Volume 60 - Number 2 - Summer 1994

F. Fertility

Studies that treat quantitative fertility data analytically. References to crude data are coded under S. Official Statistical Publications . Methodological studies specifically concerned with fertility are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary.

F.1. General Fertility

Analytical studies of quantitative birth data and reproduction rates and studies of fertility and its concomitants. Studies of age at marriage, divorce, and factors influencing family size are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

60:20197 Abu-Gamrah, Hamed. Fertility level and birth distribution by order. Population Bulletin of ESCWA, No. 40, 1992. 93-105 pp. Amman, Jordan. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the study of the relation between birth-order distribution and level of fertility, and to show that birth-order distribution is expressive of reproduction behaviour." Data from Egypt are used as an example of the use of the proportion of first and second births in fertility analysis. The author concludes that these are useful indicators of fertility trends and differentials in populations practicing family planning.
Correspondence: H. Abu-Gamrah, United Nations Development Programme, Kuwait. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20198 Ahn, Namkee; Shariff, Abusaleh. A comparative study of fertility determinants in Togo and Uganda: a hazards model analysis. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population: Montreal 1993, Volume 2. 1993. 319-33 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"This paper presents a comparative study of the human fertility between Togo and Uganda using recent DHS data. Hazards models are used to estimate progression rates to the first and to subsequent births. The primary aim of this analysis is to find out the effect of socioeconomic and demographic factors on fertility and how their effects differ between the countries."
Correspondence: N. Ahn, Yale University, Economic Growth Center, Box 1987, Yale Station, 27 Hillhouse Avenue, New Haven, CT 06520. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20199 Ahn, Namkee. Measuring the value of children by sex and age using a life cycle model of fertility. Economic Growth Center Discussion Paper, No. 648, Nov 1991. 34 pp. Yale University, Economic Growth Center: New Haven, Connecticut. In Eng.
"This paper estimates gender and age specific value of children using a dynamic programming model. The underlying hypothesis is that the observed fertility outcomes for any couple are the solutions to their life cycle optimization problem." The model is tested using a two percent sample from the 1980 census of South Korea.
Correspondence: Yale University, Economic Growth Center, Box 1987, Yale Station, 27 Hillhouse Avenue, New Haven, CT 06520. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20200 Amin, Ruhul; Chowdhury, Jamir; Ahmed, Ashraf U.; Hill, Robert B.; Kabir, M. Reproductive change in Bangladesh: evidence from recent data. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 8, No. 4, Dec 1993. 39-58 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"Based on the adverse social and economic circumstances that exist in Bangladesh, which is among the least developed of the third world countries, most observers have predicted a continuation of high fertility norms. However, there has been a recent increase in contraceptive use and reduced fertility. This article examines trends and differentials in fertility, contraceptive use and fertility preferences in order to offer an explanation for this rapid adoption of fertility regulating behaviour. It concludes by bringing out the implications for policy purposes."
Correspondence: R. Amin, Morgan State University, Institute for Urban Research, Hillen Road and Coldspring Lane, Baltimore, MD 21239-9972. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20201 Back, Kurt W. Long-term factors in the psychology of fertility. Advances in Population: Psychosocial Perspectives, Vol. 1, 1993. 35-56 pp. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania/London, England. In Eng.
The author explores psychological aspects of fertility. "First, we shall discuss the relative neglect of the linkages between individual and social concerns and suggest the importance of long-range motivations, whose influence may not be immediately apparent in decision making....We shall then describe the current social and technical changes which give an opportunity to identify some of these background conditions, and consequently analyze these conditions, which can form the basis for maintaining the fertility level. These conditions, particularly social identity and consciousness of one's mortality, will then be discussed and connected with psychological and sociological conditions. Finally, the theoretical insights will be shown in the relation to research and practical applications."
Correspondence: K. W. Back, Duke University, Department of Sociology, Durham, NC 27706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20202 Badarsah, Riza. Work experience and fertility patterns: a study from the 1987 Indonesia National Contraceptive Prevalence Survey. Center for the Study of Population Working Paper, No. WPS 94-115, Dec 1993. 31, [2] pp. Florida State University, College of Social Sciences, Center for the Study of Population: Tallahassee, Florida. In Eng.
The relationship between female employment and fertility in Indonesia is explored using data from the 1987 Indonesia National Contraceptive Prevalence Survey. The author draws three main conclusions from the study. "First, there is a negative impact of work experience on fertility. Second, the impact of work experience is greater in urban than in rural areas. Third, the impact of work experience is greatest within the high school educational group."
Correspondence: Monica Boyd, Editor, Working Paper Series, Florida State University, Center for the Study of Population, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4063. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20203 Balk, Deborah. Individual and community aspects of women's status and fertility in rural Bangladesh. Population Studies, Vol. 48, No. 1, Mar 1994. 21-45 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines the relationship between women's status and fertility in two regions of rural Bangladesh. Based on individual and household-level survey data, women's status is measured through four constructs....Variation between villages accounts for the largest share of explainable variance....The paper shows that women's status is an important determinant of fertility; of the variance in total children ever born that can be explained by factors other than age, nearly 30 per cent is due to direct measures of women's status; this is as much as can be explained by all other socio-economic variables combined....Measurement of women's status that does not account for the bias that women's status and fertility are simultaneously determined in patriarchal societies will misstate the direction, and underestimate the effects, of status on fertility."
Correspondence: D. Balk, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48104-2590. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20204 Bongaarts, John. The impact of the proximate determinants of fertility: a comment on Reinis. Population Studies, Vol. 48, No. 1, Mar 1994. 159-62 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The author critically examines an article by Kia I. Reinis, in which she evaluated Bongaarts's and Hobcraft and Little's methods for estimating the impact of the proximate determinants of fertility. A reply by Reinis is included (pp. 161-2).
For the article by Reinis, published in 1992, see 58:30239.
Correspondence: J. Bongaarts, Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20205 Brouillette, Liliane; Felteau, Claude; Lefebvre, Pierre. The effects of financial factors on fertility behavior in Quebec. [Les effets de la fiscalite sur les comportements de fecondite au Quebec.] Canadian Public Policy/Analyse de Politiques, Vol. 19, No. 3, Sep 1993. 260-78 pp. Guelph, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"We use a nested polychotomous discrete choice model to evaluate the responsiveness of the behaviour of women in Quebec to changes in the expected flow of revenue resulting from modifications to the fiscal and transfer (family allowances) policies towards families with dependent children....The model is estimated with micro-data for the years 1984 to 1987 with a full information maximum likelihood method....This empirical setting is used to simulate the effects of changes made to the fiscal and transfer policies in favour of families with dependent children on fertility, labour force participation of women and spending costs for the State (governments). The estimated results and the simulations support the idea that personal taxes and family allowances that aim specifically at promoting natality could be potentially efficient."
Correspondence: L. Brouillette, Universite du Quebec, Centre de Recherche sur les Politiques Economiques, C.P. 8888, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3P8, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

60:20206 Butt, Mohammed S.; Jamal, Haroon. Determinants of marital fertility in Pakistan: an application of the "synthesis framework" Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 32, No. 2, Summer 1993. 199-220 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
"The present study, in the context of Pakistan, is based on intensive National Population, Labour Force, and Migration Survey data covering 10,000 households [and focuses]...on the determinants of fertility in Pakistan, specifically the determinants of the adoption of deliberate fertility regulation. The role of socio-economic modernisation and cultural factors in the determination of the potential family size and the adoption of deliberate fertility control through a knowledge of fertility regulation have also been explored. The 'Synthesis Framework' of fertility determination, applied to Sri Lanka and Colombia by Easterlin and Crimmins (1982), and with its recent modifications by Ahmed (1987), is the main vehicle for the study."
Correspondence: M. S. Butt, University of Karachi, Applied Economics Research Centre, Karachi 32, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20207 Calot, Gerard. A decline in the French demographic situation in the context of a Europe also in demographic decline. [Degradation de la situation demographique francaise dans une Europe demographiquement depressive.] Population et Avenir, No. 616, Jan-Feb 1994. 11-3 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The author analyzes the decline in French fertility which has occurred over the past two years using data from official sources. Some comparisons are made with fertility trends in other European countries.
Correspondence: G. Calot, Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, 18 boulevard Adolphe Pinard, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20208 Cooper, Jacqui; Botting, Beverly. Analysing fertility and infant mortality by mother's social class as defined by occupation. Population Trends, No. 70, Winter 1992. 15-21 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Women's social class has traditionally been defined as that of their male partner. Thus statistics on births and infant mortality have so far been presented according to the father's social class as defined by occupation. This article looks at the problems associated with analysing fertility and infant mortality by mother's social class as defined by her own occupation." The geographical focus is on England and Wales.
Correspondence: J. Cooper, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, Population Statistics Division, St. Catherine's House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20209 Cooper, Jacqui; Jones, Clare. Estimates of the numbers of first, second, third, and higher order births. Population Trends, No. 70, Winter 1992. 8-14 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This article gives details of estimates for all births in England and Wales by true birth order using information derived from the General Household Survey. The tendency to defer childbearing has led to an increase in the proportion of women in their late twenties who are childless, rising first birth rates for women in their thirties, and a rise in the mean age at first birth by nearly a year between 1980 and 1990."
Correspondence: J. Cooper, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, Population Statistics Division, St. Catherine's House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20210 Crognier, Emile; Bernis, Cristina; Elizondo, Silvia; Varea, Carlos. The pattern of reproductive life in a Berber population of Morocco. Social Biology, Vol. 40, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1993. 191-206 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"Reproductive patterns were studied from data collected in 1,450 Berber households in the province of Marrakesh, Morocco in 1984. Women aged 45-49 years had a mean of 8.9 pregnancies to achieve 5.7 living children. Social influences on fertility rates show the importance of tradition, particularly through time-dependent variables such as age at marriage, waiting time to first birth, interbirth intervals, and duration of breastfeeding. Birth control does not appear to affect the tempo of fertility; rather, its main use is to bring the reproductive period to a close. The comparison of two subsamples of women separated by a 25-year interval indicates an actual acceleration of the tempo of fertility by the reduction of waiting time to first birth and of interbirth intervals. The supposed ongoing process of demographic transition is not clearly observed in this population."
Correspondence: E. Crognier, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Equipe de Recherche 221 Dynamique Bioculturelle, 13100 Aix-en-Provence, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20211 Dean, Nicola R. A community study of child spacing, fertility and contraception in West Pokot District, Kenya. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 38, No. 11, Jun 1994. 1,575-84 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Kenya is well known for its high fertility rate and West Pokot District has the highest population growth rate in Kenya. This study was designed to examine the community's perceptions of fertility dynamics. It looks at traditional methods of family planning and the recent changes in child spacing, fertility and contraception and the attitudes behind them. This study also examines what the community (particularly women), want in the way of family planning services. The study used randomly selected groups throughout the district and employed a quasi-anthropological group discussion method."
Correspondence: N. R. Dean, 2 Norfolk Place, Chapel Allerton, Leeds LS7 4PT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

60:20212 Dinkel, Reiner H.; Milenovic, Ina. Male and female fertility: a comparison of age-specific and cohort fertility of both sexes in Germany. Genus, Vol. 49, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1993. 147-58 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita.
"Using data gained from survey research a comparison of male and female fertility for German birth cohorts born in this century is undertaken. Age-specific fertility data show that the formerly high male fertility above age 40 rapidly declined for later born cohorts and approaches the low female values. Completed male and female fertility...was not identical for most cohorts....Due to favourable conditions on the 'marriage market' (reduced numbers of male partners as a consequence of wars) all male cohorts from 1902 to 1930 have more children than their female partners. For later born cohorts the outcome reversed, since 'marriage market' conditions are now much more favourable for females."
Correspondence: R. H. Dinkel, Universitat Bamberg, Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Feldkirchenstrasse 21, 8600 Bamberg, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20213 Donaldson, Loraine. Fertility patterns of the transition onset: insights of the living standard model. Journal of Economic Development, Vol. 16, No. 2, Dec 1991. 129-44 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
"The interrelationship between average growth rates and lifestyle norms as they affect aggregate fertility is...examined with the help of a simple multi-period model. The analysis assumes all other basic variables affecting fertility are unchanged. And the form of birth control is left open." The author finds that "the living standard concept as modeled here shows the complexity of the relationship and can explain pre-transition swings, rises in fertility at onset and continuous declines after onset. While the model probes a fundamental idea from fertility literature, it is not designed to be a complete theory of fertility...." The geographical focus is on countries undergoing a demographic transition between 1960 and 1988.
Correspondence: L. Donaldson, Georgia State University, University Plaza, Atlanta, GA 30303. Location: Syracuse University, Bird Library, Syracuse, NY.

60:20214 Duggan, Lynn S. Production and reproduction: family policy and gender inequality in East and West Germany. Pub. Order No. DA9329599. 1993. 240 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The impact of family policy on the economic position of women in East and West Germany in 1989-1990 is analyzed. Data from the German Socio-Economic Panel are used to model the costs of child-rearing and their impact on fertility. The study was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Massachusetts.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 54(6).

60:20215 Duraisamy, Malathy. Women's choice of work and fertility in urban Tamil Nadu, India. Economic Growth Center Discussion Paper, No. 695, Jun 1993. 28 pp. Yale University, Economic Growth Center: New Haven, Connecticut. In Eng.
"This paper examines the joint determinants of women's choice of work and fertility within the Nash-bargaining framework using household survey data from urban Tamil Nadu, India....The results suggest that an increase in women's wage would draw more women into wage work and self employment and concomitantly reduce fertility."
Correspondence: Yale University, Economic Growth Center, Box 1987, Yale Station, 27 Hillhouse Avenue, New Haven, CT 06520. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20216 Easterlin, Richard A. Should economists be dependent on official fertility projections? Challenge, Vol. 35, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1992. 51-3 pp. Armonk, New York. In Eng.
The author critically examines fertility projections made during the twentieth century. The focus is on how inaccuracies in these predictions have affected policy and development strategies in developed countries. He examines fertility trends in 11 such countries, and finds that, contrary to current projections of declining fertility, "both labor demand and labor supply conditions are likely to be more favorable for young adults in the coming decade, and the resulting improvement in relative affluence of young adults should have a positive impact on childbearing." Particular attention is given to the United States.
Correspondence: R. A. Easterlin, University of Southern California, Department of Economics, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0035. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

60:20217 Feng, Litian. Changes in China's fertility rate in the 1980s and an analysis of the related social and economic factors. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 5, No. 1, 1993. 31-42 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Based primarily on the sample survey on the fertility and contraception among [2 per 1,000] of the Chinese population, this article analyzes the social and economic factors involved in the changes in China's fertility rate in the 1980s. The subject of the analysis is total fertility rate (TFR). The survey was conducted in the middle of 1988, based on the data obtained by the end of 1987." The impact of changes in age at marriage, age at first birth, and the incidence of multiple births is considered.
Correspondence: L. Feng, Beijing Institute of Economics, Center of Population Economics, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20218 Galloway, Patrick R.; Hammel, Eugene A.; Lee, Ronald D. Fertility decline in Prussia, 1875-1910: a pooled cross-section time series analysis. Population Studies, Vol. 48, No. 1, Mar 1994. 135-58 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Marital fertility level and decline are examined in 407 small areas in Prussia using quinquennial data for the period 1875 to 1910 from an unusually rich and detailed data set, and pooled cross-section time-series methods. Religion, ethnicity, and prevalence of mineworkers are the only statistically significant factors associated with marital fertility level. However, none of these are important predictors of marital fertility decline. Marital fertility decline in nineteenth-century Prussia is better predicted by increased women's labour force participation in non-traditional occupations, the growth of financial institutions, the development of a transport-communications infrastructure, reduction in infant mortality and improvements in education."
Correspondence: P. R. Galloway, University of California, Department of Demography, 2232 Piedmont Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20219 Gertler, Paul J.; Molyneaux, John W. How economic development and family planning programs combined to reduce Indonesian fertility. Demography, Vol. 31, No. 1, Feb 1994. 33-63 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper examines the contributions of family planning programs, economic development, and women's status to Indonesian fertility decline from 1982 to 1987. Methodologically we unify seemingly conflicting demographic and economic frameworks into a single 'structural' proximate-cause model as well as controlling statistically for the targeted (nonrandom) placement of family planning program inputs. The results are consistent with both frameworks: 75% of the fertility decline resulted from increased contraceptive use, but was induced primarily through economic development and improved education and economic opportunities for females. Even so, the dramatic impact of the changes in demand-side factors (education and economic development) on contraceptive use was possible only because there already existed a highly responsive contraceptive supply delivery system."
Correspondence: P. J. Gertler, RAND, Family in Economic Development Center, 1700 Main Street, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20220 Guinnane, Timothy W.; Okun, Barbara S.; Trussell, James. What do we know about the timing of fertility transitions in Europe? Demography, Vol. 31, No. 1, Feb 1994. 1-20 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The Princeton project on the decline of fertility in Europe (the European Fertility Project) suggested that this historical fertility transition occurred virtually simultaneously in a wide variety of economic and social environments. This finding has been cited widely as evidence for an innovation/diffusion view of fertility transitions. We demonstrate that the demographic methods used to date the fertility transition in Europe...may fail to detect the initial stages of a fertility transition and therefore cannot be used as the basis for strong statements about the timing of transitions. We review these measurement problems and their implications for the current understanding of the European fertility transition."
Correspondence: T. W. Guinnane, Yale University, Department of Economics, New Haven, CT 06520-8269. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20221 Horne, Amelia D. Fertility-inhibiting indices in the Arab world. Population Bulletin of ESCWA, No. 40, 1992. 5-35 pp. Amman, Jordan. In Eng.
"An indirect method of estimating Bongaarts' (fertility-inhibiting) indices, using a regression relation discovered by El-Korazaty (1988), was applied to 16 Arab countries, many of which do not have survey data available for computing the indices directly....Results suggest that for the Arab region as a whole, proportion...married is by far the most important intermediate fertility variable (IFV) affecting fertility levels." Other factors considered include contraceptive use, region, rural or urban residence, and nationality.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20222 Inaba, Hisashi. A mathematical model for human population reproduction by iterative marriage. Institute of Population Problems Working Paper Series, No. 18, Oct 1993. 13 pp. Institute of Population Problems: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
The author develops a one-sex dynamic model of human reproduction in which it is assumed that women can repeat marriage and divorce but that only married women can produce children. The model is used to examine the effects of nuptiality on fertility.
Correspondence: Institute of Population Problems, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-45, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20223 Jaffe, Klaus; Urribarri, Debora; Chacon, Grace C.; Diaz, Gerardo; Torres, Alfredo; Herzog, Gabriele. Sex-linked strategies of human reproductive behavior. Social Biology, Vol. 40, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1993. 61-73 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"We present data on fertility characteristics in the Venezuelan population for each sex separately, allowing a detailed comparative analysis of the variance in fertility between males and females. We show that the fertility distribution for both sexes is discontinuous, that the average female has a larger number of offspring per individual than the average male, and that highly fertile males outnumber highly fertile females so that the total number of offspring produced by males and females is balanced. Results indicate that a few males are responsible for a relative higher fertility of the average female and that interactions between polyandric females with monogamic and polygynic males are common. Among the Yanomami, a relatively unacculturated hunter-gatherer-horticulturist tribe, similar differences in fertility distribution of both sexes are apparent. The data suggest that human populations contain statistically distinct subpopulations, with different reproductive strategies, suggesting the existence of complex interactions among human populations which are not evident from the study of individuals or groups."
Correspondence: K. Jaffe, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Departamento de Biologia de Organismos, Apartado 89000, Caracas 1080, Venezuela. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20224 Koenig, Michael A.; Foo, Gillian H. C. Patriarchy, women's status, and reproductive behaviour in rural north India. Demography India, Vol. 21, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1992. 145-66 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"In this paper, we attempt to provide a...detailed understanding of how patriarchy contributes to the persistence of high fertility in a region where traditional gender relations remain relatively intact, namely rural South Asia. In terms of understanding how patriarchy independently contributes to higher fertility, we identify as the key aspect its fostering a system of stratification on the basis of sex which places severe constraints upon the activities and roles of women....We begin with a discussion of the main characteristics of patriarchal societies in South Asia and their implications for women's status. We subsequently outline a conceptual framework which describes the linkages between patriarchy and high fertility. These hypotheses are then examined in light of empirical evidence from other studies as well as our own data from rural North India."
Correspondence: M. A. Koenig, Ford Foundation, 55 Lodi Estate, New Delhi 100 003, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20225 Kutty, V. Raman; Thankappan, K. R.; Kannan, K. P.; Aravindan, K. P. How socioeconomic status affects birth and death rates in rural Kerala, India: results of a health study. International Journal of Health Services, Vol. 23, No. 2, 1993. 373-86 pp. Amityville, New York. In Eng.
Results from a 1987 health survey carried out in the state of Kerala, India, involving 9,940 households and 57,665 individuals are presented. "In order to study the effect of socioeconomic factors on birth and death rates, a socioeconomic status rating (SES rating) was developed, taking into account such factors as income, education, housing conditions, and land ownership. Socioeconomic status was found to have a definite influence on birth and death rates, with higher socioeconomic status resulting in lower birth and death rates. This effect was independent of such confounding variables as age structure of the population, religion, and region. The higher risk of mortality among the poorer households can partly be explained by the material deprivation: the higher birth rates could be the result of poorer educational attainment."
Correspondence: V. R. Kutty, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram 695 011, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20226 Liu, Zheng; Li, Jianbao. Characteristics and priorities of China's population control from an international perspective. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 5, No. 2, 1993. 107-18 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors analyze China's fertility rate and population control priorities in an international context. "A comparison in the international context not only can deepen the understanding of fertility transition in general and the impact of social, economic and cultural factors thereupon so that conditions can be developed to further such transition, but also provide insight into the peculiarities and complexities of fertility transition in China. These will help further lower the fertility rate in China under the country's [particular] circumstances."
Correspondence: Z. Liu, Chinese People's University, Institute of Population Research, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20227 Maglad, Nour E. A. Socioeconomic determinants of fertility and child mortality in Sudan. Economic Growth Center Discussion Paper, No. 686, Jan 1993. 34 pp. Yale University, Economic Growth Center: New Haven, Connecticut. In Eng.
"This paper uses household data from Sudan to examine the determinants of fertility in the context of the microeconomic model of household production, the factors which affect child mortality and the interaction between child mortality and fertility." The importance of mother's education and public health services in reducing levels of both fertility and child mortality is stressed.
Correspondence: Yale University, Economic Growth Center, Box 1987, Yale Station, 27 Hillhouse Avenue, New Haven, CT 06520. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

60:20228 Malawi. National Statistical Office (Zomba, Malawi); Macro International. Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS] (Calverton, Maryland). Malawi Demographic and Health Survey, 1992. Jan 1994. xx, 221 pp. Zomba, Malawi. In Eng.
This is the final report from the 1992 Demographic and Health Survey of Malawi, which "was a nationally representative sample survey designed to provide information on levels and trends in fertility, early childhood mortality and morbidity, family planning knowledge and use, and maternal and child health....In 5,323 households, 4,849 women age 15-49 years and 1,151 men age 20-54 years were interviewed." Chapters are included on fertility, fertility regulation, proximate determinants of fertility, fertility preferences, childhood mortality, maternal and child health, maternal and child nutrition, knowledge of AIDS, maternal mortality, and availability of health services.
Correspondence: Lisa Longeiret, Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Suite 300, Calverton, MD 20705. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20229 Mason, Andrew. Demographic change, household resources, and schooling decisions. East-West Center Reprints: Population Series, No. 291, 1992. [24] pp. East-West Center, Program on Population [POP]: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
The author first examines "the relationship between family size and the household's limited resources, both the time of the household members and the household's financial resources....The link between human resources and the number of children is more directly examined by presenting evidence regarding expenditures on education by the household and school enrolment by household members....The empirical findings reported here draw primarily on studies of South Korea...and Thailand...."
This paper is reprinted from Human Resources in Development along the Asia-Pacific Rim, edited by Naohiro Ogawa, Gavin Jones, and Jeffrey G. Williamson, pp. 259-82, Oxford, England, Oxford University Press, 1992.
Correspondence: East-West Center, Program on Population, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20230 Mason, Andrew. The response of fertility and mortality to economic crisis and structural adjustment policy during the 1980s: a review. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population: Montreal 1993, Volume 2. 1993. 411-29 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to review the demographic experience of the 1980s and to assess the impact of economic crisis and structural adjustment on fertility and mortality....There are two principal concerns. The first is that structural adjustment policies have had adverse and unanticipated effects on mortality or fertility undermining important social objectives of development. A second possibility is that mortality has increased or fertility decline has slowed because of economic problems which are unrelated to structural adjustment policies." The geographical focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: A. Mason, East-West Center, Program on Population, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20231 Matsuda, Shinya; Kahyo, Hiroaki. Geographical differences and time trends in the seasonality of birth in Japan. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 23, No. 1, Feb 1994. 107-18 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Seasonal variations of births in six different prefectures in Japan are analysed using Vital Statistics from 1974 to 1983....[The] findings suggest that seasonal variations in marriage play some role in the seasonality of first births, while other features such as environmental factors could be associated with the seasonal variations of subsequent births. Changes in the seasonality of both births and marriages over time suggest that the modernization of Japanese society after the second World War could be responsible for the drastic changes in the pattern and degree of seasonality of births."
Correspondence: S. Matsuda, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Japan, School of Medicine, Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, Yahatanishi-ku, Kitakyushu 807, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20232 Morocco. Direction de la Statistique. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques [CERED] (Rabat, Morocco). Fertility, infertility, and new demographic trends in Morocco. [Fecondite, infecondite et nouvelles tendances demographiques au Maroc.] Etudes Demographiques, 1993. 274 pp. Rabat, Morocco. In Fre.
An analysis of trends in fertility in Morocco is presented, which includes analysis of infertility and of contraceptive practice. Data are primarily from three national surveys which were carried out in 1979-1980, 1983-1984, and 1987. The first chapter examines the effect of contraceptive usage on fertility. The second chapter analyzes trends in infertility. The third chapter examines the relationship between fertility and the family's standard of living. A final chapter looks at long-term population projections.
Correspondence: Direction de la Statistique, Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques, B.P. 178, Rue Mohamed Belhassan, El Ouazzani-Haut Agdal, Rabat, Morocco. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20233 Niraula, Bhanu B. The socioeconomic context of high fertility in rural Nepal: the case of Benighat. Pub. Order No. DA9332742. 1992. 349 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
Data from the central hill region of Nepal are used to try and identify evidence of the beginning of a trend away from traditional high levels of fertility. The study was undertaken as a doctoral dissertation at the Australian National University in Canberra.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 54(6).

60:20234 Ocholla Ayayo, A. B. C. The spirit of a nation. An analysis of policy, ethics and customary rules of conduct for regulating fertility levels in Kenya. ISBN 9966-9842-8-3. 1991. vi, 210 pp. Shirikon Publishers: Nairobi, Kenya. In Eng.
This is a study of factors affecting fertility in Kenya. "In Part I, which is devoted to ethics, customs and the family, the author gives detailed consideration to such complex issues as: education values; health values; shelter and human values; family planning; the individual in the social context; customs and social changes; the role of government; the law and fertility control; witchcraft and social beliefs; ritual and sanction. Part II is devoted to fertility levels and trends, and deals with such matters as: differentials by education; by residential locality; by marital status; by ethnicity; by religion. This Part also considers the intriguing issues of polygyny and study in family planning....In Part III, [the author] considers the subject of 'Cultural Codes and Population Change', addressing such matters as the socio-cultural impetus of change; selection of intermediate fertility variables; law and tradition; social-cultural environment and family planning; [and] socio-cultural environment of household activities."
Correspondence: Shirikon Publishers, P.O. Box 46154, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20235 Ofori-Sarpong, E. Some aspects of Kenya's demographic trends. Transactions of the Institute of Indian Geographers, Vol. 13, No. 2, 1991. 129-39 pp. Pune, India. In Eng.
The author examines fertility and mortality trends in Kenya since 1948. Among the findings it is noted that "the total fertility ratio for Kenya rose from 6.7 in 1948 to 8.1 in 1989. The population growth rate according to the 1989 census was 4.2 per cent, the highest in the world. There has been a decline in mortality. [The] crude death rate declined from 25 per thousand in 1948 to 12 per thousand in 1989. There has also been a sharp decline in infant mortality from 184 per thousand in 1948 to 72 per thousand by 1989. Mortality differentials by the level of formal education show that mortality for children whose mothers have no formal education is highest, and lowest for children whose mothers have secondary education."
Correspondence: E. Ofori-Sarpong, Department of Geography, P.O. Box 3900, Eldoret, Kenya. Location: Center for Research Libraries, Chicago, IL.

60:20236 Ogawa, Naohiro; Retherford, Robert D. The resumption of fertility decline in Japan: 1973-92. Population and Development Review, Vol. 19, No. 4, Dec 1993. 703-41, 905, 907 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article analyzes the fertility decline in postwar Japan, especially since 1973, and the demographic and socioeconomic factors contributing to it. The analysis, based primarily on period parity progression ratios, suggests that Japan's fertility decline since 1973 has occurred mainly because of postponement of marriage and first birth and declines in ratios of progression to marriage and first birth. It is shown that women's rising educational attainment plays an important role in inducing the new marriage and fertility pattern. The effect of women's education is associated with a number of related socioeconomic changes, including rising wages of women and higher opportunity costs of marriage and childbearing, as well as changes in values."
Correspondence: N. Ogawa, Nihon University, College of Economics, Population Research Institute, 3-2 Misaki-cho, 1-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20237 Otani, Kenji. Analysis of fertility in present-day Japan. ISBN 4-87354-164-6. Sep 1993. xi, 239 pp. Kansai University Press: Osaka, Japan. In Jpn.
This is an analysis of trends in fertility and reproductive behavior in Japan since the 1960s, primarily based on data from the Japanese National Fertility Surveys. Period fertility measures since the 1920s are first reviewed in Chapter 1. In Chapter 2, the author introduces a new method to decompose the total marital fertility rate into birth-timing and quantum components, and measures the contribution of each component to trends in fertility since the 1960s. In Chapter 3, the Butz-Ward model is adapted and applied to Japanese fertility data. Chapter 4 examines the significant fluctuations that occurred in the Hi-no-e-uma year, 1966. Chapters 5 and 6 examine the Cigno model and its usefulness in analyzing these data. The final chapter examines premarital sex behavior, premarital conception, marital hazards, post-marital contraception, and the timing of first conception.
Correspondence: Kansai University Press, 3-3-35 Yamate-Machi Suita-Shi, Osaka 564, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20238 Pathak, K. B.; Guru, M. P. Trends in the tempo of reproduction process in India and some selected states. Demography India, Vol. 21, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1992. 7-17 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The parity distribution of women at the end of their reproductive life has been generated for India and four major states, namely, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Kerala, circa 1972 and 1988....We have derived the proportion of women with no child, and those with at least four children among women of completed fertility, their completed family size...,the mean ages of women at their first birth, last birth, their average effective reproductive span after achieving motherhood, their average fecundability to bear child after the first birth and the average closed birth intervals for [the] four states....The estimates are based on a synthetic cohort of women who bear children according to the current schedule of fertility and do not experience mortality."
Correspondence: K. B. Pathak, International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Bombay 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20239 Prins, C. J. M. Probability of grandparenthood not down yet. [Kans op grootouderschap neemt pas op termijn af.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 42, No. 1, Jan 1994. 6-8 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Cohort fertility data for the Netherlands are examined to determine the probability of becoming a grandparent. "According to the 1935 and 1965 parity distributions...84% of the generation born in the 1930's will have at least one grandchild....The average number of grandchildren is calculated to be 4.7....A woman's first grandchild is born when she is 54, on average. If higher birth order children are also considered this age is six years higher."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20240 Raftery, Adrian E.; Lewis, Steven M.; Aghajanian, Akbar. Demand or ideation? Evidence from the Iranian marital fertility decline. Seattle Population Research Center Working Paper, No. 94-1, Oct 1993. 35 pp. University of Washington, Seattle Population Research Center: Seattle, Washington; Battelle Seattle Research Center: Seattle, Washington. In Eng.
Data from the 1977 Iranian Fertility Survey are used to examine whether the onset of fertility decline is caused primarily by structural socioeconomic changes or by the transmission of new ideas. The authors conclude that the Iranian case is better described by demand theory than by ideation theory.
Correspondence: Seattle Population Research Center, c/o University of Washington, Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology Library, Department of Sociology DK-40, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20241 Refeno, Germain; Rabeza, Victor; Mboup, Gora; Schoemaker, Juan. National Demographic and Health Survey, 1992. [Enquete Nationale Demographique et Sanitaire, 1992.] Feb 1994. xxii, 248 pp. Centre National de Recherches sur l'Environnement: Antananarivo, Madagascar; Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Calverton, Maryland. In Fre.
Results are presented from the National Demographic and Health Survey undertaken in 1992 in Madagascar as part of the DHS program. This report has chapters on survey organization, respondents' characteristics, fertility, family planning, nuptiality and exposure to risk of pregnancy, fertility preferences, mortality under five years of age, maternal mortality, maternal and child health, lactation and nutritional status, and the availability of community services.
Correspondence: Centre National de Recherches sur l'Environnement, B.P. 1739, Fiadanana, Antananarivo, Madagascar. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20242 Rob, A. K. Ubaidur. Socioeconomic determinants of fertility: what do we know? Demography India, Vol. 21, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1992. 19-28 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The factors most often studied in relation to fertility are education, employment, landownership, family income and religion. In...[this paper] we have presented empirical findings from several studies, where the relationships between socioeconomic variables and fertility are investigated." The geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: A. K. U. Rob, Population Council, House No. 55, Street No. 1, Sector F-6/3, Islamabad, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20243 Shapiro, David; Tambashe, B. Oleko. Education, employment, and fertility in Kinshasa and prospects for changes in reproductive behavior. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 1994-06, Jan 1994. 26, [8] pp. Pennsylvania State University: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
This is a study on fertility in Kinshasa, Zaire, in which the authors use data from a 1990 survey of some 2,400 women of reproductive age to examine the "relationships linking women's education, employment, and fertility behavior (children ever born, age at first marriage, contraception, abortion, breastfeeding, and postpartum abstinence)....The results suggest that modern contraception and abortion are alternative fertility control strategies in Kinshasa, with abortion appearing to play an important role in contributing to the observed fertility differentials by education and employment."
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6411. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20244 Sharma, H. L. A study of relationship between migration and fertility. Demography India, Vol. 21, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1992. 51-7 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author analyzes the relationship between migration and fertility. A model is developed and applied to data from a 1978 survey of development and population growth in India. "The objective of the present paper is to estimate the conception rates for the couples living together at their home and the couples of whom one partner [has] migrated."
Correspondence: H. L. Sharma, College of Agricultural Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, JNKVV, Adhartal, Jabalpur 482 004, Madhya Pradesh, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20245 Song, Ruilai. Characteristics and causes of the fertility transition in China. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 5, No. 2, 1993. 149-58 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Data from the sample surveys on fertility and contraception conducted in China in 1982 and 1988 and many results of the research on changes in fertility in Europe may have provided new conditions for the research on the characteristics and causes of the transition of fertility in China. In this study, the author attempts to demonstrate these characteristics and causes through a comparison between fertility [transitions] in China and Europe."
Correspondence: R. Song, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Population Research Institute, 5 Jianguomen Nei Da Jie 5 Hao, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20246 Sporton, Deborah. Fertility: the lowest level in the world. In: The changing population of Europe, edited by Daniel Noin and Robert Woods. 1993. 49-61 pp. Blackwell: Cambridge, Massachusetts/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This chapter examines the spatio-temporal variations in European fertility and their immediate or proximate determinants before focusing upon the contributory economic and social influences engendering the lowest levels of fertility in the world....[It also mentions] the fertility characteristics of [the] former communist bloc countries."
Correspondence: D. Sporton, University of Sheffield, Department of Geography, Sheffield S10 2TN, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20247 Szreter, Simon. The idea of demographic transition and the study of fertility change: a critical intellectual history. Population and Development Review, Vol. 19, No. 4, Dec 1993. 659-701, 905, 907 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article's main aim is to contribute to the study of fertility change through analyzing certain intellectual and institutional aspects of the field of study since World War II. The principal focus is the intellectual history of the idea of demographic transition....The idea of demographic transition was the product of a particular conception of demographic social science as simultaneously investigative science and policymaking guide. This proposition is demonstrated principally through an analysis of the writings of Frank Notestein, set in the context of relevant aspects of the intellectual, institutional, and political history of the period c. 1930-60....It is...argued that emancipation from the transition idea and from its associated, rather dated methodology is a condition for further intellectual progress in the study of fertility change." The focus is on the history of demographic research in the United States.
Correspondence: S. Szreter, University of Cambridge, St. John's College, Cambridge CB2 1TP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20248 United Nations. Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis (New York, New York). Fertility transition and women's life course in Mexico. No. ST/ESA/SER.R/136, Pub. Order No. E.94.XIII.5. ISBN 92-1-151263-8. 1993. vii, 62 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This study is part of an ongoing program of research on the relationship between the status of women and fertility. The present case study is one in a series of three, and concerns Mexico. Data are from the Mexican Fertility Survey of 1976-1977 and the National Fertility and Health Survey of 1987. "Chapter I reviews the concepts underlying the study, the methods used and the materials on which it is based. The demographic and background characteristics of the study population are described in chapter II. Chapters III-VI are devoted to the analysis of nuptiality, fertility, labour-force participation and living arrangements respectively. The main findings are summarized and some final considerations are presented in chapter VII."
For a related study concerning Pakistan, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: UN Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, United Nations, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20249 United Nations. Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis (New York, New York). Women's status and fertility in Pakistan: recent evidence. No. ST/ESA/SER.R/135, Pub. Order No. E.94.XIII.6. ISBN 92-1-151264-6. 1993. ix, 29 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This case study is one of three developed as part of an ongoing program of research on the relationship between the status of women and fertility. It focuses specifically on the impact of women's education on fertility in Pakistan. Data are from a variety of official sources and national surveys undertaken during the 1980s. The results indicate that "fertility is negatively related to educational achievement, with the greatest effects observed among women with post-primary education. The differences are mainly attributable to variation in marriage patterns by education. Although increasing use of contraception has tended to lower fertility, this result has been largely counterbalanced by declines in the duration of lactation." They also suggest that the effects of education on fertility are stronger in urban areas.
For a related study concerning Mexico, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: UN Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, United Nations, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20250 United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP] (Bangkok, Thailand). Implementation strategy for achieving replacement level fertility. Population Research Leads, No. 44, 1993. 10 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This note discusses various theories of the determinants of fertility decline and the common elements in ESCAP countries with continuing high fertility." The focus is on steps governments can take to reduce fertility in such situations.
Correspondence: UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Population Division, Population Information Section, United Nations Building, Rajdamnern Nok Avenue, Bangkok 10200, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20251 van de Walle, Etienne; Meekers, Dominique. The socio-cultural context of family and fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa. African Development Review/Revue Africaine de Developpement, Vol. 4, No. 2, Dec 1992. 33-62 pp. Abidjan, Ivory Coast. In Eng.
"In this paper, we attempt not so much to describe the levels and trends of fertility [in Sub-Saharan Africa], as to examine the factors that are susceptible to change in the future, and can be influenced by policy. In the first section, we attempt to provide a simple classification of issues to facilitate the discussion. A second section uses this framework to analyze how socioeconomic and cultural variables affect the reproductive regimes of Africa. In section 3, we examine more particularly the impact of these variables on nuptiality and the family, and on the adoption of family limitation. Finally, we use this perspective to look at policies and programs for the future."
Correspondence: E. van de Walle, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Location: Cornell University, NYSSILR Extension, New York, NY.

60:20252 Wadhera, Surinder; Strachan, Jill. Selected birth and fertility statistics, Canada 1921-1990. [Statistiques choisies sur la natalite et la fecondite, Canada, 1921 a 1990.] Pub. Order No. 82-553. ISBN 0-660-54880-1. Mar 1993. 83 pp. Statistics Canada, Canadian Centre for Health Information: Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
"This publication is a compilation of historical data relating to selected birth and fertility statistics from 1921-1990 for Canada, the ten provinces, and two territories. Major topics included in this publication relate to: the numbers and rates of live births; total, general, and age-specific fertility rates; births and birth rates by age of mother and order of live birth; and birthweights of newborns."
Correspondence: Statistics Canada, Canadian Centre for Health Information, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20253 Weinstein, Maxine; Wood, James; Greenfield, Daniel D. How does variation in fetal loss affect the distribution of waiting times to conception? Social Biology, Vol. 40, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1993. 106-30 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"We specify a single theoretically important source of heterogeneity, namely variability in intrauterine mortality, and assess its effects on the waiting times to a conception which results in a live birth. We find that the effects of variation in fetal loss are confined to the tail of the distribution. Unless variation in fetal loss is extremely large or a substantial proportion of observed waiting times are initiated at late ages, variation in fetal loss does not appear to explain much variation in conception waits. We conclude that heterogeneity in fetal loss does not explain the variation in fecundability that has been observed for first birth intervals. This conclusion supports the hypothesis that at early ages (below age 35) variation in the waiting time to a fertile conception may largely reflect the proportion of nonsusceptible couples in the population."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1989 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: M. Weinstein, Georgetown University, Department of Demography, 37th and O Streets NW, Washington, D.C. 20057. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20254 Yu, Shenguan; Chen, Youhua. Determinants and approximate estimate of parity progression ratio. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 5, No. 2, 1993. 133-42 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors "examine the determinants and approximate estimate of PPR [parity progression ratio], in the hope that PPR can be used both as an important index in evaluating the impact of China's current family planning policy on [the] fertility rate, and in government policy-making regarding the family planning program." They estimate the PPR for the 1944, 1969, and 1979 marriage cohorts.
Correspondence: S. Yu, Nanjing University, Institute of Population Research, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20255 Zakee, R. Fewer births in Europe in 1993. [Minder geboorten in Europa in 1993.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 42, No. 2, 1994. 12-4 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Data on births and deaths in the countries of Europe are presented and compared. "The number of births in Europe in 1993 is about 8.0 million, 4% less than in 1992. The number of deaths...rose slightly....As a result the excess of births over deaths (in 1987 3.0 million persons, in 1992 0.6 million, compared with a total population of about 727 million) continued to decrease in 1993."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20256 Zhu, Jun. A model of the age patterns of births by parity in natural fertility populations. Mathematical Population Studies, Vol. 4, No. 3, Feb 1994. 153-73, 223 pp. New York, New York/Yverdon, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This research develops a convolution model to express the age patterns of fertility at each birth order in natural fertility populations in terms of six parameters, directly representing the proximate determinants of fertility, and a series of parity level indicators. The parity level indicators at each birth order are simply the proportions of women in a cohort who will eventually have births at each birth order if the age-related fecundity decline is controlled. The Coale-McNeil nuptiality model is adopted to represent the age pattern of first marriage rates and the natural fertility schedule employed in the Coale-Trussell fertility model is incorporated to adjust age effects. The fast Fourier transform is used in solving the model numerically. It proves that the model is able to provide excellent fits to fertility for rural Chinese women in the 1950s."
Correspondence: J. Zhu, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.2. Differential Fertility

Studies on differences in fertility patterns and levels in subgroups of a population. Also included are studies on age-specific fertility, such as teenage pregnancy.

60:20257 Chimere-Dan, Orieji. Determinants of racial fertility differentials in some urban areas of South Africa. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 26, No. 1, Jan 1994. 55-63 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Results of a survey of some urban areas in the Pretoria-Witwatersrand-Vereenining region [of South Africa] show differential impacts of proximate and socioeconomic factors on the fertility of urban blacks and whites. Timing of starting and ending of childbearing and the reproductive behaviour of women who have never been married account for the major differences in fertility levels. White women confine their childbearing career to the 20-39 age range, while black women utilise the entire 15-49 age range. The fertility level is quite high among black women who have never been married (in contrast to never married white women)."
Correspondence: O. Chimere-Dan, University of the Witwatersrand, Department of Sociology, 1 Jan Smuts Avenue, Johannesburg 2050, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20258 Coleman, D. A. Trends in fertility and intermarriage among immigrant populations in Western Europe as measures of integration. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 26, No. 1, Jan 1994. 107-36 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper reviews trends in total fertility and intermarriage of foreign populations in Europe and compares them with the trends in fertility of the host population and the sending country. In almost all cases fertility has declined. The fertility of most European immigrant populations and some West Indian and non-Muslim Asian populations has declined to a period level at or below that of the host society....Intermarriage is proceeding faster than might be expected in immigrant populations which seemed in economic terms to be imperfectly integrated."
Correspondence: D. A. Coleman, University of Oxford, Department of Applied Social Studies, Wellington Square, Oxford OX1 2JD, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20259 Deka, Nishi K.; Choudhury, H. Ethnic variation in fertility of Barpeta district: a demographic study. Journal of the Assam Science Society, Vol. 35, No. 3, Sep 1993. 188-94 pp. Gauhati, India. In Eng.
"The present paper is aimed at investigating the ethnic differentials in respect of the effects of different socio-economic and demographic characteristics upon fertility among four major ethnic groups of people [in the Barpeta district of Assam, India]."
Correspondence: N. K. Deka, B. H. College, Howly, Assam, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20260 Hao, Hongsheng; Gaoling; Shen, Qing. An analytical comparison of fertility rate among women in Beijing with different social and economic characteristics. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 5, No. 1, 1993. 11-21 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"We conducted an analysis of the fertility rates among women in Beijing with different types of residence registration, occupation and educational level, based on the data from the preliminary sample survey on 10% of the population prior to the fourth census. We first calculated, based on the raw data, the age-specific fertility rates and TFR among women with different types of social and economic characteristics and examined the differences in the mode of reproduction and fertility rate among these groups of women, then we analyzed the factors involved in the number of live-born children of the women in the hope to observe the impact of the factors on fertility rate under the condition of control."
Correspondence: H. Hao, Chinese People's University, Institute of Population Research, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20261 Johnson, Nan E. Hindu and Christian fertility in India: a test of three hypotheses. Social Biology, Vol. 40, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1993. 87-105 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
The author assesses three hypotheses for interpreting religious differences in fertility. "I tested these three hypotheses with data from the 1981 Census of India, from which I calculated mean numbers of children ever born per wife aged 35-44. I standardized the mean for differences between Hindu and Christian women by urban residence, education, age, and length of marriage. The standardized fertility rates of Hindus and Christians were similar in 25 states/union territories. Only in Meghalaya, Mizoram, and Nagaland did the Hindu religious minority have a lower standardized birth rate than the Christian majority; but the Muslim minority had one like the Christians'."
Correspondence: N. E. Johnson, Michigan State University, Department of Sociology, East Lansing, MI 28824. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20262 Lindgren, Jarl; Ritamies, Marketta; Miettinen, Anneli. Consensual unions and fertility. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 31, 1993. 47-61 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"This article examines how consensual unions affect the childbearing of couples who live in a marriage which has been preceded by premarital cohabitation....The material used is from a survey carried out [in Finland] in 1989. The study deals with the pattern and frequency of giving birth to the first child by comparing the childbearing of the directly married with those whose marriage was preceded by cohabitation....The study has shown that the total number of children in families is related to the length of premarital cohabitation. The couples who have lived longer without marriage tend to have [fewer] children than the directly married."
Correspondence: J. Lindgren, Vaestoliitto, Population Research Institute, Kalevankatu 16, 00100 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20263 Meekers, Dominique. Sexual initiation and premarital childbearing in Sub-Saharan Africa. Population Studies, Vol. 48, No. 1, Mar 1994. 47-64 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this study we analyse adolescent sexual activity and premarital childbearing in seven sub-Saharan African countries. In particular, our aim is to estimate the effects of socioeconomic indicators on adolescent sexual and reproductive behaviour....Theories concerning the motivation for different types of adolescent sexual and reproductive behaviour are examined....Demographic and Health Survey data confirm that the percentage of women who have a child before marriage is increasing in a number of countries in sub-Saharan Africa. This increase in the prevalence of childbearing before marriage does not appear to be a result of earlier sexual initiation, but rather of later marriage....Because contraceptive use by adolescents has remained low, this increase in premarital sexual intercourse is reflected in an increase in premarital childbearing."
Correspondence: D. Meekers, Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 22 Burrowes Building, University Park, PA 16802-6202. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20264 Niraula, Bhanu B. Fertility differentials in rural Nepal: evidence from a survey of a hill area. Economic Journal of Nepal, Vol. 15, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1992. 13-41 pp. Katmandu, Nepal. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to document fertility differentials in a population which is beginning the fertility transition...and help understand the dynamic process of interaction between the socio-economic variables and fertility variables....Data were collected [in 1988] in eight main settlement clusters and in a hill district of central Nepal."
Correspondence: B. B. Niraula, Australian National University, G.P.O. 4, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

60:20265 Ozcebe, Hilal; Dervisoglu, Ayse A. Is adolescent fertility a problem in Turkey? [Turkiye'de gencler arasinda dogurganlik bir sorun mudur?] Nufusbilim Dergisi/Turkish Journal of Population Studies, Vol. 15, 1993. 33-53 pp. Ankara, Turkey. In Tur. with sum. in Eng.
The authors discuss the problem of adolescent marriage and pregnancy in Turkey, with attention to low rates of prenatal care and unsafe delivery conditions. The extent of contraceptive use among adolescents is examined, and the possibility of raising the age at marriage is considered.
Correspondence: H. Ozcebe, Hacettepe University, Hacettepe Parki, Ankara, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology

Studies on infertility, as well as studies of spontaneous abortion, prematurity, and other relevant pathologies of pregnancy.

60:20266 Gerais, A. S.; Rushwan, Hamid. Infertility in Africa. Population Sciences, Vol. 12, Jul 1992. 25-64 pp. Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
This is a general review of the current situation regarding infertility in Africa. The author examines geographical differences in both rates of infertility and in its causes, with a focus on those causes that are infection-related.
Correspondence: A. S. Gerais, University of Khartoum, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, P.O.B. 321, Khartoum, Sudan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20267 Gray, Ronald H.; Simpson, Joe L.; Kambic, Robert T.; Queenan, John T.; Mena, Patricio; Perez, Alfredo; Barbato, Michele; Pardo, Francisco; Stevenson, Wilma; Li, Chuanjun. Timing of conception and the risk of spontaneous abortion among pregnancies during use of natural family planning. Johns Hopkins Population Center Papers on Population, No. WP 94-03, [1994]. 21, [2] pp. Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Population Center: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
The effects of timing of conception on the risk of spontaneous abortion are analyzed using data from five natural family planning (NFP) centers in Chile, Colombia, Italy, and the United States. The authors conclude that "overall, there is no excess risk of spontaneous abortion among the pregnancies conceived during NFP use. However, among women with a history of prior pregnancy loss, there is an increased risk of spontaneous abortion associated with pre- or post-ovulatory delayed conceptions." Data were collected between 1987 and 1993.
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Population Center, 615 North Wolfe Street, Room 2300, Baltimore, MD 21205-2179. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20268 Hakim, Rosemarie B.; Gray, Ronald H.; Zacur, Howard; Gehret, Judith; Smith, Beverly. Infertility and early pregnancy loss. Johns Hopkins Population Center Papers on Population, No. WP 94-01, [1994]. 21, [9] pp. Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Population Center: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
A highly sensitive and specific assay for urinary human chorionic gonadotrophin was used to detect early pregnancy in a cohort of 148 working women in Vermont and New York State in a study undertaken between May 1989 and August 1991. The "results suggest that subfertile women have increased subclinical pregnancy losses regardless of fertility treatment, and the association between reduced fertility and advancing age may in part be related to early pregnancy loss."
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Population Center, 615 North Wolfe Street, Room 2300, Baltimore, MD 21205-2179. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4. Actions and Activities Directly Affecting Fertility

Studies concerning activities, including family planning programs, that are primarily designed to influence fertility.

F.4.1. General Fertility Control and Contraception

General aspects of fertility control, primarily those concerned with family planning and family planning programs.

60:20269 Abeykoon, A. T. P. L. Population estimates and contraceptive requirements for Sri Lanka 1991-2001. May 1991. 16 pp. Ministry of Health and Women's Affairs, Population Division: Colombo, Sri Lanka. In Eng.
The author analyzes current population trends in Sri Lanka and probable future trends up to the year 2001. An attempt is then made to estimate contraceptive needs, first assuming that current demand remains constant, and then assuming that modern methods will largely displace traditional ones.
Correspondence: Ministry of Health and Women's Affairs, Population Division, 231 De Saram Place, Colombo 10, Sri Lanka. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20270 Adinma, J. I. B.; Okeke, A. O. The pill: perceptions and usage among Nigerian students. Advances in Contraception, Vol. 9, No. 4, Dec 1993. 341-9 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The knowledge and use of oral contraception were investigated in 498 students from 5 tertiary institutions in south-eastern Nigeria. Awareness of the pill was high (92.2%) but usage was comparatively low (17.5%). Post-coital oral contraception was more often used (11.5%) than the other types....Poor information on the pill and ignorance were identified as the major factors militating against pill usage. Accordingly, the role of early and adequate sex and contraceptive education in improving pill usage in this population and developing countries in general is highlighted."
Correspondence: J. I. B. Adinma, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, College of Health Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Nnewi Campus, Onitsha, Anambra State, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20271 Anderson, John E.; Freese, Thomas E.; Pennbridge, Julia N. Sexual risk behavior and condom use among street youth in Hollywood. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 26, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1994. 22-5 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The data reported in this article are from a survey of youth who attended drop-in centers in Hollywood, Calif., in 1990-1991....This study examines the prevalence of sexual risk behavior and correlates of condom use in this population." Results indicate that "96% are sexually experienced. One-half of the young men and one-third of the young women have engaged in sex for food, money, shelter, drugs or other items needed. Twenty-five percent of the men and 15% of the women have injected drugs at some time in their life. Some 45% of the men and 30% of the women used condoms at last intercourse."
Correspondence: J. E. Anderson, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Prevention Services, Behavioral Studies Section, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20272 Beghin, D.; Severyns, P. Population and health. [Population et sante.] African Development Review/Revue Africaine de Developpement, Vol. 4, No. 2, Dec 1992. 165-200 pp. Abidjan, Ivory Coast. In Fre.
The authors examine health and population aspects of development policies needed in Sub-Saharan Africa and their potential costs. The focus is on the demand for family planning and how to develop effective programs to meet it. Both the benefits and costs of such programs are considered. The article concludes with an examination of the impact of AIDS on family planning programs.
Correspondence: D. Beghin, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Ecole de Sante Publique, 50 Avenue Franklin Roosevelt, 1050 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Cornell University, NYSSILR Extension, New York, NY.

60:20273 Ciszewski, Robert L.; Harvey, Philip D. The effect of price increases on contraceptive sales in Bangladesh. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 26, No. 1, Jan 1994. 25-35 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"In April 1990, the prices of five brands of contraceptives in the Bangladesh social marketing project were increased, by an average of 60%. The impact on condom sales was immediate and severe, with sales for the following 12 months dropping by 46% from the average during the preceding 12 months. The effect on oral contraceptive sales was less dramatic: average sales in the year following the increases dropped slightly despite a previously established pattern of rapidly rising sales. There appears no reasonable combination of events other than the price increase itself to explain most of the difference."
Correspondence: R. L. Ciszewski, Population Services International, Washington, D.C. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20274 de Graaf, A. Two out of three young women use the pill. [Tweederde van de jonge vrouwen gebruikt de pil.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 42, No. 2, 1994. 15-9 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Data from the 1993 Netherlands Fertility and Family Survey are analyzed. Results show that "three out of every four women aged 18-42 years use some method of birth control. Some 10% is pregnant or wants to become pregnant, 5% is infecund and 10% does not use a method for other reasons. Compared with the previous surveys, held in 1982 and 1988, more women use the pill, whereas the popularity of the IUD has decreased....Among women in their thirties sterilization has decreased, but that is related to the fact that women nowadays have their children at a later age....Furthermore it can be concluded that of the women who have no male partner, 50% used some reliable method of birth control (pill, IUD or condom)."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20275 Dwivedi, S. N. Contribution of some socio-economic variables towards explaining the level of adoption of various family planning devices in India during 1987. Demography India, Vol. 21, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1992. 239-45 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author explores variations in acceptance rates for various contraceptive methods in India, using data for 1987. Factors considered include number of service centers, per capita income, urbanization, and literacy rate.
Correspondence: S. N. Dwivedi, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Biostatistics, New Delhi 110 029, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20276 Frost, Jennifer J. The availability and accessibility of the contraceptive implant from family planning agencies in the United States, 1991-1992. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 26, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1994. 4-10 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article provides the first national overview of the introduction and availability of the contraceptive implant at family planning agencies and the practices and policies adopted by providers to deal with the unique aspects of this method. It presents data on the actual availability of the contraceptive implant from family planning providers in the United States, the policies of these providers regarding whom to inform about implant availability and whether restrictions are imposed on the provision of the implant to minors, the ways in which providers have dealt with the high cost of providing the implant, and the actual distribution of clients receiving the implant according to source of payment." It is found that "during the first year and a half after the hormonal contraceptive implant became available in February 1991, an estimated 81,100 women obtained this method from family planning agencies in the United States. Nevertheless, according to a recent survey of family planning providers, implant availability through the family planning clinic system is still far from universal...."
Correspondence: J. J. Frost, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 111 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10013. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20277 Hatcher, Robert A.; Trussell, James; Stewart, Felicia; Stewart, Gary K.; Kowal, Deborah; Guest, Felicia; Cates, Willard; Policar, Michael S. Contraceptive technology. 16th rev. ed. ISBN 0-8290-3173-1. LC 78-641585. 1994. xvii, 730 pp. Irvington Publishers: New York, New York. In Eng.
This standard textbook on contraception and related topics has chapters on sexuality and reproductive health; the menstrual cycle; HIV and AIDS; sexually transmitted diseases; the essentials of contraception: effectiveness, safety, and personal considerations; abstinence; condoms; vaginal spermicides; the diaphragm, contraceptive sponge, cervical cap, and female condom; the pill: combined oral contraceptives; Norplant, Depo-provera, and progestin-only pills; fertility awareness; coitus interruptus; intrauterine devices; voluntary surgical contraception; emergency contraception; postcoital options; postpartum contraception and lactation; pregnancy testing and management of early pregnancy; abortion; menstrual problems and common gynecologic concerns; cervical cytological screening; infertility; education and counseling; adolescent sexual behavior, pregnancy, and childbearing; the dynamics of reproductive behavior and population change; future methods; contraceptive failure rates; and selected family planning resources.
For the previous U.S. edition, published in 1990, see 56:40285.
Correspondence: Irvington Publishers, 522 East 82nd Street, Suite 1, New York, NY 10028. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20278 Hatcher, Robert A.; Wysocki, Susan; Kowal, Deborah; Guest, Felicia J.; Trussell, James; Stewart, Felicia; Stewart, Gary K.; Cates, Willard. Family planning at your fingertips: adapted from the pages of Contraceptive Technology. ISBN 0-8290-3168-5. LC 93-7618. 1993. 416 pp. Essential Medical Information Systems: Durant, Oklahoma; Irvington Publishers: New York, New York. In Eng.
This is the first edition of this guide to family planning which "provides clinicians, nurses, counselors, and the lay person as well, with easy access to the information adapted from Contraceptive Technology, the leading book on contraceptive management...." It is primarily designed for those working in the United States.
Contraceptive Technology, by Hatcher et al., is cited elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: Essential Medical Information Systems, P.O. Box 1607, Durant, OK 74702-1607. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20279 Kaeser, Lisa. Public funding and policies for provision of the contraceptive implant, fiscal year 1992. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 26, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1994. 11-6 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article reports the results of a [U.S.] survey to assess levels of public funding for the provision of the [contraceptive] implant and development of policies under which these funds are made available. The four types of agencies surveyed were state Medicaid, health and welfare agencies, plus the 12 area offices of the federal Indian Health Service (IHS)." Results indicate that "these agencies spent $61 million in federal and state funds on the provision of the contraceptive implant to low-income women in FY 1992....The Medicaid agencies of 13 states reported restrictions on the number of subsidized implants a woman could receive over her reproductive lifetime. No Medicaid agency has provisions to cover required or requested removals of the device among users who become ineligible for Medicaid while the implant is in place; only eight health departments have policies ensuring subsidized removals for such women."
Correspondence: L. Kaeser, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 111 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10013. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20280 Kapiga, Saida H.; Hunter, D. J.; Nachtigal, G. Reproductive knowledge, and contraceptive awareness and practice among secondary school pupils in Bagamoyo and Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. Central African Journal of Medicine, Vol. 38, No. 9, Sep 1992. 375-80 pp. Harare, Zimbabwe. In Eng.
"Reproductive knowledge, and contraceptive awareness and practice were assessed among secondary school pupils in Bagamoyo and Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania....Of 481 respondents with complete data, 315...were males and 166...were females....Two hundred and ninety three...respondents reported they were sexually active. However, only 77...pupils knew the 'safe period' within the menstrual cycle and 329...pupils were able to spontaneously mention at least one method of contraception. Less contraceptive awareness was noted among respondents below 18 years of age particularly among females in both study areas. Only 45...pupils had ever used a contraceptive method. Despite a reasonable level of awareness and a positive attitude towards contraception, only a small proportion of sexually active pupils had ever used contraceptives."
Correspondence: S. H. Kapiga, Muhimbili University College of Health and Sciences, Institute of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, P.O. Box 65015, Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

60:20281 Mahadevan, K.; Saiprasad, K. K.; Azuh, Dominic E. Family planning policies and strategies for developing countries. In: Readings in population research: policy, methods and perspectives, edited by P. Krishnan, Chi-Hsien Tuan, and Kuttan Mahadevan. 1992. 59-80 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
The authors discuss the difficulty of developing family planning programs because of their multidisciplinary nature, and emphasize the need to think about such programs within a systematic and comprehensive framework "in order to create differential priority, emphasis, efforts, investment and policies which will in turn make [the programs] need-based, and situation-specific....In this paper, an effort is made at the outset to conceptualize this issue in a holistic framework. On the basis of such a total understanding, certain suitable policies and strategies have been identified for the effective promotion of...[programs] during [the] 1990s." The focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: K. Mahadevan, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517 502, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20282 Peng, Xizhe; Dai, Xingyi. Life security of the elderly: rural population control. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 5, No. 2, 1993. 171-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article will examine the life security among the elderly in rural China and its impact on the population control in those areas." Data are from a fertility survey conducted in five rural villages in 1990.
Correspondence: X. Peng, Fudan University, Institute of Population Science, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20283 Pick de Weiss, Susan; Diaz, Rolando; Andrade Palos, Patricia; Gribble, James N. Teenage sexual and contraceptive behavior: the case of Mexico. Advances in Population: Psychosocial Perspectives, Vol. 1, 1993. 229-49 pp. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania/London, England. In Eng.
"The present chapter deals with the evolution of population growth among Mexican adolescents, specifically with a series of descriptive and diagnostic studies conducted in Mexico City with respect to their sexual and contraceptive behavior; the development of an integral sex education program, and its evaluation....A brief review of studies carried out with teenagers in Mexico will be presented, followed by the theoretical background, development, results and recommendations from research which focuses on the psychosocial determinants of adolescents' sexual and contraceptive behavior....The final study sample consisted of 1,257...12- to 19-year-old female teenagers from low and middle-low socioeconomic level homes in Mexico City."
Correspondence: S. Pick de Weiss, Instituto Mexicano de Investigacion de Familia y Poblacion, Mexico City, D.F., Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20284 Radecki, Stephen E.; Beckman, Linda J. Contraceptive risk-taking in a medically underserved, low-income population. Social Biology, Vol. 40, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1993. 248-59 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"This study examines the phenomenon of contraceptive risk-taking, which is the nonuse of contraception by women who are sexually active, fertile and not pregnant or trying to become pregnant. Based on a survey sample [in Los Angeles, California,] of low-income women in their childbearing years who had not received family planning care or advice from a doctor or clinic for at least three years, the study analyzed demographic predictors of contraceptive risk-taking and also compared levels of contraceptive knowledge and pregnancy histories of noncontraceptors versus barrier contraceptors. Contraceptive risk-taking was found to be higher for minority women, for parous women, for those age 30 and younger, and for those whose knowledge of the fertility cycle is incorrect, but risk-taking was found to be unrelated to the women's marital status....[It is suggested that] current contraceptive risk-taking probably represents a relatively enduring feature of reproductive behavior for a subgroup of the medically underserved low-income population."
Correspondence: S. E. Radecki, University of Southern California, School of Medicine, Department of Family Medicine, University Park, Los Angeles, CA 90089. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20285 Rob, A. K. Ubaidur; Cernada, George P.; Siddiqui, Kahlil A.; Naeem, Jamila. Pakistan IUD follow-up survey, 1992-93. Population Council Operations Research Working Paper, No. 5, 1993. 51 pp. Population Council: Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
The results of a national sample follow-up study of IUD acceptors, which was carried out in Pakistan in 1992-1993, are presented. The findings include "a continuation rate after one year of use of 72 percent for Copper-T users and 64 percent of Lippes Loop users; a significant discrepancy between reported IUD acceptors in service records at the clinics and likely actual IUD acceptors; and a need for supervision and continuing training for service providers in such areas as giving more information on how the IUD works, side effects, and contraindications to use."
Correspondence: Population Council, P.O. Box 2966, Islamabad, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20286 Romania. Ministry of Health. Institute for Mother and Child Care (Bucharest, Romania); United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]. Division for Reproductive Health (Atlanta, Georgia). Romania Reproductive Health Survey, 1993: preliminary report. Jan 1994. 59 pp. Bucharest, Romania. In Eng.
Preliminary results of a 1993 survey of 4,800 women in Romania of childbearing age are presented. The response rate was 92%. "The main topics addressed are: general characteristics and marital status of women with completed interviews; fertility preferences and planning status of the last pregnancy; prenatal care; awareness, use and attitudes about modern and traditional methods of contraception, reasons for not using contraception and future intention of use; sexual experience of young adult females and contraceptive use at first intercourse; cervical cancer screening and smoking history; and knowledge about transmission of HIV/AIDS infection."
Correspondence: Ministry of Health, Institute for Mother and Child Care, Bucharest, Romania. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20287 Ryerson, William N. Population Communications International: its role in family planning soap operas. Population and Environment, Vol. 15, No. 4, Mar 1994. 255-64 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Population Communication International [PCI] undertakes training of television producers and writers in developing countries...." The author provides "a brief history of the work of [PCI] in each of the countries where it has been involved in the use of the soap opera medium for enhancing the status of women, modeling open family communications and promoting use of family planning."
Correspondence: W. N. Ryerson, Population Communications International, 777 United Nations Plaza, New York, NY 10017-3521. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20288 Santow, Gigi. Coitus interruptus in the twentieth century. Population and Development Review, Vol. 19, No. 4, Dec 1993. 767-92, 906, 908 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article examines the course of coitus interruptus throughout the present century in the countries of Europe, North America, and Australia....An initial, and essential, investigation establishes that the method can be used with a fair degree of efficiency....Next, using the limited information available, I chart the method's gradual decline during the latter half of this century....The article then illustrates the notion that availability is not only a technical but a cultural condition...by identifying the factors that contribute to Southern European emigrants' maintenance of contraceptive behavior reminiscent of their birthplaces, rather than their adoption of the contraceptive practices prevalent in the host country. The method's survival in some populations but not in others leads me to draw some lessons about the nature of withdrawal itself, some predictions concerning its future course, and some broader inferences concerning the nature of contraceptive acceptability."
Correspondence: G. Santow, Australian National University, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Health Transition Centre, G.P.O. 4, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20289 Shah, Iqbal. The usefulness of operations research methodology in family planning: experience from Turkey, Bangladesh, and Pakistan. Demography India, Vol. 21, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1992. 41-50 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The main objective of this paper is to review the experience of operations research in family planning in Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Turkey....Along with reports on the results of operation research projects, this paper also identifies the strengths and weaknesses found in these studies....[It] deals with three main issues: (1) provision of family planning services by non-physicians; (2) involvement of community leaders; and (3) integration of family planning and maternal and child health services."
Correspondence: I. Shah, World Health Organization, Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20290 Shapiro, David; Tambashe, B. Oleko. Women's employment, education, contraception and abortion in Kinshasa. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 1994-05, Jan 1994. 45 pp. Pennsylvania State University: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"This paper examines contraceptive behavior and abortion among women residing in Kinshasa, Zaire...with particular emphasis on women's employment and education." Data are from a 1990 household survey involving some 2,400 women of reproductive age. Results indicate that "modern contraception and abortion appear to be used as complementary fertility control strategies in Kinshasa, and...better-educated women employed in the modern sector are most likely to be in the forefront of the contraceptive revolution."
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6411. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20291 Simmons, Ruth; Elias, Christopher. The study of client-provider interactions: a review of methodological issues. Programs Division Working Paper, No. 7, 1993. 48 pp. Population Council, Programs Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper reviews the relevant methods and experience related to studying client-provider interactions within family planning programs in developing countries." The focus is on the quality of care offered in such programs. Various methodologies are also examined.
Correspondence: Population Council, Programs Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20292 Suchindran, C. M.; Ramakumar, R.; Devi, K. Sathi. Family size, sex composition of children and contraceptive use: a case study of Kerala. Genus, Vol. 49, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1993. 165-80 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita.
"In this paper, we use multiplicative models for contraceptive-use data, cross-classified by the number of male and female children in order to study the simultaneous effects of sex composition and family size on contraceptive acceptance [in India]. First, we consider a model without family-size factors and derive standardized measures of contraceptive acceptance....Later, we generalized the model to include both sex-composition and family-size factors and obtain estimates of various effects, taking into account the identification problem....We will illustrate the method with data from the 1980 Kerala Fertility Survey....The results showed significant influence of family size in accepting contraceptive use. Once family size is controlled, the contraceptive acceptance is high among large families with all female children."
Correspondence: C. M. Suchindran, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square, CB8120, 143 West Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20293 Swar-Eldahab, Amna M. Constraints on effective family planning in urban Sudan. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 24, No. 6, Pt. 1, Nov-Dec 1993. 366-74 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article is an investigation of the constraints on contraceptive use in Sudan, from the perspective of current nonusers, never-users, and discontinuers, based on data obtained from 305 married women aged 15-49 through a field survey undertaken in Khartoum city. Results indicate that lack of knowledge of contraceptive methods accounts for the low level of contraceptive prevalence, 15 percent overall, found in this study. The overwhelming majority of nonusers (85 percent) either perceive contraception as a risk to their health and fertility, regard it as unacceptable, or do not know which method to choose."
Correspondence: A. M. Swar-Eldahab, University of Liverpool, Department of Geography, P.O. Box 147, Liverpool L69 3BX, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20294 Ullah, Md. Shahid; Chakraborty, Nitai. Factors affecting the use of contraception in Bangladesh: a multivariate analysis. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 8, No. 3, Sep 1993. 19-30 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This study, based on 1989 Bangladesh Fertility Survey data, attempts to identify important determinants of contraceptive use among women of reproductive age. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that 12 variables, among the 15 selected socio-economic and demographic variables, are statistically significant factors influencing the current contraceptive prevalence rate. Women's education emerged as the most influential factor, followed by women's participation in making decisions about family planning practice. Number of living children, religion, and education of husbands do not seem to have significant effects on current use of contraception."
Correspondence: Md. S. Ullah, University of Dhaka, Department of Statistics, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20295 Webb, Sandra; Holman, D'Arcy. A survey of contraceptive use and unplanned pregnancy in Perth, Western Australia. Australian Journal of Public Health, Vol. 16, No. 4, Dec 1992. 382-6 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"Contraceptive use and unplanned pregnancy were studied in a stratified cluster sample of 1,511 couples with women aged 16 to 44 years resident in metropolitan Perth [Australia] in 1988....The proportion of couples using contraception was 76.8 per cent...,and all but three of the remaining couples gave a reason for nonuse. Among users, surgical sterilisation made up 42.3 per cent...of all methods, with a slight predominance of tubal ligation over vasectomy. Oral contraceptives accounted for just over half of nonsurgical methods....Unplanned pregnancies conceived during the 12 months before the interview affected 3.4 per cent...of respondents. The incidence of unplanned pregnancy was four times higher in couples with inconsistent usage patterns of contraception."
Correspondence: S. Webb, Health Department of Western Australia, Health Statistics and Epidemiology Branch, 189 Royal Street, East Perth, WA 6004, Australia. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

60:20296 Weeks, John R. Service provider attitudes toward natural family planning. Advances in Population: Psychosocial Perspectives, Vol. 1, 1993. 125-55 pp. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania/London, England. In Eng.
"Our study...addresses the issue of availability of NFP [natural family planning] within the established family planning provider setting--clinics and private practice....The data for this study were gathered by means of questionnaires administered by mail to clinic administrators and service providers, OB/GYN physicians in private practice, and NFP-only providers...in Los Angeles and San Diego Counties in California....The principal analytical goal in this research is to determine the effect that service provider attitudes may have on the availability of NFP....Our research has indicated that the single most identifiable barrier to the availability of NFP is the negative attitude of physicians toward the method, prompted by their skepticism about its use-effectiveness."
Correspondence: J. R. Weeks, San Diego State University, International Population Center, San Diego, CA 92182. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.2. Clinical Aspects & Use-Effectiveness Studies

Selected studies on the medical aspects of fertility control methods, including studies on side effects and use-effectiveness.

60:20297 Erwin, Paul C. To use or not use combined hormonal oral contraceptives during lactation. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 26, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1994. 26-30, 33 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author reviews the literature on "the effects of combined oral contraceptive use during breastfeeding on infant growth and development. Such studies can generally be placed into one of two categories: studies in which anthropometric measurements are charted, and case reports on the direct effects of steroidal hormones on the nursing infant. Studies measuring the amount of steroid secreted in breast milk are covered here as well."
Correspondence: P. C. Erwin, Tennessee Department of Health, East Tennessee Region, Knoxville, TN. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20298 European Natural Family Planning Study Groups (Dusseldorf, Germany). Prospective European multi-center study of natural family planning (1989-1992): interim results. Advances in Contraception, Vol. 9, No. 4, Dec 1993. 269-83 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
Interim results are presented from "an international multicenter prospective study to evaluate the effectiveness and acceptability of natural family planning (NFP) methods in Europe....To date, 10,045 cycles from 900 women aged between 19 and 54 years have been analyzed. This paper presents the pregnancy rate for the women aged between 19 and 45 years of age, who contributed 9,284 cycles....Our conclusion from these preliminary results is that in the continent of Europe, the symptothermal method when used with periodic abstinence...and fertility awareness with the use of barriers during the fertile phase...are effective methods of family planning. Results also show that the clinical indicator(s) used by the women to determine the limits of the fertile phase is the most important variable in determining the efficiency of NFP...."
Correspondence: G. Freundl, Universitat Dusseldorf, Study Centre, Universitatsstrasse 1, 4000 Dusseldorf 1, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20299 Farr, Gaston; Amatya, Ramesh. Contraceptive efficacy of the Copper T 380A and Copper T 200 intrauterine devices: results from a comparative clinical trial in six developing countries. Contraception, Vol. 49, No. 3, Mar 1994. 231-43 pp. Stoneham, Massachusetts. In Eng.
Results from 12-month randomized clinical trials of two types of IUDs, carried out at six centers in developing countries, are presented. "The performance of the TCu 380A IUD in preventing pregnancy during this trial indicates that this IUD may be a better option than the TCu 200 IUD for women wishing to practice effective, long-term, reversible birth control without having to resort to hormonal methods."
Correspondence: G. Farr, Family Health International, P.O. Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20300 Runnebaum, B.; Rabe, T.; Kiesel, L. Female contraception and male fertility regulation. Advances in Gynecological and Obstetric Research Series, Vol. 2, ISBN 1-85070-334-5. LC 91-2460. 1991. xi, 282 pp. Parthenon Publishing Group: Park Ridge, New Jersey/Carnforth, England. In Eng.
This collection of 30 papers by various authors concerns recent research into the regulation of both female and male fertility, and is a product of the Third International Congress on Contraception, held in Heidelberg, Germany, in June 1990.
Correspondence: Parthenon Publishing Group, Casterton Hall, Carnforth, Lancashire LA6 2LA, England. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

60:20301 Salway, Sarah; Fauveau, Vincent; Chakrabarty, J. Introducing the low-dose pill to Bangladesh; issues of continuation and failure. Contraception, Vol. 49, No. 2, Feb 1994. 171-83 pp. Stoneham, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"In response to government plans to introduce a low-dose pill to the national family planning program of Bangladesh, a comparison of the performance of low-dose and standard-dose pills among a rural Bangladeshi population was conducted. Continuation rates were found to be better among users of the low-dose pill and there was no evidence that failure rates were higher. The relative risk (standard-dose vs. low-dose) over the first 30 months following adoption was 1.25 for first method continuation, and 1.29 for extended use failure. This paper, thus, provides evidence that low-dose pills may be a suitable method of contraception for rural Bangladeshi women."
Correspondence: S. Salway, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, UHEP, G.P.O. Box 128, Dhaka 2, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20302 Trussell, James; Sturgen, Kim; Strickler, Jennifer; Dominik, Rosalie. Comparative contraceptive efficacy of the female condom and other barrier methods. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 26, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1994. 66-72 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Because the research design for the clinical trial establishing the contraceptive efficacy of the female condom--a six-month life-table probability of failure of 15% (12% in the United States vs. 22% in Latin America)--did not include randomization with another method of contraception, no definite conclusion about its comparative efficacy is possible. Comparisons using other female barrier methods as historical controls, however, provide evidence that, among women in the United States, the contraceptive efficacy of the female condom during typical use is not significantly different from that of the diaphragm, the sponge or the cervical cap....Meaningful comparisons with the male condom are not possible because of the lack of data from carefully controlled prospective clinical trials. Extrapolations from the results on contraceptive efficacy suggest that perfect use of the female condom may reduce the annual risk of acquiring the human immunodeficiency virus by more than 90% among women who have intercourse twice weekly with an infected male."
Correspondence: J. Trussell, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.3. Evaluation of Programs

Studies evaluating either the demographic impact or other criteria of effectiveness of family planning programs.

60:20303 Cernada, George P.; Rob, A. K. Ubaidur; Amim, Safia I.; Ahmed, M. Shafiq. Accessibility and availability of family planning services in Pakistan: 1992. Demography India, Vol. 21, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1992. 213-38 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The primary objective of this study was to provide detailed and comprehensive information on the availability, functioning, and quality of the Government of Pakistan's (GOP) family planning service delivery program based on a nationally representative sample of Family Welfare Centres (FWCs)." Findings are provided on client load; facilities and accessibility; contraceptive supply, storage, and inventory records; IEC materials; outreach; record keeping and reporting; management and supervision; and quality of care, including method choice, provider-client relations and information exchange, technical competence, client satisfaction, and range of services.
Correspondence: G. P. Cernada, Population Council, Islamabad, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20304 Henshaw, Stanley K.; Torres, Aida. Family planning agencies: services, policies and funding. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 26, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1994. 52-9, 82 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The present study includes information on [family planning agencies in the United States] and the services [they provide], as well as service delivery policies, expenses, financing and the extent to which family planning services are integrated with reproductive and general health care. The information is intended to assist analysts in gauging the effects that various proposed changes in the health care financing system would have on the provision of family planning and related services....Our study focuses on the providers of services, rather than on the women served....[Results show] that despite cuts in public funding, the system remains intact and has even grown slightly over the past decade." Aspects considered include sources of funding, fees charged, services provided to low-income women, program activities and efficiency, contraceptive methods offered, and provision of medical care other than contraception.
Correspondence: S. K. Henshaw, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20305 Jain, Anrudh; Bruce, Judith. Implications of reproductive health for objectives and efficacy of family planning programs. Programs Division Working Paper, No. 8, 1993. 37 pp. Population Council, Programs Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors examine the reproductive health approach to evaluating the efficacy of family planning programs. They "propose a broader scope for population policy, a shift in the goals of family planning programs, and an approach for measuring the efficacy of these programs that incorporates this shift in objectives."
Correspondence: Population Council, Programs Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20306 Kurup, R. S.; Kurup, K. B. Evaluation of family planning programme. In: Readings in population research: policy, methods and perspectives, edited by P. Krishnan, Chi-Hsien Tuan, and Kuttan Mahadevan. 1992. 179-213 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
"Starting with a very modest attempt at describing the role and tenets of evaluation in the field of family planning, this article will present the various aspects of the process; often reference to one of the largest programmes in the field, namely, the Indian Family Planning Programme will be made to establish the points that arise...."
Correspondence: R. S. Kurup, Gita Mandir, P.O. Kawdiar, Trivandrum 695 003, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20307 Leon, Federico R.; Cuesta, Agustin. The need for quasi-experimental methodology to evaluate pricing effects. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 24, No. 6, Pt. 1, Nov-Dec 1993. 375-81 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Family planning program managers may be easily misled by conclusions about the effects of price increases on the demand for services when the findings are based on pre-experiments such as the single-group pretest-posttest study, generally believed to be practical. This report presents financial and service data from clinics of the Asociacion Pro-Binestar de la Familia Ecuatoriana (APROFE) in Ecuador, which, analyzed according to the single-group pretest-posttest design, would suggest that the demand of intrauterine device services is inelastic. However, considerable demand elasticity is detected when data are analyzed according to more rigorous quasi-experimental designs. Using the single-group pretest-posttest design for pricing studies is too flawed to be considered practical. Whenever possible, strong designs should be used in operations research, especially in pricing studies."
Correspondence: F. R. Leon, Population Council, Paseo Padre Constancio Bollar 225, El Olivar, Lima 27, Peru. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20308 Levine, Ruth E.; Cross, Harry E.; Chhabra, Sheena; Viswanathan, Hema. Quality of health and family planning services in rural Uttar Pradesh: the client's view. Demography India, Vol. 21, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1992. 247-65 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This study was undertaken to gain an in-depth understanding of how rural villagers in Uttar Pradesh [India] view both government and private health services, and how they think about family planning services available to them....We first describe the determinants of treatment-seeking behavior....Next, we present villagers' opinions about the 'signals' of quality of care....In the final part, we examine their specific attitudes toward contraceptive methods, and toward family planning services."
Correspondence: R. E. Levine, Urban Institute, 2100 M Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20309 Phillips, James F.; Hossain, Mian B.; Simmons, Ruth; Koenig, Michael A. Worker-client exchanges and contraceptive use in rural Bangladesh. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 24, No. 6, Pt. 1, Nov-Dec 1993. 329-42 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this article, longitudinal data from rural Bangladesh are used to assess the impact of household visits from family planning workers on contraceptive use. A panel of women was interviewed in a demographic survey and reinterviewed every 90 days for six successive rounds. Regression methods are used to estimate the effect of these encounters on the odds that a woman will use contraceptives. Statistical controls adjust for the potentially confounding effects of underlying demand for contraception. Findings suggest that both male and female worker-initiated exchanges have an effect, although the impact of outreach is more pronounced if the worker is female. Estimated effects are consistent with the hypothesis that the predominant impact of outreach is to crystalize existing latent demand for contraception. Results also suggest, however, that female worker outreach generates new demand by fostering ideational change."
Correspondence: J. F. Phillips, Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20310 Piotrow, Phyllis T.; Treiman, Katherine A.; Rimon, Jose G.; Yun, Sung Hee; Lozare, Benjamin V. Strategies for family planning promotion. World Bank Technical Paper, No. 223, ISBN 0-8213-2622-8. LC 93-32252. 1994. vii, 58 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This is a review of the lessons learned over the last two decades regarding the design and development of programs that promote family planning. The focus is on information, education, and communication (IEC) activities in developing countries. The lessons learned include "(1) the importance of good counseling, since interpersonal communication influences whether, when, and how couples will use family planning; (2) the efficient and effective reach of mass media in conveying convincing family planning messages and the receptivity of audiences to messages via these media; (3) the mutually reinforcing effects on mass media and interpersonal communication; (4) the cost savings and cost recovery that can derive from a family planning program with an IEC component large enough to have a measurable impact (at least 10-25 percent of total project budget); and (5) the importance of being able to evaluate the impact of IEC interventions." The report concludes with recommendations for designing effective IEC programs in the future.
Correspondence: World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20311 Veney, James; Magnani, Robert; Gorbach, Pamina. Measurement of the quality of family planning services. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 12, No. 3, 1993. 243-59 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"In this paper we utilize family planning programs to explore issues of the quality of health services. We propose that a better understanding of the view of quality actually held by family planning program clients will clarify the influence of quality on the use of services, a clarity that has not been possible by looking at quality only as defined by providers, managers or experts. We review the literature on quality of services and identify...gaps in research....Finally, we suggest that dimensions of quality identified as important for 'clients' as a group will be more predictive of use of services than dimensions identified as important to 'providers'."
Correspondence: J. Veney, c/o Pamina M. Gorbach, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, Evaluation Project, 123 West Franklin Street, Suite 304, CB 8120 University Square, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.4. Attitudes Toward Fertility & Fertility Control

Studies concerned with the interrelations between fertility control and attitudinal variables, including studies on wanted and unwanted pregnancy and children, motivation for parenthood, sex preference, and voluntary childlessness. Studies on knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of family planning and attitudes toward family size are classified under this heading.

60:20312 Axinn, William G.; Clarkberg, Marin E.; Thornton, Arland. Family influences on family size preferences. Demography, Vol. 31, No. 1, Feb 1994. 65-79 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Several studies have demonstrated important effects of parents' childbearing behavior on their children's childbearing preferences and behavior. The study described here advances our understanding of these family influences by expanding the theoretical model to include parental preferences, siblings' behavior, and changes in children's preferences through early adulthood. Using intergenerational panel data from [U.S.] mothers and their children, we test the effects of both mothers' preferences for their own fertility and mothers' preferences for their children's fertility. Although both types of maternal preferences influence children's childbearing preferences, mothers' preferences for their children's behavior have the stronger and more proximate effects. Mothers' preferences continue to influence their children's preferences through early adulthood; siblings' fertility is an additional determinant of children's family size preferences."
Correspondence: W. G. Axinn, University of Chicago, Population Research Center, 1155 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20313 Bozon, Michel. Reaching adult sexuality: first sexual intercourse and its sequels. From timing to attitudes. [L'entree dans la sexualite adulte: le premier rapport et ses suites. Du calendrier aus attitudes.] Population, Vol. 48, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1993. 1,317-52 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The author discusses the study of first sexual intercourse as a means of gaining information about a person's overall sexual behavior, based on data from the 1992 Survey on Sexual Behavior in France. Aspects considered include changes over the past 50 years, differences between males and females, age at first intercourse, and attitudes toward sexuality. Life courses of individuals who become sexually active at different ages are compared.
Correspondence: M. Bozon, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20314 Edwards, Sharon R. The role of men in contraceptive decision-making: current knowledge and future implications. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 26, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1994. 77-82 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author reports on a meeting of "several prominent researchers, policymakers and program directors in September 1993 to exchange information about men's needs, desires and concerns regarding contraception and how their attitudes affect their sexual behavior and that of their partners. The discussion...also provided a forum for researchers and program providers to determine future directions involving men and reproductive health." The geographical focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: S. R. Edwards, Family Planning Perspectives, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20315 Fleissig, Anne. A rise in "unintended" babies. What are the implications? British Journal of Family Planning, Vol. 19, No. 4, Jan 1994. 260-3 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Results of a 1989 postal survey conducted among new mothers in England and Wales are presented. "Among a random sample of 1,493 recent mothers in England and Wales, almost a third described their last pregnancy as unintended. The postal survey also included questions about the women's initial feelings about pregnancy, antenatal mood, childbirth, postnatal wellbeing and views about future childbearing. The results suggest few differences between the mothers who described pregnancy as intended and those who were pleased when they found out, despite becoming pregnant unintentionally. It was the women who were not initially pleased about an unintended pregnancy who reported more problems than...others [and] need extra counselling, help and support."
Correspondence: A. Fleissig, Institute for Social Studies in Medical Care, 14 South Hill Park, London NW3 2SB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20316 Hummer, Robert A.; Schmertmann, Carl P.; Eberstein, Isaac W. Retrospective reports of pregnancy wantedness and birth outcomes in the U.S. Center for the Study of Population Working Paper, No. WPS 94-116, [1994]. 23 pp. Florida State University, College of Social Sciences, Center for the Study of Population: Tallahassee, Florida. In Eng.
Data from the 1988 U.S. National Maternal and Infant Health Survey are used to reexamine the relationship between pregnancy wantedness and birth outcomes. "The data suggest a weak inverse association between pregnancy wantedness and low birth weight but a counterintuitive positive association between wantedness and infant mortality." The authors question whether retrospectively measured pregnancy wantedness is of either substantial or analytical interest.
Correspondence: R. A. Hummer, East Carolina University, Department of Sociology, A-410 Brewster, Greenville, NC 27858. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20317 Li, Xiaoping. Transactional price of an expected child and its application in birth control. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 5, No. 2, 1993. 159-69 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Transactional price of an expected child (TPEC) is a comprehensive index that reflects the value judgment of an expected child by a couple of child-bearing age, and is a monetary embodiment of the utility of the expected child. [The author discusses the application of the concept to] facilitate further understanding of many birth control measures and to provide important guidance for seeking more effective...measures."
Correspondence: X. Li, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Population Research Institute, 5 Jianguomen Nei Da Jie 5 Hao, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20318 Miller, Warren B.; Shain, Rochelle N.; Pasta, David J. A model of pre-sterilization ambivalence and post-sterilization regret in married couples. Advances in Population: Psychosocial Perspectives, Vol. 1, 1993. 173-206 pp. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania/London, England. In Eng.
"We have presented a general theoretical perspective on couple decision-making and subsequent adaptation which serves as a framework for understanding the complex phenomenon commonly referred to as post-sterilization regret. We have anchored this framework by means of a series of specific hypotheses about ambivalence and post-sterilization regret among both tubal ligation and vasectomy married couples. Using our hypotheses, we constructed three models. These were tested on data gathered from 400 married couples....The results, including unanticipated pathways and differences in specific areas of each model between sexes and method groups, not only provide a confirmation of our general theoretical perspective but also allow us to have insights and to speculate about the psychological and marital dynamics of sterilization decision-making and adaptation." Data are from a longitudinal study conducted in Santa Clara, California, in 1985.
Correspondence: W. B. Miller, Transnational Family Research Institute, 669 Georgia Avenue, Palo Alto, CA 94306. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20319 Palomba, Rossella; Sabbadini, Linda L. Female life strategies: the way of compromise. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population: Montreal 1993, Volume 2. 1993. 219-31 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"In this paper, we shall try to see if there exist reproductive strategies put into action by women above all to reconcile work and family. We shall also see which strategies are put into action by men and women in daily life as consequences of the birth of one or more children....The data we shall present will refer mainly to Italy, but we shall try when possible to extend our view to other European countries."
Correspondence: R. Palomba, Via P. L. Sagramoso 19, 00194 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20320 Palomba, Rossella. The third survey on national demographic trends: an overall view. [Terza inchiesta sulle tendenze demografiche in atto nel paese: uno sguardo d'insieme.] Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione Working Paper, No. 03/93, [1993]. 41 pp. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione [IRP]: Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
Some preliminary results are presented from a 1991 opinion survey carried out in Italy on current demographic trends. Topics covered include declining fertility, demographic aging, and migration. Particular attention is given to attitudes concerning the fertility decline and family policy.
Correspondence: Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione, Viale Beethoven 56, 00144 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20321 Renne, Elisha P. Gender ideology and fertility strategies in an Ekiti Yoruba village. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 24, No. 6, Pt. 1, Nov-Dec 1993. 343-53 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article investigates the influence of gender ideology on number of children wanted, son preference, family-size discussions and decisionmaking, and use of birth control in a rural Ekiti Yoruba village in southwestern Nigeria. Interview and survey data indicate that attitudes about these matters vary more with age than with sex, suggesting that both women and men subscribe to the prevailing gender ideology of male authority in matters of family size and composition. However, women and men differ about who decides family size, largely because the ideal of fathers' financial support of their children is sometimes belied by practice. The article concludes with a discussion of the strategies that husbands and wives employ to obtain their reproductive goals, and their implications for family planning programs in Nigeria."
Correspondence: E. P. Renne, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Health Transition Centre, G.P.O. Box 4, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20322 Severy, Lawrence J.; Silver, Starr E. Two reasonable people: joint decisionmaking in contraceptive choice and use. Advances in Population: Psychosocial Perspectives, Vol. 1, 1993. 207-27 pp. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania/London, England. In Eng.
The authors discuss "the way in which married couples make choices from among contraceptive alternatives, and the way in which these choices lead to use....Three predominant themes structure this chapter. First, can currently popular decision-making theories be satisfactorily applied to joint contraceptive decision-making? Second, do spouse's perceptions (and misperceptions) of the other's beliefs, attitudes, etc. influence the decision outcome? And, third, do demographic considerations (such as a couple's stage in the life-cycle or ethnicity) alter the utility of decision theories?" Data are from a study of 453 couples interviewed in Gainesville, Florida.
Correspondence: L. J. Severy, University of Florida, Department of Psychology, Gainesville, FL 32611. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20323 Spencer, Brenda. Normative context of sexual behavior and choice of preventive strategies. [Contexte normatif du comportement sexuel et choix des strategies de prevention.] Population, Vol. 48, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1993. 1,411-36 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"In this paper the normative framework of sexual behaviour is studied in relation to several examples: norms relating to love and to sexual relationship; the social representation of faithfulness, of the condom, and of the content of the sexual act; behavioural changes envisaged in relation to the AIDS epidemic, perceptions of and recourse to the HIV screening test. Clear differences in social representation occur between men and women; for example, the latter are more critical of infidelity." Data are based on the 1992 Survey on Sexual Behavior in France.
Correspondence: B. Spencer, Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Unit 292, Hopital Bicetre, 78 rue du General Leclerc, 94275 Le Kremlin Bicetre, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20324 Tanfer, Koray. Knowledge, attitudes and intentions of American women regarding the hormonal implant. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 26, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1994. 60-5 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article provides...information on American women's knowledge, perceptions and use-intentions regarding the subdermal contraceptive implant. It looks at these factors in the context of various demographic and behavioral characteristics....The data were collected in a national survey of two samples of women." Results indicate that "there is considerable variation between groups of women in levels of awareness and in knowledge of the implant's attributes. Nearly one-third of the women surveyed say they intend to use such a method in the future. Subgroups with the greatest potential interest in using this method are young women, single women, those who already have a child and those who would like to postpone their next birth for several years or want to have no more children. Women who are using coital methods of contraception and those not using any method are more likely than others to express interest in using the implant. Interest in using the implant also increases with knowledge of the characteristics of this contraceptive method."
Correspondence: K. Tanfer, Battelle Centers for Public Health Research and Evaluation, 4000 NE 41st Street, Seattle, WA 98105. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20325 Tuan, Chi-Hsien. Gender selection and fertility regulation in the process of family building in China. In: Readings in population research: policy, methods and perspectives, edited by P. Krishnan, Chi-Hsien Tuan, and Kuttan Mahadevan. 1992. 403-72 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This article attempts to analyze China's fertility data generated from The One-Per-Thousand Fertility Sample Survey in 1982. Reproductive histories of 172,749 married women from age 15-67 were traced and some 808 thousand births were recorded....The study leads us from the analysis of sex ratio at birth to the process of family building and how human desire of gender preference [affects] family formation." The impact on fertility and contraception of the sex of children and of birth order by sex is analyzed.
Correspondence: C.-H. Tuan, 1055 Kalo Place, Apt. 3-F, Honolulu, HI 96826. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20326 Unalan, Turgay. Sex preferences in Turkey. Nufusbilim Dergisi/Turkish Journal of Population Studies, Vol. 15, 1993. 23-32 pp. Ankara, Turkey. In Eng. with sum. in Tur.
"Data from the 1988 Turkish Population and Health Survey are analyzed to examine sex preferences of Turkish women. The results show some preference for sons, although generally women prefer to have children of both sexes. The effect of sex preference on sex ratio (number of males per 100 females) of existing children, desired children, and additional children was investigated. Also, the effect of sex preferences on desire for more children and contraceptive use is evaluated. The sex ratio of children is higher in small families than in large families....Among women who want more children,...the sex ratio is markedly lower than those who want no more."
Correspondence: T. Unalan, Hacettepe University, Institute of Population Studies, Hacettepe Parki, Ankara, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20327 Visser, A. Ph.; Uzel, R.; Ketting, E.; Bruyniks, N.; Oddens, B. J. Attitudes of Czech and Slovak gynecologists toward family planning. Advances in Contraception, Vol. 9, No. 4, Dec 1993. 351-62 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"A survey was held among 155 gynecologists of the former Czech and Slovak Federal Republic (CSFR) who visited a national gynecological congress....Questions were asked on personal and professional characteristics, experience with the provision of contraception, attitudes toward family planning and knowledge about contraception. Almost all gynecologists rejected abortion as a birth control method and mentioned the lack of sex education, non-use of contraception and the widespread use of traditional contraceptive methods as main reasons for the high prevalence of abortion....Physicians' knowledge about the pill was found to be insufficient."
Correspondence: A. Ph. Visser, International Health Foundation, 8 Avenue Don Bosco, 1150 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20328 Winn, Margaret; Lucas, David. Language, videos and family planning in the South Pacific. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 8, No. 4, Dec 1993. 19-38 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This article looks at the importance of language in family planning activities in the South Pacific, particularly at the use of language in videos and in the development of a lexicon of reproductive health terms. Language choice, context and equivalence are covered, as is the use of 'new' and 'rude' words. In addition, the article focuses on wider South Pacific communication issues such as those related to taboos against the public discussion of sexuality, and draws out various policy and programme implications."
Correspondence: M. Winn, University of New South Wales, School of Medical Education, P.O.B. 1, Kensington, NSW 2033, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20329 You, Jingshan. Does the gender of the child affect acceptance of the one-child certificate? The case of Shaanxi province, China. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 8, No. 3, Sep 1993. 47-59 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
The author investigates the impact of gender on both acceptance of the one-child certificate and contraceptive use in Shaanxi province, China. "We found a weak association...in both the cross-classification and multiple classification analyses of the 1988 Two-per-Thousand Survey data. However,...[son preference] remains a clear tendency in rural areas, but the low proportion of the one-child certificate acceptors reflects the existence of stronger preferences for larger family size and specific sex composition....By contrast, the high percentage of urban acceptors of the one-child certificate, regardless of the gender of the child, implies that son preference has decreased in urban areas of Shaanxi Province."
Correspondence: J. You, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Institute of Population and Economic Research, 26 Xianning Road, Xian 710049, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.5. Induced Abortion

Studies on induced abortion, including those on attitudes, with the exception of studies primarily concerned with government regulation of abortion, which are coded under M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility . Studies of spontaneous abortion appear under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology .

60:20330 Anderson, Barbara A.; Katus, Kalev; Puur, Allan; Silver, Brian D. The validity of survey responses on abortion: evidence from Estonia. Demography, Vol. 31, No. 1, Feb 1994. 115-32 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper presents results of a validation survey of abortion conducted in Tallinn, Estonia in April and May 1992. The sample was drawn from patient records in a maternity hospital. Women who had an abortion in that hospital in 1991 were asked about recent abortions as part of a survey about women's health. More than 80% of the respondents reported having a recent abortion. Some respondents misreported their abortion as a miscarriage. Moreover, some variation in reporting was associated with respondents' characteristics. Ethnic Estonians were less likely to report their abortion than were Russians, women over age 40 were less likely to report the abortion than younger women, and women who had the abortion late in the first trimester were less likely to report that abortion. There was some evidence that unmarried women were less likely than married women to report their abortion and that women who had borne three or more children were less likely to report their abortion than women who had borne fewer children."
Correspondence: B. A. Anderson, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48104. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20331 Blayo, Chantal. Differential abortion in French departments. [L'avortement differentiel selon les departements.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 2, 1993. 293-300 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Data on induced abortions performed in France since 1976 are analyzed, with a focus on interdepartmental variations and their determinants. "The index of differential abortion shows greater deviations in time and space than those of other social indicators. This is less the result of disparities in women's behaviour (there are fewer abortions in the North of France than in the South) than of deep differences in medical services and in...the [application of] law."
Correspondence: C. Blayo, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20332 Cho, Nam-Hoon; Ahn, Namkee. Changes in the determinants of induced abortion in Korea. Journal of Population, Health and Social Welfare, Vol. 13, No. 2, Dec 1993. 67-80 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng. with sum. in Kor.
"This paper aims...to examine the determinants of induced abortion through the investigation of pregnancy outcomes and their changes over time in [the Republic of] Korea...during the period from early 1960s to 1990 using data from a retrospective survey of more than 25,000 pregnancies. First, pregnancy outcomes are compared between the subsamples which are divided by the year of pregnancy and by the number of existing children. Within each subsample, comparisons are also made according to premarital pregnancy, sex composition of existing children, women's education and the place of residence. The following section focuses on the pregnancy outcomes by the contraceptive method used when one became pregnant. Finally, selective abortions and their implications on fertility and the sex ratio are discussed."
Correspondence: N.-H. Cho, Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs, San 42-14, Bulgwang-dong, Eunpyung-ku, Seoul 122-040, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20333 Do, Trong Hieu; Stoeckel, John; Nguyen, Van Tien. Pregnancy termination and contraceptive failure in Viet Nam. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 8, No. 4, Dec 1993. 3-18 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This article reports on a study in the northern part of [Viet Nam] that identified the proportion of women terminating a pregnancy because of contraceptive failure, the causes of this failure and the reasons for non-use of contraception among women seeking pregnancy terminations. The article highlights the important findings of the study and their implications for policy and programme purposes."
Correspondence: T. H. Do, Ministry of Health, Department of Maternal and Child Health/Family Planning, Hanoi, Viet Nam. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20334 Hardy, Ellen; Rebello, Ivanise; Faundes, Anibal. Abortion among female students and employees of a Brazilian university. [Aborto entre alunas e funcionarias de uma universidade Brasileira.] Revista de Saude Publica, Vol. 27, No. 2, 1993. 113-6 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por.
The authors analyze data from a 1990 pregnancy history survey conducted by mail among all female graduate students and employees of a Brazilian university. Among the findings it is noted that 9% of students and 14% of employees have had at least one abortion. The data cover age of respondent, marital status, consensual union, and miscarriages.
Correspondence: E. Hardy, Caixa Postal 6181, 13081-970 Campinas, SP, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20335 Henshaw, Stanley K. Abortion services under national health insurance: the examples of England and France. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 26, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1994. 87-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Three important conclusions applicable to the United States can be drawn from [the experiences of England and France] with abortion under a national health service. First, in large, bureaucratic health care structures, there can be no assurance that abortion services will be available to all women....Second, 'gatekeepers' can be a major barrier to women seeking abortion services....Third, the French experience indicates that bureaucratic and legal barriers can cause women to seek and physicians to provide illegal abortions."
Correspondence: S. K. Henshaw, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20336 Ritamies, Marketta. Have the aims of the Finnish abortion law been reached? Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 31, 1993. 62-71 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"The Finnish abortion law and its development is evaluated and the grounds and aims of the law are examined. The development of the abortion situation is described. On the basis of the above the author has reached the result that the Finnish abortion law has in many ways proven itself serviceable, [since] the rate of abortions has reached such a low level that it is difficult to find a similar situation anywhere else in Europe. Illegal abortions have practically disappeared."
Correspondence: M. Ritamies, Vaestoliitto, Population Research Institute, Kalevankatu 16, 00100 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20337 Sarma, Rumi; Das, P. B. Induced abortion among the Pati Rabha women of Boko area, Kamrup district, Assam. Journal of the Assam Science Society, Vol. 35, No. 3, Sep 1993. 162-9 pp. Gauhati, India. In Eng.
"Acceptance of induced abortion as a device of family planning among the Pati Rabha of Boko area [India] was studied. Out of 345 couples, practising various family planning devices, 86 (24.93%) accepted induced abortion. Of the total 629 conceptions of these 86 women, 137 (21.78%) conceptions were terminated by induced abortion....The highest percentage (18.24%) of the induced abortion was done at the 6th order of pregnancy, 62.79% of the women accepted the induced abortion only once in their reproductive period. Most (91.86%) of the acceptors were illiterate and all of them were house wives." Consideration is given to the use of traditional methods of inducing abortions.
Correspondence: R. Sarma, Government of Assam, Planning and Development Department, Dispur, Gauhati 781 005, Assam, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20338 Sitaraman, Bhavani. The middleground: the American public and the abortion debate. Children of Poverty: Studies on the Effects of Single Parenthood, the Feminization of Poverty, and Homelessness, ISBN 0-8153-1572-4. LC 93-49087. 1994. viii, 239 pp. Garland Publishing: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
"This study is concerned with the ways in which people organize their attitudes toward abortion [in the United States]. The focus of our study is on moral approval of abortions rather than support for the legality of abortions, or its impact on the political behavior of the public....We begin with a historical sketch of abortion politics that provides the long-term context to situate the moral issues that dominate the current abortion debate. We then discuss social science research on attitudes of abortion activists and the general public, which provides a focused context for the substantive and methodological approach of this study." The data for the study were gathered in telephone surveys of some 290 individuals living in Greenfield, Massachusetts, in 1987.
Correspondence: Garland Publishing, 717 Fifth Avenue, Suite 2500, New York, NY 10022. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20339 Skjeldestad, Finn E.; Borgan, Jens-Kristian. Trends in induced abortion during the 12 years since legalization in Norway. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 26, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1994. 73-6 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The purpose of this study is to determine if the incidence of abortion [in Norway] has changed since the abortion laws were liberalized and, if so, among which groups of women. To accomplish this, we examined national abortion statistics and analyzed trends in abortion by marital status and age during the 12 years since all abortions of less than 13 weeks of gestation became legal in Norway." Results indicate that "the general abortion rate decreased by 12% among married women, while it remained unchanged among unmarried women. Unmarried women had higher abortion rates than did married women among all age-groups except teenagers....Pregnancy terminations occurred at an earlier gestational age during the last three years of the study period, compared with the first three. Abortions beyond 12 gestational weeks, which require the approval of a hospital committee, decreased among unmarried women, while increasing somewhat among married women."
Correspondence: F. E. Skjeldestad, University Hospital of Trondheim, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Trondheim, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20340 Spinelli, Angela; Grandolfo, Michele E.; Pediconi, Marina; Donati, Serena; Medda, Emanuela; Stazi, Maria A.; Timperi, Ferdinando; Andreozzi, Silvia; Di Cillo, Carlo; Martinelli, Giuseppe. Legal abortion in Italy: 1989-1990. [L'interruzione volontaria di gravidanza in Italia: 1989-1990.] Rapporti ISTISAN, No. 93/94, Dec 1993. 209 pp. Istituto Superiore di Sanita [ISTISAN]: Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in legal abortion in Italy in 1989-1990 are analyzed. The authors note that the decline in the number and rate of legal abortions continues from a peak of 234,801 abortions in 1982 to 165,980 in 1990. Information is included on geographical differences and on the characteristics of those seeking legal abortion. Consideration is also given to the extent of illegal abortion.
For a previous report concerning 1987-1988, see 57:30390.
Correspondence: Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20341 Tuan, Chi-Hsien; Chen, Shengli; Yu, Jingyuan. Measuring China's abortion through the study of pregnancy history. In: Readings in population research: policy, methods and perspectives, edited by P. Krishnan, Chi-Hsien Tuan, and Kuttan Mahadevan. 1992. 113-44 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
The authors assess the accuracy of abortion data in China using the 1988 2-in-1,000 Fertility and Contraception Sample Survey. "The [pregnancy history] method not only allows us to check the completeness and accuracy of the abortion data, but also enables us to compute the index of correctly measuring the true level of artificial [induced] abortion, as pregnancy is the only correct denominator for the rate of artificial abortion."
Correspondence: C.-H. Tuan, 1055 Kalo Place, Apt. 3-F, Honolulu, HI 96826. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20342 United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] (Atlanta, Georgia). Abortion surveillance: preliminary data--United States, 1991. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 43, No. 3, Jan 28, 1994. 42-4 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
Preliminary data on legal induced abortions in the United States for 1991 are presented and analyzed. "In 1991, 1,388,937 legal induced abortions were reported to CDC...,a decrease of 2.8% from the number reported in 1990, and the number of live births decreased by 1.2%. As a result, the national abortion ratio declined from 345 legal induced abortions per 1,000 live births in 1990 to 339 per 1,000 in 1991. The national abortion rate...remained stable at 24."
Correspondence: U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Mailstop C-08, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20343 United States. New York. State Department of Health (Albany, New York). Induced abortions recorded in New York State, 1990: with five year summary, 1986-1990. [1992?]. 65 pp. Albany, New York. In Eng.
Data are presented on legal abortions carried out in New York State in 1990, together with retrospective abortion data for the period 1986-1990. The data are presented by a number of characteristics, including place of residence, age, race, marital status, educational status, and number of living children. Most of the statistics are also presented separately for New York City.
For a previous report for 1979-1983, see 52:30440.
Correspondence: New York State Department of Health, 1408 Corning Tower, Empire State Plaza, Albany, NY 12237. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility

Studies on lactation, nutrition, fecundability, sex behavior, menarche and menopause, and other biological factors or social customs as they affect fertility directly. Factors affecting contraceptive practice and factors affecting fertility indirectly are not included here.

60:20344 Elo, Irma T.; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence M. Changes in breastfeeding initiation and duration in Peru, 1977-1986. Social Biology, Vol. 40, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1993. 224-43 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"Both breastfeeding initiation and duration increased in Peru during 1977-86. Although one would have expected that the average incidence and duration of breastfeeding would have declined as a result of changes in population characteristics, the potential for an overall decline was more than overcome by changes in behavior. A net increase in initiation and duration is shown for all subgroups of interest. The largest absolute increases are documented for children who, in 1977, were the least likely to be breastfed and who were breastfed for the shortest durations."
Correspondence: I. T. Elo, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19014. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20345 Gao, Ersheng; Wu, Zhuochun; Gu, Xingyuan. Survey on sexual experiences among unmarried women in Shanghai and solutions. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 5, No. 2, 1993. 95-105 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study consists of two parts: a survey on the status quo and case comparison. The survey on the status quo is intended to discern the frequency of premarital sexual experiences (PSE) among women of different ages, educational levels and occupations. The subjects of the survey were 2,409 women who underwent premarital medical examinations between September and October in 1988 in [Shanghai, China]....The case comparison is meant to examine the factors that affect sexual experiences."
Correspondence: E. Gao, Institute of Family Planning, Shanghai, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20346 Gray, Sandra J. Comparison of effects of breast-feeding practices on birth-spacing in three societies: nomadic Turkana, Gainj, and Quechua. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 26, No. 1, Jan 1994. 69-90 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"In this paper, measures of suckling frequency and intensity are used to compare the effects of breast-feeding practices on the duration of lactational amenorrhoea, and on the length of the birth interval in three prospective studies undertaken during the 1980s, among Quechua Indians of Peru, Turkana nomads of Kenya, and Gainj of Papua New Guinea. In all three societies, lactation is prolonged well into the second year postpartum, and frequent, on-demand breast-feeding is the norm. However, the duration of lactational amenorrhoea and the length of birth intervals vary considerably. Breast-feeding patterns among Gainj and Turkana are similar, but Turkana women resume menses some 3 months earlier than do the Gainj. The average birth interval among the Gainj exceeds that of nomadic Turkana by over 15 months."
Correspondence: S. J. Gray, University of Kansas, Department of Anthropology, Lawrence, KS 66045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20347 Grummer-Strawn, Laurence; Trussell, James. Computing the mean duration of breastfeeding from current-status data. Genus, Vol. 49, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1993. 25-42 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita.
"In this paper, we examine the two methods employed to compute the mean duration of breastfeeding from current-status data at the time of interview. We show that the main assumption underlying the prevalence/incidence mean--stationarity of births--is often violated, thereby biasing the estimated mean. We also demonstrate, using data from 40 [World Fertility Surveys] and 22 [Demographic and Health Surveys], that ages of children are systematically misstated in such a way that summing the proportions of children still breastfeeding by age at interview yields a downward biased estimate of the mean. We conclude that this problem is intractable. When data are available only for a sample of last births, we propose and test an estimator that combines prevalence/incidence and the proportion still breastfeeding by age at interview."
Correspondence: L. Grummer-Strawn, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Reproductive Health, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20348 Leridon, Henri. Coital frequency: Data and coherence analyses. [La frequence des rapports sexuels: donnees et analyses de coherence.] Population, Vol. 48, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1993. 1,381-407 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"In this paper, we focus on data relating to coital frequency, given in the Survey on Sexual Behaviour in France (ACSF) undertaken in 1992. Reported coital frequency during the past four weeks is similar for men and for women....It decreases with age (after the age of 25) and duration of the union....Frequency over the last four weeks is compared with habitual frequency, within single partnerships. The correlation is quite strong....Reported frequency can also be correlated with duration since last intercourse."
Correspondence: H. Leridon, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20349 Nath, Dilip C.; Singh, Kaushalendra K.; Land, Kenneth C.; Talukdar, Pijush K. Breastfeeding and postpartum amenorrhea in a traditional society: a hazards model analysis. Social Biology, Vol. 40, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1993. 74-86 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"In this paper, we investigate the association between breastfeeding and the resumption of menses and the impact of various biological and social covariates thereon, using data from two retrospective surveys in India. We use both univariate life table and multivariate time-dependent hazards techniques to analyze the data....The present study has a methodological focus in the sense that breastfeeding is treated as a time-dependent covariate. We found that breastfeeding, age of mother at child's birth, social status, level of income, religion and caste (subcaste), and residential status have significant effects on return of menses in Indian traditional society."
Correspondence: D. C. Nath, Duke University, Department of Sociology, Durham, NC 27706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20350 VanLandingham, Mark. Breastfeeding and waiting time to conception for Malay women: a tale of two surveys. Social Biology, Vol. 40, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1993. 215-23 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"This study investigates the unusual relationship between breastfeeding and waiting time to conception in Malaysia as reported in Goldman et al. (1987). Using data from the Malaysian World Fertility Survey (MWFS), Goldman and her colleagues...find that noncontracepting Malaysian women have an unusually long waiting time to conception, given their relatively short durations of breastfeeding. This study provides a similar analysis using data from the Malaysian Family Life Survey (MFLS) and finds a more typical relationship. I conclude that the distinction between full and partial breastfeeding made to respondents of the MFLS probably led to more reliable responses to questions about breastfeeding duration, especially for women who breastfeed for long durations."
For the article by Goldman et al., see 53:20262.
Correspondence: M. VanLandingham, University of Washington, Department of Sociology, Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology, DK-40, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20351 Vestermark, Vibeke; Hogdall, Claus K.; Plenov, Grete; Birch, Mikael. Postpartum amenorrhoea and breast-feeding in a Danish sample. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 26, No. 1, Jan 1994. 1-7 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
The authors examine the duration of postpartum amennorhea and correlate it with breast-feeding patterns in a sample of 361 women in Denmark. "The median duration of amenorrhoea was 17 weeks....A significant correlation was found between the duration of postpartum amenorrhoea and of breast-feeding. However, lactation for more than 9 months did not extend the duration of amenorrhoea. Menstruation before weaning occurred in 57% of the women, and 43% terminated breast-feeding before the first menstruation."
Correspondence: V. Vestermark, Central Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Hillerod, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.6. Fertility Outside Marriage

Studies on nonmarital fertility, including illegitimacy. Studies of common-law marriage and other forms of cohabitation or voluntary single parenthood are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

60:20352 Caudill, Steven B.; Mixon, Franklin G. A note on the effects of AFDC payments on birthrates. Rivista Internazionale di Scienze Economiche e Commerciali, Vol. 40, No. 4, Apr 1993. 379-84 pp. Milan, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita.
"The goal of this study is to provide the first cross-sectional (state-by-state) evidence of a positive relationship between AFDC [Aid to Families with Dependent Children] payments and illegitimacy ratios [in the United States]....Two models...are estimated using pooled cross-sectional data from 1985 and 1986. All 50 states and the District of Columbia are included in each cross-sectional sample....In both models, AFDC payments (real) across states are positively related to illegitimacy ratios....This result has important public choice implications as well as providing empirical evidence in support of the theory that some welfare programs create incentives for the poor to remain in poverty. This study has also shed light on several other ideas presented in the literature, namely that illegitimacy may be a predominantly urban problem, in states where per-capita incomes are relatively low. The relationships between teenage mothers and illegitimacy [are] also pointed out in this study."
Correspondence: S. B. Caudill, Auburn University, Department of Economics, Auburn, AL 36849. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

60:20353 Prioux, France. Fertility outside marriage in France since 1968: trends and contrasts between departments. [La fecondite hors mariage en France depuis 1968: evolution des contrastes interdepartementaux.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 2, 1993. 281-91 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Nonmarital fertility trends in France since 1968 are examined. "The frequency of births outside marriage...increased dramatically in all the departements between 1968 and 1990 and contrasts between departements became more pronounced....Differences of evolution during the 1968-1975 and the 1975-1982 periods are of particular interest because they show discrepancies in the tempo of both diffusion of out of wedlock behaviours and contraceptive knowledge among young people from the beginning of the 1970s onwards."
Correspondence: F. Prioux, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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