Volume 60 - Number 3 - Fall 1994

E. Mortality

Studies that treat quantitative mortality data analytically. Methodological studies primarily concerned with mortality are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary. The main references to crude data are in the vital statistics items in S. Official Statistical Publications .

E.1. General Mortality

Studies of overall mortality and comparisons of several types of mortality. Studies dealing with two or more of the topics listed in this division are classified under the major section covered, or, if this is not self-evident, included here under General Mortality.

60:30090 Andreev, Evgeny M. Life expectancy and causes of death in the USSR. In: Demographic trends and patterns in the Soviet Union before 1991, edited by Wolfgang Lutz, Sergei Scherbov, and Andrei Volkov. 1994. 279-93 pp. Routledge: New York, New York/London, England; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
"This chapter analyzes mortality in the USSR in the context of world mortality trends...[and] in terms of the demographic transition theory." Data are presented and analyzed for changes in life expectancy and causes of death by age and sex. The data are then compared with those for selected developed countries, and a higher mortality rate and lower life expectancy in the former Soviet Union is noted. Differences are mostly attributable to higher death rates caused by circulatory and respiratory diseases.
Correspondence: E. M. Andreev, State Committee of the Russian Federation on Statistics, Institute of Statistics and Economic Research, Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30091 Beltrao, Kaizo I.; Duchiade, Milena P. Mortality among bank employees: a study using administrative records. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population: Montreal 1993, Volume 3. 1993. 223-32 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"The main goal of this study is to analyze mortality data [for employees at] a major Brazilian Federal Bank....The study has been conceived in two stages. This paper concerns the first part of the study and it will deal with overall mortality level and structure." Data concern persons employed from 1940 to 1991. The authors find that "as an occupational group, bank employees'...clerical jobs seem not to enhance their mortality levels. On the other hand, some case studies in Brazil have shown that leading sedentary lives and performing repetitive tasks, Bank employees are major candidates to coronary diseases and prone to drinking habits, that are well above the national average. Also, having a secure position in a turbulent economy, having a comparatively good salary and usually living in medium size to large cities, they are quite often victims of car accidents...."
Correspondence: K. I. Beltrao, Fundacao Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica, Escola Nacional de Ciencias Estatisticas, Avenida Franklin Roosevelt 166, 20021 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30092 Gessner, Bradford D. Mortality rates, causes of death, and health status among displaced and resident populations of Kabul, Afghanistan. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 272, No. 5, Aug 3, 1994. 382-5 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
The effects of the current civil war in Kabul, Afghanistan, on mortality and morbidity among both the resident and displaced populations are assessed. Data are from a 1993 household survey of some 600 families. "Overall, the most common cause of death for both groups was gunshot or other war trauma; for children younger than 5 years, deaths resulting from measles, diarrhea, and acute respiratory tract infection predominated. While provision of basic public health measures would likely decrease mortality among both displaced and resident populations, the most urgent health need is for a cessation of hostilities against the civilian population. During humanitarian relief operations, organizations should not focus exclusively on persons identified as displaced."
Correspondence: B. D. Gessner, Alaska Division of Public Health, Section of Epidemiology, P.O. Box 240249, Anchorage, AK 99524-0249. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

60:30093 Hertz, Erica; Hebert, James R.; Landon, Joan. Social and environmental factors and life expectancy, infant mortality, and maternal mortality rates: results of a cross-national comparison. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 39, No. 1, Jul 1994. 105-14 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Using data from United Nations sources we conducted an international comparison study of infant and maternal mortality rates and life expectancy at birth. We examined these three dependent variables in relation to a range of independent variables including dietary factors, medical resource availability, gross national product (GNP/capita), literacy rates, growth in the labor force, and provision of sanitation facilities and safe water. Based on exploratory stepwise regression models, we fitted a series of general linear models for each of the three dependent variables. For the models with the highest explanatory ability, the percent of households without sanitation facilities showed the strongest association with all three dependent variables: life expectancy at birth...;infant mortality rate...;and maternal mortality rate....Additional significant predictors of life expectancy at birth and infant mortality rate included the quantity of animal products consumed, the percent of households without safe water, excess calories consumed as fat, and the total literacy level. Maternal mortality rate was significantly associated with total energy consumption and excess energy consumed as fat."
Correspondence: E. Hertz, Columbia University, Department of Health Policy and Management, 600 West 168th Street, New York, NY 10032. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

60:30094 Ingegneri, Dominique G. While death rates dropped: understanding recent health trends among the middle-aged and elderly in the United States. 1993. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study, prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Southern California, examines "three prominent theories relating mortality and morbidity. It focuses on whether the extension of life witnessed in recent years has been coupled with improving or diminishing health....Trends in health from 1957 through 1989 are examined using data from the [U.S.] National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS) and National Surveys of the Aged (NSA)."
Correspondence: University of Southern California, Doheny Library, Micrographics Department, University Park, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0182. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 54(8).

60:30095 Krumins, Juris. Changing mortality patterns in Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia. In: Demographic trends and patterns in the Soviet Union before 1991, edited by Wolfgang Lutz, Sergei Scherbov, and Andrei Volkov. 1994. 403-19 pp. Routledge: New York, New York/London, England; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
"This chapter examines the changing patterns of mortality in Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia over the past three decades....This analysis is mainly based on information obtained before 1990...." The findings indicate that before 1940, the Baltic States exhibited a longer life expectancy than those of the rest of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. After World War II, life expectancy rates dropped, and increases in excess male mortality are observed. A rise in life expectancy during the 1980s is noted among selected demographic groups, particularly working-age males.
Correspondence: J. Krumins, Latvian State University, Department of Statistics and Demography, Riga, Latvia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30096 Laourou, H. Martin. Estimation of mortality in Benin according to a multistage survey (1981-1983). [Estimation de la mortalite au Benin a partir d'une enquete a passages repetes (1981-1983).] Population, Vol. 49, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1994. 119-43 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Information obtained through multi-stage surveys involving repeated visits is more reliable than that derived from a single visit, but these surveys may reach an impasse for several reasons, especially when the methods of analysis used in processing data are either inappropriate or inadequate. We developed a methodological approach which ensures proper coverage of deaths recorded between visits, except in Cotonou where data are less reliable because of household mobility. But in the case of Benin, we show that, except in Cotonou, migration did not affect the reliability of survey results. The results were therefore used to establish the first life tables for Benin (excluding Cotonou), constructed from raw data. These tables differ significantly from model life tables, but appear to reflect the level and structure of mortality in Benin."
Correspondence: H. M. Laourou, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie, 1 place Montesquieu, B.P. 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30097 Madrigal, L. Mortality seasonality in Escazu, Costa Rica, 1851-1921. Human Biology, Vol. 66, No. 3, Jun 1994. 433-52 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
"I examine whether mortality was seasonally distributed in Escazu, Costa Rica, from 1851 to 1921. I also investigate which cause of death made the greatest contribution to mortality periodicity and which climatic variable caused the seasonality of deaths. Two different methodological approaches are used: chi-square and Freedman tests to determine the presence of seasonality and Box-Jenkins time series analysis. The tests to determine the presence of seasonality show that mortality was strongly seasonal in Escazu, with the highest number of deaths occurring during the early months of the rainy season. The Box-Jenkins analysis successfully modeled the series from 1851 to 1891 with a seasonal parameter....The time series approach indicates that mortality became less seasonally distributed in more recent years."
Correspondence: L. Madrigal, University of South Florida, Department of Anthropology, Tampa, FL 33620. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30098 Maharatna, Arup. Regional variation in demographic consequences of famines in late 19th and early 20th century India. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 29, No. 23, Jun 4, 1994. 1,399-410 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
The author uses historical district-level data to examine regional variations in the demographic impact of the four major famines that have occurred in India. Consideration is given to drought severity, relief provision, and famine-induced migration.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

60:30099 Moreno, Lorenzo. Frailty selection in bivariate survival models: a cautionary note. Mathematical Population Studies, Vol. 4, No. 4, 1994. 225-33 pp. New York, New York/Yverdon, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"One problem that researchers face in analyzing the survival times of groups of related individuals is selecting how the distribution of frailty--an unobserved (or not adequately observed) random factor--should be specified. Several distributions have received attention--for instance, the gamma distribution and a nonparametric N-point, discrete probability distribution. Researchers have selected these distributions more for mathematical convenience than for their ability to represent biological, social, or economic reality, and the implications of choosing one functional representation of frailty over alternative choices have not been studied extensively....This research paper explores the association among survival times under gamma, inverse Gaussian, nonparametric N-point, and Poisson distributions. It shows that the pattern and strength of this association depends on how the distribution of frailty is specified."
Correspondence: L. Moreno, Mathematica Policy Research, P.O. Box 2393, Princeton, NJ 08543-2393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30100 Vartiainen, Erkki; Puska, Pekka; Pekkanen, Juha; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Jousilahti, Pekka. Changes in risk factors explain changes in mortality from ischaemic heart disease in Finland. British Medical Journal, Vol. 309, No. 6946, Jul 2, 1994. 23-7 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Finland has been one of the most active countries in developing and testing preventive measures for cardiovascular disease. In the early 1970s middle aged Finnish men had the highest mortality from cardiovascular disease in the world. We aimed to analyse the extent to which the changes in the main coronary risk factors explain the decline in mortality from ischaemic heart disease and to evaluate the relative importance of change in each of these risk factors." To do so, "predicted changes in ischaemic heart disease mortality were calculated by a logistic regression model using the risk factor levels assessed by cross sectional population surveys, in 1972, 1977, 1982, 1987, and 1992. These predicted changes were compared with observed changes in mortality statistics....An assessment of the data on the risk factors for ischaemic heart disease and mortality suggests that most of the decline in mortality from ischaemic heart disease can be explained by changes in the three main coronary risk factors."
Correspondence: E. Vartiainen, National Public Health Institute, Department of Epidemiology and Health Promotion, Mannerheimintie 166, 00300 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

60:30101 Zell, Michael. Fisher's 'flu and Moore's probates: quantifying the mortality crisis of 1556-1560. Economic History Review, Vol. 47, No. 2, May 1994. 354-61 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author presents a critique of a recent article by John S. Moore concerning the causes of the demographic decline that occurred in England in the late 1550s. A reply by Moore (pp. 359-61) is included.
For the article by Moore, published in 1993, see 59:20117.
Correspondence: M. Zell, University of Greenwich, Wellington Street, Woolwich, London SE18 6PF, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

E.2. Prenatal and Perinatal Mortality

Studies dealing primarily with fetal and neonatal mortality, except those dealing with spontaneous abortions, which are classified under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology , and those studies dealing with induced abortions, which are classified under F.4.5. Induced Abortion . Perinatal mortality is defined as mortality occurring between the twenty-eighth week of gestation and the seventh day of life.

60:30102 Klufio, Cecil A.; Amoa, Apeawusu B.; Kariwiga, Grace. A survey of Papua New Guinean parturients at the Port Moresby general hospital: sociodemographic and reproductive characteristics. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 26, No. 2, Apr 1994. 185-90 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"A survey of 673 consecutive Papua New Guinea parturients carried out at the Port Moresby General Hospital between May and June 1990 showed that socioeconomic and educational factors played a part in predicting perinatal death. Mothers who have previously experienced a perinatal death are more likely to experience a second one."
Correspondence: C. A. Klufio, University of Papua New Guinea, Division of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Boroko, Papua New Guinea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30103 Shah, K. S. Factors influencing sema-natal mortality. Janasamkhya, Vol. 9, No. 1-2, Jun 1991. 83-97 pp. Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
"In this paper an attempt has been made to examine the crude impact of the factors: birth weight, maternal age, gravida and sex on sema-natal mortality [defined by the author as mortality occurring within the first seven days of life], on the one hand, and the relative effect of each of these factors individually, in the absence of the influence of other factors, on the other hand. For this study, data are collected from the case card records of mothers registered for delivery, during the period 1978-80 in Anand Municipal Hospital, Anand (India)....Out of [3,050] live births, 99 are found to have ended in deaths within seven days of their birth."
Correspondence: K. S. Shah, Anand Arts College, Department of Statistics, Anand 388 001, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30104 Taha, Taha E.; Gray, Ronald H.; Abdelwahab, Mabyou M. Determinants of neonatal mortality in central Sudan. Annals of Tropical Paediatrics, Vol. 13, No. 4, 1993. 359-64 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"A follow-up study was conducted in six community health centres during the period April 1989 to March 1990 to determine the risk factors which influence neonatal survival in central Sudan....The major predictors of neonatal mortality were tetanus, short birth-to-conception interval, multiparity, reported malaria during pregnancy, low birthweight, low maternal weight and low socio-economic status. The population attributable risks were high, and the preventable factors collectively accounted for 93.5% of neonatal mortality. Safe deliveries and wider immunization coverage are needed to control neonatal tetanus in this community."
Correspondence: R. H. Gray, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Department of Population Dynamics, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30105 Tas, R. F. J. Stillbirths in the Netherlands, 1992. [Doodgeborenen, 1992.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 42, No. 3, Mar 1994. 19-21 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The author describes the rate and characteristics of stillbirths in the Netherlands in 1992, with a focus on the impact of changes in the definition of the term implemented in 1991.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.3. Infant and Childhood Mortality

Studies of infant mortality under one year of age, including neonatal mortality occurring after the seventh day of life, and childhood mortality after one year of age. The subject of infanticide, deliberate or implied, is also classified under this heading.

60:30106 Andes, Nancy. Infant mortality and the community context in Peru. [Mortalidad infantil y contextos comunitarios en Peru.] Revista Peruana de Poblacion, No. 1, 1992. 81-106 pp. Lima, Peru. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
Data from the 1977-1978 National Fertility Survey, the 1981 census, and other sources are used to analyze infant mortality in Peru and the factors that influence it. The focus is on how conditions at the community level affect infant mortality, including geographic location, level of urbanization, economic structure, women's status, and health services.
Correspondence: N. Andes, University of Alaska, Department of Sociology, 3211 Providence Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508. Location: Brigham Young University Library, Provo, UT.

60:30107 Andrews, Ahmed; Jewson, Nick. Ethnicity and infant deaths: the implications of recent statistical evidence for materialist explanations. Sociology of Health and Illness, Vol. 15, No. 2, Mar 1993. 137-56 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper has three objectives. First, to draw attention to remarkable patterns of diversity and change revealed by recent official statistics for ethnic minority infant deaths in England [and] Wales. Secondly, to suggest that these patterns represent a challenge to many orthodox explanations for inequalities in infant health offered by social scientists, not least materialist explanations. Thirdly, to propose that further development and evaluation of explanations is impeded by flaws in some of the indices and categories employed in the construction of data."
Correspondence: N. Jewson, University of Leicester, Department of Sociology, Ethnic Minority Employment Research Centre, Leicester LE1 7RH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

60:30108 Boerma, Ties. Health transition in Sub-Saharan Africa. Population and Development Review, Vol. 20, No. 1, Mar 1994. 206-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author assesses a report by the National Academy of Sciences on the effects of health programs on child mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa, with a focus on "the changes in causes of death effected through specific health programs in selected case studies."
Correspondence: T. Boerma, Tanzania-Netherlands Project to Support HIV/AIDS Control in Mwanza Region, Mwanza, Tanzania. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30109 Brockerhoff, Martin. Child survival in big cities: are the poor disadvantaged? Population Council Research Division Working Paper, No. 58, 1993. 53 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The present study uses aggregated data from 15 Demographic and Health Surveys to test the assertion of urban health advocates that child survival chances are worse among the poor in big cities than among other urban and rural groups. The main focus is on the two city populations most often identified as disadvantaged--those living in slums and shantytowns and migrants from the countryside. Findings indicate that children born in large cities of developing countries experience considerably higher risks of dying between ages one and five than children born in smaller cities, and only slightly lower risks of mortality than children born in towns."
Correspondence: Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30110 Brockerhoff, Martin. The impact of rural-urban migration on child survival. Population Council Research Division Working Paper, No. 61, 1994. 43 pp. Population Council, Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"The central question in this study is whether mothers improve or harm the survival chances of their children younger than two by moving from rural to urban areas of developing countries, and if so, at what stage, by what magnitude, and through what mechanisms this occurs....The study uses data collected by the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) project in 17 countries between 1986 and 1990 to analyze and compare the relationship of maternal migration with child survival in four developing regions--sub-Saharan Africa, North Africa, Latin America, and Southeast Asia."
Correspondence: Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30111 De Francisco, A.; Hall, A. J.; Schellenberg, J. R. M. A.; Greenwood, A. M.; Greenwood, B. M. The pattern of infant and childhood mortality in Upper River Division, the Gambia. Annals of Tropical Paediatrics, Vol. 13, No. 4, 1993. 345-52 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"A system has been established to document births and deaths in children in a large, rural, West African population, using community reporters. Causes of death in children under the age of 5 years were investigated using post-mortem questionnaires completed by field assistants. There was a marked seasonal incidence of all major causes of death with peak rates in the rainy season. Acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) were the most frequent cause of death in children under 5 years of age. Other major causes of death were malaria, acute gastro-enteritis and chronic diarrhoea with malnutrition. Mortality from all the major causes of death decreased with increasing village size." Data are from the Upper River Division, and administrative area in eastern Gambia.
Correspondence: A. De Francisco, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Community Health Division, G.P.O. Box 128, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30112 Donatti, Carlos; Mychaszula, Sonia; Somoza, Jorge L. The application of the previous child method in a hospital: results on infant mortality and on other subjects obtained from additional questions in the form. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population: Montreal 1993, Volume 3. 1993. 233-42 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The use of the previous child method to measure infant and child mortality in a hospital in Zarate, Argentina, is described. The design of the questionnaire used in the hospital survey is outlined and results from previous surveys are compared.
Correspondence: C. Donatti, Zonal Hospital, Zarate, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30113 Howell, Embry M.; Blondel, Beatrice. International infant mortality rates: bias from reporting differences. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 84, No. 5, May 1994. 850-2 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"International infant mortality statistics have caused concern in the United States, since the U.S. ranking relative to other developed countries has declined since World War II. This paper suggests that there may be international differences in reporting of very-low-birthweight infants and perinatal deaths and that such reporting differences bias comparisons of national perinatal and infant mortality rates."
Correspondence: E. M. Howell, Mathematica Policy Research, 600 Maryland Avenue SW, Suite 550, Washington, D.C. 20024. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

60:30114 Knobel, Harald H.; Yang, Wen-Shan; Ho, Mei-Shang. Urban-rural and regional differences in infant mortality in Taiwan. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 39, No. 6, Sep 1994. 815-22 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"We analyzed data from death certificates for all infant deaths in Taiwan from 1981 to 1988. During this 8-year period, the crude infant mortality rate decreased from 8.9 to 5.3 per 1,000 live births. Deaths due to infectious diseases,...also declined from 3.4 to 1.2 per 1,000 live births. While infant deaths due to nearly all causes declined, deaths due to injury and accidents rose from 0.62 to 0.71 per 1,000 live births, and the sudden infant death rate rose from 0.13 to 0.46. Notable geographic differences included a high death rate in the small islands off the coast and in the eastern mountainous counties...;this rate was twice that in Taipei....In addition, the level of urbanisation was also an important determinant of death rate; urban areas had much lower rates than rural areas."
Correspondence: H. H. Knobel, Academia Sinica, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Epidemiology and Public Health Group, Taipei 11529, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

60:30115 Ksenofontova, Natalia. Trends in infant mortality in the USSR. In: Demographic trends and patterns in the Soviet Union before 1991, edited by Wolfgang Lutz, Sergei Scherbov, and Andrei Volkov. 1994. 359-78 pp. Routledge: New York, New York/London, England; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
"This chapter presents the general trends in infant mortality rates in the USSR in the 1980s; it attempts to estimate the quality and completeness of available statistics." Infant mortality data are adjusted and the estimation methodology used is discussed.
Correspondence: N. Ksenofontova, State Commission on Statistics, Institute of Statistics and Economic Research, Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30116 Kuate Defo, Barthelemy. The conception-to-birth and birth-to-death processes in Cameroon: differentials and mechanisms. Pub. Order No. DA9404733. 1993. 687 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This research examines the mechanisms that explain differentials in pregnancy outcomes and infant and childhood malnutrition, morbidity and mortality in Cameroon. I implement the 'intermediate framework' for the analysis of mortality according to which the study of determinants of health status must be inseparable from the study of determinants of mortality." The study was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Wisconsin at Madison.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 54(10).

60:30117 Maccio, Guillermo A.; Damonte, Ana M. Four stages of infant mortality in Uruguay; a fifth stage is needed. [Cuatro etapas en la mortalidad infantil del Uruguay; falta la quinta.] CELADE Serie A, No. 290, Pub. Order No. LC/DEM/G.139. Mar 1994. 29, [4] pp. UN Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia [CELADE]: Santiago, Chile. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
Twentieth-century trends in infant mortality in Uruguay are outlined and compared with trends in other countries in the region. Results show that Uruguay has slipped from first to fourth place. "Infant mortality rates have been calculated according to main geographical areas. The exercise concludes that the national average has been reduced as a consequence of a progressive narrowing of the gap between...the most deprived areas and the wealthiest ones....The shape of the infant mortality rates allows the identification of four main historical stages. All of them [are] closely related to political commitment, budgetary allocation and institutional efficiency in the area of health. This association is a strong argument to insist on the need of applying...policies in order to ensure a process aimed to save lives and to attain more ambitious targets."
Correspondence: UN Centro Latinamericano de Demografia, Edificio Naciones Unidas, Avenida Dag Hammarskjold, Casilla 91, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30118 Molbak, Kare; Gottschau, Adam; Aaby, Peter; Hojlyng, Niels; Ingholt, Liselotte; da Silva, Augusto P. J. Prolonged breast feeding, diarrhoeal disease, and survival of children in Guinea-Bissau. British Medical Journal, Vol. 308, No. 6941, May 28, 1994. 1,403-6 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The impact of breast-feeding on infant diarrhea and survival in children over one year of age in Guinea-Bissau is analyzed using data on 849 children interviewed from 1987 to 1990. The authors conclude that the beneficial effects of breast-feeding are not restricted to infancy and that "though children who are partially breast fed after infancy may have a lower state of nutrition than the weaned ones, the benefit in terms of lower morbidity may be more important for child survival in places with a high morbidity from diarrhoea and with high mortality."
Correspondence: K. Molbak, Statens Seruminstitut, Danish Epidemiology Science Centre, Epidemiology Research Unit, 2300 Copenhagen S, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

60:30119 Mooney, Graham. Did London pass the "sanitary tests"? Seasonal infant mortality in London, 1870-1914. Journal of Historical Geography, Vol. 20, No. 2, Apr 1994. 158-74 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"By providing information on the number of live births and infant deaths for the Registration Districts of London, the published Quarterly Returns of the Registrar-General for England and Wales enable a reconstruction of seasonal infant mortality rates (IMRs) in the capital during the period 1870-1914. Analysis of these data shows a regular, excessive peak in infant mortality during the third quarter of each year. This evidence is used as a basis for the formulation of a 'sanitary test' for the London districts....With the aid of the assembled demographic evidence on seasonal infant mortality, the system of domestic visiting is evaluated in the light of the gradual orientation...towards a more individualistic approach to the improvement of infant health."
Correspondence: G. Mooney, University of Liverpool, Liverpool Public Health Observatory, Liverpool L69 3BX, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

60:30120 Nacro, Kourtoum. Determinants of childhood diarrhea morbidity and mortality in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Pub. Order No. DA9402508. 1993. 186 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study, prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Florida State University, "attempts to integrate the study of both morbidity and mortality by assessing the effects of both [background and proximate] variables and focusing on the 'survival process.' The data used for this study were recorded longitudinally by following a cohort of 8,491 births for the first twenty-four months of life."
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 54(8).

60:30121 Palmer, Nancy L. N. The impact of maternal education on infant and child mortality and morbidity in the Cameroon Grasslands. Pub. Order No. DA9405779. 1993. 255 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
Data collected over a three-year period in a village in the Nso' region of Cameroon are used to explore the impact of maternal education on infant and child mortality and morbidity. The author notes that the children of educated women were reported ill 2.5 times more often than the children of uneducated women, suggesting that educated mothers notice their children's illnesses earlier and take action sooner, and this reduces the effect of potentially life-threatening illness. The study was completed as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Kansas.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 53(7).

60:30122 Partin, Melissa R. Explaining race differences in infant mortality in the United States. Pub. Order No. DA9330832. 1993. 323 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This analysis of racial differences in U.S. infant mortality rates is based on data from published vital statistics and from the 1964-1966 National Natality and Infant Mortality Surveys, the 1980 Natality and Fetal Mortality Survey, and 1985 linked birth and infant death records. The importance of race differences in socioeconomic status and opportunity is noted. The study was developed as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Wisconsin at Madison.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 53(7).

60:30123 Robertson, C. M.; Hawkins, M. M.; Kingston, J. E. Late deaths and survival after childhood cancer: implications for cure. British Medical Journal, Vol. 309, No. 6948, Jul 16, 1994. 162-6 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The objectives of this study were, firstly, to determine the causes of deaths of children treated for cancer [in the United Kingdom] during 1971-85 who had survived at least five years and to relate the causes of death to type of tumour and treatment; secondly, to compare the observed mortality from specific causes with that expected in the general population to identify any departure from the expected pattern of mortality; and thirdly, to compare these results with those from our previous study of late deaths to detect any differences in the pattern of late mortality after treatment in 1940-70 and 1971-85."
Correspondence: M. M. Hawkins, University of Oxford, Childhood Cancer Research Group, Oxford OX2 6HJ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

60:30124 Sastry, Narayan; Goldman, Noreen; Moreno, Lorenzo. The relationship between place of residence and child survival in Brazil. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population: Montreal 1993, Volume 3. 1993. 293-322 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"Our purpose in this paper is to gain an understanding of the determinants of regional and urban-rural child mortality differentials in Brazil. We employ multivariate hazard-model analysis and use empirical evidence from the 1986 Brazil Demographic and Health Survey, together with Brazilian census data and municipality-level information on health infrastructure. We begin by reviewing studies that have examined the association between residential location and child mortality. In Section III and IV we describe the data and methods and discuss the analytic framework and the construction of variables. Our results are presented in Section V and we end the paper with our conclusions."
Correspondence: N. Sastry, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30125 Shahidullah, M. Breast-feeding and child survival in Matlab, Bangladesh. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 26, No. 2, Apr 1994. 143-54 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This study investigates the effect of both total and unsupplemented breast-feeding in conjunction with birth interval on early childhood mortality, using longitudinal data from Matlab, Bangladesh. A discrete hazard model approach shows that it is not the duration of total breast-feeding but the duration of unsupplemented breast-feeding which increases child survival. Unsupplemented breast-feeding appears as such a crucial determinant of early childhood mortality that its effect could not be substantially attenuated even when important demographic and socioeconomic factors were controlled. Each of the covariates--supplementation, previous birth interval and onset of a subsequent conception--has an independent influence on early childhood mortality."
Correspondence: M. Shahidullah, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, G.P.O. Box 128, Dhaka 2, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30126 Taylor, Carl E.; Ramalingaswami, Vulmiri. Reducing mortality in children under five: a continuing priority. In: Disease control priorities in developing countries, edited by Dean T. Jamison et al. 1993. 725-30 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England; World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The issues relevant to the development of effective programs designed to reduce child mortality in developing countries are reviewed.
Correspondence: C. E. Taylor, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30127 Tsuya, Noriko O.; Ogawa, Naohiro; Chayovan, Napaporn; Siriboon, Siriwan. Socio-economic development, child health care, and infant mortality change in Thailand. In: Human resources in development along the Asia-Pacific Rim, edited by Naohiro Ogawa, Gavin W. Jones, and Jeffrey G. Williamson. 1993. 313-48 pp. Oxford University Press, South-East Asian Publishing Unit: Singapore. In Eng.
"This chapter first looks at trends in infant and child mortality levels [in Thailand] during the 1970s and the 1980s, together with changes in GNP per capita and indices of expenditures on health services....Secondly, it examines socio-economic and demographic differentials of infant and child mortality for births during 1977-87. Thirdly, in order to examine changes in a causal mechanism operating in infant mortality in Thailand, it first analyses changes in demographic and socio-economic covariates of infant mortality....Then, again utilizing logistic regression analysis, it further examines demographic, socio-economic, and health care covariates of infant mortality in rural and urban Thailand during 1982-6."
Correspondence: N. O. Tsuya, Nihon University, Population Research Institute, 3-2 Misaki-cho, 1-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

60:30128 United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] (Atlanta, Georgia). Differences in infant mortality between blacks and whites--United States, 1980-1991. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 43, No. 16, Apr 29, 1994. 288-9 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
"To characterize current trends in the ratios of race-specific infant mortality, [low birth weight], and very low birthweight...rates among blacks and whites, data are analyzed from published reports of final birth and mortality statistics from 1980 through 1991. This report summarizes the results of that analysis."
Correspondence: U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30129 Young, Frank W. The structural causes of infant mortality decline in Chile. Social Indicators Research, Vol. 31, No. 1, Jan 1994. 27-46 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The effect of macro processes on infant mortality rates is explored in this analysis of Chilean provincial statistics over five decades. Urbanization and pluralism, as measured by the percent of the population in urban centers and the percent voting, predict lower infant mortality strongly and consistently. The theoretical rationale for linking macrostructural variables to biological outcomes is then examined in more detail. It is argued that the structural model employed here is an improvement on the conventional modernization/biomedical explanation because of its greater consistency and specificity, and because inclusion of measures of health technology in the tests did not eliminate the effect of the structural variables."
Correspondence: F. W. Young, Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Ithaca, NY 14853. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

60:30130 Zheng, Jianbin. Covariates of infant and early childhood mortality in Thailand: a hazards model analysis of the DHS data with policy implications. Pub. Order No. DA9402067. 1993. 206 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study, prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Oregon, "investigates covariates of infant and early childhood mortality in Thailand, using proportional hazards models to analyze the recently available Thai Demographic and Health Survey (TDHS) data....A mortality model is developed which suggests that socioeconomic status indirectly influences infant and child mortality through its influence on biodemographic factors, health service utilization and environmental factors."
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 54(8).

E.4. Mortality at Other Ages

Studies of age-specific mortality and of mortality in special groups defined by age.

60:30131 Anderson, Barbara A.; Silver, Brian D. A comparison of Soviet mortality in the working ages: 1959-1988. In: Demographic trends and patterns in the Soviet Union before 1991, edited by Wolfgang Lutz, Sergei Scherbov, and Andrei Volkov. 1994. 295-338 pp. Routledge: New York, New York/London, England; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
"The main goal of this paper is to examine trends in mortality in the working ages in the Soviet Union. We examine the trends between 1958 and 1988 for the USSR, and we compare mortality levels and trends in the USSR with the experience of 33 other developed countries....We focus on the working ages to assess the effects of mortality change on the labor supply...[and because] data in this age range are more accurate than data for older and younger ages....[The authors conclude that] mortality in the working ages in much of the Soviet Union, especially for men...is sufficiently high...[to warrant concern] about the number of years of life lost...."
Correspondence: B. A. Anderson, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1248. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30132 Blane, D.; Bartley, M.; Smith, G. Davey; Filakti, H.; Bethune, A.; Harding, S. Social patterning of medical mortality in youth and early adulthood. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 39, No. 3, Aug 1994. 361-6 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"It has been suggested that socio-economic gradients in health reduce or disappear during youth, to be re-created during early adulthood through a process of health-related social mobility. The present analysis tests this hypothesis in relation to 'medical mortality', using a data set which is free of numerator-denominator bias. The sample consists of the appropriate age groups [from England and Wales] in the OPCS Longitudinal Study; 62,647 males and 59,644 females ages 0-14 at the 1971 census. 'Medical mortality' during 1971-1985, calculated as standardised mortality ratios, is analysed by parental social class, housing tenure and car access in 1971. 'Medical mortality' during 1981-1985 is analysed by own social class in 1981. The results suggest that 'medical mortality' is inversely related to social advantage at ages of death 0-9 years, that this gradient flattens or disappears at ages 10-14 and that it re-emerges at ages 15-29....It is concluded that the apparent absence of socio-economic gradients in 'medical mortality' during youth may be an artefact of the high levels of health enjoyed by this age group and its consequent low levels of non-accidental death."
Correspondence: D. Blane, Charing Cross and Westminster Medical School, Behavioural Sciences Unit, London W6 8RP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

60:30133 Peck, Maria N. The importance of childhood socio-economic group for adult health. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 39, No. 4, 1994. 553-62 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The aim of this paper is...firstly, to investigate the importance of socio-economic group in childhood on self perceived health and early death in the adult population, and secondly, to compare the results with what happens when other, in time more immediately related factors, such as adult socio-economic group, work environment and social network, are taken into account....The study was performed on a sample drawn from the Swedish population and interviewed in 1980-81." The author finds that "childhood socio-economic group is significantly linked to male mortality, when age is taken into account. This could not be demonstrated for women. The variation in general health between childhood socio-economic groups, on the other hand, is significant for women but not for men."
Correspondence: M. N. Peck, Stockholm University, Swedish Institute for Social Research, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

E.5. Life Tables

Studies that present actual life table data and all studies concerned primarily with life tables, including the appropriate methodological studies. Life table studies that are concerned with topics other than mortality are classified under the appropriate heading and cross-referenced to this heading.

60:30134 Land, Kenneth C.; Guralnik, Jack M.; Blazer, Dan G. Estimating increment-decrement life tables with multiple covariates from panel data: the case of active life expectancy. Demography, Vol. 31, No. 2, May 1994. 297-319 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"A fundamental limitation of current multistate life table methodology--evident in recent estimates of active life expectancy for the elderly--is the inability to estimate tables from data on small longitudinal panels in the presence of multiple covariates (such as sex, race, and socioeconomic status). This paper presents an approach to such an estimation based on an isomorphism between the structure of the stochastic model underlying a conventional specification of the increment-decrement life table and that of Markov panel regression models for simple state spaces. We argue that Markov panel regression procedures can be used to provide smoothed or graduated group-specific estimates of transition probabilities that are more stable across short age intervals than those computed directly from sample data....To illustrate the methods, we [use U.S. data to estimate]...life expectancies specific to sex, race, and education (years of school completed) for a longitudinal panel of elderly persons."
Correspondence: K. C. Land, Duke University, Center for Demographic Studies, 2117 Campus Drive, Durham, NC 27708-0088. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30135 Mitra, S.; Levin, Martin L. Principal components analysis of the logits of the survivorship function. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population: Montreal 1993, Volume 3. 1993. 269-78 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"We have demonstrated the adequacy of two factors to reproduce the life table survivorship function through its logit transformation....By choosing appropriate values for the factor scores within their permissible ranges of variation, sets of model life tables can be constructed which may provide [an] alternative to published model tables." Data are for selected countries.
Correspondence: S. Mitra, Emory University, Department of Sociology, Atlanta, GA 30322. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30136 United Nations. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia [CELADE] (Santiago, Chile). Latin America, life tables, 1950-2025. [America Latina, tablas de mortalidad, 1950-2025.] Boletin Demografico/Demographic Bulletin, Vol. 27, No. 53, Pub. Order No. LC/DEM/G.140. Jan 1994. 340 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Eng; Spa.
Abridged life tables by sex and five-year age group are presented for 20 major countries of Latin America and the Caribbean for the period 1950-2025.
Correspondence: UN Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia, Edificio Naciones Unidas, Avenida Dag Hammarskjold, Casilla 91, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.6. Differential Mortality

Studies on the ratio of mortality in different subgroups of a population, classified according to certain criteria, such as sex, social class, occupation, and marital status. Also includes studies on excess mortality and comparative mortality.

60:30137 Hibbs, Jonathan R.; Benner, Lawrence; Klugman, Lawrence; Spencer, Robert; Macchia, Irene; Mellinger, Anne K.; Fife, Daniel. Mortality in a cohort of homeless adults in Philadelphia. New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 331, No. 5, Aug 4, 1994. 304-9 pp. Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The mortality rate for the homeless population in Philadelphia is estimated for the period 1985-1988 and compared to mortality for the general population. The results indicate that "homeless adults in Philadelphia have an age-adjusted mortality rate nearly four times that of Philadelphia's general population. White men and substance abusers are at particularly high risk. Matching cohorts of homeless people to death records is a useful way to monitor mortality rates over time, evaluate interventions, and identify subgroups with an increased risk of death." Data concern 6,308 homeless persons aged 15-74.
Correspondence: J. R. Hibbs, University of Minnesota Hospitals, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Minneapolis, MN 55455. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

60:30138 Kochanek, Kenneth D.; Maurer, Jeffrey D.; Rosenberg, Harry M. Causes of death contributing to changes in life expectancy: United States, 1984-89. Vital and Health Statistics, Series 20: Data from the National Vital Statistics System, No. 23, Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 94-1851. LC 94-671. May 1994. iv, 35 pp. Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
"This report identifies the major cause of death and age groups that contributed most to the decrease in life expectancy at birth for black males and females and to the increase for white males and females in the United States from 1984-89. The report also identifies the major causes and age groups that contributed most to the increase in the gap in the life expectancy between the black and white populations, by sex, during the same time period."
Correspondence: U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Mail Stop SSOP, Washington, D.C. 20402-9328. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30139 Kochanek, Kenneth D.; Maurer, Jeffrey D.; Rosenberg, Harry M. Why did black life expectancy decline from 1984 through 1989 in the United States? American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 84, No. 6, Jun 1994. 938-44 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The objective of this study was to partition the change in U.S. life expectancy into those major causes of death and age groups that contributed most to the decline in life expectancy for Black males and females and to the increase in life expectancy for White males and females in the period from 1984 through 1989. By means of a life table partitioning technique, the positive and negative contributions of age and cause of death to changes in life expectancy were estimated. Causes contributing most to the decrease in life expectancy for Black males included human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection...and homicide...;for Black females the causes included HIV infection...and cancer...."
Correspondence: K. D. Kochanek, National Center for Health Statistics, 6525 Belcrest Road, Room 840, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

60:30140 Kunst, Anton E.; Mackenbach, Johan P. The size of mortality differences associated with educational level in nine industrialized countries. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 84, No. 6, Jun 1994. 932-7 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The aim of the present study was to compare a large number of countries with respect to mortality differences associated with educational level. This study refers to men in the age group 35 to 64 years. Data were obtained from studies done in the United States and a number of European countries....Substantial cross-country differences were observed in the size of mortality differences associated with educational level....In addition, we investigated to what extent the large mortality differentials in the United States and France can be attributed to relatively large inequalities in educational levels themselves or to a large effect of educational level on mortality. We found that international variations in the size of inequalities in educational levels are most important, whereas the effect of education on mortality is approximately equally large in all countries."
Correspondence: A. E. Kunst, Erasmus University, Department of Public Health, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

60:30141 Lasker, Judith N.; Egolf, Brenda P.; Wolf, Stewart. Community social change and mortality. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 39, No. 1, Jul 1994. 53-62 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This study examines community differences in coronary heart disease mortality in the United States and how these differences change over time. "Data are presented from Roseto, PA--a town that became known in the 1960s for its strong Italian traditions and very low mortality from myocardial infarction and that subsequently experienced a sharp rise in mortality--and from the adjacent comparison town of Bangor. Data collected over several decades--in some cases as far back as 1925--on marriages, population composition, organizational memberships, voting patterns, and social class indicators suggest that important community changes that accelerated significantly in the 1960s coincided with and may help to explain Roseto's loss of protection from coronary heart disease deaths after 1965."
Correspondence: J. N. Lasker, Lehigh University, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, 681 Taylor Street, Bethlehem, PA 18015. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

60:30142 Mackenbach, J. P.; Looman, C. W. N. Living standards and mortality in the European Community. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 48, No. 2, Apr 1994. 140-5 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The association between living standards and mortality in the European Community (EC) was investigated using regional level data from all EC member countries....The results of this study show that there is an association between living standards and mortality at the regional level in the EC, but that this association comes to light only after controlling for confounding variables. It seems that the mortality increasing effects of urbanisation and industrialisation have obscured the mortality lowering effects of high living standards. In addition, factors specific to countries (such as dietary habits) act as confounders. The latter finding is interpreted in the light of differences between countries in the way in which they have gone through the 'epidemiologic translation' from infectious diseases to the 'western' diseases that currently dominate the mortality pattern."
Correspondence: J. P. Mackenbach, Erasmus University, Department of Public Health, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30143 McCarthy, David D.; Turner, John A. Risk classification and sex discrimination in pension plans. Journal of Risk and Insurance, Vol. 60, No. 1, Mar 1993. 85-104 pp. Sacramento, California. In Eng.
"Two [U.S.] Supreme Court decisions concerning the legal definition of discrimination in the Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibit as discriminatory the use of separate mortality tables for men and women in pension benefit calculations. We analyze discriminatory aspects of risk classification and find that the Civil Rights Act has increased discrimination in pension compensation. This article demonstrates both theoretically and by simulation that sex-based risk classification results in less sex discrimination and less individual discrimination than a unisex approach. This result holds for various sex-based classification policies, as well as for various definitions of discrimination and statistics used to quantify those definitions. Of six pension classification policies, the Supreme Court's policy of unisex classification is the most discriminatory."
Correspondence: D. D. McCarthy, U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20210. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

60:30144 Queen, Susan; Pappas, Gregory; Hadden, Wilbur; Fisher, Gail. The widening gap between socioeconomic status and mortality. Statistical Bulletin, Vol. 75, No. 2, Apr-Jun 1994. 31-5 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"Despite important declines in U.S. death rates since 1960, poor and less-educated people have not shared equally in this decline. Data from the 1986 National Mortality Followback Survey and the 1986 National Health Interview Survey were compared to data from the 1960 Matched Record Study. The data clearly show an inverse relationship between mortality and socioeconomic status. Results further indicate a widening of differences in mortality by education among both men and women aged 25 to 64."
Correspondence: S. Queen, U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30145 Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Gunning-Schepers, Louise J. Age, socioeconomic status, and mortality at the aggregate level. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 48, No. 2, Apr 1994. 146-50 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This study aimed to analyse the influence of the age distribution on the ranking of small areas by socioeconomic status and on the association between their socioeconomic status and standardised mortality...[using] data for all (n=22) boroughs of Amsterdam [Netherlands] for the period 1986-91....This study shows that the age structure of Amsterdam boroughs has almost no influence on their ranking by socioeconomic status and a limited influence on the association between their socioeconomic status and SMR [standardized mortality ratios], except for educational level. The latter indicator has the strongest association with age. This result and theoretical considerations indicate that a correction for the age structure of the population will be more important if small areas differ little with regard to socioeconomic status, if they vary considerably in age structure, or if a given indicator of socioeconomic status shows a strong cohort effect or age association."
Correspondence: S. A. Reijneveld, Amsterdam Municipal Health Service, Department of Epidemiology, P.O. Box 20244, 1000 HE Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30146 Shkolnikov, Vladimir M.; Vassin, Sergei A. Spatial differences in life expectancy in European Russia in the 1980s. In: Demographic trends and patterns in the Soviet Union before 1991, edited by Wolfgang Lutz, Sergei Scherbov, and Andrei Volkov. 1994. 379-402 pp. Routledge: New York, New York/London, England; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
"This chapter describes and analyzes the changes in life expectancy and its spatial variation for urban and rural populations of Russia in 1979 and 1988. It also examines the impact on regional differences in the decrease in mortality in the 1980s....[The authors find that] comparing the situation in 1979 with that in 1988 the geographic picture of life expectancy in European Russia in 1988 has become more complex, but its general pattern has been preserved: life expectancy is increasing in the population in the direction from northeast to southwest."
Correspondence: V. M. Shkolnikov, Russian Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Labor and Employment, Institute for Employment Studies, Center of Demography and Human Ecology, Leninsky Pr. 14, 117901 Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30147 Williams, Rory. Britain's regional mortality: a legacy from disaster in the Celtic periphery? Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 39, No. 2, Jul 1994. 189-99 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
Historical reasons for some of the continuing differences in regional mortality in Britain are explored, with the focus on rural-urban migration from the Celtic periphery to industrial centers. "Three ways of accounting for the first of these linkages, between industrial cities and peasant migration, are considered, drawing on analyses of rural Malthusian pressures, of the industrial labour market, and of cultural divisions on the Celtic periphery. These accounts all predict a particular urban and regional geography of mortality which is confirmed in nineteenth-century data." The extent to which such factors continued to affect mortality differentials until 1971 is considered.
Correspondence: R. Williams, University of Glasgow, MRC Medical Sociology Unit, 6 Lilybank Gardens, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

E.7. Mortality by Cause

Studies of demographic relevance on causes of death. Studies of morbidity and of public health measures are included only if they relate specifically to mortality. Also included are maternal mortality and comparisons of causes.

60:30148 Arrizabalaga, Jon. The identification of causes of death in preindustrial Europe: some historiographical considerations. [La identificacion de las causas de muerte en la Europa pre-industrial: algunas consideraciones historiograficas.] Boletin de la Asociacion de Demografia Historica, Vol. 11, No. 3, 1993. 23-47 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"This article deals with some of the historiographical issues raised by the study of the causes of death in the past. It is focused upon the medical causes of death, particularly infectious diseases....The ways of facing the question of the causes of death in pre-industrial Europe...are examined in contrast to those ways peculiar to modern Europe. Three topics are successively dealt with, first, the process of 'medicalisation' of death; secondly, diseases as causes of death, and the nosological systems; and thirdly, the diagnosis of the causes of death."
Correspondence: J. Arrizabalaga, Institucio Mila i Fontanals, CSIC, Barcelona, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30149 Barona, Josep L. Medical theories and the classification of causes of death. [Teorias medicas y la clasificacion de las causas de muerte.] Boletin de la Asociacion de Demografia Historica, Vol. 11, No. 3, 1993. 49-64 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"This work sketches the main stages in the evolution of medical thought and their effect upon the creation of systems intended to classify illness....[It analyzes] the influence of the three stages of the creation of the laboratory medicine in the 19th century....Lastly, it makes a proposal and a plan for a retrospective terminological glossary that should include the nosological lexicon and death causes by means of the integration of the existing empirical material."
Correspondence: J. L. Barona, Universitat de Valencia, Nave 2, 46003 Valencia, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30150 Bernabeu Mestre, Josep; Robles Gonzalez, Elena. Diagnostic expressions and causes of death. [Expresiones diagnosticas y causas de muerte.] Boletin de la Asociacion de Demografia Historica, Vol. 11, No. 3, 1993. 215 pp. Asociacion de Demografia Historica: Madrid, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
This is a selection of papers presented at a conference on diagnostic expressions and causes of death, held in Valencia, Spain, in June 1993.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Asociacion de Demografia Historica, Universitat d'Alacant, Campus Universitari de Sant Joan, Ap. de Correus 374, 03080 Alicante, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30151 Bernabeu Mestre, Josep. Diagnostic expressions and causes of death. Some reflections on their utilization in the demographic analysis of mortality. [Expresiones diagnosticas y causas de muerte. Algunas reflexiones sobre su utilizacion en el analisis demografico de la mortalidad.] Boletin de la Asociacion de Demografia Historica, Vol. 11, No. 3, 1993. 11-21 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The author discusses "the main difficulties that arise from the use of the diagnostical expressions used to report [causes of death]....From an interdisciplinary point of view, the work stresses the need to study in depth the causal explanation of mortality. It favours the creation of interpretative schemes showing the causal associations, direct or otherwise, between the determinants of good or bad health and the mortality problems as revealed in the death causes."
Correspondence: J. Bernabeu Mestre, Universitat d'Alacant, Campus Universitari de Sant Joan, Department de Salut Publica, Ap. de Correus 374, 03080 Alicante, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30152 Bisgard, Kristine M.; Folsom, Aaron R.; Hong, Ching-Ping; Sellers, Thomas A. Mortality and cancer rates in nonrespondents to a prospective study of older women: 5-year follow-up. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 139, No. 10, May 15, 1994. 990-1,000 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"The authors followed respondents and nonrespondents to a mailed questionnaire, sent to a random sample of Iowa women aged 55-69 years in 1986 (total sample, 98,029; 43% response), to characterize 5-year mortality rates for myocardial infarction and all causes, and attack rates for breast, endometrial, colon, lung, and all-site cancers. Compared with respondents, nonrespondents had higher myocardial infarction...and all-cause mortality....They also had substantially higher attack rates for lung cancer...and slightly higher attack rates for all-site cancer....The associations of reported body mass index (weight/height) with the study endpoints were generally similar among respondents and the total eligible sample, except for a more pronounced U-shaped total mortality association for the nonrespondents."
Correspondence: A. R. Folsom, University of Minnesota, School of Public Health, Division of Epidemiology, 1300 South Second Street, Suite 300, Minneapolis, MN 55454-1015. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

60:30153 Bourgoin, Nicolas; Nizard, Alfred. Violent deaths: France scores badly. [Mortalite violente: la France mal placee.] Population et Societes, No. 289, Apr 1994. 1, 3-4 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
An analysis of violent deaths in France is presented by sex, using official data for 1990. Some comparisons are made to other developed countries.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30154 Burr, Jeffrey A.; McCall, Patricia L.; Powell-Griner, Eve. Catholic religion and suicide: the mediating effect of divorce. Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 75, No. 2, Jun 1994. 300-18 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"The effects of religion and divorce on suicide rates are examined for [U.S.] metropolitan areas in 1980. The role of Catholic church membership has both direct and indirect effects on suicide rates; the indirect effects are mediated through the divorce rate. In contrast, Protestant church membership is not related statistically to suicide. Although total church membership is negatively related to suicide, denominational effects remain important."
Correspondence: J. A. Burr, State University of New York, Department of Sociology, 430 Park Hall, Buffalo, NY 14260. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

60:30155 Calle, Eugenia E.; Miracle-McMahill, Heidi L.; Thun, Michael J.; Heath, Clark W. Cigarette smoking and risk of fatal breast cancer. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 139, No. 10, May 15, 1994. 1,001-7 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"The authors examined the association of fatal breast cancer and cigarette smoking in a large, prospective mortality study of U.S. adults. After 6 years of follow-up, 880 cases of fatal breast cancer were observed in a cohort of 604,412 women who were cancer-free at interview in 1982. Cox proportional hazards modeling, adjusted for other risk factors, found that current smoking was significantly related to fatal breast cancer risk....The association of current smoking with fatal breast cancer risk increased with increasing numbers of cigarettes per day and with total number of years smoked....The authors hypothesize that these results may be due to either a poorer prognosis among breast cancer cases who smoke or a delayed diagnosis among current smokers who do not receive mammograms as often as never or former smokers."
Correspondence: E. E. Calle, American Cancer Society, 1599 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30329. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

60:30156 Decarli, Adriano; La Vecchia, Carlo; Negri, Eva; Cislaghi, Cesare. Cancer mortality in Italy, 1989, and an overview of trends from 1955 to 1989. Tumori, Vol. 79, No. 3, 1993. 151-65 pp. Milan, Italy. In Eng.
"The aim of this report is to update data and statistics on cancer mortality in Italy, which were published from 1955 to 1984 in strata of sex, age group and calendar period. Cancer mortality statistics for 1989 alone are presented, together with aggregate death certification data and statistics for the quinquennia 1985-89, and with figures summarizing trends in age-standardized mortality from major cancers since 1955."
Correspondence: A. Decarli, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Istituto di Statistica Medica e Biometria, Via G. Venezian 1, 20123 Milan, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30157 Gage, Timothy B. Population variation in cause of death: level, gender, and period effects. Demography, Vol. 31, No. 2, May 1994. 271-96 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The trends in 13 cause of death categories are examined with respect to expectation of life, sex differences, and period effects while misclassification of cause of death is controlled. The results suggest that as mortality declines, 1) the increasingly U-shaped age pattern of mortality is a period effect associated with the infectious diseases, 2) the risks of both overall infectious and degenerative causes of death decline, and 3) infectious disease mortality declines more in males, while degenerative disease mortality declines more in females. Finally, the model shows that some contemporary populations are approaching the limits of reduction in mortality during infancy, childhood, and young adulthood. Past declines in the degenerative diseases, however, suggest that mortality may continue to decline."
Correspondence: T. B. Gage, State University of New York, Department of Anthropology, Albany, NY 12222. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30158 Gaudette, Leslie; Lee, Judy; Silberberger, Carol. Cancer: incidence and deaths in Canada, 1990. [Cancer: incidence et deces au Canada, 1990.] Health Reports/Rapports sur la Sante, Vol. 5, No. 4, 1993. 348-54 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
The authors present data on cancer incidence and mortality in Canada in 1990. Information is included on principal types of cancer among men and women at all ages and in age groups 20-39, 40-59, 60-79, and 80 and over.
Correspondence: L. Gaudette, Statistics Canada, Canadian Centre for Health Information, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30159 Grimes, David A. The morbidity and mortality of pregnancy: still risky business. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Supplement, Vol. 170, No. 5, Pt. 2, May 1994. 1,489-94 pp. St. Louis, Missouri. In Eng.
"This review summarizes recent national data from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, including vital statistics from the National Center for Health Statistics. Ectopic pregnancy is substantially more dangerous (38 deaths/100,000 events) than either childbirth (nine) or legal abortion (less than one). The three leading causes of maternal death today are pregnancy-induced hypertension, hemorrhage, and pulmonary embolism....Women of minority races have much higher risks of death than do white women, and the same holds true for older women and those with limited education. For...most women, fertility regulation by contraception, sterilization, or legal abortion is substantially safer than childbirth."
Correspondence: D. A. Grimes, San Francisco General Hospital, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, Ward 6D14, San Francisco, CA 94110. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30160 Kingkade, W. Ward. Soviet mortality by cause of death: an analysis of years of potential life lost. In: Demographic trends and patterns in the Soviet Union before 1991, edited by Wolfgang Lutz, Sergei Scherbov, and Andrei Volkov. 1994. 339-58 pp. Routledge: New York, New York/London, England; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
Using data recently made available for causes of death and mortality trends in the former Soviet Union, the author analyzes regional variations in such trends and compares them to other developed countries. The methodology used incorporates the years of potential life lost as indicators. It is concluded that a substantial saving in human potential is possible through mortality reduction. Implications for health policies are discussed.
Correspondence: W. W. Kingkade, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Center for International Research, Europe/Commonwealth of Independent States Branch, Suitland, MD 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30161 Lee, Wen C.; Lin, Ruey S. Interactions between birth cohort and urbanization on gastric cancer mortality in Taiwan. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 23, No. 2, Apr 1994. 252-60 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"To examine the interaction of birth cohort and urbanization, mortality data for gastric cancer between 1971 and 1990 in differentially urbanized areas in Taiwan were analysed....In the older generations, born before 1910, the relative risks of gastric cancer were higher in urban areas than in rural ones, but in recent generations, i.e. those born after 1916-1922, the reverse was true. The age curves of gastric cancer mortality emerged as almost straight lines when plotted on a double logarithmic scale. Sex ratios increased with age up to age 60 and then remained constant. The spread of the birth-cohort effects suggested that dietary factors, e.g. dietary habits and food processing practices, in the early life of the population play an important role in the occurrence of gastric cancer."
Correspondence: R. S. Lin, National Taiwan University, Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine, 1 Jen-Ai Road, Section 1, Taipei, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30162 Leonard, Katherine A. Firearm deaths in Canadian adolescents and young adults. Canadian Journal of Public Health/Revue Canadienne de Sante Publique, Vol. 85, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1994. 128-31 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This article describes the problem of firearm deaths among Canadians aged 15-24 years. It is based on data obtained from Statistics Canada, the Metropolitan Toronto Police Department, and the Canadian Department of Justice. Firearms are the third leading cause of death in this age group, accounting for 276 deaths in 1990, after motor vehicle accidents (997) and non-firearm suicides (358)."
Correspondence: K. A. Leonard, Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Paediatrics, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30163 Librero Lopez, Julian. Statistics on medical cause of death: historical coordinates, current tools. [Las estadisticas de causa medica de muerte: coordenadas historicas, herramientas actuales.] Boletin de la Asociacion de Demografia Historica, Vol. 11, No. 3, 1993. 151-72 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"This work places the production of death causes statistics and its problems in the 19th century, with the appearance of modern statistics....[The author discusses ways] to make the most of the information being analyzed (studies of multiple causes), to improve the quality of medical performance, and to eliminate the variability produced by the codification process."
Correspondence: J. Librero Lopez, Universitat d'Alacant, Campus Universitari de Sant Joan, Department de Salut Publica, Ap. de Correus 374, 03080 Alicante, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30164 Lopez, Alan D. Causes of death in industrial and developing countries: estimates for 1985-1990. In: Disease control priorities in developing countries, edited by Dean T. Jamison et al. 1993. 35-50 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England; World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Estimates of global causes of death for the period 1985-1990 are developed using a model of the epidemiological transition based on the experience of developed countries extended to those countries where adequate data on causes of death are unavailable. The author notes that chronic diseases have already emerged as a significant health problem in many developing countries, and that "the rapidly emerging epidemic of smoking-attributable mortality is one of the principal public health issues which developing countries will face during the next few decades, and in many cases it will be superimposed on a health system still preoccupied with the control of infectious diseases."
Correspondence: A. D. Lopez, World Health Organization, Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30165 Mauldin, W. Parker. Maternal mortality in developing countries: a comparison of rates from two international compendia. Population and Development Review, Vol. 20, No. 2, Jun 1994. 413-21, 497, 499 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The author compares data from "the World Bank's World Development Report 1993 and the United Nations Development Programme's Human Development Report 1993...on maternal mortality in developing countries for 1988....Their estimates of maternal mortality rates per 100,000 births differ by as much as 100 points for almost half the countries covered in common. Neither publication offers sufficient explanation in technical notes of how figures were obtained from the multitude of hospital studies, community studies, and civil registration data....Country-by-country comparisons make clear that reliable data on maternal mortality do not exist for most developing countries."
Correspondence: W. P. Mauldin, Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30166 Mico Navarro, Juan A.; Martinez Monleon, Francisco. Utilization of semantic-documentary analytical techniques in the study and interpretation of diagnostic expressions of causes of death. [La utilizacion de las tecnicas del analisis semantico-documental en el estudio e interpretacion de las expresiones diagnosticas de las causas de muerte.] Boletin de la Asociacion de Demografia Historica, Vol. 11, No. 3, 1993. 173-85 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The authors report on a plan developed in Spain to compile a standard terminology of causes of death for use in historical demographic studies. "In the first phase a thesaurus will be created from the data available in the records. The second stage includes the creation of a terminological glossary. Finally...the change of information to standard nomenclatures [is proposed]."
Correspondence: J. A. Mico Navarro, Universitat de Valencia, Institut d'Estudis Documentals i Historics sobre la Ciencia, Nave 2, 46003 Valencia, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30167 Nanjo, Zenji; Shigematsu, Takao. New relational models of age-specific mortality--all and selected causes of death. NUPRI Research Paper Series, No. 63, Nov 1993. vi, 21 pp. Nihon University, Population Research Institute: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"The relational and parameterized models of age-specific mortality are very useful for the forecasting, smoothing and interpolation of mortality for all causes....Applicability of [three different] models to Japanese mortality for all and main causes [was] tested....Our models were also applied to the USSR mortality for all causes of death. Finally, for the sake of comparison with our results, [the models were] applied to mortality for all causes of death and...the three biggest causes of death in Japan."
Correspondence: Nihon University, Population Research Institute, 3-2 Misaki-cho, 1 chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30168 Nelson, David E.; Kirkendall, Randahl S.; Lawton, Richard L.; Chrismon, Jeffrey H.; Merritt, Robert K.; Arday, David A.; Giovino, Gary A. Surveillance for smoking-attributable mortality and years of potential life lost, by state--United States, 1990. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 43, No. SS-1, Jun 10, 1994. 1-8 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
"Mortality and years of potential life lost were estimated for each [U.S.] state....Estimates of smoking prevalence were obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and the U.S. Bureau of the Census, and mortality data were obtained from CDC. The median estimate for the number of smoking-attributable deaths among states was 5,619....Within each state, the number of smoking-attributable deaths among males was approximately twice as high as among females....The number of years of potential life lost ranged from 6,720 (Alaska) to 498,297 (California)."
Correspondence: D. E. Nelson, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30169 Noble, Barbara; Charlton, John. Homicides in England and Wales. Population Trends, No. 75, Spring 1994. 26-9 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This article explains some of the complications of the classification of deaths as homicides in OPCS [Great Britain's Office of Population Censuses and Surveys] publications, and points out the differences between OPCS and Home Office published statistics. It also discusses recent trends in deaths due to homicide, and makes some international comparisons."
Correspondence: B. Noble, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, Health Statistics, St. Catherine's House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30170 Perdiguero Gil, Enrique. Causes of death and the relation between scientific and popular knowledge. [Causas de muerte y relacion entre conocimiento cientifico y conocimiento popular.] Boletin de la Asociacion de Demografia Historica, Vol. 11, No. 3, 1993. 65-88 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"The framework of this contribution is the nexus between scientific and popular knowledge, and their importance assessing diagnostical expressions when studying death causes in times prior to the setting of a standard for the definition of illness. By means of a particular example, the expression teething, we shall show some nuances concerning the loanwords and equivalences between popular and academic knowledge, and their deep, if sometimes hidden, influence upon the diagnostical expressions informing us about the death causes as shown in the records of life and death statistics." The geographical focus is on Spain.
Correspondence: E. Perdiguero Gil, Universitat d'Alacant, Campus Universitari de Sant Joan, Department de Salut Publica, Ap. de Correus 374, 03080 Alicante, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30171 Perrenoud, Alfred. Nosology and pathocenosis: contribution to the debate about causes of the decline in mortality. [Nosologia y patocenosis: contribucion al debate sobre las causas del descenso de la mortalidad.] Boletin de la Asociacion de Demografia Historica, Vol. 11, No. 3, 1993. 89-149 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"This work reminds us [of] the need to approach the study of mortality as a whole and insists upon the many factors having an influence upon its etiology. At the same time it suggests that more attention should be paid to the subjects of morbidity and the synchronical connections between illnesses....The paper displays some results...based upon the death registries of Geneva [Switzerland] (1685-1844). Using the data for the years 1740-1759, the work studies the deaths and main death causes from the viewpoint of their gradual development [over] time, their periodicity and their distribution by age groups."
Correspondence: A. Perrenoud, Universite de Geneve, 3 Place de l'Universite, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30172 Pisani, P.; Parkin, D. M.; Ferlay, J. Estimates of the worldwide mortality from eighteen major cancers in 1985. Implications for prevention and projections of future burden. International Journal of Cancer/Journal International du Cancer, Vol. 55, No. 6, 1993. 891-903 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This report presents worldwide estimates of annual mortality from all cancers and for 18 specific cancer sites around 1985. Crude and age-standardized mortality rates and numbers of deaths were computed for 24 geographical areas. Of the estimated 5 million deaths from cancer (excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer), 56% occurred in developing countries. The most frequent neoplasm is lung cancer, accounting for 22% of cancer deaths in men. Among women breast cancer is the leading malignancy, accounting for 16% and 11% of all cancer deaths in developed and developing countries, respectively....Our results provide an indication of the potential impact of preventive practices. It is estimated that 20% of all cancer deaths (1 million) could be prevented by eliminating tobacco smoking. Mortality from cancers of the liver and uterine cervix, both major problems in developing countries, could be substantially reduced by immunization against hepatitis B virus infection and early detection through Pap smears, respectively."
Correspondence: P. Pisani, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyons Cedex 08, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30173 Ruzicka, L. T.; Choi, C. Y. Suicide mortality in Australia, 1970-1991. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 10, No. 2, Nov 1993. 101-17 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper contains results of a study into changes in rates of suicide in Australia in the 1970s and 1980s. The study found that there was a significant divergence of suicide mortality rates between males and females, with male rates increasing in the last twenty years and female rates showing a general decline. The increase in male rates was highest at ages under 30 and over 80 years of age. The differences in rates between marital status groups have remained large. The study also analysed birthplace differentials in suicides and included some data from overseas countries for comparisons."
Correspondence: L. T. Ruzicka, Australian National University, National Centre for Developmental Studies, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30174 Seltzer, Frederic. Trend in mortality from violent deaths: suicide and homicide, United States, 1960-1991. Statistical Bulletin, Vol. 75, No. 2, Apr-Jun 1994. 10-8 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
Trends in suicide and homicide in the United States from 1960 to 1991 are analyzed according to cause of death, age, and sex. "Suicide rates remained the highest among men over age 75 and among women aged 45 to 54. Homicide rates were the highest among men aged 25 to 34 until 1988. In 1989 homicide rates among men aged 15 to 24 surpassed these and continue to rise at a rapid pace. Homicides among women were the highest among the age group 25 to 34. The second highest rates occurred at ages 35 to 44 through 1975 and at ages 15 to 24, thereafter."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30175 Smans, M.; Muir, C. S.; Boyle, P. Atlas of cancer mortality in the European Economic Community. IARC Scientific Publication, No. 107, ISBN 92-832-2107-9. 1992. vii, 213; 44 pp. International Agency for Research on Cancer [IARC]: Lyons, France. Distributed by Oxford University Press, Walton Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, England. In Eng.
Using data contributed by national vital statistics offices and the statistical services of the European Community, information is presented on cancer mortality by cancer site and geographical region within selected countries. The data concern the late 1970s and the countries that were members of the Community at that time. Annex 2, published in a separate volume, contains the information in map form.
Correspondence: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyons Cedex 08, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30176 Tardiff, Kenneth; Marzuk, Peter M.; Leon, Andrew C.; Hirsch, Charles S.; Stajic, Marina; Portera, Laura; Hartwell, Nancy. Homicide in New York City. Cocaine use and firearms. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 272, No. 1, Jul 6, 1994. 43-6 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
The authors examine data on all 4,298 homicide victims in New York City during 1990 and 1991 in order "to determine differences between racial/ethnic groups in overall rates of death by homicide, proportion of firearm homicides, and the use of cocaine prior to death....Using medical examiner data, age- and gender-specific rates of homicide were calculated for African Americans, Latinos, and whites. Separate logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between demographic variables and both recent cocaine use and firearm-related homicides. Young African-American and Latino men were more likely to be victims of homicide than all other demographic groups. Approximately three fourths of all homicides involved firearms....There was no association between having used cocaine before death and being killed by a firearm." However, the authors concluded "the high rates of death by homicide among young African Americans and Latinos may be due to the increased involvement with both cocaine use and firearms."
Correspondence: K. Tardiff, Cornell University Medical College, Department of Psychiatry, 525 East 68th Street, Box 147, New York, NY 10021. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

60:30177 Thorogood, Margaret; Mann, Jim; Appleby, Paul; McPherson, Klim. Risk of death from cancer and ischaemic heart disease in meat and non-meat eaters. British Medical Journal, Vol. 308, No. 6945, Jun 25, 1994. 1,667-71 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In an attempt to quantify any beneficial effects of a vegetarian diet and to determine the extent of which diet rather than lifestyle related risk factors determines the favourable mortality in vegetarians we studied mortality in about 6,000 non-meat eaters and 5,000 meat eating controls [in the United Kingdom]." The authors find that "the reduced mortality from cancer among those not eating meat is not explained by lifestyle related risk factors, which have a low prevalence among vegetarians. No firm conclusion can be made about deaths from ischaemic heart disease. These data do not justify advice to exclude meat from the diet since there are several attributes of a vegetarian diet apart from not eating meat which might reduce the risk." A commentary by Jan P. Vandenbroucke is included (p. 1,671).
Correspondence: J. Mann, University of Otago, Department of Human Nutrition, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).


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