe. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30229 Nonaka, K.; Miura, T.; Peter, K. Recent fertility decline in Dariusleut Hutterites: an extension of Eaton and Mayer's Hutterite fertility study. Human Biology, Vol. 66, No. 3, Jun 1994. 411-20 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
"A church book that has been routinely updated by the Dariusleut Hutterites [in the United States] enabled us to update some fertility tables presented by Eaton and Mayer in the 1950s. The age-specific (nuptial) fertility rates and the total fertility rates (TFRs) were calculated for every 5-year period from 1901-1905 to 1981-1985. Our calculations for Dariusleut, one of the three sects of the Hutterites, gave slightly lower age-specific nuptial fertility rates before 1951 compared with the figures given by Eaton and Mayer (1953) for all Hutterites in the corresponding time periods. The recent decline in Hutterite fertility, especially at higher maternal ages, was confirmed in this study."
For the study by Joseph W. Eaton and Albert J. Mayer, published in 1953, see 20:812.
Correspondence: K. Nonaka, Teikyo University School of Medicine, Department of Hygiene, 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30230 Ntozi, James P. M. The role of men in determining fertility among the Banyankore of southwestern Uganda. 1993. xix, 143 pp. Marianum Press: Kisubi, Uganda. In Eng.
This study concerns the attitude and behavior of men regarding fertility and family planning in Uganda. The study has six objectives. "Firstly, it presents and discusses the background characteristics of men. These include education, literacy, residence, socio-economic grouping, occupation, religion and age. Secondly, some marriage patterns of men are investigated and related to fertility patterns and levels in the area. Thirdly, some aspects of men's fertility are studied. The fourth objective...is to present and discuss men's knowledge of, attitude to and practice of family planning methods. The investigation of the value of children in the area is the fifth objective of the research. Lastly, the above factors of fertility are investigated in the context of the cultural background of the society. This is done by presenting the existing fertility-related customs, taboos, and other traditions and values of the Banyankore." Data are from the Ankole Fertility Survey of 1984.
Correspondence: Marianum Press, P.O. Box 11, Kisubi, Uganda. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30231 Ogino, Miho. Japanese women and the decline of the birth rate. Reproductive Health Matters, No. 1, May 1993. 78-84 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The author discusses possible causes and implications of the declining birth rate in Japan, with a focus on historical trends, policy changes, and women's reactions. The impact of economic factors and of women's growing unwillingness to bear the burden of child rearing is considered.
Correspondence: M. Ogino, Nara Women's University, Kita-Uoya-Higashi-Machi, Nara City 630, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30232 Okun, Barbara S. Cohort parity analysis: an exposition. Historical Methods, Vol. 27, No. 2, Spring 1994. 53-9 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author explains cohort parity analysis (CPA), an indirect method for measuring marital fertility control. "In particular, the article weaves together strands from various descriptions of the CPA method published previously and, in addition, presents the CPA framework from a new perspective, emphasizing an intuitive, rather than algebraic, approach. We also discuss limitations of the techniques in practical applications."
Correspondence: B. S. Okun, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Department of Demography, Mount Scopus, 91905 Jerusalem, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30233 Pathak, K. B.; Pandey, A.; Mishra, U. S. On estimating current levels of fertility and child mortality from the data on open birth interval and survival status of the last child. Janasamkhya, Vol. 9, No. 1-2, Jun 1991. 15-24 pp. Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
"The paper presents a model to estimate simultaneously the force of fertility and child mortality from the data on open birth interval and survival status of the last child. Having applied the truncated distribution of open birth interval to the data simulated from age specific fertility rates, India circa 1981, we have estimated the aforesaid parameters of fertility and child mortality."
Correspondence: K. B. Pathak, International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Bombay 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30234 Philippines. National Statistics Office (Manila, Philippines); Macro International. Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS] (Calverton, Maryland). Philippines National Demographic Survey, 1993. May 1994. xviii, 228 pp. Manila, Philippines. In Eng.
Results of the 1993 Philippines Demographic and Health Survey, which covered a national sample of about 15,000 women aged 15-49 years, are presented. Following introductory chapters, the report has chapters on fertility, family planning, other proximate determinants of fertility, fertility preferences, infant and child mortality, maternal and child health, infant feeding, maternal mortality, and the local availability of family planning and health services.
Correspondence: National Statistics Office, Solicarel Building, Ramon Magsaysay Boulevard, Santa Mesa, Manila, Philippines. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30235 Prioux, France. The birth of the first child. [La naissance du premier enfant.] Population et Societes, No. 287, Feb 1994. 4 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
Recent changes in first birth trends in France are analyzed, using data from the family survey carried out in conjunction with the 1990 census. A growing tendency for first births to occur outside marriage is noted, as is a steady increase in both maternal age at first birth and in the proportion of women who do not have children. Comparisons are made with other European countries.
Correspondence: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30236 Pritchett, Lant H. Desired fertility and the impact of population policies. Population and Development Review, Vol. 20, No. 1, Mar 1994. 1-55, 248-51 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Ninety percent of the differences across [developing] countries in total fertility rates are accounted for solely by differences in women's reported desired fertility. Using desired fertility constructed from both retrospective and prospective questions together with instrumental variables estimation, the article shows that this strong result is affected neither by ex-post rationalization of births nor by the dependence of desired fertility on contraceptive access or cost. Moreover, in spite of the obvious role of contraception as proximate determinant of fertility, the additional effect of contraceptive availability or family planning programs on fertility is quantitatively small and explains very little cross-country variation. These empirical results are consistent with theories in which fertility is determined by couples' choices about children within the social, educational, economic, and cultural environment couples, and especially women, face. The results contradict theories that assert a large causal role of expansion of contraceptive use in the reduction of fertility."
Correspondence: L. H. Pritchett, World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30237 Rasevic, Mirjana; Petrovic, Mina. The fertility of the population of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. [Fertilitet Stanovnistva SR Jugoslavije.] Demografske Sveske, No. 23, 1994. 67 pp. Univerzitet u Beogradu, Institut Drustvenih Nauka, Centar za Demografska Istrazivanja: Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
An analysis of fertility in Yugoslavia from 1953 to 1991 is presented based on vital statistics and census data. The data are presented separately for the country's republics and autonomous regions. Consideration is given to trends in contraception and abortion and to reproduction rates, and to the implications of these trends for policy.
Correspondence: Univerzitet u Beogradu, Institut Drustvenih Nauka, Centar za Demografska Istrazivanja, Naronog Fronta 45, Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30238 Reay, Barry. Before the transition: fertility in English villages, 1800-1880. Continuity and Change, Vol. 9, No. 1, May 1994. 91-120 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"This paper, which employs the technique of family reconstitution, examines patterns of marital fertility in three adjoining rural Kent parishes during the period 1800-1880: charting age at marriage, age-specific marital fertility, levels of natural fertility, and evidence for family limitation....This rural evidence suggests that the English natural fertility regime was not as 'homogenous' as has been assumed, and that the onset of the transition may have to be pushed back from the 1870s and 1880s to the 1830s. This paper does not overturn the interpretation of rapid demographic change from the 1880s, but it does suggest that the orthodoxy of an almost overnight change in mentality and behaviour needs to re-thought."
Correspondence: B. Reay, University of Auckland, Department of History, Auckland, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30239 Saha, Tulshi D. Rural context and reproductive behavior in Bangladesh. Pub. Order No. DA9407021. 1993. 249 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"Do community level differences in economic structure, agricultural conditions, rural isolation and family planning services lead to differences in reproductive behavior in rural Bangladesh? Do women respond differently in their reproductive behavior to the key features of their community depending on the stages of their reproductive career and their motivation to control fertility? These questions are the core of this dissertation research." The study was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Brown University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 54(10).

60:30240 Sato, T.; Nonaka, K.; Miura, T.; Peter, K. Trends in cohort fertility of the Dariusleut Hutterite population. Human Biology, Vol. 66, No. 3, Jun 1994. 421-31 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
"A church book containing vital information on Dariusleut Hutterite families [in the United States] enabled us to trace the life course of individual women. We conducted a retrospective cohort study on the women born in the Dariusleut sect for the period 1901-1965, focusing on their marriage and reproductive histories....The marital age-specific fertility rate (MASFR) increased from the 1901-1905 cohort to the 1926-1930 cohort and then began to decrease, particularly at the ages of 30-39 years. The initial increase in MASFR was not reflected directly in the cohort mean of the total number of children per woman because of a concurrent delay in age at marriage. Marriage delay, however, could not explain the drastic decrease, which started in the 1931-35 cohort, in the total number of children per woman; the decrease in MASFR at the ages of 30 years and older was considered a major reason for the recent changes in Hutterite fertility."
Correspondence: T. Sato, Teikyo University School of Medicine, Department of Hygiene, 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30241 Savitri, R. Fertility rate decline in Tamil Nadu: some issues. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 29, No. 29, Jul 16, 1994. 1,850-2 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
The author examines how the Indian state of Tamil Nadu has achieved a decline in fertility without creating the preconditions generally associated with such a decline, such as reduced infant mortality, improved rates of literacy, and improvements in women's status. It is concluded that the availability of better roads, which facilitate contact between rural and urban areas, is one of the two major factors associated with lower fertility. The other is child mortality.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

60:30242 Schuler, Sidney R.; Hashemi, Syed M. Credit programs, women's empowerment, and contraceptive use in rural Bangladesh. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 25, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1994. 65-76 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article presents findings of research addressing the question of how women's status affects fertility. The effects on contraceptive use of women's participation in rural credit programs and on their status or level of empowerment were examined [in rural Bangladesh]. A woman's level of empowerment is defined here as a function of her relative physical mobility, economic security, ability to make various purchases on her own, freedom from domination and violence within her family, political and legal awareness, and participation in public protests and political campaigning. The main finding is that participation in both of the credit programs studied, those of Grameen Bank and Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC), is positively associated with women's level of empowerment. A positive effect on contraceptive use is discernible among both participants and nonparticipants in Grameen Bank villages. Participation in BRAC does not appear to affect contraceptive use."
Correspondence: S. R. Schuler, JSI Research and Training Institute, Empowerment of Women Program, 1616 North Fort Myer Drive, Arlington, VA 22209. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30243 Schultz, T. Paul. Human capital, family planning and their effects on population growth. Economic Growth Center Discussion Paper, No. 707, Jan 1994. 12 pp. Yale University, Economic Growth Center: New Haven, Connecticut. In Eng.
"Statistical evidence at the household level suggests that fertility and child mortality are related to factors specified by economic models of family resource allocation and behavior. Several of these factors, such as women's education and family planning, appear to decrease both fertility and child mortality, leaving in doubt what net effects these human capital and social welfare programs have had on the recent slowing of world population growth....Cross sectional relationships are reported and changes within countries are analyzed with fixed-effect methods using data for 68 low-income countries for the last two decades....According to these fixed-effect estimates, increasing the schooling of women is the best predictor for reducing fertility and curbing population growth, whereas family planning does not exhibit a significant effect."
Correspondence: Yale University, Economic Growth Center, P.O. Box 208269, 27 Hillhouse Avenue, New Haven, CT 06520-8269. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30244 Schultz, T. Paul. Human capital, family planning, and their effects on population growth. American Economic Review, Vol. 84, No. 2, May 1994. 255-60 pp. Nashville, Tennessee. In Eng.
Data for 68 low-income countries for the period 1972-1989 are used to analyze the relationships among "family-planning programs, human-capital endowments of women and men, natural resource wealth, other economic structural determinants of the costs and benefits of children, and the availability of nutritional inputs." The results indicate that "according to these fixed-effect estimates, increasing the schooling of women is the best predictor for reducing fertility and curbing population growth, whereas family planning does not exhibit a significant effect."
Correspondence: T. P. Schultz, Yale University, Box 208269, Yale Station, New Haven, CT 06520. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

60:30245 Schultz, T. Paul. Marital status and fertility in the United States: welfare and labor market effects. Economic Growth Center Discussion Paper, No. 703, Sep 1993. 39 pp. Yale University, Economic Growth Center: New Haven, Connecticut. In Eng.
"This paper examines the effects of AFDC and food stamps, AFDC-UP and Medicaid on [U.S.] women's marital choices and fertility, controlling for the wage and unearned income opportunities facing different types of women and the men they are likely to marry....In general, the estimated effects of the AFDC and Medicaid benefits variables on the probability of being currently married and on the number of children ever born are found to be often statistically significant and negative." Data are from the 1980 census.
Correspondence: Yale University, Economic Growth Center, P.O. Box 208269, 27 Hillhouse Avenue, New Haven, CT 06520-8269. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30246 St. Bernard, Godfrey C. Relative risks and tempo of childbearing in early birth intervals: a comparative study of the Dominican Republic and Trinidad and Tobago. Pub. Order No. DANN81269. ISBN 0-315-81269-9. 1993. 451 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study, prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Western Ontario, "explains and compares the variations in the relative risks and tempo of first, second and third order births among women from the Dominican Republic and Trinidad and Tobago....[It] also focuses on the Indian and Non-Indian women from Trinidad and Tobago. Data are obtained from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) that were conducted in the Dominican Republic during 1986 and in Trinidad and Tobago during 1987."
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 54(8).

60:30247 Takyi, Baffour K. The status of women and fertility behavior in Sub-Saharan Africa: the effects of female labor force participation and gender preferences on fertility in Ghana. Pub. Order No. DA9333232. 1993. 231 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the State University of New York at Albany. "Using a national probability sample data of 6,125 women in their reproductive years from the Ghana Fertility Survey (GFS) of 1979/80, we examined the relationships between two indicators of women's status (work and gender preferences) and fertility processes in Ghana....Specifically, we examined the effects of working for pay, and sex preferences on completed fertility, recent fertility, birth intentions, and on the use of contraceptives for married and unmarried women."
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 54(8).

60:30248 Thomas, Duncan; Muvandi, Ityai. The demographic transition in southern Africa: another look at the evidence from Botswana and Zimbabwe. Demography, Vol. 31, No. 2, May 1994. 185-227 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Botswana and Zimbabwe have been acclaimed as being on the vanguard of the demographic transition in sub-Saharan Africa. This paper examines the comparability of the CPS [Contraceptive Prevalence Survey] and the DHS [Demographic and Health Survey] data for each country and finds that part of the observed decline in aggregate fertility rates in both countries can be attributed to differences in sample composition. Women of the same cohort tend to be better educated in the second survey relative to the first. This fact explains part--but not all--of the observed fertility decline; for example, it appears to account for up to half the observed decline among women aged 25-34 in 1984 in Zimbabwe." A critique by Ann K. Blanc and Shea O. Rutstein (pp. 209-15) and a reply by Thomas and Muvandi (pp. 217-27) are included.
Correspondence: D. Thomas, RAND, 1700 Main Street, Santa Monica, CA 90407. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30249 Van Rompaey, Stephen E. The decline of Chilean fertility, 1960-1982: a contextual and multi-level analysis. Pub. Order No. DA9404035. 1993. 105 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
National census data for 1960, 1970, and 1982 are used to develop a series of contextual models to test the relative impact of women's status, socioeconomic conditions, and cultural variables on changes in fertility in Chile. The importance of rural-urban residence on fertility differentials is noted, particularly as higher women's status is associated with urban residence. The study was undertaken as a doctoral dissertation at Stanford University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 53(7).

60:30250 Visaria, Leela. Regional variations in female autonomy and fertility and contraception in India. Gujarat Institute of Development Research Working Paper, No. 50, ISBN 81-85820-07-4. Jul 1993. v, 50 pp. Gujarat Institute of Development Research: Ahmedabad, India. In Eng.
The author identifies three indices of women's autonomy in India: control over sources of income, perceived freedom to undertake specific tasks independently, and the ability to maintain contacts with natal kin. "The paper presents the distribution of women according to the autonomy indices, level of education and the relationship of these variables with fertility and contraceptive use from large district level surveys conducted in four districts of Gujarat and three districts of Kerala." The results indicate that "autonomous women are probably able to influence their husbands or mothers-in-law and resort to contraception after two living children. Also, factors other than education, such as the official family planning programme and its incentive based strategies seem to be playing an important role in determining whether women use contraception or not."
Correspondence: Gujarat Institute of Development Research, Gota 382 481, Ahmedabad, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30251 Whittington, Leslie A. State income tax policy and family size: fertility and the dependency exemption. Public Finance Quarterly, Vol. 21, No. 4, Oct 1993. 378-98 pp. Thousands Oaks, California. In Eng.
"This article explores the relationship between the changing tax value of the state exemption for dependents--combined with the federal exemption--and the observed fertility choices of married couples. Using data from the [U.S.] Panel Study on Income Dynamics (PSID), the article finds that the federal exemption does have a positive impact on differential period fertility for the sample of 229 married couples in this study. This effect is dampened by an offsetting labor force participation and marginal tax rate effect, but it does provide evidence that fiscal policy can influence fertility. State income tax exemptions do not appear to significantly influence the fertility decisions of the sample."
Correspondence: L. A. Whittington, University of Maryland, Center on Population, Gender and Social Inequality, College Park, MD 20742. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

60:30252 Willekens, Frans; Scherbov, Sergei. Marital and fertility experience of Soviet women. In: Demographic trends and patterns in the Soviet Union before 1991, edited by Wolfgang Lutz, Sergei Scherbov, and Andrei Volkov. 1994. 185-210 pp. Routledge: New York, New York/London, England; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
"The purpose of this chapter is to explore the changes in nuptiality and fertility in the Soviet Union, and the associated changes in women's lives....The first section of the chapter presents the marital biographies women would have experienced if the rates of marital change observed in 1989 had prevailed....The second section describes fertility histories. Two birth cohorts are distinguished: 1940-1944 and 1950-1954....[The authors conclude that] nearly all Soviet women marry and have children....One-third of the women marry before their 20th birthday. There are 15 percent with at least one child at age 20; at age 25, 65 percent have one or more children."
Correspondence: F. Willekens, University of Groningen, Population Research Centre, 9700 AV Groningen, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30253 Williams, Linda B.; London, Kathryn A. Changes in the planning status of births to ever-married U.S. women, 1982-1988. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 26, No. 3, May-Jun 1994. 121-4 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This research note is intended to provide information about factors that may have contributed to recent changes in the planning status of births to ever-married [U.S.] women. We ascertain whether women were using contraceptives during the interval before conception in order to avoid a pregnancy, whether they were not using contraceptives because they were seeking pregnancy, or whether they were not using contraceptives for some other reason. To determine whether there was a change during the 1980s in the extent to which births were planned, we begin by discussing all births conceived by ever-married women in the five years leading up to both surveys. We then focus specifically on births reported as unwanted at the time of conception, on the assumption that women who claimed to want no more children would be especially motivated to avoid additional childbearing. Finally, we attempt to account for some of the changes that occurred between 1982 and 1988."
Correspondence: L. B. Williams, Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, 134 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30254 Zakee, R. Decreasing total fertility rates in Europe. [Dalend totaal vruchtbaarheidscijfer in Europa.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 42, No. 4, Apr 1994. 18-20 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"Due to an almost overall decrease during the last four decades total (period) fertility rates have reached values below the replacement level of 2.07 in most European countries. Only in Albania (2.8 in 1991), on the Faroe Islands (2.7 in 1990) and Iceland (2.3 in 1992) the last known values are higher. In most other European countries values between 1.4 and 2.0 are registered, but in Italy, Spain and Germany the TFR is about 1.2. Especially in the former German Democratic Republic (0.7), San Marino and most northern Italian regions (1.0) the TFR is low."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.2. Differential Fertility

Studies on differences in fertility patterns and levels in subgroups of a population. Also included are studies on age-specific fertility, such as teenage pregnancy.

60:30255 Alan Guttmacher Institute (New York, New York). Sex and America's teenagers. ISBN 0-939253-34-8. 1994. 88 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This report summarizes more than a decade of research on the sex behavior of U.S. adolescents and its consequences. Consideration is given to the risk and prevention of unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases, adolescent pregnancy outcomes, and organized responses to adolescent sexual and reproductive behavior.
Correspondence: Alan Guttmacher Institute, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30256 Bondarskaya, Galina. Ethnic-territorial differences in marital fertility: a 1985 survey. In: Demographic trends and patterns in the Soviet Union before 1991, edited by Wolfgang Lutz, Sergei Scherbov, and Andrei Volkov. 1994. 71-87 pp. Routledge: New York, New York/London, England; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
The author uses data from a 1985 survey covering five percent of the population of the former Soviet Union to determine ethnic and regional fertility variations. The focus is on the importance of cultural background as a fertility determinant. It is concluded that "the impact of ethnic affiliation on reproductive behavior was and still is one of the most significant social characteristics, more important than educational level, place of residence, [or] women's employment...." A trend toward a two-child family norm is identified among the European republics.
Correspondence: G. Bondarskaya, State Committee of the Russian Federation on Statistics, Institute of Statistics and Economic Research, Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30257 Desplanques, Guy. Measuring fertility differences with data from a single census. [Mesurer les disparites de fecondite a l'aide du seul recensement.] Population, Vol. 48, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1993. 2,011-23 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
"Birth rates in industrialized countries have generally been calculated by relating civil registration data to populations enumerated in censuses, or obtained from registration. Another method makes use of the number of children enumerated in each household, who are declared in the census, and counts numbers of children born recently, rather than births....In this paper two variables are considered: nationality and place of residence. When estimates obtained by the two methods are compared, there are advantages in using the number of children returned in the census, since civil registers do not contain information on these topics. The analysis shows that the fertility of foreign women who have lived in France for several years is relatively low, and that birth rates for women who have moved from one region to another between 1982 and 1990 have been higher. Change of residence is often associated with the birth of a child."
Correspondence: G. Desplanques, Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, 18 boulevard Adolphe Pinard, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30258 Espenshade, Thomas J.; Ye, Wenzhen. Differential fertility within an ethnic minority: the effect of "trying harder" among Chinese-American women. Social Problems, Vol. 41, No. 1, Feb 1994. 97-113 pp. Berkeley, California. In Eng.
"This paper brings together and tests three of the most influential theoretical frameworks used to understand fertility behaviors of relatively small and homogeneous racial or ethnic groups....We argue that minority group status approaches have overlooked an important path by which membership in a minority group affects fertility. In particular, we suggest that quite apart from its social-psychological consequences, institutionalized discrimination against minorities means that extra effort is required to achieve social and economic equality in the United States. This extra effort comes at a price, and that price is fewer children....We test these hypotheses using data from the 5-percent Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) from the 1980 Census of Population....The analysis is based on continuously married Chinese-American women who were 25-40 years old and in a first marriage at the time of the census."
Correspondence: T. J. Espenshade, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30259 Liu, Gang. Migrant-nonmigrant differentials in level and timing of fertility, Anhui, China. Pub. Order No. DA9406981. 1993. 415 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Brown University. "The thesis research has tested allegations about [the] recent rise in China's fertility by using survey data collected in Anhui province from about 4,500 households....Family planning has had the dominant negative effect on level of fertility, compared to effects of socioeconomic conditions and population redistribution....The findings of the study support the adaptation hypothesis which argues that migrants adapt urban attitudes and behavior with respect to marriage and childbearing after a period of residence in urban places."
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 54(10).

60:30260 Lloyd, Cynthia B. Adolescent fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa. Population and Development Review, Vol. 20, No. 1, Mar 1994. 194-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author assesses "the contribution of the [National Academy of Sciences] Committee on Population's Panel on the Population Dynamics of Sub-Saharan Africa; and specifically its contribution to a better understanding of the reproductive behavior of young Africans....This essay seeks to draw on the collective wisdom of the whole Panel while at the same time noting points of inconsistency."
Correspondence: C. B. Lloyd, Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30261 Mahgoub, Youssef M.; Hussein, Mounira A. The impact of education on fertility according to region and contraceptive use. Egyptian Population and Family Planning Review, Vol. 27, No. 1, Jun 1993. 19-66 pp. Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"The impact of mother's educational level on the number of children ever born (CEB) to women [in Egypt] not wanting more children is investigated....Global odds ratios are utilized...and comparison of their findings is highlighted. The definition and interpretation of global odds ratios are emphasized. Different models for global odds ratios are tested. Some policy implications are suggested." Data are analyzed according to urban or rural residence, educational level, number of children ever born, and contraceptive usage. Results indicate that "there is a highly significant association between the educational level and the number of children ever born for women who do not want more children."
Correspondence: Y. M. Mahgoub, Cairo University, Department of Demography and Biostatistics, Cairo, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30262 McQuillan, Kevin. Religious values and fertility decline: Catholics and Lutherans in Alsace, 1750-1870. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 94-2, ISBN 0-7714-1653-9. Feb 1994. 23, [10] pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
"Differences in fertility between Catholics and Lutherans in Alsace in the period from 1750 to 1870 are strikingly clear....The explanation we have presented here centres on two ideas. First, there were important differences between Lutherans and Catholics on issues that had direct and indirect implications for marriage and childbearing....The second important factor emphasized here touches on the social and political circumstances that allowed religious doctrine to play an important role in the lives of ordinary people...[allowing] variations in religious teaching to assume an important role in shaping demographic behaviour."
Correspondence: University of Western Ontario, Department of Sociology, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30263 Pribadi, Hasan. A study of socioeconomic differentials in fertility of Javanese women. Pub. Order No. DA9406041. 1993. 105 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study uses data from the 1987 Indonesian Demographic and Health Survey to examine alternative explanations for socioeconomic fertility differentials. Intervening variables such as child loss, marital stability, age at marriage, and contraception are found to be of greater importance than socioeconomic variables such as education. The study was carried out as a doctoral dissertation at Florida State University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 53(7).

60:30264 Soon, Lee Ying. Determinants of fertility in Malaysia--how much do we know? Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, Vol. 23, No. 1, Mar 1992. 112-32 pp. Singapore. In Eng.
"There is a considerable body of research that explores the role of socioeconomic determinants on family formation, childbearing and family planning behaviour in Malaysia. The objective of this paper is not to offer new evidence but to review the results of this literature, bringing together the scattered evidence and to attempt to draw inferences that will throw light on recent trends. The focus of the review will be the following: firstly, to determine the extent to which ethnic differentials are mediated through socioeconomic differences, or to put it another way, are due to differences in composition; and secondly, to seek out evidence that different ethnic groups respond differently to a given socioeconomic variable and, if so, why."
Correspondence: L. Y. Soon, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 2263. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

60:30265 Spitz, Alison M.; Ventura, Stephanie J.; Koonin, Lisa M.; Strauss, Lilo T.; Frye, Alice; Heuser, Robert L.; Smith, Jack C.; Morris, Leo; Smith, Sandra; Wingo, Phyllis; Marks, James S. Surveillance for pregnancy and birth rates among teenagers, by state--United States, 1980 and 1990. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 42, No. SS-6, Dec 17, 1993. 1-27 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
"This report summarizes and reviews surveillance data for pregnancies, abortions, and births among women ages 15-19, 15-17, and 18-19 years reported by CDC for 1980 and 1990....Data in this report indicate that pregnancy rates by state among U.S. teenagers ages 15-19 years have changed little since 1980. Moreover, many states have reported increases in birth rates that are probably related to concurrent decreases in abortion rates. Pregnancy rates range from 25 to 75 per 1,000 for 15- to 17-year-olds and from 92 to 165 per 1,000 for 18- to 19-year-olds."
Correspondence: A. M. Spitz, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30266 Uitto, Juha I. Fertility transition and socio-economic change in western Kenya. African Study Monographs, Vol. 13, No. 4, Dec 1992. 185-201 pp. Kyoto, Japan. In Eng.
"This article attempts to analyze and explain the differences in fertility between the various regions of Kenya....Kisii District in western Kenya has been selected for an in-depth analysis of the persistence of high fertility and its relationship with the socio-economic characteristics of the area. Demographic transition theory assumes that fertility transition is determined by the economic rationality of having children....Of particular importance are the introduction of a monetary economy and the spread of education. The study finds fertility transition in process at different stages in the different regions of Kenya, depending on the particular socio-economic situation, but these differences are likely to even out in the future."
Correspondence: J. I. Uitto, United Nations University, 53-70 Jingumae 5-chome, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

60:30267 United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division (New York, New York). Adolescent fertility behaviour in Asia and the Pacific. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 124, Nov 1993. 148-52 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
Recent trends in adolescent fertility behavior in Asia and the Pacific are reviewed, with a focus on regional differences in age-specific fertility rates, union formation and sexual exposure, sexual exposure among unmarried teenagers, and contraceptive use.
Correspondence: UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, United Nations, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30268 Vidal-Zeballos, David E. Differentials and determinants of fertility behaviour in Bolivia. Pub. Order No. DANN81307. ISBN 0-315-81307-5. 1993. 386 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study, prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Western Ontario, "examines differentials and determinants of fertility behaviour for the Bolivian population, focusing on the biological, behavioural, economic, social and cultural factors that directly and indirectly affect reproductive behaviour among the three ecological strata (Highlands, Valleys and Lowlands) and two spatial contexts (Urban and Rural)." Data are from the 1989 Bolivian Demographic and Health Survey.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 54(8).

60:30269 Zakharov, Sergei V. Changes in spatial variation of demographic indicators in Russia. In: Demographic trends and patterns in the Soviet Union before 1991, edited by Wolfgang Lutz, Sergei Scherbov, and Andrei Volkov. 1994. 113-30 pp. Routledge: New York, New York/London, England; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
"This chapter focuses on the regional variation in fertility and mortality in the provinces of the Russian Federation....In addition to the crude birth rate (CBR) and crude death rate (CDR) for the years 1897, 1926, 1940, 1959, and 1979, the following indicators were calculated for each territory: total fertility rate (TFR), probability of a mother surviving to mean age of childbearing (PS), and the net reproduction rate (NRR)....[It is found that] the demographic transition in Russia was most similar to the transition in Bulgaria, Romania, Portugal, and Greece....The demographic transition in Russia was a relatively late but rapid transition...[and] the expansion of the demographic transition in Russia moved from the center to the periphery and,...from the west to the south and east."
Correspondence: S. V. Zakharov, Russian Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Labor and Employment, Institute for Employment Studies, Center for Demography and Human Ecology, Leninsky Pr. 14, 117901 Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology

Studies on infertility, as well as studies of spontaneous abortion, prematurity, and other relevant pathologies of pregnancy.

60:30270 Inhorn, Marcia C.; Buss, Kimberly A. Ethnography, epidemiology and infertility in Egypt. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 39, No. 5, Sep 1994. 671-86 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In this study, we examine factors placing poor urban Egyptian men and women at risk of infertility, and we explore the sociocultural and political-economic contexts in which these health-demoting factors are perpetuated. Our approach to the problem of Egyptian infertility attempts an explicit merging of ethnographic and epidemiological research designs, methods of data collection and analysis, and interpretive insights to provide improved understanding of the factors underlying infertility in the urban Egyptian setting." The data concern 190 women attending an infertility clinic in Alexandria in 1988 and 1989.
Correspondence: M. C. Inhorn, Emory University, Department of Anthropology, Atlanta, GA 30322. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

F.4. Actions and Activities Directly Affecting Fertility

Studies concerning activities, including family planning programs, that are primarily designed to influence fertility.

F.4.1. General Fertility Control and Contraception

General aspects of fertility control, primarily those concerned with family planning and family planning programs.

60:30271 Amin, Ruhul; Ahmed, A. U.; Chowdhury, J.; Ahmed, M. Poor women's participation in income-generating projects and their fertility regulation in rural Bangladesh: evidence from a recent survey. World Development, Vol. 22, No. 4, Apr 1994. 555-65 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The paper assesses the impact of poor women's participation in income-generating projects on their knowledge, attitude, and practice of family planning in rural Bangladesh. By analyzing...1992 national level household sample survey data collected from the female recipients of collateral-free loans of three relatively large rural development agencies in Bangladesh--the present study shows that the participation in income-generating projects by poor rural women has led to an increased level of contraceptive use and to a decreased level of desire for additional children. These effects are much higher than those of the corresponding levels for Bangladesh as a whole, indicating both the additional effect of income-generating projects as well as the effects of their population education components. Implications of these findings for inducing further increase in contraceptive use in Bangladesh are discussed in the paper."
Correspondence: R. Amin, Morgan State University, Hillen Road and Coldspring Lane, Baltimore, MD 21239. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

60:30272 Aramburu, Carlos. Is population policy necessary? Latin America and the Andean countries. Population and Development Review, Vol. 20, Suppl., 1994. 159-78 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author examines the relationships among fertility decline, contraceptive prevalence, population policy, and family planning programs in Latin America. "Contraceptive prevalence is looked at first in terms of quantity (coverage) and quality (method mix), and its relationship to fertility levels. The issue of availability of contraceptives can then be assessed and linked to the types of family planning programs operating in each country. Finally, the issue of whether or not family planning effort is related to the presence of explicit population policies can be examined....The process by which policy, programs, and prevalence relate to one another in the three Andean countries, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Peru, is illustrated here."
Correspondence: C. Aramburu, Pathfinder International, Regional Office for Latin America, 9 Galen Street, Watertown, MA 02172-4501. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30273 Bialy, Gabriel; Haseltine, Florence; Alexander, Nancy J.; Burnhill, Michael. Preventing unintended pregnancy: the role of hormonal contraceptives. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Supplement, Vol. 170, No. 5, Pt. 2, May 1994. [112] pp. Mosby-Year Book: St. Louis, Missouri. In Eng.
This is a collection of papers from "a symposium entitled, 'Preventing Unintended Pregnancy: The Role of Hormonal Contraceptives,' [which] was held on April 27-28, 1993, in Bethesda, Maryland....The meeting addressed a major health care crisis in the United States today: the escalating incidence of unintended pregnancies, which has occurred despite the availability of a variety of safe, effective, and convenient contraceptive methods." The focus is on the use of hormonal contraceptives in preventing pregnancy.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Mosby-Year Book, 11830 Westline Industrial Drive, St. Louis, MO 63146-3318. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30274 Bilodeau, Angele; Forget, Gilles; Tetreault, Jeanne. Relative self-efficacy of contraception among male and female adolescents: validation of the French version of the Levinson scale. [L'auto-efficacite relative a la contraception chez les adolescentes et les adolescents: la validation de la version francaise de l'echelle de mesure de Levinson.] Canadian Journal of Public Health/Revue Canadienne de Sante Publique, Vol. 85, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1994. 115-20 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"The social learning theory of Bandura leads us to believe that contraceptive self-efficacy supports the adoption and the maintenance of effective contraceptive behaviours during the teenage years. Levinson has developed a validated measure of this concept which consists of an 18-item scale for sexually active girls. However there are no such scales in French or for sexually active boys. The health promotion program, entitled SEXPRIMER, which aims at reducing teenage pregnancy, has incorporated the French version of the Levinson scale, the adapted boy's version and the validity studies....A logistic regression analysis shows the predictive value of the measures in regard to contraceptive behaviours. According to Levinson's more recent studies, results indicate that new research on the factor matrix of the scale are relevant." Data for the study were collected from 1988-1990 in Montreal, Canada.
Correspondence: A. Bilodeau, Hopital Maisonneuve-Rosemont, Departement de Sante Communautaire, 5565 Sherbrooke Est, Suite 470, Montreal, Quebec H1N 1A2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30275 Bledsoe, Caroline H.; Hill, Allan G.; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Langerock, Patricia. Constructing natural fertility: the use of Western contraceptive technologies in rural Gambia. Population and Development Review, Vol. 20, No. 1, Mar 1994. 81-113, 249, 251 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Based on a 1992 survey, this study examines the use of Western and traditional contraceptives in rural Gambia in what appears to be a classic natural fertility population of women with regular birth intervals, strong desires for children, and exceedingly low use rates of Western contraception. The authors find that while women are not trying to reduce fertility, they are seeking to maintain regular birth intervals of around two and half years through the strategic use of high-technology Western contraceptives. As a result, Western contraception is much more important in shaping patterns of fertility than cross-sectional data would suggest because most contraception occurs for spacing purposes, hence practiced for very short slices of time in the birth interval. Questioning some of the key tenets of the natural fertility paradigm, the study shows that women's birth spacing actions are highly intentional and that the kinds of contraceptive strategies they employ vary considerably by parity."
Correspondence: C. H. Bledsoe, Northwestern University, Department of Anthropology, Evanston, IL 60208. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30276 Brodie, Janet F. Contraception and abortion in nineteenth-century America. ISBN 0-8014-2849-1. LC 93-30515. 1994. xviii, 373 pp. Cornell University Press: Ithaca, New York/London, England. In Eng.
This study examines changes in the use of contraception and abortion among white couples in the United States from about 1830 to 1880. The study is based primarily on published sources, and particularly on contemporary advice-books and pamphlets on reproductive control, and on nineteenth-century medical journals. The author notes that, over the 50-year period, fertility declined dramatically, although the Comstock laws of the 1870s prohibited the mailing of birth control information and products. She concludes that the central motivation for the dispersal of reproductive control shifted from morals to money, and from a small group of social reformers to a diverse assortment of entrepreneurs and business people. She also suggests that the motivation to control pregnancy and birth, and the increasing availability of efficient techniques, devices, and information, were mutually reinforcing.
Correspondence: Cornell University Press, Sage House, 512 East State Street, Ithaca, NY 14850. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30277 Davis, Ann J. The role of hormonal contraception in adolescents. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Supplement, Vol. 170, No. 5, Pt. 2, May 1994. 1,581-5 pp. St. Louis, Missouri. In Eng.
The author discusses problems of contraceptive nonuse among adolescents in the United States, with a focus on access to contraceptive information, compliance, education, and adolescent psychology. Recommendations are made regarding the provision of oral contraceptives to adolescent patients.
Correspondence: A. J. Davis, New England Medical Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 750 Washington Street, Box 36, Boston, MA 02111. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30278 Djerassi, Carl; Leibo, S. P. A new look at male contraception. Nature, Vol. 370, No. 6484, Jul 7, 1994. 11-2 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors assert that the cryopreservation of sperm followed by vasectomy is a safe, reversible (via the later use of artificial insemination), method of male contraception. They predict that "in the future--through vaccines and, probably much sooner, through vasectomy coupled with sperm cryopreservation--the 'normal' reproductive state of an adult may be infertility, a subsequent deliberate step being needed for fertilization." The establishment of sperm banks to test the viability of sperm after long-term storage is recommended.
Correspondence: C. Djerassi, Stanford University, Department of Chemistry, Stanford, CA 94305-5080. Location: Princeton University Library (SG).

60:30279 Donaldson, Peter J. Developing more effective family planning/family health, and family welfare programmes: opportunities for government-NGO collaboration. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 124, Nov 1993. 44-8 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This paper begins by briefly assessing the consequences of the dominant role played by governments in the provision of health and welfare services [including family planning programs in Asia and the Pacific]. Some less visible, but nonetheless very important, roles that non-governmental organisations (NGOs)...have played in the evolution of service delivery in the region are outlined....The paper concludes by proposing two strategies that could enhance collaboration between NGOs and governments, and thereby lead to a richer and more cost-effective range of services that would reach more people and provide better quality."
Correspondence: P. J. Donaldson, Population Council, P.O. Box 11-1213, Nana Post Office, Bangkok 10112, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30280 Gautier, Arlette; Quesnel, Andre. Population policy, institutional mediators, and fertility regulation in Yucatan (Mexico). [Politique de population, mediateurs institutionnels et regulation de la fecondite au Yucatan (Mexique).] Etudes et Theses, ISBN 2-7099-1155-8. 1993. 114 pp. Institut Francais de Recherche Scientifique pour le Developpement en Cooperation [ORSTOM]: Paris, France. In Fre.
This study examines the implementation of a policy designed to reduce fertility, using the example of developments in the Yucatan region of Mexico. Chapter 1 examines how the organizational structure to carry out the policy was set up. How the process was affected by institutions such as existing health services, and by opposing organizations including the Catholic church, is explored. Chapter 2 looks at factors affecting fertility at the family level and how these were influenced by the development of this policy and program. Chapter 3 looks at the program's impact on family planning practice.
Correspondence: Institut Francais de Recherche Scientifique pour le Developpement en Cooperation, 213 rue La Fayette, 75480 Paris Cedex 10, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30281 Goldberg, Howard; Kraus, Jaroslav; Tomek, Ivan; Velebil, Petr. Research on reproduction and women's health--Czech Republic, 1993. [Pruzkum reprodukce a zdravi--CR 1993.] Demografie, Vol. 36, No. 1, 1994. 30-9 pp. Prague, Czech Republic. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The authors report the preliminary results of a 1993 survey carried out in the Czech Republic on women's reproductive health and behavior. "The questionnaire covered a broad spectrum of questions concentrated upon pregnancy and confinement, knowledge and usage of contraceptive means, mother and infant health care, young women's sexual life and contraception, women's state of health, knowledge of problems concerning parenthood and attitudes towards them, knowledge of HIV/AIDS, as well as...social, economic and demographic characteristics."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30282 Goldberg, Howard I.; Toros, Aykut. The use of traditional methods of contraception among Turkish couples. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 25, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1994. 122-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"About half the users of contraceptives in Turkey employ traditional methods of family planning, particularly withdrawal. This report presents data from a 1988 national survey to examine Turkish couples' use of and opinions about these methods. Use of traditional methods is widespread across all geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic groups. The principal reasons reported for not using methods generally considered to be highly reliable were fear of health problems and side effects and the opposition of husbands to such methods. Most couples who practice withdrawal also feel that it is as effective as modern methods. These findings imply that a major focus of family planning efforts should be the education of women, of their partners, and of health-care and family planning providers concerning the benefits, risks, and failure rates of both traditional and modern contraceptive methods."
Correspondence: H. I. Goldberg, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Mailstop K35, 4770 Buford Highway NE, Atlanta, GA 30341-3724. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30283 Gule, Gugulethu. Socio-cultural constraints to family planning in Swaziland. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 21, No. 1, 1994. 35-49 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper discusses constraints to family planning in Swaziland and proposes the incorporation of these factors into all programs aimed at reducing Swaziland's population growth and fertility rates." Factors considered include high infant and child mortality, women's status, kinship structure, partner's disapproval of family planning, misconceptions about family planning, and access to and quality of family planning services.
Correspondence: G. Gule, University of Swaziland, Private Bag 4, Kwaluseni, Swaziland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30284 Gupta, Jyotsna A. "People like you never agree to get it": an Indian family planning clinic. Reproductive Health Matters, No. 1, May 1993. 39-43 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The author presents part of a transcript from an interview with a woman doctor practicing at a family planning clinic in India.
Correspondence: J. A. Gupta, Leiden University, Department of Cultural Anthropology, Women and Autonomy Centre, 2300 RA Leiden, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30285 Hardee, Karen; Barkat-e-Khuda; Kamal, Ghulam M.; Rahman, A. P. M. Shafiur; McMahan, James. Contraceptive implant users and their access to removal services in Bangladesh. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 20, No. 2, Jun 1994. 59-65 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"In this article, we examine two concerns raised about the implant clinical trial program in Bangladesh: that illiterate, rural women were disproportionately recruited for the clinical trial and that women were denied access to removal of the implant. We describe who uses the implant, how they decided to use this method and how they experienced removal services." Results indicate that "at the time of the survey, 33% of users had requested removal of the implant. The most common reason for requesting removal was menstrual disorders (66%)....Sixty-one percent of the women who made more than one request for removal said they were told initially to retain the implant while doctors tried to treat the side effects; others were told that the doctor was too busy to do a removal or that the implant could not be removed for five years."
Correspondence: K. Hardee, Family Health International, One Triangle Drive, Research Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30286 International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF] (London, England). Unmet needs. Planned Parenthood Challenges, No. 1, 1994. 48 pp. London, England. In Eng.
This is a selection of short contributions on aspects of the unmet need for family planning around the world. The report concludes that "globally, to meet what is currently perceived as the unmet need for family planning, demand will have to increase from approximately 300 million users at present to more than 550 million by the year 2000. However, most of the unmet need for family planning will emanate from the 40% to 50% of people who are marginalized in the development process; who do not benefit from existing health, education and employment opportunities; and whose needs remain largely unsatisfied through the traditional services of the FPAs. Thus, IPPF and its member associations face a dramatic challenge in working with governments and all interested parties in meeting the needs of this marginalized and under-served segment of society."
Correspondence: International Planned Parenthood Federation, Public Affairs Department, Regent's College, Inner Circle, Regent's Park, London NW1 4NS, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30287 Janowitz, Barbara; Bratt, John H. Methods for costing family planning services. ISBN 0-939704-13-7. LC 93-49089. 1994. iii, 86 pp. United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]: New York, New York; Family Health International: Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. In Eng.
"The purpose of this manual is to describe procedures for estimating the economic costs of family planning services....Chapter 1 of the manual discusses the uses of cost analysis. Chapter 2 outlines a conceptual framework for thinking about family planning programs as production units, in which inputs are used to produce family planning services. In Chapter 3, we review the fundamentals of cost analysis, focusing especially on definitions of various types of costs and ways to classify costs. Chapter 4 provides guidance on the mechanics of gathering cost data, and Chapters 5 and 6 explain how to allocate costs to family planning services in clinical and non-clinical delivery systems. Chapter 7 relates costs to outputs and Chapter 8 presents some examples in which information on costs is used to make resource allocation decisions."
Correspondence: United Nations Population Fund, 220 East 42nd Street, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30288 Pine, Rachael N. Achieving public health objectives through family planning services. Reproductive Health Matters, No. 2, Nov 1993. 77-83 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper reviews evidence from the United States and Europe demonstrating that desired public health objectives can best be achieved through comprehensive family planning programmes that include safe, legal abortion."
Correspondence: R. N. Pine, Center for Reproductive Law and Policy, New York, NY. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30289 Rajaretnam, T.; Deshpande, R. V. Factors inhibiting the use of reversible contraceptive methods in rural south India. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 25, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1994. 111-21 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In two rural districts in South India, the contraceptive prevalence rate for all modern family planning methods was 41 percent, and that for all reversible methods was only about 2 percent in 1990. Interviews with 35 health program professionals, 815 currently married women of reproductive age, 136 of their husbands, and 60 community leaders revealed that neither the demand for reversible methods nor the supply of services was strong in the study areas. Program managers and field-workers were not popularizing reversible methods, and therefore couples were unable to learn about their benefits. According to the authors, a strong commitment from program managers at all levels is needed to increase reversible-method use, and adequate services should be made available at clinics and in villages."
Correspondence: T. Rajaretnam, J. S. S. Institute of Economic Research, Population Research Centre, Vidyagiri, Dharwad 580 004, Karnataka, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30290 Selman, Peter; Calder, Jacqueline. Variations in the characteristics of attenders at community family planning clinics. British Journal of Family Planning, Vol. 20, No. 1, Apr 1994. 13-6 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This article reviews findings from a survey of clinics in Newcastle upon Tyne [England] and identifies variations in the characteristics of those attending central and local clinics and in their preferences for type of provision. There seems to be a clear need for both a central clinic open all day throughout the week and for local clinics opening less frequently, but easily accessible to those with families and without transport. A third group of clinics serving a wider population, but less centrally located, is also identified suggesting a further form of provision which can serve more mobile attenders."
Correspondence: P. Selman, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30291 Shapiro, David; Tambashe, B. Oleko. The impact of women's employment and education on contraceptive use and abortion in Kinshasa, Zaire. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 25, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1994. 96-110 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This report examines contraceptive behavior and abortion among women residing in Kinshasa, Zaire's capital city, with particular emphasis on women's employment and education. A data set collected in 1990 covering 2,399 women of reproductive age was used. While the practice of contraception is a common event in Kinshasa, dominated by the rhythm method, the use of modern contraceptives remains limited, but is on the rise. Induced abortion is reported by 15 percent of the ever-pregnant women in the survey. Women's employment and education are strongly linked to contraceptive use and abortion, and differences in the incidence of abortion by schooling and employment status appear to play an important role in contributing to corresponding observed differences in fertility. Modern contraceptives and induced abortion appear to be used as complementary fertility-control strategies in Kinshasa, and analyses of the findings suggest that better-educated women employed in the modern sector are most likely to be in the forefront of the contraceptive revolution."
Correspondence: D. Shapiro, Pennsylvania State University, Department of Economics, 416 Kern Graduate Building, University Park, PA 16802-3306. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30292 Sinding, Steven W.; Ross, John A.; Rosenfield, Allan G. Seeking common ground: unmet need and demographic goals. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 20, No. 1, Mar 1994. 23-7, 32 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors "compare the demographic results of meeting unmet need [for family planning in developing countries] with those of meeting the demographic goals that some governments have set....We have attempted to calculate what the demographic effect would be in each country if unmet need were satisfied. We then compared our estimates with government targets, for countries for which the information is available, converted where necessary to prevalence of contraceptive use....The results of our analysis suggest that significant demographic impact would result from family planning and reproductive health programs that attempted to do no more than satisfy the stated reproductive wishes of individual women in the developing world. The analysis strongly suggests that such a rationale...would accomplish as much, or more, demographically than meeting most countries' demographic targets."
Correspondence: S. W. Sinding, Rockefeller Foundation, 1133 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10021-6399. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30293 Suyono, Haryono. Developing strong family planning programmes for the 1990s and the twenty-first century. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 124, Nov 1993. 39-43 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"In November 1989, the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) held a special International Forum in Amsterdam on Population in the Twenty-First Century....This paper begins by considering some of the indicators making for successful family planning programmes as noted in the Amsterdam declaration, with some illustrations taken from the Indonesian programme. It then considers some of the directions in which programmes need to evolve and change, depending on the specific contexts and needs of countries."
Correspondence: H. Suyono, National Family Planning Coordinating Board, Jalan Letjen Haryono M.T., Jakarta 13630, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30294 United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA] (New York, New York). Contraceptive requirements and logistics management needs in India. UNFPA Report, ISBN 0-89714-179-2. 1993. vii, 86 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This report presents the findings and recommendations of a mission to India, organized by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) in collaboration with the Government of India. The mission, carried out from 7 September-5 October 1992, assessed India's contraceptive requirements and logistics management needs through the year 2000."
Correspondence: United Nations Population Fund, 220 East 42nd Street, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30295 World Health Organization [WHO]. Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction (Geneva, Switzerland). Creating common ground in Asia: women's perspectives on the selection and introduction of fertility regulation technologies. No. WHO/HRP/WOM/94.1, 1994. 45 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
This is a report on a meeting of women's health advocates, researchers, providers, and policymakers, held in Manila, the Philippines, on October 5-8, 1992. "The objectives of the meeting were: to establish a dialogue between women's groups and researchers, policy-makers and family planning service providers; to define women's needs and perspectives on reproductive health and fertility regulating technologies; and to identify appropriate follow-up activities which would establish a basis for future regional networking activities." The geographical focus of this meeting was on Asia.
Correspondence: World Health Organization, Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.2. Clinical Aspects & Use-Effectiveness Studies

Selected studies on the medical aspects of fertility control methods, including studies on side effects and use-effectiveness.

60:30296 Darney, Philip D. Hormonal implants: contraception for a new century. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Supplement, Vol. 170, No. 5, Pt. 2, May 1994. 1,536-43 pp. St. Louis, Missouri. In Eng.
"Subdermal implants are contraceptive systems that release slow, stable amounts of synthetic progestins from Silastic or other materials for periods of months to several years....This approach is one of the most effective reversible contraceptive methods available....[It] reduces the incidence of ectopic pregnancy to a level much below noncontraceptive users and about equivalent to TCu380A intrauterine device users....Side effects are minor but often bothersome, causing some discontinuation of the method. First-year continuation rates range from 76% to 90%. Fertility return after discontinuation is prompt."
Correspondence: P. D. Darney, San Francisco General Hospital, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Ward 6D, 1001 Potrero Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94110. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30297 Grady, William R.; Tanfer, Koray. Condom breakage and slippage among men in the United States. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 26, No. 3, May-Jun 1994. 107-12 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Our study builds on and extends previous [U.S.] research by estimating condom breakage and slippage rates for a nationally representative sample of men aged 20-39. We also investigate the ways in which these rates vary according to the men's characteristics, sexual behavior and condom preferences." Data indicate that "the average condom breakage rate experienced by 20-39-year-old men who have used a condom in the preceding six months was 2.7%, and that 1.9% of all condoms used during that time broke. Comparable condom slippage rates are 2.7% and 2.0%, respectively....The data also indicate that men who engage in high-risk behavior, such as having multiple partners and engaging in anal intercourse, are more likely to experience condom breakage and slippage."
Correspondence: W. R. Grady, Battelle Centers for Public Health Research and Evaluation, 4000 NE 41st Street, Seattle, WA 98105. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30298 Hassan, E. O.; El-Nahal, N.; El-Hussein, M. Acceptability of the once-a-month injectable contraceptives Cyclofem and Mesigyna in Egypt. Contraception, Vol. 49, No. 5, May 1994. 469-88 pp. Newton, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"A study of the acceptability of two once-a-month injectable contraceptives, Cyclofem and Mesigyna, in Egypt included 1,091 women participating in the clinical trial of the two methods carried out during the period from November 1989 to July 1992. The acceptability of the two contraceptives proved to be high when measured by the rate of continuation at 12 months of injectable use, by method satisfaction, service satisfaction, recommending use to others, intent of future use, as well as willingness to pay for them when the injectables are marketed."
Correspondence: E. O. Hassan, Egyptian Fertility Care Society, P.O. Box 126, Ormaan, Giza, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30299 Khanna, J.; Van Look, P. F. A.; Griffin, P. D. Challenges in reproductive health research. Biennial report 1992-1993. ISBN 92-4-156170-X. 1994. 202 pp. World Health Organization [WHO], Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction: Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
This report documents work carried out in the area of reproductive health by this WHO program. The research challenges considered include fertility regulation, women's perspectives, contraceptive development, and sexually transmitted diseases. The geographical focus is worldwide.
For a previous report in this series, see 58:30311.
Correspondence: World Health Organization, Office of Publications, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30300 Steiner, Markus; Piedrahita, Carla; Joanis, Carol; Glover, Lucinda; Spruyt, Alan. Condom breakage and slippage rates among study participants in eight countries. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 20, No. 2, Jun 1994. 55-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Condom research conducted in the Dominican Republic, Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Mexico, Nepal, Sri Lanka and the United States shows that condom breakage rates during vaginal intercourse using lubricated latex condoms range from 0.6% of all condoms used in Sri Lanka to 13.3% in Ghana. Most research sites reported breakage rates below 5%. The rate at which the condom slipped off completely is a high as 9.3% in Kenya, with most of the remaining sites reporting rates below 4%. When breakage and slippage are combined, total condom failure rates range from 3.8% to 13.3%. Although such high condom failure rates may cause alarm, there is evidence that for a majority of users, condoms provide an effective method of preventing pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease infection if they are used correctly. The high overall breakage and slippage rates may be caused by incorrect behavior or by certain characteristics of a few participants."
Correspondence: M. Steiner, Family Health International, One Triangle Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30301 Tryer, Louise B. Obstacles to use of hormonal contraception. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Supplement, Vol. 170, No. 5, Pt. 2, May 1994. 1,495-8 pp. St. Louis, Missouri. In Eng.
The author reviews some obstacles to the use of hormonal contraception in the United States. Factors considered include safety concerns; marital status and future birth intentions; age, education, and poverty status; method use and misuse; service delivery; and women's support systems.
Correspondence: L. B. Tryer, Association of Reproductive Health Professionals, 549 Lake Shore Drive, No. 7, Incline Village, NV 89451. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.3. Evaluation of Programs

Studies evaluating either the demographic impact or other criteria of effectiveness of family planning programs.

60:30302 Alok, S. K. Family welfare planning: the Indian experience. ISBN 81-210-0296-6. 1992. 241 pp. Inter-India Publications: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author examines reasons for the relative lack of success of the national family planning program in India. The study presents an analysis of the effectiveness of Primary Health Centres (PHCs) in two contrasting states, Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh, based on interviews with some 1,015 workers in 66 PHCs. The author identifies clear distinctions in the quality and effectiveness of program staff, and suggests that female personnel from rural areas and lower castes perform better than their counterparts from other backgrounds. "The present work pleads that states should re-arrange their managerial resources, re-organise the field staff and encourage bold management innovations...."
Correspondence: Inter-India Publications, D-17 Raja Garden, New Delhi 110 015, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30303 Kabagwira, A. A cost-benefit analysis of the family planning program in Rwanda. [Modele cout-benefices du programme de planification familiale au Rwanda.] Imbonezamuryango/Famille, Sante, Developpement, Vol. 21, 1991. 25-37 pp. Kigali, Rwanda. In Fre.
The author first evaluates the achievements of the family planning program in Rwanda during the 1980s. The focus of the paper is to apply the models developed through the RAPID III project to future demographic prospects in Rwanda. The goal is to identify the benefits that continued commitment of scarce resources to population activities might bring. The author concludes that an effective family planning program is of critical importance to the country.
Correspondence: A. Kabagwira, UN Office National de la Population, B.P. 914, Kigali, Rwanda. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

60:30304 Khan, M. Z. Trends in family welfare planning. ISBN 81-210-0287-7. 1992. 179 pp. Inter-India Publications: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
Reasons for the relative lack of success of the national family planning program in northern India are explored. The data, collected in 1989, concern the views and opinions of acceptors and nonacceptors in both high-performance and low-performance districts of Haryana and Uttar Pradesh. The identified factors limiting the success of such programs include ideological constraints, structural and operational constraints in the programs themselves, and a lack of support for small family norms by both the media and local opinion. The author suggests that to achieve the national goal of a net reproduction rate of one, "what is called for is an integrated approach which would modify social norms and values, improve the quality of life, sensitize couples on the importance of responsible parenthood, and streamline the delivery-system."
Correspondence: Inter-India Publications, D-17 Raja Garden, New Delhi 110 015, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30305 Mensch, Barbara S.; Miller, Robert A.; Fisher, Andrew A.; Mwita, John; Keyonzo, Nelson; Ali, F. Y. Mohamed; Ndeti, Cecilia. Family planning in Nairobi: a situation analysis of the City Commission clinics. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 20, No. 2, Jun 1994. 48-54 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"To gain information on the strengths and weaknesses of [Kenya's] family planning program, a type of diagnostic survey called a situation analysis was conducted in the 46 Nairobi City Commission health clinics offering family planning services. Recordkeeping and contraceptive supplies were satisfactory. However, substantial problems were found in the training, supervision and equipment subsystems, and in some aspects of care. Only 49% of the clients received aseptic services. Insufficient information was provided to clients about the method they accepted, particularly regarding side effects. Provider-client relations were adequate, but waiting times were long, service hours curtailed unnecessarily and some clients sent away without services. Preliminary analysis suggests a positive and significant relationship between quality of care and client load."
Correspondence: B. S. Mensch, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30306 Ofosu, Y. Policies and fertility transitions in the third world: failures, successes, and uncertainties. [Politiques et transitions de fecondite dans le Tiers Monde: des echecs, des reussites, de l'incertain.] World Employment Programme Research Working Paper: Labour and Population, No. 189, ISBN 92-2-209258-9. 1994. v, 40 pp. International Labour Office [ILO], World Employment Programme: Geneva, Switzerland. In Fre.
Reasons why fertility has declined so significantly throughout the developing world, including Sub-Saharan Africa where the decline has not been so dramatic, are explored. The author first reviews national policies designed to reduce fertility, and analyzes their impact at the macroeconomic level. In particular, he attempts to define characteristics common to more successful policies. These include those economic, political, and institutional factors that are associated with effective antinatalist programs, as well as those factors that affect the context in which fertility decisions are made and that tend to motivate couples and individuals to achieve lower fertility. The importance of influencing both the demand for effective contraception as well as its supply is stressed.
Correspondence: International Labour Office, World Employment Programme, 4 route des Morillons, 1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30307 Peterson, James L.; Card, Josefina J.; Eisen, Marvin B.; Sherman-Williams, Bonnie. Evaluating teenage pregnancy prevention and other social programs: ten stages of program assessment. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 26, No. 3, May-Jun 1994. 116-20, 131 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article outlines 10 successive stages of [U.S. teenage pregnancy prevention and care] program assessment....The stages...are divided into three broadly ordered levels designed to answer three questions: planning and model building (What is the social problem you are trying to address and how should it be tackled?); program measurement and data collection (What activities are undertaken?); and evaluation, or comparison with a performance standard (How well is the program performing and what was its effectiveness?). These levels, in turn, are composed of 3-4 individual stages, and our description of each stage is divided into three parts--the stage's essential elements, its costs and benefits, and its related issues."
Correspondence: J. L. Peterson, Sociometrics Corporation, 170 State Street, Suite 260, Los Altos, CA 94022. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30308 Satia, J. K.; Jejeebhoy, Shireen J. The demographic challenge: a study of four large Indian states. ISBN 0-19-562912-4. 1991. xix, 268 pp. Oxford University Press: Bombay, India. In Eng.
This work is a product of a UNFPA-sponsored seminar held April 7-8, 1989, on population and development issues in four of India's largest states, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh. "The focus of this book...is on conditions prevailing in these four states, including the determinants of the failure or success of population programmes on the one hand and societal constraints on the other, in order to identify priority areas for policy and action, as [well as] the relevance of these findings in the national context....The seven chapters of this book, whose authors represent multiple disciplines, deal with the fertility trends in these states, the demand for children and the position of women in their socio-cultural contexts, demand creation strategies and their success in this region, the family welfare programme and its limitations, and finally a look at some success stories from the non-governmental and organized sectors. The main findings of each chapter and emerging policy and programme implications for hastening the pace of demographic change in these states are encapsulated in an overview."
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, Oxford House, Apollo Bunder, Bombay 400 039, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30309 Sirirangsi, Rangsima. Population policy implementation and evaluation in less industrialized countries. Pub. Order No. DA9401171. 1993. 239 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study, prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of North Texas, "emphasizes the impact of family planning program components on contraceptive prevalence in less industrialized countries....The author developed two models to examine the impact of family planning programs on contraceptive prevalence and fertility under the constraints of socioeconomic development and demand for family planning." Data are from studies conducted in 1982 and 1989 and concern some 100 developing countries.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 54(8).

60:30310 United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP] (Bangkok, Thailand). Regional report on interaction between clients and grassroots family planning workers: implications for programme performance. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 117, Pub. Order No. ST/ESCAP/1290. 1993. iii, 77 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
This report is the product of an ESCAP study on the ability of workers in family planning programs to inform, educate, and motivate couples to accept small family norms and use family planning methods. It consists of a series of country studies on Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Pakistan, Philippines, South Korea, and Thailand. The focus of the report is on how to apply lessons learned in the more successful programs to increase the effectiveness of weaker ones.
Correspondence: UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, United Nations Building, Rajdamnern Nok Avenue, Bangkok 10200, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.4. Attitudes Toward Fertility & Fertility Control

Studies concerned with the interrelations between fertility control and attitudinal variables, including studies on wanted and unwanted pregnancy and children, motivation for parenthood, sex preference, and voluntary childlessness. Studies on knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of family planning and attitudes toward family size are classified under this heading.

60:30311 Bodrova, Valentina. Public opinion on fertility and population problems: results of a 1990 survey. In: Demographic trends and patterns in the Soviet Union before 1991, edited by Wolfgang Lutz, Sergei Scherbov, and Andrei Volkov. 1994. 231-47 pp. Routledge: New York, New York/London, England; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
"In June 1990 the All-Union Center for Public Opinion and Market Research...carried out an opinion poll entitled 'The Demographic Situation as Mirrored in the Public Opinion.' The purpose of the research was as follows: to elicit views on the most acute demographic issues in the country [and] to elicit views on the demographic problems that might face the country in the near future. A sample of the population of the USSR above age 16 was surveyed. The poll was carried out among urban and rural residents in 28 towns and 13 villages....A total of 2,708 people were polled." The survey included questions on desired family size, family support, family policy, and fertility.
Correspondence: V. Bodrova, All-Russian Center for Public Opinion and Market Research, Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30312 Chipfakacha, V. G. Attitudes of males on contraception: a KAPE survey. East African Medical Journal, Vol. 70, No. 2, Feb 1993. 82-4 pp. Nairobi, Kenya. In Eng.
Results of a survey conducted in 20 villages in Botswana on men's contraceptive knowledge, attitudes, practice, and experience (KAPE) are presented. "The study...showed that...the attitude of the African male towards contraception has changed drastically during the last thirty years, from ultra-conservatism during the 60s to very liberal in the 80s and 90s. Further it can be said that the African male is as well informed and has the same degree of Family Planning and child spacing acceptance-level as his counterpart in the developed world. However the African male does not accompany his partner for Family Planning Counselling. The study showed that most African men associate Family Planning with the use of condoms and not other methods such as the pill or the intrauterine devices."
Correspondence: V. G. Chipfakacha, Private Bag 12, Bobonong, Botswana. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30313 Dodoo, F. Nii-Amoo; Seal, Arna. Explaining spousal differences in reproductive preferences: a gender inequality approach. Population and Environment, Vol. 15, No. 5, May 1994. 379-94 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Using data from the 1988 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey we show that, contrary to some earlier findings, substantial differences in fertility goals exist between spouses in sub-Saharan Africa. Further, we indicate that gender inequality is associated with these differences in fertility goals. Women in dyads that give nonnumeric responses to questions on preferred family size are very likely to have low status, which may lead them to have high fertility."
Correspondence: F. N.-A. Dodoo, Tulane University, Sociology Department, 220 Newcomb Hall, New Orleans, LA 70118. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30314 Kritz, Mary M.; Gurak, Douglas T.; Fapohunda, Bolaji. The effects of women's status and control of resources on fertility among the Yoruba. Population and Development Program Working Paper Series, No. 93.11, May 1992. 16, [6] pp. Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program: Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
"This paper analyzes how the social position of women in one traditional society, rural Yorubaland in Nigeria, affects the demand for children." Data are from a 1990 survey of 366 currently married women aged 15-40 living in rural areas and 207 of their husbands.
Correspondence: Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program, 134 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30315 Mazrui, Ali A. Islamic doctrine and the politics of induced fertility change: an African perspective. Population and Development Review, Vol. 20, Suppl., 1994. 121-34 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author discusses Islamic attitudes toward fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa. Factors that may contribute to a pronatalist attitude of Islamic fundamentalism are explored, and reasons for higher fertility rates among Muslims in Sub-Saharan Africa are considered.
Correspondence: A. A. Mazrui, State University of New York, Institute of Global Cultural Studies, Binghamton, NY 13901. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30316 Salway, Sarah. How attitudes toward family planning and discussion between wives and husbands affect contraceptive use in Ghana. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 20, No. 2, Jun 1994. 44-7, 74 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"We use data from the 1988 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS) to investigate the similarity of Ghanaian marital partners' attitudes and preferences about family size and family limitation; the degree of communication and discussion between husbands and wives about family planning; and the role of husbands' and wives' attitudes and preferences, and that of discussion between partners, in the adoption of contraception." Results indicate that "77% of cohabiting marital partners held similar attitudes toward family planning and that 73% of the concordant couples approved of contraceptive use. However, only 61% of the wives correctly reported their husband's attitude....Among respondents who reported knowing a contraceptive method, 35% of wives and 39% of husbands said they had discussed family planning with their spouse during the previous year."
Correspondence: S. Salway, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies, 99 Gower Street, London WC1E 6AZ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.5. Induced Abortion

Studies on induced abortion, including those on attitudes, with the exception of studies primarily concerned with government regulation of abortion, which are coded under M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility . Studies of spontaneous abortion appear under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology .

60:30317 Alan Guttmacher Institute (New York, New York). Clandestine abortion: a Latin American reality. ISBN 0-939253-31-3. 1994. 28 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study examines the two main strategies for preventing unwanted births--contraception and induced abortion--used by women in Brazil, Colombia, Chile, Mexico, Peru and the Dominican Republic. The report first looks at levels and patterns of contraceptive use in these six countries, and at some of the common problems associated with the practice of contraception, to show the part that abortion plays in the wider setting of women's overall reproductive lives. It then describes in broad terms the main groups that perform abortions, the methods that are being used, and the risk of hospitalization associated with the various abortion techniques and the various abortion practitioners. Finally, the report provides estimates of the number of women each year who resort to induced abortion to end unplanned pregnancies."
Correspondence: Alan Guttmacher Institute, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30318 Arilha, Margareth; Barbosa, Regina M. Cytotec in Brazil: "at least it doesn't kill" Reproductive Health Matters, No. 2, Nov 1993. 41-52 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper describes how the use of Cytotec [as an abortifacient in Brazil] spread and the problems it created for the government, how it affected gynaecologists' thinking and practice, how it altered women's experience of clandestine abortion, and the continuing problems that have resulted from the 'solution' of restricting the availability of this drug." Information is provided on campaigns against the drug, the extent of Cytotec use, views of gynecologists in Sao Paulo, and in-depth interviews with women who had used the drug as an abortifacient.
For a related study, also published in 1993, see 59:40316.
Correspondence: M. Arilha, Studies and Communication on Human Sexuality and Reproduction, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30319 Avdeev, Alexandr. Contraception and abortions: trends and prospects for the 1990s. In: Demographic trends and patterns in the Soviet Union before 1991, edited by Wolfgang Lutz, Sergei Scherbov, and Andrei Volkov. 1994. 131-46 pp. Routledge: New York, New York/London, England; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
"This chapter aims to estimate the basic indicators of abortion and contraception from the incomplete data available, to analyze the causes of abortion-level stabilization during the 1980s in the USSR and to anticipate the future problems and effects of family-planning activity concerning abortion and contraception."
Correspondence: A. Avdeev, Moscow State University, Center for Population Problems Studies, Leninskie Gory, 117234 Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30320 Berer, Marge. Making abortion safe and legal: the ethics and dynamics of change. Reproductive Health Matters, No. 2, Nov 1993. 150 pp. London, England. In Eng.
This issue "takes up the subject of abortion, from the point of view of those who have had an abortion, those who have to treat the complications of unsafe and illegal abortion, and those who are working for safe, legal abortion around the world." The geographical focus is worldwide.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Reproductive Health Matters, 1 London Bridge Street, London SE1 9SG, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30321 Crane, Barbara B. The transnational politics of abortion. Population and Development Review, Vol. 20, Suppl., 1994. 241-62 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The purpose of this chapter is to examine more closely the changing global political environment of abortion. What is the history of global deliberations on abortion issues? What has been the impact of U.S. government policy? Who are the major actors currently seeking to influence national and international policies, and what are their objectives? What are their strengths and weaknesses? The chapter concludes with an overview of the conditions that are likely to affect the future prospects for expanding access to abortion."
Correspondence: B. B. Crane, University of Michigan, School of Public Health, Department of Population Planning and International Health, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30322 Djohan, Eniarti; Indrawasih, Ratna; Adenan, Musiana; Yudomustopo, Harjanti; Tan, Mely G. The attitudes of health providers towards abortion in Indonesia. Reproductive Health Matters, No. 2, Nov 1993. 32-40 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In 1990...we conducted a study [in Jakarta, Indonesia,] on the attitudes of health care providers to abortion....We hoped that it would contribute to the formulation of programmes that enhance health workers' ability to handle abortions and lead to further studies. Our aim was to contribute to the search for ways to make pregnancy and childbirth safer for women, in line with the concept of 'safe motherhood', or even better, 'safe womanhood'."
Correspondence: E. Djohan, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Center for Social and Cultural Studies, Women's Studies Group, Jakarta, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30323 Elu, Maria del C. Abortion yes, abortion no, in Mexico. Reproductive Health Matters, No. 1, May 1993. 58-66 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The author outlines events surrounding the 1990 attempt to decriminalize abortion in the state of Chiapas, Mexico. Government population policy since the beginning of the century is briefly reviewed, and trends in contraceptive use and induced abortion are examined.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30324 Gober, Patricia. Why abortion rates vary: a geographical examination of the supply of and demand for abortion services in the United States in 1988. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 84, No. 2, Jun 1994. 230-50 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"In this study of the recent geography of state abortion rates in the United States, I attempt to evaluate the interplay of demand and supply factors. After a review of the historical geography of abortion policy in America, this paper examines the contemporary geography of abortion practice (including rates that vary by a factor of nine from Wyoming to California) circa 1988, the interstate flows of abortion patients, and the increasing concentration of services in large metropolitan areas, and then presents and tests a model that assesses the roles of demand and supply as determinants of the current pattern of state abortion rates."
Correspondence: P. Gober, Arizona State University, Department of Geography, Tempe, AZ 85287. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

60:30325 Henshaw, Stanley K.; Van Vort, Jennifer. Abortion services in the United States, 1991 and 1992. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 26, No. 3, May-Jun 1994. 100-6, 112 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this article, we present the results of the latest AGI [Alan Guttmacher Institute] survey, which includes information about abortions provided [in the United States] in 1991 and 1992. We describe trends in abortion numbers and rates nationally and by state, geographic availability of abortion services, and trends in the numbers of abortion providers, according to type of provider and caseload." Results indicate that "the abortion rate has gradually declined, from a high of 29 per 1,000 women of reproductive age in 1981 to 26 per 1,000 in 1992. The number of hospitals, clinics and physicians' offices that provide abortions--2,380 in 1992--has been declining at a rate of about 65 a year....Most U.S. counties (84%) have no known abortion provider, and in nonmetropolitan areas, 94% of counties have no provider."
Correspondence: S. K. Henshaw, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30326 Hernandez Rodriguez, Gerardo. Abortion in Spain: analysis of a sociopolitical process. [El aborto en Espana: analisis de un proceso socio-politico.] Serie 1: Estudios, No. 51, ISBN 84-87840-15-9. 1992. xxi, 350 pp. Universidad Pontificia Comillas de Madrid [UPCO]: Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
The author examines levels and trends in abortion in Spain, with a focus on social and political aspects of the procedure and the debate surrounding it. Moral, legal, religious, ethical, and philosophical points of view are reviewed, and comparison is made between Spain and the rest of the world.
Correspondence: Universidad Pontificia Comillas de Madrid, Departamento de Publicaciones, 28049 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30327 Koonin, Lisa M.; Smith, Jack C.; Ramick, Merrell. Abortion surveillance--United States, 1990. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 42, No. SS-6, Dec 17, 1993. 29-57 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
Data on induced abortion from the 50 U.S. states, New York City, and the District of Columbia for 1990 are presented; comparisons with selected previous years are included. It is found that "since 1980, the national number (and rate) of abortions has remained relatively stable, with only small...year-to-year fluctuations. However, since 1984, the national abortion ratio has declined; in 1990, the abortion ratio was the lowest recorded since 1977. Increasing rates of childbearing may account for some of this decline."
Correspondence: L. M. Koonin, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Reproductive Health, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30328 Mora, Margoth; Villarreal, Jorge. Unwanted pregnancy and abortion: Bogota, Colombia. Reproductive Health Matters, No. 2, Nov 1993. 11-20 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors provide a profile of women seeking abortions at a clinic in Bogota, Colombia. "The total study population of 602 women consisted of those who visited the clinic during the three-month period between October 1990 and January 1991, and who required vacuum aspiration of retained products of conception as the result of an incomplete abortion....[Factors considered include] sexual and reproductive behaviour, the value of sexuality and the reproductive role, characteristics of relationships with partners, contraceptive knowledge, practice and perception, the decision-making process that led to abortion, and lastly, their opinions about abortion as women who had already terminated their pregnancies."
Correspondence: M. Mora, Orientame, Bogota, Colombia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30329 Mpangile, Gottlieb S.; Leshabari, M. T.; Kihwele, David J. Factors associated with induced abortion in public hospitals in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Reproductive Health Matters, No. 2, Nov 1993. 21-31 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This study documents information about women admitted to four public hospitals in Dar es Salaam for complications of induced abortion, primarily women of lower income. The findings are expected to inform discussions on how to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with unwanted pregnancies that end in unsafe terminations." Data are provided on sexual and reproductive histories, contraceptive knowledge and use, characteristics of male partners, the decision to abort, selection of abortionist, post-abortion complications and care, and costs. "This study found that nearly a third of the victims of unsafe abortion practices were teenagers, of whom almost half were 17 years of age or younger. About one in every four were students in primary or secondary school."
Correspondence: G. S. Mpangile, Tanzania Family Planning Association, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30330 Newman, Karen. Progress postponed: abortion in Europe in the 1990s. ISBN 0-904983-18-8. 1993. iv, 173 pp. International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF], Europe Region: London, England. In Eng.
This book contains the texts of 12 papers presented at a conference entitled From Abortion to Contraception: Public Health Approaches to Reducing Unwanted Pregnancy and Abortion through Improved Family Planning Services, held in Tbilisi, Georgia, in October 1990. "Authors of individual chapters in the book discuss legal, medical, social and political issues relating to the availability of family planning and abortion services, focusing in particular on women's perspectives, and most are oriented towards activist solutions to problems caused by restricted access to safe fertility regulation services." The book concludes with the text of the Tbilisi declaration which affirms "the basic principle that everyone has the human right to reproductive health, choice and dignity; that women must enjoy self determination in their sexual and reproductive lives; and that every child should be a wanted child." The geographical focus is on Europe and the countries of the former Soviet Union.
Correspondence: International Planned Parenthood Federation, Europe Region, Regent's College, Inner Circle, Regent's Park, London NW1 4NS, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30331 Petersen, Kerry A. Abortion regimes. ISBN 1-85521-159-9. 1993. x, 203 pp. Dartmouth: Brookfield, Vermont/Aldershot, England. In Eng.
"The first part of this book examines the history of abortion from the pre-industrial period through to the mid-twentieth century. The aim of this historical investigation is threefold. First to demonstrate that in the pre-industrial period, childbearing and fertility control belonged to the realm of women's subculture and that women have always sought control over their reproductive lives. Secondly, to examine the legal and sociological processes by which midwives and other healers were subordinated to the medical hierarchy as male medical practitioners assumed control over the provision of health care. The final aim in this part of the book is to examine the manner in which the law facilitated the expansion of legal therapeutic abortion." In the second part, the author presents a comparative analysis of abortion laws around the developed world, with particular emphasis on Australia.
Correspondence: Dartmouth, Gower House, Croft Road, Aldershot, Hants GU11 3HR, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30332 Singh, Susheela; Wulf, Deirdre. Estimated levels of induced abortion in six Latin American countries. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 20, No. 1, Mar 1994. 4-13 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"We report here on the results of a collaborative research project designed to estimate the annual rate of induced abortion over a recent period for each of six Latin American countries....We adjust raw data on hospitalization for abortion complications to estimate the number of hospitalizations caused by induced abortion. We also review a variety of multipliers that can then be applied to this number to estimate the total number of induced abortions in each country. Finally, we present estimates of the numbers of women having induced abortions and the resulting abortion rates for each of the six countries." Findings indicate that "an estimated 550,000 women are hospitalized each year as a result of complications from induced abortion in Brazil, Chile, Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Mexico and Peru. About 2.8 million abortions are estimated to occur in these countries annually when women not hospitalized as a result of induced abortion are taken into account."
Correspondence: S. Singh, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30333 Stubblefield, Phillip G.; Grimes, David A. Septic abortion. New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 331, No. 5, Aug 4, 1994. 310-4 pp. Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
A review of trends in septic abortion around the world is presented. Separate consideration is given to primary and secondary prevention. The authors conclude that "serious complications and death from abortion-related infection are almost entirely avoidable. Unfortunately, the prevention of death from abortion remains more a political than a medical problem. Although leaders in international health have repeatedly drawn attention to postabortion complications and mortality, many governments and health care agencies still lack the moral courage to confront the problem."
Correspondence: P. G. Stubblefield, Maine Medical Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 22 Bramhall Street, Portland, ME 04102. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

60:30334 Wetstein, Matthew E. Abortion rates in the American states: the impacts of opinion and policy on abortion utilization. Pub. Order No. DA9400674. 1993. 244 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study, prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Northern Illinois University, uses data from the U.S. National Election Study 1988-1990 Senate Panel Series "to explain the impact policy changes at the federal and state level have had on abortion rates. It also details the importance that a number of institutional and demographic variables have in explaining abortion policies in the states."
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 54(8).

F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility

Studies on lactation, nutrition, fecundability, sex behavior, menarche and menopause, and other biological factors or social customs as they affect fertility directly. Factors affecting contraceptive practice and factors affecting fertility indirectly are not included here.

60:30335 Joffe, Michael; Li, Zhimin. Association of time to pregnancy and the outcome of pregnancy. Fertility and Sterility, Vol. 62, No. 1, Jul 1994. 71-5 pp. Birmingham, Alabama. In Eng.
"The present study set out to establish whether time to pregnancy is associated with the risk of miscarriage, low birth weight, and preterm delivery. This was done by comparing the time to pregnancy distribution for each of the three groups with that found in the case of normal pregnancies. The data-base was a sample representative of the British-born general population [in the United Kingdom] up to the age of 33 years, and the analysis was adjusted for the possible confounding effects of maternal age and the smoking habit and educational level of both parents." The authors find that "delay in time to conception is a risk factor for poor obstetric outcome, irrespective of medical intervention." Data are for first pregnancies and are from the National Child Development Study for 1991.
Correspondence: M. Joffe, St. Mary's Hospital Medical School, Academic Department of Public Health, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30336 Mukherjee, S.; Singh, K. K.; Bhattacharya, B. N. Breast-feeding in eastern Uttar Pradesh, India: differentials and determinants. Janasamkhya, Vol. 9, No. 1-2, Jun 1991. 25-41 pp. Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
"Using data from a survey conducted in rural areas of Eastern Uttar Pradesh, India, during 1987-1989, the duration of breast-feeding, and its variation among different subgroups of population, have been studied. Cox's proportional hazard model is used to identify its key determinants."
Correspondence: S. Mukherjee, Indian Statistical Institute, Population Studies Unit, 203 Barrackpore Trunk Road, Calcutta 700 035, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30337 Nath, Dilip C.; Land, Kenneth C.; Singh, Kaushalendra K. The role of breast-feeding beyond postpartum amenorrhoea on the return of fertility in India: a life table and hazards model analysis. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 26, No. 2, Apr 1994. 191-206 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper investigates the effects of continued breast-feeding after resumption of menses on fertility, using data from two retrospective surveys in India and single decrement life table and multivariate time-dependent hazards analyses. Breast-feeding even after the return of menses is found to be associated with longer birth intervals. The interaction of breast-feeding duration after resumption of menses and postpartum amenorrhoea has a significant affect on the risk of conception after return of menses."
Correspondence: D. C. Nath, Duke University, Department of Sociology, Durham, NC 27706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30338 Odynak, Dave. Age at first intercourse in Canada: some recent findings. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 21, No. 1, 1994. 51-70 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Age at first intercourse in Canada is investigated using national data from the 1990 Health Promotion Survey. The onset of sexual intercourse is examined at ages 15, 16 and less than 20 by current age, regional residence, gender and language spoken at home. A multivariate logistic regression analysis shows that gender differences in the onset of sexual intercourse have eroded over time in Canada. Little support was found for the hypotheses that differences in the onset of coitus in adolescence are reflected along regional lines or by sub-cultural groups."
Correspondence: D. Odynak, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.6. Fertility Outside Marriage

Studies on nonmarital fertility, including illegitimacy. Studies of common-law marriage and other forms of cohabitation or voluntary single parenthood are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

60:30339 Belle, Marilyn; McQuillan, Kevin. Births outside marriage. A growing alternative. Canadian Social Trends, No. 33, Summer 1994. 14-7 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
The authors analyze trends in extramarital fertility in Canada since 1961. They find that the proportion of nonmarital births is six times higher than in 1961, maternal age is rising, and that nonmarital fertility is related to the emergence of common-law unions, particularly in Quebec, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan.
Correspondence: M. Belle, University of Western Ontario, Department of Sociology, London, Ontario N6A 3K7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

60:30340 Cartwright, Ann. Why don't more young men in the U.K. become fathers? Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 48, No. 1, Feb 1994. 52-4 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper aimed to show that, compared with young women, there is an apparent discrepancy in the reported sexual behaviour of young men and records of their fatherhood [in the United Kingdom]. Possible reasons for the discrepancy [including data bias] are discussed and implications considered....The data come from a number of studies of the sexual behaviour of young [mostly unmarried] people and from statistics published by the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys." The studies were conducted between 1960 and 1990.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30341 Lelievre, Eva. Couple formation and fertility outside marriage in Great Britain: differences and similarities with the French situation. [Formation des couples et fecondite hors mariage en Grande-Bretagne: divergences et similitudes avec la situation francaise.] Population, Vol. 49, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1994. 61-89 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"A new analysis of retrospective longitudinal data is used to study recent changes in family formation, and more specifically, the evolution of extra-marital births and cohabitation in Great Britain, with frequent references to comparable French data. Although there has recently been some convergence, French and British societies retain marked cultural and historico-political specificities, so that similarities may in effect reflect distinct phenomena. For instance, a rise in the number of births outside marriage, which has happened in both countries, [is] totally different in nature: while only 3% involve women under 20 years of age in France, the figure in Great Britain is 22%"
Correspondence: E. Lelievre, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30342 Manning, Wendy D.; Landale, Nancy S. One parent or two? Entry into premarital motherhood among cohabiting and single women. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 94-10, Apr 1994. 30, [9] pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"The research reported in this paper focuses on the role of cohabitation in premarital childbearing among U.S. women....The central questions to be addressed are whether and to what extent cohabitation differentially influences entry into premarital motherhood by race and ethnicity. Specifically, we examine the processes leading to premarital motherhood among never-married women who are living alone and who are cohabiting with a partner, among African-American, Puerto Rican, and non-Hispanic white women. Included among these processes are premarital conceptions and legitimation between conception and birth."
This paper was originally presented at the 1994 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6411. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30343 Russell, Stephen T. Life course antecedents of premarital conception in Great Britain. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 56, No. 2, May 1994. 480-92 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"This study employs a life course perspective in its examination of possible antecedents of premarital as well as marital conceptions early in the lives of young women and men in Great Britain. Using data on 5,167 women and 5,585 men from the British National Child Development Study, it is found that significant antecedents of premarital conception for both sexes are low socioeconomic status, low adolescent social adjustment, and a family environment characterized by parent-child arguing, parental divorce or separation, or a family history of nonmarital fertility. Pubertal development is found to be related only weakly to premarital conceptions. These findings are compared to analyses of marital conception for the same cohort."
Correspondence: S. T. Russell, Duke University, Department of Sociology, Box 90088, Durham, NC 27708-0088. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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