Volume 60 - Number 2 - Summer 1994

G. Nuptiality and the Family

Studies that quantitatively analyze aspects of nuptiality and the family. Studies concerned equally with marriage and the family are coded first under G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to G.1. Marriage and Divorce . Methodological studies on nuptiality and the family are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , as appropriate.

G.1. Marriage and Divorce

Studies of trends in marriage and divorce, nuptiality, duration of marriage, age at marriage, and demographic characteristics of marriage partners. Also includes studies of unmarried cohabitation and consensual unions.

60:20354 Amorim, Maria N. Nuptiality and fertility differentials. Behavioral changes in the last three centuries. The case of Sul do Pico (Azores). [Nupcialidade e fecundidade differencias. Evolucao de comportamentos nos ultimos tres seculos. O caso do Sul do Pico (Acores).] Boletin de la Asociacion de Demografia Historica, Vol. 11, No. 2, 1993. 55-73 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Por. with sum. in Eng; Fre; Spa.
"Through the application of...'parish reconstitution' differentials in demographic conducts are analysed. Those behaviours are related with marriage rate and fertility manifested in the population of Sul do Pico (Azores) during the last 3 centuries. Results show the existence of differences between 'the new' and 'the old' rural areas."
Correspondence: M. N. Amorim, Universidade do Minho, Largo do Paco, 4719 Braga Codex, Portugal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20355 Atoh, Makoto; Takahashi, Shigesato; Nakano, Eiko; Watanabe, Yoshikazu; Kojima, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Ryuichi. Trends in marriage and fertility in Japan: major findings from the Tenth Japanese National Fertility Survey. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 49, No. 3, Oct 1993. 1-28 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
The authors review trends in marriage and fertility in Japan, using data from the 1993 Japanese National Fertility Survey. Information is included on age at marriage, arranged and voluntary marriages, length of time from initial meeting to marriage, changes in age at marriage, fertility, socioeconomic differentials in fertility, and fertility preferences.
Correspondence: M. Atoh, 7-606 Kuzugaya, Midori-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20356 Balakrishnan, Rajiv. Spatial dimensions of marriage network in rural India: an analysis of district level variations estimated from census data on female migration. Demography India, Vol. 21, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1992. 129-40 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"Data from secondary sources are analysed in this paper to test the hypothesised relationship between agricultural productivity and the aquisition of distantly resident affinal kin [in rural India]....A list of hypothesised determinants of the spatial distribution of marriage related households is presented....[The author describes] (i) the use of census data to estimate the extensiveness of marital scatter and (ii) the derivation of 'explanatory' variables from district level data."
Correspondence: R. Balakrishnan, National Council of Education Research and Training, Department of Women's Studies, New Delhi 110 016, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20357 Banerjee, Kakoli. Economic and demographic factors in historical change in joint household formation in India: 1921 and 1981. Pub. Order No. DA9329564. 1993. 329 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The author argues that the changes in male nuptiality that occurred in rural India between 1921 and 1981 were a form of household adaptation to wage dependency and proletarianization. The study was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Massachusetts.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 54(6).

60:20358 Bittles, A. H.; Smith, M. T. Religious differentials in postfamine marriage patterns, Northern Ireland, 1840-1915. I. Demographic and isonymy analysis. Human Biology, Vol. 66, No. 1, Feb 1994. 59-76 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
"To assess the influence of population changes at the local level in Ulster [during the Irish famine of 1846-1851], decennial census records were analyzed for the Barony of Upper Ards, County Down, from 1841 to 1911. Data on marriages contracted in the four Roman Catholic, five Presbyterian, and eight Episcopalian congregations also were abstracted from civil parish registers for the period 1840-1915 and were used to calculate levels of random and nonrandom in-breeding through time by isonymy analysis....The observed changes are not compatible with a simple model of reduction in mate availability under conditions of population decline. Instead, they can most convincingly be explained in terms of a specific population response to the subsistence crisis initiated by the famine."
Correspondence: A. H. Bittles, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup Campus, School of Applied Science, WA 6027, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20359 Castro Martin, Teresa. Changing nuptiality patterns in contemporary Spain. Genus, Vol. 49, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1993. 79-95 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita.
"This paper describes recent nuptiality trends [in Spain] and explores some socio-demographic factors that influence marital timing. Event history analysis is applied to retrospective marital histories collected in the 1985 Spanish National Survey of Fertility. Discrete hazard models are used in order to capture the changing dynamics of the nuptiality process throughout the age range. The results indicate that a trend towards late marriage has evolved in Spain during the last decade, without a concomitant rise in nonmarital cohabitation. The pattern of marriage postponement is especially pronounced among women residing in urban areas and those better educated."
Correspondence: T. Castro Martin, UN Department of Economic and Social Development, Population Division, United Nations, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20360 Dittgen, Alfred. Variations in female age at first marriage by French departments: evolution since the war. [Variation departementale des premiers mariages feminins: evolution depuis la guerre.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 2, 1993. 263-70 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Changes in marriage age for women in France since World War II are examined. The author finds that "in the fifties and the sixties, [the] proportion of never married women reduced and age at first marriage decreased....But an opposite evolution takes place in the urban areas of Paris, favoured by selected migrations."
Correspondence: A. Dittgen, Universite de Paris I Pantheon-Sorbonne, IDUP, 22 rue Vauquelin, 75005 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20361 Dumont, Gerard-Francois. Do the nuptiality behaviors of Ile-de-France anticipate those of France? [Les comportements de nuptialite de l'Ile-de-France anticipent-ils ceux de la France?] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 2, 1993. 271-9 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Marriage and divorce data for the urbanized Greater Paris region of Ile-de-France for the period since 1968 are analyzed and compared. The focus is on whether trends observed in this region anticipate patterns experienced in the country as a whole.
Correspondence: G.-F. Dumont, Universite de Paris-Sorbonne, Institut d'Urbanisme et d'Amenagement, 191 rue Saint-Jacques, 75005 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20362 Haskey, John. First marriage, divorce, and remarriage: birth cohort analyses. Population Trends, No. 72, Summer 1993. 24-33 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This article uses birth cohort analyses to show the large variations in the patterns of first marriages, divorces, and remarriages [in England and Wales], since the early part of this century."
Correspondence: J. Haskey, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, Population Statistics Division, St. Catherine's House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20363 Kouri, Kristyan M.; Lasswell, Marcia. Black-white marriages: social change and intergenerational mobility. Marriage and Family Review, Vol. 19, No. 3-4, 1993. 241-55 pp. Binghamton, New York. In Eng.
"In this article, we examine why black and white individuals living in the greater Los Angeles metropolitan area chose to marry each other. Explored are characteristics such as social class background and family upbringing which might influence a decision to go against the societal norm of racial endogamy....In-depth interviews with twenty-nine black/white interracial couples living in the Los Angeles area were conducted. The interviews sought information concerning why the partners chose each other, how they bridged cultural differences, how their families of origin reacted to their choice, how they coped with prejudice, and how they were rearing their children."
This article is also published in the book titled Families on the Move: Migration, Immigration, Emigration, and Mobility, edited by Barbara H. Settles et al., Binghamton, New York, Haworth Press, 1993.
Correspondence: K. M. Kouri, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

60:20364 Landale, Nancy S. Migration and the Latino family: the union formation behavior of Puerto Rican women. Demography, Vol. 31, No. 1, Feb 1994. 133-57 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study examines the transition to first union among Puerto Rican women. I argue that understanding the behavior of mainland Puerto Ricans requires attention to family patterns in Puerto Rico and to the dynamics of migration between Puerto Rico and the United States. The study therefore is based on pooled data from comparable surveys undertaken in the two settings. These data allow for event history analyses that compare the union formation behavior of migrants with that of nonmigrants, and consider the role of migration in producing the observed union patterns. Multivariate models show that migrants are more likely than nonmigrants to form unions early and to enter informal unions. Additional analyses show that selective migration plays a role in producing this pattern. Overall the findings demonstrate the importance of using data from both origin and destination locales for understanding the behavior of migrant groups."
Correspondence: N. S. Landale, Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 22 Burrowes Building, University Park, PA 16802-6202. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20365 Landale, Nancy S.; Ogena, Nimfa B. Migration and union dissolution among Puerto Rican women. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 1994-02, Jan 1994. 35, [4] pp. Pennsylvania State University: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
The relationship between migration and union dissolution among Puerto Rican women is analyzed using pooled life-history data from comparable surveys undertaken in Puerto Rico and the mainland United States. "The results suggests that the weak social ties of migrants provide limited social support for their unions and few barriers to union disruption."
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6411. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20366 Lutz, Wolfgang. Effects of children on divorce probabilities and of divorce on fertility: the case of Finland 1984. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 31, 1993. 72-80 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"This study looks explicitly at the interactions between childbearing and divorce [in Finland]. Specifically, the study looks at the effects of parity and age of the youngest child on divorce probabilities controlling duration of marriage, and the effect of marital status and the duration since divorce on parity-specific birth probabilities. Generally, controlling for other demographic covariates tends to change the usually considered bivariate associations between childbearing and divorce. For instance, when considering marital duration divorce probabilities are highest for childless women and lowest for women with two or three children, whereas the bivariate perspective shows a peak for parity one women."
For a related article by Lutz et al., published in 1991, see 57:40380.
Correspondence: W. Lutz, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Population Program, 2361 Laxenburg, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20367 Manfredi, Pietro. Logistic effects in the two-sex model with "harmonic mean" fertility function. [Problemi di ingombro nel modello interattivo con legge di formazione delle coppie a "media armonica"] Genus, Vol. 49, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1993. 43-65 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng.
"In the present paper the effects of the presence of logistic terms in [a] two-sex random mating model with 'harmonic mean' fertility function are discussed. The behaviour of the model is studied by means of a phase plane analysis. It [is] possible to show the existence, under quite natural conditions, of one (and only one) meaningful equilibrium point that is globally stable. This equilibrium is the final result of an adjustment process [and includes an]...initial period during which it is possible to observe a preliminary balancing process of the sex composition...."
Correspondence: P. Manfredi, Universita degli Studi di Pisa, Dipartimento di Statistica e Matematica Applicata all'Economia, Lungarno Pacinolti 45, 56100 Pisa, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20368 McCrate, Elaine. Accounting for the slowdown in the divorce rate in the 1980s: a bargaining perspective. Review of Social Economy, Vol. 50, Winter 1992. 404-19 pp. De Kalb, Illinois. In Eng.
The impact of women's increased economic independence on the recent slowdown in the divorce rate in the United States is examined. "In this paper I contend that some aspects of the economic independence perspective are still salient for the 1980s. (I will also refer to this line of argument as the 'bargaining' perspective.)....The paper begins with an overview of bargaining theories and their implications for divorce. It then identifies relevant economic variables which may be affecting the divorce rate, from the late 1960s to late 1980s. I survey trends in these variables, discussing the institutional changes underlying these patterns, and I identify which factors may be contributing to the leveling off of the divorce rate in the 1980s."
Correspondence: E. McCrate, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

60:20369 Relethford, John H.; Mielke, James H. Marital exogamy in the Aland Islands, Finland, 1750-1949. Annals of Human Biology, Vol. 21, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1994. 13-21 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"Marriage records from 1750 through 1949 were used to examine the effects of population size, geographic distance, and temporal change on rates of marital exogamy in the Aland Islands, Finland....From 1750 through 1899 there is little change in exogamy rates, whereas exogamy rates double after 1900. This temporal change reflects changes in transportation technology and other cultural factors promoting increased migration. The multiple regression model shows population size, geographic distance, and temporal change are all significant correlates of exogamy...."
Correspondence: J. H. Relethford, State University of New York College, Department of Anthropology, Oneonta, NY 13820. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20370 Suh, Moon-Hee. Effects of sociodemographic and marriage-related variables on divorce and remarriage among Korean women. Journal of Population, Health and Social Welfare, Vol. 13, No. 2, Dec 1993. 1-19 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Kor. with sum. in Eng.
"The objective of this study was to review the actual state of divorce in the first marriage and remarriage after that and to find out the determinants of divorce and remarriage among Korean women. The data used in this study [concern] 7,462 ever married women aged 15-49 [and were] collected through 1991 Survey on National Fertility and Health...." Aspects considered include the extent of divorce; average marriage duration and age at divorce; determinants of divorce, including wife's and husband's age at marriage, free or arranged marriage, women's educational level, and length of acquaintance before marriage; and remarriage rates and determinants.
Correspondence: M.-H. Suh, Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs, San 42-14, Bulgwang-dong, Eunpyung-ku, Seoul 122-040, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20371 Wrigley, E. A. The effect of migration on the estimation of marriage age in family reconstitution studies. Population Studies, Vol. 48, No. 1, Mar 1994. 81-97 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Ruggles has shown that, if marriage and migration are independent phenomena, age at marriage estimates derived from family reconstitution studies can be misleading because those who marry late are more likely to have migrated before marriage than those who marry early. Marriage age estimates based on 'stayers' will therefore be lower than would be the case if 'leavers' were also included. Whether this was true of English reconstitution data, however, is an empirical rather than a logical question. Evidence from the Census of 1851 suggests that the mean age at marriage of 'leavers' was very similar to that of 'stayers' (i.e. that marriage and migration were not independent phenomena). But, though age at marriage was much the same in the two groups, the proportions ever marrying were very different: celibacy was far commoner among 'stayers' than among 'leavers'."
For the article by Ruggles, published in 1992, see 59:10573.
Correspondence: E. A. Wrigley, All Souls College, Oxford OX1 4AL, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20372 Zeng, Yi; Schultz, T. Paul; Wang, Deming. An event history analysis of divorce in China. Economic Growth Center Discussion Paper, No. 675, Nov 1992. 34 pp. Yale University, Economic Growth Center: New Haven, Connecticut. In Eng.
"This study demonstrates that the level of divorce in China is extremely low, in comparison with other developed and developing countries." Factors such as age at marriage, arranged marriage, residence characteristics, and number of children are shown to have a significant effect on divorce.
Correspondence: Yale University, Economic Growth Center, Box 1987, Yale Station, 27 Hillhouse Avenue, New Haven, CT 06520. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

60:20373 Zhang, Junsen. Bequest as a public good within marriage: a note. Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 102, No. 1, Feb 1994. 187-93 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"Bequest to and marriage of children can lead to a Pareto-inefficient allocation. The inefficiency (or market failure) arises because one family, making a bequest to its own child, ignores the contribution to the utility of the other family whose child enters the marriage. This note shows that an assortative mating rule based on bequests can improve or even restore Pareto efficiency when parents take account of the rule in deciding the amount of bequests to their own children." Examples from selected countries are used to illustrate.
Correspondence: J. Zhang, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

G.2. Family and Household

Studies of household structure and of family composition and size and the factors influencing them. Includes the full range of family concepts from the one-parent to the extended family and includes studies on the life course of the family. Studies on attitudes toward family size are coded under F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control .

60:20374 American Demographics (Ithaca, New York). The future of households. American Demographics, Vol. 15, No. 12, Dec 1993. 27-40 pp. Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
Current trends and projections to the year 2010 for households in the United States are made. The data are presented by household type, including one-person, single-parent, and married with minor or grown children households. The focus of the article is on the use of this information for marketing purposes.
Correspondence: American Demographics, 127 West State Street, Ithaca, NY 14850. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20375 Andrews, Frank M.; Abbey, Antonia; Halman, L. Jill. Changes in life quality as related to changes in parental status among fertile and fertility-problem couples. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population: Montreal 1993, Volume 2. 1993. 165-76 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"The relationships between short-term changes in life quality and couples becoming parents--an important and common change in household structure--are examined. Five aspects of life quality are considered: feelings about life-as-a-whole, general affect, the experience of stress, sense of self-efficacy, and evaluation of the marriage. The analysis is based on data from 516 [U.S.] wives and husbands (who were interviewed separately in a two-year panel design) from two groups of couples: 184 who had experienced a fertility problem and 74 who were presumed fertile."
Correspondence: F. M. Andrews, University of Michigan, School of Public Health, Department of Population Planning and International Health, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20376 Beller, Andrea H.; Graham, John W. Small change: the economics of child support. ISBN 0-300-05362-2. LC 92-39623. 1993. xxiv, 338 pp. Yale University Press: New Haven, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
The authors examine the development of child support payments in the United States over the course of the 1980s. They "discuss what went right and what went wrong with child support payments during this period, investigating the socioeconomic and legal factors that determined child support awards and receipts, documenting why few gains were made in child support overall during the 1980s, and offering policy recommendations for the future." The data are primarily from the U.S. census. They conclude that there were some minor improvements to the system due to changes in the legal and social environment surrounding child support, although the real value of such support has declined sharply. The effectiveness of new, federally mandated child support enforcement efforts are evaluated, and the indirect consequences of child support are assessed.
Correspondence: Yale University Press, 92A Yale Station, New Haven, CT 06520. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20377 Campbell, Eugene K. Family size preferences of men in the western area of Sierra Leone. Method and determinants. Genus, Vol. 49, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1993. 181-99 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita.
"This study seeks to measure the desired family size among men in the Western Area of Sierra Leone and to determine the social and economic factors which influence the desired family size....The data was obtained by a sample survey of the Western Area of Sierra Leone. The survey was done between November 1986 and February 1987, and the target population is ever married men aged 20 years and over....In this study, the multiple question approach is adopted in order to determine the distinction between the desired family size and the ideal family size. It was observed that the desired family size is lower than the ideal family size. The determinants of the desired family size are dominated by the impact of the rapid economic decline the country is experiencing."
Correspondence: E. K. Campbell, University of Botswana, Department of Demography, Private Bag 0022, Gaborone, Botswana. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20378 Castle, Saran E. Intra-household variation of illness management in rural Mali. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population: Montreal 1993, Volume 2. 1993. 151-64 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"This paper will identify intra-household female status differentials, and the mechanisms by which these lead to within household variation in mothers' social, economic, and psychological resources for the care of their children." Data are from a 1990 survey conducted in the Douentza region of Mali.
Correspondence: S. E. Castle, Harvard University, School of Public Health, Center for Population and Development Studies, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20379 Da Silva, Alvaro F. Organization of domestic groups in the hinterlands of Lisbon: a study of different conducts. [Formas de organizacao do grupo domestico no hinterland de Lisboa: um estudo sobre condutas diferenciais.] Boletin de la Asociacion de Demografia Historica, Vol. 11, No. 2, 1993. 9-54 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Por. with sum. in Eng; Fre; Spa.
The author analyzes "methods of domestic organization in a hinterland area in Lisbon, [Portugal, particularly] in Oeiras, between 1730 and 1810. Results show the existence of two systems of domestic group organization: farmers and workers. The [farmers] set up a succession strategy associated with the defence of familiar heritage....Workers consider that their organization strategy is based on both setting up new families and giving up any system of generation succession by which the principal aim is the perpetuation of the familiar heritage....Both systems are the results of different economic and hierarchical positions in the Oeiras society."
Correspondence: A. F. Da Silva, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Praco do Principe Real 26, 1200 Lisbon, Portugal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20380 DaVanzo, Julie; Rahman, M. Omar; Wadhwa, Kul T. American families: policy issues. Population Index, Vol. 59, No. 4, Winter 1993. 547-66 pp. Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
"Increases in the number of children living in single-parent (usually female-headed) households and in the proportion of mothers who work outside their homes have raised concern in the United States about the effects of these trends on the well-being of children and the possible need for policy intervention. This paper discusses the arguments for and against policies that affect families. We review a number of such policies and what research suggests about their likely effects. The policies discussed...include those concerning child support, welfare, income taxes, child and dependent care, family leave, family planning, programs to improve parenting skills and family function, and economic growth."
For a related paper by DaVanzo and Rahman, also published in 1993, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: J. DaVanzo, RAND, 1700 Main Street, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20381 DaVanzo, Julie; Rahman, M. Omar. American families: trends and correlates. Population Index, Vol. 59, No. 3, Fall 1993. 350-86 pp. Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
"This paper reviews demographic trends in marriage, divorce, fertility, and labor force participation that have dramatically affected the structure of families in the United States in the last four decades. We summarize what is known about the determinants of these trends, the interrelations among them, and their consequences for women, men, and children. Increases in divorce and nonmarital childbearing have led to a considerable increase in the number of children living in single-parent (usually female-headed) households. The purported consequences of living in such families (or of having a teenage mother) tend to be overstated if one does not take into account the selectivity of those who become single mothers (or teenage mothers). Another important trend affecting families is the dramatic increase in the proportion of women, at all stages of family formation, who work outside their homes. This has led to some changes in roles within the household and appears to be an important correlate of many...other demographic trends...."
Correspondence: J. DaVanzo, RAND, 1700 Main Street, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20382 DaVanzo, Julie; Chan, Angelique. Living arrangements of older Malaysians: who coresides with their adult children? Demography, Vol. 31, No. 1, Feb 1994. 95-113 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"More than two-thirds of Malaysians age 60 or older coreside with an adult child. Data from the Senior sample of the Second Malaysian Family Life Survey (MFLS-2) are used to investigate which 'seniors' (persons age 60 or older) live in this way. The analysis generally supports the notion that coresidence is influenced by the benefits, costs, opportunities, and preferences for coresidence versus separate living arrangements. For example, married seniors are more likely to coreside with adult children when housing costs are greater in their area or when the husband or wife is in poor health. This finding suggests that married parents and children live together to economize on living costs or to receive help with household services. Unmarried seniors who are better off economically are less likely to live with adult children, presumably because they use their higher incomes to 'purchase privacy.'"
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1991 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: J. DaVanzo, RAND, 1700 Main Street, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20383 Farkas, Janice I.; Hogan, Dennis P. Gender differences in kin contact and reliance. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 1994-01, Jan 1994. 24 pp. Pennsylvania State University: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"In this research we compare intergenerational contact and kin reliance of seven urban industrialized countries using the International Social Survey Program. We also examine gender differences in the parent-child dyad on the likelihood of contact and support."
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6411. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20384 Gueye, Mouhamadou; Pacque-Margolis, Sara; Kanthiebo, Mireille; Konate, Mamadou. Family structure, education, child fostering and children's work in the Kayes and Yelimane circles of Mali: results of "focus groups" Working Paper du CERPOD, No. 10, Jul 1993. 34 pp. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherche sur la Population pour le Developpement [CERPOD]: Bamako, Mali. In Eng.
The authors present results from focus group research conducted in Mali in 1989 on the debate in African families concerning child quantity versus child quality. They suggest that the primary motive affecting decisions about having more children is the need to guarantee support for the heads of families in old age.
Correspondence: Centre d'Etudes et de Recherche sur la Population pour le Developpement, B.P. 1530, Bamako, Mali. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20385 Hall, Ray. Family structures. In: The changing population of Europe, edited by Daniel Noin and Robert Woods. 1993. 100-26 pp. Blackwell: Cambridge, Massachusetts/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This chapter outlines some of the key changes that have been taking place [in Europe] within both households in general and families in particular. After looking briefly at sources of data, the discussion will include the following: first, a look at changes in household size during the last three decades and how these trends have affected the structure of the family; second, a look at the related processes that are involved in the changes, especially changes in marriage and divorce, the growth of cohabitation, the decline of fertility and the changing role of women, specifically the increase of waged work among women; and, third, a brief review of policy issues."
Correspondence: R. Hall, University of London, Queen Mary and Westfield College, Department of Geography and Earth Sciences, 327 Mile End Road, London E1 4NS, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20386 Haskey, John. Lone parents and married parents with dependent children in Great Britain: a comparison of their occupation and social class profiles. Population Trends, No. 72, Summer 1993. 34-44 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This article considers the occupations and social class distributions of both lone mothers and lone fathers [in Great Britain] and compares them with those of their counterparts in married couple families with dependent children. The most important result is that, overall, the distributions by occupation of lone mothers and lone fathers are very similar to those of their married couple counterparts, and also the distributions by social class are fairly close. Closer inspection shows that there are differences when demographic sub-groups are considered; for example, there is a wider divergence between the distributions by occupation of lone mothers and married mothers the larger the number of dependent children they have, and the younger their youngest dependent child."
Correspondence: J. Haskey, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, Population Statistics Division, St. Catherine's House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20387 Hernandez, Donald J.; Myers, David E. America's children: resources from family, government, and the economy. The Population of the United States in the 1980s: A Census Monograph Series, ISBN 0-87154-381-8. LC 92-9368. 1993. xxii, 482 pp. Russell Sage Foundation: New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors use census and survey data for the period 1940-1990 to analyze changes affecting childhood in the United States over the past 50 years. They show "how important revolutions in household composition and income, parental education and employment, child care, and levels of poverty have affected children's well-being....[The study] explores the interaction of many trends in children's lives and the fundamental social, demographic, and economic processes that lie at their core. The book concludes with a thoughtful analysis of the ability of families and government to provide for a new age of children, with emphasis on reducing racial inequities and providing greater public support for families, comparable to the family policies of other developed countries."
Correspondence: Russell Sage Foundation, 112 East 64th Street, New York, NY 10021. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20388 Icduygu, Ahmet. The Turkish immigrant households and families in Melbourne, Australia. Nufusbilim Dergisi/Turkish Journal of Population Studies, Vol. 15, 1993. 3-22 pp. Ankara, Turkey. In Eng. with sum. in Tur.
"The purpose of this paper is to study some basic structures of the Turkish immigrant households and families in Melbourne, Australia. Data for the paper were obtained from a survey of the Turkish population of Melbourne which the author carried out in 1987....An exploratory analysis of household structure of the sampled migrants not only offered a basis to develop a typology of Turkish migrant families but also became the initial step in discussing some aspects of the parents' concern for their children in Australia. Thus it was possible to address the cultural aspects of some changes emerging in intrafamilial relationships."
Correspondence: A. Icduygu, Bilkent University, Department of Political Science and Public Administration, 06533 Bilkent, Ankara, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20389 Kertzer, David I. The social and economic consequences of household structure. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population: Montreal 1993, Volume 2. 1993. 145-9 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The author reviews papers presented at a conference session concerned with "the impact that variations in household composition have on demographic and other behaviour."
Correspondence: D. I. Kertzer, Brown University, Department of Anthropology, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20390 Lavertu, Jacques. Geographical analysis of household family structures. [Analyse spatiale de la structure familiale des menages.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 2, 1993. 255-61 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Changes in family and household structure and type by region for France are analyzed for the period 1982-1990. It is noted that "the geographic pattern of family structures in France is altering very slowly. The nuclear family is still dominant...within the northern part of the country, whereas complex households hold their position in the South-West. Nevertheless, for several family types, the discrepancies get narrower during the last intercensal period. This is particularly the case of complex households."
Correspondence: J. Lavertu, Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, 18 boulevard Adolphe Pinard, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20391 Louvot, Claudie. The number of households will increase at a declining rate. A projection toward the year 2020. [Le nombre de menages augmentera de moins en moins vite. Une projection a l'horizon 2020.] Economie et Statistique, No. 267, 1993. 31-47, 75, 77, 79 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Ger; Spa.
New household projections for France are presented that show that the number of households should increase by about one-quarter to 27 million by the year 2020. Changes in household characteristics over time are analyzed. The author notes that the growth in the number of households will decline considerably with time.
Correspondence: C. Louvot, Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, 18 boulevard Adolphe Pinard, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20392 Marr, William L.; McCready, Douglas. Aging of the population and spending patterns in Canada 1984 and 1986. Genus, Vol. 49, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1993. 97-119 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita.
"From the data contained in the 1984 and 1986 Surveys of Family Expenditures, which were carried out by Statistics Canada...this paper examines the consumption patterns of those households where the head is under 60, those 60-74, and those 75 and over. The first examination is of disaggregated expenditure patterns. Compared with household heads under the age of 60, those between 60 and 75 spend proportionately more on food and shelter, and smaller proportions on clothing, household operations, household furnishings, and recreation. These differences are accentuated when the household head is older than 75. The analysis is also done controlling for such variables as education, region, marital status, sex of household head, place of birth, and language."
Correspondence: W. L. Marr, Wilfrid Laurier University, Department of Economics, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3C5, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20393 Murphy, Michael; Berrington, Ann. Household change in the 1980s: a review. Population Trends, No. 73, Autumn 1993. 18-26 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Changes in the household and family living arrangements of different age-groups and of men and women [in Great Britain] are examined using data from the 1981 and 1991 Labour Force Surveys. The key emerging trends are identified. Among these are increases in lone parenthood and in living alone, although there were also increases in the proportions of young adults living with their parents. However, the most substantial changes were found among elderly people, especially those aged 80 and over who were much more likely to be living independently than in 1981."
Correspondence: M. Murphy, London School of Economics and Political Science, Department of Population Studies, Houghton Street, Aldwych, London WC2A 2AE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20394 Ni Bhrolchain, Maire. Women's and men's life strategies in developed societies. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population: Montreal 1993, Volume 2. 1993. 179-90 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The author briefly reviews selected aspects of the life strategies of women and men in developed societies, with particular reference to their demographic aspects.
Correspondence: M. Ni Bhrolchain, University of Southampton, Department of Social Statistics, Southampton S09 5NH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20395 Omideyi, Adekunbi K. The emergence of the nuclear family: its effect on women's roles and fertility change in Nigeria. Genus, Vol. 49, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1993. 201-16 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita.
"Basing the emergence of the smaller family unit on the concept of the survival of the family within a household income constraint the paper uses data on 2,176 married Yoruba women [in Nigeria] to examine the effect of family nuclearization on fertility. Using dummy variable regression analysis, the effect of three nuclearization variables--household income, husband's education and wife's education--were examined to find differential effects on fertility in urban and rural areas....Findings revealed that...the proportion of variance in fertility explained by the nuclearization variables in rural areas was greater than that in urban areas after controlling for the effects of age and birth interval. Employment of women on [a] full-time basis was also influential in reducing fertility in both urban and rural areas."
Correspondence: A. K. Omideyi, Obafemi Awolowo University, Department of Demography and Social Statistics, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20396 Ravanera, Zenaida R.; Rajulton, Fernando; Burch, Thomas K. From home-leaving to nest-emptying. A cohort analysis of life courses of Canadian men and women, 1910-1970. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population: Montreal 1993, Volume 2. 1993. 207-18 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"This paper provides a glimpse of the life courses of cohorts of Canadian men and women by presenting indicators of timing of transitions into various family life cycle stages (also referred to here as states), the duration of stay in those stages, and the typical sequence of transitions made by members of the cohorts. This picture is drawn with data gathered by the 1990 General Social Survey on Family and Friends and the use of techniques of event history analysis."
Correspondence: Z. R. Ravanera, University of Western Ontario, Department of Sociology, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20397 Richter, Kerry; Podhisita, Chai. Thai family demography: a review and research prospects. Journal of Population and Social Studies, Vol. 3, No. 1-2, Jul-Jan 1991-1992. 1-19, 151 pp. Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. In Eng. with sum. in Tha.
"This paper attempts to give an overview of demographic knowledge on the Thai family and to suggest directions for future research." Aspects considered include marriage, marital disruption, household size and structure, headship, flexibility of Thai family structure, the family life cycle and inheritance patterns, and the impact of social change.
Correspondence: K. Richter, Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research, Phutthamonthon, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20398 Ruggles, Steven. The origins of African-American family structure. American Sociological Review, Vol. 59, No. 1, Feb 1994. 136-51 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"I use a new data source, the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series, to trace race differences in [U.S.] family structure between 1880 and 1980. Analysis confirms recent findings that the high incidence among African-Americans of single parenthood and children residing without their parents is not a recent phenomenon. From 1880 through 1960, black children were two to three times more likely to reside without one or both parents than were white children. In recent years, however, the race differential in parental absence has grown. Also, blacks have had a consistently higher percentage of extended households than have whites, but until 1940 this was the result of single parenthood and parentlessness among children: Extended households were more common among whites once the effects of absent parents were controlled."
Correspondence: S. Ruggles, University of Minnesota, Department of History, 267 19th Avenue South, Minneapolis, MN 55455. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20399 Smith, Daniel S. American family and demographic patterns and the northwest European model. Continuity and Change, Vol. 8, No. 3, Dec 1993. 389-415 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"This essay examines the northwest European family model or household formation system to explore the relationship between general theoretical constructs and particular historical circumstances....In this essay, I...compare the record of a society--colonial British North America and the United States through the end of the nineteenth century--whose origins were northwest European, to the elements of the model. The first section of the essay defines the northwest European household formation system as a pattern of behaviour, considers its important role in ideal-typical comparisons, and notes the extent to which it has become a perspective held by scholars in Cambridge (England). Reviewing the American evidence, the second part notes the similarity and the departures of that case from the northwest European model. In the third segment, I show how the American departures from the descriptive predictions of the model were not anomalies; they can be substantially accounted for by its economic component. The fourth section examines two issues generated by the contrast of the American record to the model."
Correspondence: D. S. Smith, University of Illinois, Department of History, Chicago, IL 60680. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20400 Tuiran, Rodolfo. Family life: households and family structure in Mexico, 1976-1987. [Vivir en familia: hogares y estructura familiar en Mexico, 1976-1987.] Comercio Exterior, Vol. 43, No. 7, Jul 1993. 662-76 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
The author reviews literature on family life, households, and family structure in Mexico, with a focus on the period 1976-1987. Consideration is given to the nuclear family, household size and structure, characteristics of household heads, and consensual and other nontraditional forms of union.
Correspondence: R. Tuiran, El Colegio de Mexico, Centro de Estudios Demograficos y de Desarrollo Urbano, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

60:20401 Zeng, Yi; Coale, Ansley; Choe, Minja Kim; Liang, Zhiwu; Liu, Li. Leaving parental home: census-based estimates for China, Japan, South Korea, United States, France and Sweden. Economic Growth Center Discussion Paper, No. 673, Jul 1992. 43 pp. Yale University, Economic Growth Center: New Haven, Connecticut. In Eng.
"Using the interactive, intracohort, interpolation procedure [the authors present]...an international comparison of estimated census-based, single-year, age-specific net rates of leaving home for males and females in China, Japan, South Korea, United States, Sweden, and France." The results indicate significant differences between East Asia and Western cultures, with the age of leaving the parental home higher in East Asia by two to three years.
Correspondence: Yale University, Economic Growth Center, Box 1987, Yale Station, 27 Hillhouse Avenue, New Haven, CT 06520. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

60:20402 Zeng, Yi; Coale, Ansley; Choe, Minja Kim; Liang, Zhiwu; Liu, Li. Leaving the parental home: census-based estimates for China, Japan, South Korea, United States, France, and Sweden. Population Studies, Vol. 48, No. 1, Mar 1994. 65-80 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Using the iterative intra-cohort interpolation procedure, this article tries to remedy the lack of data on home-leaving by providing an international comparison of estimated census-based single-year age-specific net rates of leaving home for males and females in China, Japan, South Korea, United States, France, and Sweden. It demonstrates...large differences in the age pattern of leaving the parental home between the East Asian and the Western countries. For example, the median ages at home-leaving of males and females in the three East Asian countries studied were higher than those in the three Western countries studied by a margin of 2-3 years. The role played by social and cultural traditions as well as by ethnic ideologies in the large differences in the home-leaving pattern between the East Asian and Western countries is also considered."
Correspondence: Y. Zeng, Peking University, Institute of Population Research, Beijing 100871, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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