Volume 60 - Number 2 - Summer 1994

E. Mortality

Studies that treat quantitative mortality data analytically. Methodological studies primarily concerned with mortality are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary. The main references to crude data are in the vital statistics items in S. Official Statistical Publications .

E.1. General Mortality

Studies of overall mortality and comparisons of several types of mortality. Studies dealing with two or more of the topics listed in this division are classified under the major section covered, or, if this is not self-evident, included here under General Mortality.

60:20089 Adametz, Serge; Blum, Alain; Zakharov, Serge. Differences and variables of demographic catastrophes in the USSR. [Disparites et variabilites des catastrophes demographiques en URSS.] INED Dossiers et Recherches, No. 42, Jan 1994. 100 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
An analysis of various demographic crises affecting the Soviet Union between 1920 and 1947 is presented. The emphasis is on geographic and generational disparities. Data are taken from censuses and the available vital statistics sources. Some comparisons are made with similar crises occurring in nineteenth-century Imperial Russia. In the second part of the study, the authors adjust data on age distribution from censuses carried out between 1897 and 1989 to examine the demographic impact of these crises. They discuss the implications of these calculations for recently observed demographic trends, including the apparent increase in infant mortality since the 1970s.
Correspondence: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20090 Davis, Clarence E.; Deev, Alexander D.; Shestov, Dmitri B.; Perova, Natalia V.; Plavinskaya, Svetlana I.; Abolafia, Jeffrey M.; Kim, Haesook; Tyroler, Herman A. Correlates of mortality in Russian and U.S. women: the Lipid Research Clinics Program. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 139, No. 4, Feb 15, 1994. 369-79 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"Associations between selected risk factors and 7-year all-cause mortality were studied in 2,187 Russian women and 2,146 U.S. women who were screened as part of a U.S.-Russian collaborative program. The U.S. women were screened during the period 1972-1976, while the Russian women were screened from 1978 to 1982. Cigarette smoking and elevated systolic blood pressure were associated with increased mortality in both samples. High density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol was inversely related to mortality in U.S. women, but there was no association of HDL cholesterol with mortality in Russian women. Prevalent angina and electrocardiographic abnormalities were associated with mortality in both samples, but the relations achieved statistical significance only in the Russian sample."
Correspondence: C. E. Davis, Collaborative Studies Coordinating Center, Suite 203, 137 East Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27514. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

60:20091 Fogel, Robert W. The relevance of Malthus for the study of mortality today: long-run influences on health, mortality, labor force participation, and population growth. NBER Working Paper Series on Historical Factors in Long Run Growth, No. 54, Mar 1994. 59 pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The author considers what aspects of Malthus's theory of mortality are of relevance to modern policymakers. "This paper argues that the secular decline in mortality, which began during the eighteenth century, is still in progress and will probably continue for another century or more. The evolutionary perspective presented in this paper focuses not only on the environment, which from the standpoint of human health and prosperity has become much more favorable than it was in Malthus's time, but also on changes in human physiology over the past three centuries which affect both economic and biomedical processes. A great deal of emphasis is placed on the interconnectedness of events and process over the life cycle and, by implication, between generations."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20092 Franks, Peter; Clancy, Carolyn M.; Gold, Marthe R. Health insurance and mortality: evidence from a national cohort. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 270, No. 6, Aug 11, 1993. 737-41 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
The authors "examine the relationship between lacking health insurance and the risk of subsequent mortality....Adults older than 25 years who reported they were uninsured or privately insured in the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a representative cohort of the U.S. population, were followed prospectively from initial interview in 1971 through 1975 until 1987....The analysis adjusted for gender, race, and baseline age, education, income, employment status, the presence of morbidity on examination, self-rated health, smoking status, leisure exercise, alcohol consumption, and obesity....Lacking health insurance is associated with an increased risk of subsequent mortality, an effect that is evident in all sociodemographic health insurance and mortality groups examined."
Correspondence: P. Franks, 885 South Avenue, Rochester, NY 14620. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20093 Gage, Timothy B.; O'Connor, Kathleen. Nutrition and the variation in level and age patterns of mortality. Human Biology, Vol. 66, No. 1, Feb 1994. 77-103 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
"We examine the associations between nutrition and mortality at the national level. Altogether four aspects of this association are explored: (1) total calories with expectation of life, (2) dietary composition with expectation of life, (3) total calories with the age patterns of mortality, and (4) dietary composition with the age patterns of mortality. The data consist of life tables and national food balance sheets for 341 populations from 96 countries....The results indicate that nutritional patterns are highly correlated with much of the worldwide variation in mortality and may be a useful criterion for selecting or predicting the best suited model life table for use on a particular population."
Correspondence: T. B. Gage, State University of New York, Department of Anthropology, Albany, NY 12222. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20094 Hong Kong. Census and Statistics Department (Hong Kong). Mortality trends in Hong Kong 1971-1992. Hong Kong Monthly Digest of Statistics, Nov 1993. 115-27 pp. Hong Kong. In Eng.
"Significant mortality improvement was experienced by the population [of Hong Kong] during the period 1971 to 1992. This article summarises the mortality trends by age by sex and also by cause of death during this period. The trends of the three most commonly used health indicators, viz. life expectancy, infant mortality rate and maternal mortality rate, are also discussed."
Correspondence: Census and Statistics Department, 19/F Wanchai Tower I, 12 Harbour Road, Wan Chai, Hong Kong. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20095 Jozan, Peter. Epidemiologic crisis in Hungary. [Epidemiologiai valsag Magyarorszagon a kilencvenes evekben.] Statisztikai Szemle, Vol. 72, No. 1 and 2, Jan and Feb 1994. 5-20; 101-13 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
An analysis of the mortality crisis that is developing in Hungary is presented. The author examines mortality trends over the past ten years, including differences by sex and age and in infant mortality, as well as changes over time in the causes of death. The crisis is shown to have its most serious effect on adult males; and the socioeconomic factors associated with this trend are identified.
Correspondence: P. Jozan, Kozponti Statisztikai Hivatal, Keleti Karoly Utca 5-7, 1525 Budapest II, Hungary. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20096 Kuh, Diana; Smith, George D. When is mortality risk determined? Historical insights into a current debate. Social History of Medicine, Vol. 6, No. 1, Apr 1993. 101-23 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper charts the early development, disappearance and re-emergence of theories relating mortality risk to early experience, and compares the empirical investigations carried out in each period in terms of their content, their contribution to epidemiological research, the response of the scientific community, and their timing in relation to the wider policy debate."
Correspondence: D. Kuh, University College and Middlesex School of Medicine, University College London, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, 66-72 Gower Street, London WC1E 6EA, England. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

60:20097 Livi-Bacci, Massimo. On the human costs of collectivization in the Soviet Union. Population and Development Review, Vol. 19, No. 4, Dec 1993. 743-66, 905-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Population statistics suppressed or hidden during the 1930s are now emerging from the archives of the former Soviet Union. Of foremost importance is the 1937 census, the results of which are now available. In light of the new data it is possible to reappraise the human losses generated by the liquidation of the kulaks, forced collectivization, and the famine of 1932-33. Using appropriate hypotheses concerning the normal level of mortality and the number of births between the 1926 and the 1937 censuses, the article presents a plausible range of estimates of excess mortality during the decade, from a minimum of about 6 million to a maximum of about 13 million....Parallels are drawn between this man-made catastrophe and the 1959-61 famine that occurred in China as a consequence of the Great Leap Forward."
Correspondence: M. Livi-Bacci, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, Department of Political Science, Piazza San Marco 4, 50121 Florence, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20098 Men, Lili. Analysis of social and economic factors affecting mortality in China. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 5, No. 2, 1993. 119-32 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this study, the author compares the data from the 1982 and 1990 [Chinese] censuses...,conducts on the basis of the 1990 census a gradual regression analysis of the social and economic factors that affect mortality in various regions, including both urban and rural areas, selects the major factors, and proposes [methods of] further lowering mortality in China."
Correspondence: L. Men, State Council, Census Office, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20099 Mesle, France; Vallin, Jacques. Economic development and life expectancy: the health transition around the 1960s. [Developpement economique et esperance de vie: la transition sanitaire au tournant des annees soixante.] In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population: Montreal 1993, Volume 2. 1993. 365-82 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Fre.
The relationship between life expectancy and macroeconomic factors is examined, with a focus on the experience of the developed countries since World War II. The authors concentrate on the changes in morbidity that occurred during the 1960s, due to a rapid decrease in the impact of infectious diseases, and during the 1970s, when progress was made against diseases associated with life-style, particularly cardiovascular diseases. They conclude that there is no evidence for any short-term effect of changing economic conditions on life expectancy.
Correspondence: F. Mesle, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20100 Mitra, S.; Levin, Martin L. Modeling survivorship function through principal component analysis. Demography India, Vol. 21, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1992. 113-27 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The authors employ principal component analysis in order to study patterns of variation in the survivorship function by age, using a set of 120 abridged life tables for males and females.
Correspondence: S. Mitra, Emory University, Department of Sociology, Atlanta, GA 30322. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20101 Molnar, Laszlo. Social causes of high morbidity and mortality rates in Hungary. Revue Internationale de Sociologie/International Review of Sociology, No. 2, 1992. 35-67 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng.
Socioeconomic causes of Hungary's high morbidity and mortality rates are analyzed. Consideration is given to stress and psychosomatic diseases; occupational and socioeconomic status; risk factors, including smoking, alcohol consumption, sex factors, and diet; and changes in family structure. Data are from official and other published sources.
Correspondence: L. Molnar, Semmelweis University of Medicine, Ulloi u. 26, 1085 Budapest VIII, Hungary. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20102 Otani, Kenji. A demographic decomposition of a difference in life expectancies at birth: comparatively shorter life expectancy at birth of Osaka prefecture in Japan. Kansai Daigaku Keizai Ronshu, Vol. 43, No. 4, Oct 1993. 129-46 pp. Osaka, Japan. In Jpn.
Reasons for the relatively low level of life expectancy recorded in Osaka prefecture, Japan, are explored. Methods to analyze the relationship between age-specific and cause-specific mortality differentials are first reviewed, and a method of analysis chosen based on the work of Arriaga and Pollard. The results indicate high mortality from cancer for men over age 50 and from heart diseases in women over age 60, and that these factors largely explain the mortality differentials observed. Data are from the last two censuses, conducted in 1985 and 1990.
Correspondence: K. Otani, Kansai University, Department of Economics, 3-3-35 Yamate-cho, Suita-shi, Osaka 564, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20103 Palloni, Alberto; Hill, Kenneth; Pinto Aguirre, Guido. Economic swings and demographic changes in the history of Latin America. CDE Working Paper, No. 93-21, Dec 1993. 42, [17] pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"In this paper we study the effects of short-term economic fluctuations on natality, nuptiality and on infant and adult mortality in Latin America." The focus is on the effects of short-term variations on indices of economic well-being. The period covered is from the 1920s to the present, although the main emphasis is on the period 1955-1990. Particular attention is given to mortality by age and cause from 1955 to 1990.
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1993 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20104 Palloni, Alberto; Hill, Kenneth. The effects of economic changes on mortality by age and cause: Latin America, 1950-1990. CDE Working Paper, No. 92-22, [1992]. 57, [37] pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
The mechanisms linking economic fluctuations and mortality changes in Latin America are examined for the period 1955-1990. The authors then suggest refinements in the available methodology that enable them to "show that estimates of linkages between economic fluctuations and mortality changes by age and cause can be translated into estimates of changes in the overall level and pattern of mortality."
Correspondence: University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20105 Pathak, K. B.; Singh, B. S. A method for estimating expectation of life at birth at sub-national level. Demography India, Vol. 21, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1992. 267-76 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"In this paper, an attempt is made to develop new regression models to estimate expectation of life at birth without utilizing any model life tables. The method is illustrated at the regional as well as district level for the state of Uttar Pradesh [India]. In the absence of any direct check on such estimates their consistency has been established by considering the infant mortality rate and probability of survival of the children up to the age of five years of the various regions, divisions and districts under study."
Correspondence: K. B. Pathak, International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Bombay 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20106 Paula, Sergio G. de. Everyone dies: causes of death in Brazil. [Morrendo a toa: causas da mortalidade no Brasil.] Ensaios, No. 134, ISBN 85-08-03995-6. 1991. 160 pp. Editora Atica: Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por.
The author examines mortality in Brazil for the period 1940-1980. In Part 1, he reviews various demographic theories, with a focus on the limitations of the social sciences for the study of vital events. Part 2 concerns levels and causes of death by age, sex, and region, and describes the overall quality of life in the country. The book is geared toward public health professionals.
Correspondence: Editora Atica S.A., Rua Barao de Iguape 110, Caixa Postal 8656, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20107 Rabusic, Ladislav. On mortality in the Czech Republic. [O umrtnosti v Ceske Republice.] Demografie, Vol. 35, No. 4, 1993. 247-62 pp. Prague, Czech Republic. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
"In this article, Czech mortality rates are inspected in a new perspective...the levels of mortality constructed in Coale's and Demeny's Regional Model Life Tables and in Coale's and Guang Guo's revised edition of the life tables. Czech male and female life expectancies are also contrasted with hypothetical ones computed by means of Coale's equation which sets a 'standard' pattern of life expectancy development in low mortality societies." The impact of past political and social systems is also considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20108 Rogerson, Peter A. On the relationship between handedness and longevity. Social Biology, Vol. 40, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1993. 283-7 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"During the past five years, there have been numerous studies of the relationship between handedness and longevity. In this report, I review previous contributions and use methods of survival analysis...to determine the strength of the relationship between handedness and longevity. The results indicate that left-handers have small, yet significant, declines in survival probabilities between ages of 65 and 85....I used statistics of handedness, vital status (alive or dead), age at beginning of career, date of birth, and date of death for 4,448 baseball players listed in The Sports Encyclopedia: Baseball...."
Correspondence: P. A. Rogerson, State University of New York, Department of Geography, Buffalo, NY 14260. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20109 United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP] (Bangkok, Thailand). Implementation strategy for achieving the goals of mortality reduction. Population Research Leads, No. 45, 1993. 11 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
This publication summarizes a report on prospects for countries in the ESCAP region of Asia and Oceania of reaching mortality targets for the year 2010. These targets were set in the Bali Declaration on Population and Sustainable Development adopted in 1992. Means of achieving the goals are discussed, including improving health services, encouraging family planning programs, and accelerating socioeconomic development. The report concludes that the targets concerning both adult and infant mortality are achievable in those countries not experiencing civil wars.
Correspondence: UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Population Division, Population Information Section, United Nations Building, Rajdamnern Nok Avenue, Bangkok 10200, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20110 Vishnevskii, A. G.; Shkol'nikov, V. M.; Vasin, S. A. The epidemiological transition and causes of death in the USSR. Matekon, Vol. 29, No. 3, Spring 1993. 69-82 pp. Armonk, New York. In Eng.
"Within the context of the theory of epidemiological transition, an analysis is made of life expectancy and its structure as related to the causes of death in the USSR and the union republics, and also their lag behind the life expectancy level achieved by developed countries."
Correspondence: A. G. Vishnevskii, 8-2 Soumski Proezd, Apt. 63, Moscow 113208, Russia. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

60:20111 Zvidrins, Peteris; Krumins, Juris. Morbidity and mortality in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania in the 1980s. Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine, Vol. 21, No. 3, Sep 1993. 150-8 pp. Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"The purpose of the present study was to examine the general morbidity and mortality rates in the three Baltic republics--Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania during a decade before the collapse of the Soviet Union. Official statistical data were used to compare morbidity and mortality rates. A method of standardization and life table functions were employed....A general deterioration of the ecological, social and economic situation in the Baltic republics at the end of the 1980s and early 1990s may have resulted in the mortality rising and aborted any trends to increasing life expectancy in the next few years thus requiring more radical reforms in health and social policy. The study demonstrates a noticeable difference in mortality rates between demographic and socio-economic groups in the Baltic states."
Correspondence: P. Zvidrins, University of Latvia, Department of Statistics and Demography, Rainis Boulevard 19, Riga 1098, Latvia. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

E.2. Prenatal and Perinatal Mortality

Studies dealing primarily with fetal and neonatal mortality, except those dealing with spontaneous abortions, which are classified under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology , and those studies dealing with induced abortions, which are classified under F.4.5. Induced Abortion . Perinatal mortality is defined as mortality occurring between the twenty-eighth week of gestation and the seventh day of life.

60:20112 Bhardwaj, Neelam; Hasan, S. Badrul. High perinatal and neonatal mortality in rural India. Journal of the Royal Society of Health, Vol. 113, No. 2, Apr 1993. 60-3 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"A prospective study conducted in rural India on pregnant women showed poor utilization of primary health services and very poor maternal care receptivity especially in terms of antenatal care. A very high perinatal mortality rate of 81.3/1,000 live births and a neonatal mortality rate of 63.7/1,000 live births was observed in the present study....The study highlights the need for training of grass root level workers for the improvement of perinatal and neonatal care in rural India."
Correspondence: N. Bhardwaj, Bharati Vidyapeeth Medical College, Department of Community Medicine, Katraj, Dhankawadi, Pune 411 043, Maharashtra, India. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

60:20113 Imaizumi, Yoko. Perinatal mortality rates in single and multiple births, and the effects of maternal age, birthweight, and other factors on the perinatal mortality rates in Japan. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 49, No. 3, Oct 1993. 51-65 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
"The perinatal mortality rate (PMR) was analyzed using...Vital Statistics for 1950-1991 in Japan. Secular changes in the PMRs were analyzed according to sex and single-multiple births. This paper also investigated the effects of maternal age, birth order, gestational age, and birthweight on the PMR."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20114 Kitange, H.; Swai, A. B. M.; Masuki, G.; Kilima, P. M.; Alberti, K. G. M. M.; McLarty, D. G. Perinatal mortality in rural Tanzania. World Health Forum, Vol. 15, No. 1, 1994. 82-4 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
"In 1987, as part of the World Health Organization's Inter-Health Programme, we carried out a noncommunicable diseases survey in six rural villages in Tanzania....Our findings...[include] unacceptably high perinatal mortality and [spontaneous] abortion rates...." The authors find an average spontaneous abortion rate of 119 per 1,000 pregnancies, and an average perinatal mortality rate of 73 per 1,000 births. A total of 3,565 women were surveyed, with a mean response rate of 89%.
Correspondence: K. G. M. M. Alberti, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, School of Clinical Medical Sciences, Department of Medicine, William Leech Building, Floor 4, Framlington Place, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4HH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20115 Lawson, James S.; Mayberry, Patricia. How can infant and perinatal mortality rates be compared internationally? World Health Forum, Vol. 15, No. 1, 1994. 85-8 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
Problems in international comparisons of infant and perinatal mortality data are discussed. The authors suggest the adoption of universal definitions and classifications for live birth and fetal death. Comments by Peter M. Dunn are included (pp. 87-8).
Correspondence: J. S. Lawson, University of New South Wales, School of Health Sciences and Management, P.O. Box 1, Kensington, NSW 2033, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20116 Taha, T. E.; Gray, R. H.; Abdelwahab, M. M.; Abdelhafeez, A. R.; Abdelsalam, A. B. Levels and determinants of perinatal mortality in Central Sudan. Johns Hopkins Population Center Papers on Population, No. WP 94-05, [1994]. 22 pp. Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Population Center: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"Hospital surveillance and case-control, and community follow-up studies were conducted to determine rates and risk factors for perinatal mortality in Central Sudan." The authors note that although the rates obtained from the two types of study are not comparable, the underlying risks and recommended intervention strategies are similar.
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Population Center, 615 North Wolfe Street, Room 2300, Baltimore, MD 21205-2179. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.3. Infant and Childhood Mortality

Studies of infant mortality under one year of age, including neonatal mortality occurring after the seventh day of life, and childhood mortality after one year of age. The subject of infanticide, deliberate or implied, is also classified under this heading.

60:20117 Andes, Nancy. Institutional contexts and mortality: the case of Peru. Sociological Focus, Vol. 25, No. 4, Oct 1992. 295-309 pp. Bowling Green, Ohio. In Eng.
"This analysis examines the institutional context of infant mortality in Peru using economic, social, health care, and public health measures as indicators of development and equity. Using linked data from population and economic censuses, government agencies, and health surveys on twenty-four Peruvian provinces, I explore how economic development and institutional contexts influence health outcomes. Regional inequities based on rural population, subsistence activity, women's illiteracy, monthly income, Gross Domestic Product, medical care, and health facilities are compared. Then a cluster analysis identifies institutional contexts that have internal similarities....My conclusion is that understanding regional inequities--defined in terms of economic development, social institutions, and health services--leads to enhanced explanations of disparities in health outcomes."
Correspondence: N. Andes, University of Alaska, Department of Sociology, 3211 Providence Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

60:20118 Bhat, P. N. Mari; Rajan, S. Irudaya. Paternal deprivation and child mortality. Demography India, Vol. 21, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1992. 167-77 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The authors investigate the impact of father's absence on child mortality by examining the mortality risks of paternally and maternally orphaned children in India. "Our results reestablish the importance of father in the matter of child care by showing that paternally deprived children in India have 20 per cent higher risk of mortality compared with children who are living with both the parents. However, our results also show that the impact of paternal deprivation is not uniform in all communities."
Correspondence: P. N. M. Bhat, J. S. S. Institute of Economic Research, Population Research Centre, Vidyagiri, Dharwad, 580 004, Karnataka, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20119 Bhattacharya, Gauri. The impact of selected modernization variables on trends in the infant mortality rate in Bangladesh, India and Pakistan. Pub. Order No. DA9329446. 1993. 194 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study looks at the impact of modernization on infant mortality in Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan from 1977 to 1987. The results confirm that modernization leads to a decline in infant mortality, but do not establish which of the aspects of modernization studied are most directly responsible. The study was undertaken for a Doctorate of Social Welfare at Adelphi University's School of Social Work.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 54(6).

60:20120 Forbes, Douglas; Frisbie, W. Parker. Anticipating the enigma: models of ethnicity and infant mortality in Bexar County, Texas: 1949-1984. Texas Population Research Center Paper, No. 13.14, 1992-1993. 15, [6] pp. University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center: Austin, Texas. In Eng.
An analysis of differentials in Mexican-American and Anglo infant mortality is undertaken using data on all births and infant deaths occurring to whites residing in Bexar County, Texas, for the period 1949-1984.
This paper was originally presented at the 1993 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center, Main 1800, Austin, TX 78712. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20121 Frisbie, W. Parker. Birth weight and infant mortality in the Mexican origin and Anglo populations. Texas Population Research Center Paper, No. 13.15, 1992-1993. 13, [2] pp. University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center: Austin, Texas. In Eng.
The author examines the reasons why Mexican-origin and Anglo infant mortality rates are so similar despite the higher risk-profile of the former population due to their higher fertility, younger age at first birth, less adequate prenatal care, and lower socioeconomic status. Data are from medical records of infant deaths in the San Antonio, Texas, Metropolitan Health District, and a 20% sample of birth records for Bexar County, Texas, from 1935 to 1985.
Correspondence: University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center, Main 1800, Austin, TX 78712. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20122 Gamgam, Hamza; Ekni, Muslim. A study on the bias of infant mortality rates. [Bebek olum hizlarindaki yanlilik uzerine bir calisma.] Nufusbilim Dergisi/Turkish Journal of Population Studies, Vol. 15, 1993. 79-88 pp. Ankara, Turkey. In Tur. with sum. in Eng.
"The calculation of the infant mortality rates in demographic studies may contain various errors which stem from the data collection steps. One of these errors [is due to the fact] that the dead infants in the infant mortality rates for [a specific] year may have [been] born in the previous year; the other is that the mortality rate may include a number of infants...born in this year [who] may die in the following year. In this study, some of these concepts and the biases and their asymptotic values has been reviewed." Data are from five health centers in a district in Ankara province, Turkey.
Correspondence: H. Gamgam, Universitesi Fen Edebiyat, Fakultesi Istatistik, Bolumu, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20123 Gomez Redondo, Rosa. Infant mortality in Spain in the twentieth century. [La mortalidad infantil espanola en el siglo XX.] Coleccion Monografias, No. 123, ISBN 84-7476-168-9. Jun 1992. xvi, 451 pp. Centro de Investigaciones Sociologicas [CIS]: Madrid, Spain; Siglo XXI de Espana Editores: Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
The author examines the decline in infant mortality in Spain during the twentieth century. The chronology of the decline is outlined, and consideration is given to the impacts of the 1918 influenza epidemic and the civil war of 1936. Three stages of mortality transition are identified; and age factors, sex differentials, and the etiology of infant deaths are considered. Annual disaggregated mortality data are included by province in tabular format in an appendix.
Correspondence: Centro de Investigaciones Sociologicas, Montalban 8, 28014 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20124 Jutikkala, Eino. How many lived to maturity? Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 31, 1993. 16-24 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"Calculations have been made of the total child and adolescent mortality in Finland in the 1700s and 1800s and the beginning of the 1900s. The author examines the cohort mortality of children and adolescents in different periods, regions and social groups...by using the family reconstruction method with the aid of genealogical tables. The study focuses on five populations. In these cases the common allegation that during [the] preindustrial period half the children died before reaching maturity is somewhat exaggerated."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20125 Kabir, M.; Amin, Ruhul. Factors influencing child mortality in Bangladesh and their implications for the national health programme. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 8, No. 3, Sep 1993. 31-46 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This study attempts to estimate by indirect estimation technique the levels of infant and child mortality in Bangladesh using the 1989 Bangladesh Fertility Survey (BFS). The levels of infant and child mortality obtained from the 1989 BFS indicate substantial improvements in child survival, although the fall in infant mortality has been faster than the fall in child mortality."
Correspondence: M. Kabir, Jahangirnagar University, Department of Statistics, Savar, Dhaka 1342, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20126 Katus, Kalev. Infant mortality in Estonia. [Imikusuremus Eesti Maakondades.] Rahvastiku-Uuringud/Population Studies Series B, No. 17, 1992. 9, [54] pp. Estonian Interuniversity Population Research Centre: Tallinn, Estonia. In Est.
This report presents data on infant mortality and stillbirths in Estonia by county for the period 1965-1990. It is the first of a planned series presenting previously unpublished data concerning the period of Soviet rule.
Correspondence: Estonian Interuniversity Population Research Centre, P.O. Box 3012, 200090 Tallinn, Estonia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20127 London, Andrew S. The impact of advances in medicine on the biometric analysis of infant mortality. Social Biology, Vol. 40, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1993. 260-82 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"Bourgeois-Pichat's biometric model was developed as a method to decompose infant mortality into endogenous and exogenous components. The model assumes that no endogenous deaths occur after the first month of life. This paper uses data for the United States [from 1935 to 1985] to examine the hypothesis that recent advances in medicine extend endogenous mortality past the first month of life. The biometric model [consistently underestimates] the endogenous infant mortality rate and [overestimates] the exogenous infant mortality rate relative to cause of death analysis."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1991 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: A. S. London, University of California, Department of Sociology, Hilgard Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90024. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20128 Lynch, Katherine A.; Greenhouse, Joel B. Risk factors for infant mortality in nineteenth-century Sweden. Population Studies, Vol. 48, No. 1, Mar 1994. 117-33 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This study examines risk factors for infant mortality using individual-level data from a sample of parishes in northern Sweden in the nineteenth century. Sweden is of particular interest because of its unusually regular pattern of infant mortality decline during the century. We follow a sample of women longitudinally through their successive pregnancies and observe the mortality experience of each child. Exploratory and multivariate logistic regression analyses reveal an important intra-familial dimension to infant mortality that appears from the early stages of a woman's reproductive career. In addition, multivariate analyses by birth-order group suggest that ignoring intra-familial correlations of infant mortality may result in incorrect inferences. Siblings' shared probabilities of dying as infants suggest that high-birth-order children were not necessarily disadvantaged in any systematic way."
Correspondence: K. A. Lynch, Carnegie Mellon University, Department of History, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20129 Megawangi, Ratna; Barnett, Junaidah B. A comparison of determinants of infant mortality rate (IMR) between countries with high and low IMR. Majalah Demografi Indonesia/Indonesian Journal of Demography, Vol. 20, No. 39, Jun 1993. 79-86 pp. Jakarta, Indonesia. In Eng. with sum. in Ind.
The authors explore the determinants of infant mortality for selected countries, with a focus on the use of the infant mortality rate as an economic and social indicator of development.
Correspondence: R. Megawangi, Bogor Institute of Agriculture, Department of Community Nutrition and Family Resources, Jalan Raya Pajajaran, Bogor 16143, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20130 Miller, Jane E.; Goldman, Noreen; Moreno, Lorenzo. An evaluation of survey data on birthweight and prematurity status. Social Biology, Vol. 40, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1993. 131-46 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"Our study analyses data on birthweight and prematurity status from [the 1986 Dominican Republic Demographic and Health Survey]. The principal objective is to assess whether retrospectively recalled data on these variables are accurate indicators of what they are intended to measure. We evaluate the data by examining distributions of birthweight and prematurity status and patterns of mortality by these two variables, and by comparing the resulting estimates with available data from other sources, including other sample surveys in developing countries, vital registration, and clinical studies." It is found that "the relationships among birthweight, prematurity status, and infant mortality are consistent with corresponding patterns observed in other Latin American and Caribbean countries and in developed nations. Two notable irregularities in the birthweight data are the atypically high proportion of infants weighing 4,000 grams or more, and the high mortality rates among infants with missing birthweight."
Correspondence: J. E. Miller, Rutgers University, Institute for Health, Health Care Policy, and Aging Research, New Brunswick, NJ 08903. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20131 Nour, Osman A. M.; Al-Mazrou, Yagob Y.; Shehri, Sulieman N.; Khalil, Mohammed; Farag, Mohamed K. Rapid decline in infant and child mortality. Annals of Saudi Medicine, Vol. 12, No. 6, Nov 1992. 565-70 pp. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In Eng. with sum. in Ara.
"The present study uses the nationwide data of the 1990 Child Survival Survey to examine levels, trends and differentials of infant and child mortality [in Saudi Arabia]. The analysis reveals a considerable infant and child mortality decline during the period 1976-1987. The infant mortality declined from 81 in 1976 to 38 per 1,000 live births in 1987. During the same period, the child mortality rate under five years declined from 113 to 42 per 1,000 live births. The findings of the survey also showed a significant differential of infant and child mortality by (a) urban/rural settings, (b) geographical regions, and (c) parental education."
Correspondence: O. A. M. Nour, King Saud University, Department of Social Studies, P. O. Box 245, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

60:20132 Paul, Bimal K.; Mannan, Muhammad A. Infant mortality rates in the year 2000: a cross national study. Area, Vol. 25, No. 3, Sep 1993. 246-56 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Reduction of infant mortality rate (IMR) has become an important component for monitoring progress toward satisfactory health for all by the year 2000....Using the Markov chain modelling approach, this paper forecasts that sixty countries still will have an IMR of above 50 in the year 2000. The reasons for this slow progress are discussed and ways to intensify the efforts to lower infant mortality are indicated."
Correspondence: B. K. Paul, Kansas State University, Department of Geography, Manhattan, KS 66506. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20133 Peters, David H.; Gray, Ronald H.; Becker, Stan; Gultiano, Socorro A.; Black, Robert E. A case-control study of fatal diarrhea and respiratory infections in Filipino children. Johns Hopkins Population Center Papers on Population, No. WP 94-02, Aug 1993. 14, [10] pp. Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Population Center: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"A community-based nested case-control study was conducted in Metro Cebu, the Philippines to determine the causes of death in 412 children under two years of age, and to assess risk factors for mortality among those with sole diagnoses of acute watery diarrhea or acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI), and diagnoses of combined diarrhea and ALRI." The results of the study suggest that current child survival interventions, such as oral rehydration therapy, may not have a significant effect in reducing mortality in such settings.
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Population Center, 615 North Wolfe Street, Room 2300, Baltimore, MD 21205-2179. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20134 Rose, Donald; Martorell, Reynaldo; Rivera, Juan. Infant mortality rates before, during, and after a nutrition and health intervention in rural Guatemalan villages. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, Vol. 14, No. 3, Sep 1992. 215-20 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"Village-level infant mortality rates (IMRs) before, during, and after a food supplement and health care intervention in four villages in eastern Guatemala in 1969-1977 and in three control villages are compared. Data on all pregnancies and outcomes for 988 women were obtained by means of a retrospective women's life history survey. After controlling for baseline values, the average IMR in two villages receiving supplementation with a protein- and energy-rich drink and health care was 60 per 1,000 live births, compared with an average rate of 113 in the control villages....The rate in two villages receiving the same type of health care but a low-energy supplement was 91 per 1,000 and not significantly different from that in the control villages."
Correspondence: D. Rose, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, 1301 New York Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20005-4788. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20135 Singh, Kiran; Srivastava, Purnima. The effect of colostrum on infant mortality: urban rural differentials. Health and Population: Perspectives and Issues, Vol. 15, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1992. 94-100 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng. with sum. in Hin.
"The study investigates the association between use and knowledge of colostrum on neonatal and post-neonatal deaths. Data from a 1987 survey, conducted...[in Varanasi,] India, were used. It has been found that the neonatal and post-neonatal deaths were very low, for females familiar with the importance of colostrum and feeding it....Findings also revealed that there was no effect of social status on the use and knowledge of colostrum but at the same time a highly significant effect of residence was found on the use and knowledge of colostrum."
Correspondence: K. Singh, Banaras Hindu University, Faculty of Science, Centre of Population Studies, Varanasi 221 005, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20136 Weng, Shigui; Wang, Shaoxian. An analysis of infant mortality in China. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 5, No. 1, 1993. 75-81 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this study, the authors intend to describe the changes in China's infant mortality between 1975 and 1987, and examine such mortality in the context of the infant's gender and parity and mother's ethnicity, occupation, educational level, age at childbirth and residence (urban or rural)." The study is based on a sample taken from a 1988 survey on fertility and contraception.
Correspondence: S. Weng, Beijing Medical University, College of Public Health, Office of Health Statistics, Medicine and Population, 38 Xue Yuan Lu, Northern Suburb, Beijing 100083, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20137 Woelk, G. B.; Arrow, J. O.; Sanders, D. M.; Loewenson, R.; Ubomba-Jaswa, P. Estimating child mortality in Zimbabwe: results of a pilot study using the preceding births technique. Central African Journal of Medicine, Vol. 39, No. 4, Apr 1993. 63-70 pp. Harare, Zimbabwe. In Eng.
"Using the preceding birth technique, 2,229 mothers were interviewed at four antenatal centres (two of which were urban) over a three month period during a pilot study in Zimbabwe. Results of the study showed that there was a small difference between the under two and under five mortality....Other findings of the study showed that younger mothers (under 20 years of age) and older mothers (over 40 years) experienced higher proportions of mortality, than mothers in the age group between....[Furthermore,] longer birth intervals (more than three years) among older mothers were associated with higher chances of child survival."
Correspondence: G. B. Woelk, Department of Community Medicine, Box A178, Avondale, Harare, Zimbabwe. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

E.4. Mortality at Other Ages

Studies of age-specific mortality and of mortality in special groups defined by age.

60:20138 Crimmins, Eileen M.; Hayward, Mark D.; Saito, Yasuhiko. Changing mortality and morbidity rates and the health status and life expectancy of the older population. Demography, Vol. 31, No. 1, Feb 1994. 159-75 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper demonstrates the consequences of changes in mortality and health transition rates for changes in both health status life expectancy and the prevalence of health problems in the older [U.S.] population. A five-state multistate life table for the mid-1980s provides the baseline for estimating the effect of differing mortality and morbidity schedules. Results show that improving mortality alone implies increases in both the years and the proportion of dependent life; improving morbidity alone reduces both the years and the proportion of dependent life. Improving mortality alone leads to a higher prevalence of dependent individuals in the life table population; improving morbidity alone leads to a lower percentage of individuals with problems in functioning."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1992 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: E. M. Crimmins, University of Southern California, Andrus Gerontology Center, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0191. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20139 Duncan, Bruce B.; Schmidt, Maria I.; Schmitz, Marcelo; Ott, Eduardo A. Tendencies in adult mortality in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 1970-1985. An international comparison. Ciencia e Cultura, Vol. 44, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1992. 362-7 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Eng. with sum. in Por.
"In order to evaluate mortality trends in adults aged 30-69 years in the State of Rio Grande do Sul [Brazil], changes in age-standardized mortality from 1970 to 1985 were calculated and compared with trends of 33 other countries. Virtual stability in Rio Grande do Sul over this 16-year period contrasts with dramatic reduction in age-standardized all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in many countries....The data demonstrate that major declines in adult mortality can be achieved, and suggest that, during the period 1970-1985, Rio Grande do Sul participated little in the international tendency toward improved adult health."
Correspondence: B. B. Duncan, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Faculdade de Medicina, Departamento de Medicina Social, Rua Ramiro Barcellos 2600-414, Porto Alegre, RS 90035-003, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20140 Martelin, Tuija. Mortality by indicators of socioeconomic status among the Finnish elderly. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 38, No. 9, May 1994. 1,257-78 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Socioeconomic mortality differentials among the entire Finnish elderly population (those aged 60 years and over) during 1981-85 are examined on the basis of linked data, compiled by means of linking death records of 1981-85 to the 1980 census. Several indicators of socioeconomic position are used: own educational level and occupational class, spouse's education and class, household disposable income, and housing conditions. Marked differences are found according to each of the indicators. Mortality differentials tend to decrease with age and be more pronounced among men as compared to women."
Correspondence: T. Martelin, University of Helsinki, Department of Sociology, P.O. Box 46, Hameentie 68B, 00014 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

60:20141 Nathanson, Constance A. Disease prevention as social change: strategies to reduce adult mortality in developing countries. Johns Hopkins Population Center Papers on Population, No. WP 94-06, [1994]. 46 pp. Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Population Center: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
The author reviews existing strategies designed to reduce adult mortality in developing countries, and proposes some alternative approaches. She concludes "that strategies to prevent adult disease should be directed primarily at the institutions and circumstances that support (or do not intervene to avert) particular disease patterns, rather than at the individuals who will suffer from these diseases."
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Population Center, 615 North Wolfe Street, Room 2300, Baltimore, MD 21205-2179. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20142 Uttley, Meredith; Crawford, Michael H. Efficacy of a composite biological age score to predict ten-year survival among Kansas and Nebraska Mennonites. Human Biology, Vol. 66, No. 1, Feb 1994. 121-44 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
"Our purpose here is to test the ability of functional-biological age computed using multiple regression to predict 10-year survival. Predictive ability is tested with three research questions. First, is the mean standardized residual, indicating biological age, higher for the group of deceased compared with [those surviving]? Second, are more biologically older individuals deceased than would be expected based on probability? Third, is the risk of being deceased higher for the functionally older? The null hypothesis is that predicted biological age is unrelated to 10-year survival." Data are from a 1980-1981 survey of Mennonites in Kansas and Nebraska.
Correspondence: M. Uttley, Lander University, Division of Behavioral Sciences, Greenwood, SC 29649. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.5. Life Tables

Studies that present actual life table data and all studies concerned primarily with life tables, including the appropriate methodological studies. Life table studies that are concerned with topics other than mortality are classified under the appropriate heading and cross-referenced to this heading.

60:20143 Bell, Felicitie C.; Wade, Alice H.; Goss, Stephen C. Life tables for the United States, Social Security area: 1900-2080. Actuarial Study, No. 107, Pub. Order No. 11-11536. Aug 1992. v, 106 pp. U.S. Social Security Administration, Office of the Actuary: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
This publication presents life tables by sex for the United States up to the year 2080. These are the projections of future trends in mortality used to estimate future costs for the Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program. Both period and cohort tables are included.
Correspondence: U.S. Social Security Administration, Office of the Actuary, Room 700, Altmeyer Building, Baltimore, MD 21235. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20144 Israel. Central Bureau of Statistics (Jerusalem, Israel). Life tables (complete) in Israel, 1986-1990. Monthly Bulletin of Statistics, Vol. 44, No. 3, Suppl., Mar 1993. 57-72 pp. Jerusalem, Israel. In Eng; Heb.
Life tables are presented by sex for Israel for the period 1986-1990 for the total population, Jews, and non-Jews. The tables were prepared using the MORTPAK software developed by the United Nations and data available up to 1987.
Correspondence: Central Bureau of Statistics, Hakirya, Romema, Jerusalem 91130, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

60:20145 Mitra, S. On Lutz and Scherbov's sensitivity of aggregate life expectancy to different averaging procedure--a research note. Demography India, Vol. 21, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1992. 277-80 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author critically examines an article by Wolfgang Lutz and Sergei Scherbov concerning "the problems resulting from alternative ways of combining the period life tables of different populations....In the [present paper the author takes] a closer look at the computational steps of the joint life expectancy by merging the distributions of populations and deaths by age."
For the study by Lutz and Scherbov, published in 1992, see 58:40108.
Correspondence: S. Mitra, Emory University, Department of Sociology, Atlanta, GA 30322. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20146 Preston, Samuel H.; McDaniel, Antonio; Grushka, Carlos. New model life tables for high-mortality populations. Historical Methods, Vol. 26, No. 4, Fall 1993. 149-59 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"In this article, we present a new model life-table system designed for use in high-mortality populations. It combines features of existing model life tables with new data on a population having exceptionally high mortality. The data pertain to the population of African Americans who moved to Liberia in the period between 1820 and 1843. These new data provide a previously unavailable baseline on which high-mortality models can be anchored."
Correspondence: S. H. Preston, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6297. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.6. Differential Mortality

Studies on the ratio of mortality in different subgroups of a population, classified according to certain criteria, such as sex, social class, occupation, and marital status. Also includes studies on excess mortality and comparative mortality.

60:20147 Aase, Asbjorn. The changing geography of mortality in Norway, 1969-1989. Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift/Norwegian Journal of Geography, Vol. 46, No. 2, Jun 1992. 47-62 pp. Oslo, Norway. In Eng.
"Changes in the geographical mortality pattern for Norway between 1969 and 1989 are explored for total mortality, coronary heart disease, stomach cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer, melanoma, infant mortality and suicide. The period has shown considerable flux. Coronary heart disease mortality used to be higher in urban than rural areas, but the situation has now reversed (for men) or equalized (for women). The excess infant mortality in the periphery has been eliminated. Suicide has increased faster in fishing and farming areas than in the cities. The changes are interpreted through some concepts and models: the epidemiological transition, geographical and social diffusion, regional restructuring, changes of the physical environment and geographical uniqueness." Data are from official sources.
Correspondence: A. Aase, University of Trondheim, Department of Geography, 7055 Dragvoll, Norway. Location: Dartmouth College Library, Hanover, NH.

60:20148 Bosma, H.; Appels, A.; Sturmans, F.; Grabauskas, V.; Gostautas, A. Differences in mortality and coronary heart disease between Lithuania and the Netherlands: results from the WHO Kaunas-Rotterdam Intervention Study (KRIS). International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 23, No. 1, Feb 1994. 12-9 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"A 9.5-year follow-up of the Kaunas-Rotterdam Intervention Study (KRIS) provided an opportunity to compare mortality patterns and rates in a population from Lithuania...with a population from the Netherlands. These populations consisted of 2,452 and 3,365 males, respectively, aged 45-60 years. In 1972-1974, these males were extensively screened for cardiovascular risk factors, using uniform methods....The results provide evidence for geographical differences in mortality and morbidity between Lithuania and the Netherlands. Population-specific health behaviours were shown to be involved in differences in the risk of [coronary heart disease]."
Correspondence: H. Bosma, University of Limburg, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medical Psychology, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20149 Caselli, Graziella; Cerbara, Loredana; Leti, Giuseppe. The geography of adult mortality: results from the fuzzy clumping method. Genus, Vol. 49, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1993. 1-24 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita.
"This study analyses provincial differences in adult mortality (separately for men and women, aged 30-64 years) in Italy between 1984 [and] 1987....By applying the fuzzy clumping method to mortality rates by cause...groups of provinces can be identified where mortality profiles (irrespective of the intensity) are not only similar for all or only for some of the mortality causes considered, but also specify the grade of similarity common to the provinces in the same group. This method, whereby any single province can belong to several groups, provides an image of the geography of mortality where homogeneous groups are not separated by fixed boundaries but may actually have provinces in common."
Correspondence: G. Caselli, Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche, Via Nomentana 41, 00161 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20150 Devis, Tim. Measuring mortality differences by cause of death and social class defined by occupation. Population Trends, No. 73, Autumn 1993. 32-5 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This article examines the use of existing data sources to study mortality trends [in England and Wales] by cause of death and by social class (as defined by occupation). The strengths and weaknesses of each are discussed, and estimates made for two causes of male mortality--ischaemic heart disease and stroke--for those aged 45-74 in 1971-75 and 1981-85. For both causes, the decline was more pronounced in Social Classes I and II than for other classes, and for stroke a clear gradient by social class was found in 1981-85 which was not evident earlier."
Correspondence: T. Devis, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, Health Statistics Division, St. Catherine's House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20151 Firth, H. M.; Herbison, G. P.; Cooke, K. R.; Fraser, J. Male cancer mortality by occupation: 1973-86. New Zealand Medical Journal, Vol. 106, No. 961, Aug 11, 1993. 328-30 pp. Wellington, New Zealand. In Eng.
The authors attempt to "identify male occupational groups with increased risk of death from cancer [in New Zealand] in 1973-86....Age and social class standardised mortality ratios were calculated for males 15-64 years for all cancers combined and for site specific cancers by occupational group....In general, higher socio-economic groups had a lower all cancer mortality and lower socio-economic groups a higher mortality."
Correspondence: H. M. Firth, University of Otago Medical School, Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, P.O. Box 913, Dunedin, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20152 Koskinen, Seppo; Martelin, Tuija. Why are socioeconomic mortality differences smaller among women than among men? Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 38, No. 10, May 1994. 1,385-96 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
Reasons why differential mortality by socioeconomic status is lower for women than men in Finland are explored. Data are from the 1980 census, linked with death records for the period 1981-1985 for the population aged 35-64. "According to each of the socioeconomic indicators applied in this study (level of education, occupational class, housing density and standard of equipment of the dwelling) the relative magnitude of inequalities among women is considerably smaller than among men. This result arises totally from the married subpopulation--in other marital status groups women's inequalities are at least as large as men's."
Correspondence: S. Koskinen, University of Helsinki, Department of Sociology, P.O. Box 46, Hameentie 68B, 00014 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

60:20153 Marmot, Michael. Epidemiological approach to the explanation of social differentiation in mortality: the Whitehall Studies. Sozial- und Praventivmedizin/Medecine Sociale et Preventive/Social and Preventive Medicine, Vol. 38, No. 5, 1993. 271-9 pp. Basel, Switzerland. In Eng.
"This paper starts with national data in England and Wales and then uses data from the two Whitehall studies of British Civil Servants to investigate possible explanations of social class differences in mortality and morbidity."
Correspondence: M. Marmot, University College and Middlesex School of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, 66-72 Gower Street, London WC1E 6EA, England. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

60:20154 Mendes de Leon, Carlos F.; Kasl, Stanislav V.; Jacobs, Selby. Widowhood and mortality risk in a community sample of the elderly: a prospective study. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, Vol. 46, No. 6, 1993. 519-27 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The purpose of the present study is (1) to examine the mortality risk of widowhood in a representative [U.S.] community sample of persons aged 65 years and over, and (2) to determine whether this risk is modified by health status and other predictors of mortality which may differ between the widowed and non-widowed, and which were assessed before onset of widowhood....Data for this study come from [a sample of 1,046 respondents from] the Yale Health and Aging Project....Young-old widows appear more vulnerable during early bereavement than widowers of the same age. Preliminary analysis also suggested that, contrary to young-old widows, old-old widows experienced fewer than expected deaths during early bereavement...."
Correspondence: C. F. Mendes de Leon, Yale University, School of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, 60 College Street, New Haven, CT 06520-8034. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20155 Minder, Christoph E. Socio-economic factors and mortality in Switzerland. Sozial- und Praventivmedizin/Medecine Sociale et Preventive/Social and Preventive Medicine, Vol. 38, No. 5, 1993. 313-28 pp. Basel, Switzerland. In Eng.
The socioeconomic aspects of differential mortality in Switzerland are described. Factors considered include marital status, nationality, occupation, educational status, and age. Data are from official sources.
Correspondence: C. E. Minder, University of Bern, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Finkenhubelweg 11, 3012 Bern, Switzerland. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

60:20156 Morris, Joan K.; Cook, Derek G.; Shaper, A. Gerald. Loss of employment and mortality. British Medical Journal, Vol. 308, No. 6937, Apr 30, 1994. 1,135-9 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The effect of unemployment and early retirement on mortality among British men aged 40-59 is analyzed. The data concern 6,191 men initially screened in 1978-1980, 1,779 of whom subsequently experienced some unemployment or retired during the next five years. The results indicate that "in this group of stably employed middle aged men loss of employment was associated with an increased risk of mortality even after adjustment for background variables, suggesting a causal effect. The effect was non-specific, however, with the increased mortality involving both cancer and cardiovascular disease."
Correspondence: D. G. Cook, Saint George's Hospital Medical School, Department of Public Health Sciences, London SW17 0RE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

60:20157 Noin, Daniel. Spatial inequalities in mortality. In: The changing population of Europe, edited by Daniel Noin and Robert Woods. 1993. 38-48 pp. Blackwell: Cambridge, Massachusetts/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author investigates spatial inequalities in mortality within the European Community, with a focus on the extent of such inequalities, how they have come about, and current and future trends.
Correspondence: D. Noin, Universite de Paris I, Department of Geography, 191 rue Saint-Jacques, 75005 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20158 Pavalko, Eliza K.; Elder, Glen H.; Clipp, Elizabeth C. Worklives and longevity: insights from a life course perspective. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, Vol. 34, No. 4, Dec 1993. 363-80 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"To investigate the relationship between worklife patterns and longevity, longitudinal records were used from the men in the Stanford-Terman longitudinal study. The men in this study were born between 1900 and 1920 and were surveyed [in California schools] every five years from 1922 to 1986, on average...." The authors find that "while relatively few men in this study experienced a period in which they moved through a series of unrelated jobs, those who did had a higher mortality risk. Similarly, men who progressed early in their careers but then remained stable in later periods tended to be at a greater risk than those who progressed in both time periods. Health and lifestyle measures were also significant predictors of mortality risk, but did not account for the observed impact of worklife patterns on mortality."
Correspondence: E. K. Pavalko, Indiana University, Department of Sociology, Bloomington, IN 47405. Location: Princeton University Library (SW).

60:20159 Pearce, Neil; Pomare, Eru; Marshall, Stephen; Borman, Barry. Mortality and social class in Maori and nonMaori New Zealand men: changes between 1975-7 and 1985-7. New Zealand Medical Journal, Vol. 106, No. 956, May 26, 1993. 193-6 pp. Wellington, New Zealand. In Eng.
"Social class mortality differences in Maori and nonMaori New Zealand men aged 15-64 years have previously been examined for the period 1975-7. The analysis has now been repeated for the period 1985-7 in order to examine changes over time....Data were obtained from national death registrations and...from the 1976 to 1986 censuses....Some progress has been achieved in reducing ethnic differences in mortality in New Zealand men, but substantial differences remain for diseases which are amenable to medical intervention (including chronic rheumatic heart disease, hypertensive heart disease, and tuberculosis). It is likely that these differences reflect poor access to culturally safe and appropriate health care in Maori people."
Correspondence: N. Pearce, Wellington School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, P.O. Box 7343, Wellington, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20160 Ram, Bali. Sex differences in mortality as a social indicator. In: Readings in population research: policy, methods and perspectives, edited by P. Krishnan, Chi-Hsien Tuan, and Kuttan Mahadevan. 1992. 235-58 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
"In this article, a sociological model which explains the sex mortality differences at the societal level was posited. The study began by reviewing certain previous research on this subject and by analyzing the existing data for India to demonstrate that the lower status accorded to women is a factor responsible for the excess female mortality in that country. The analysis...provided support for the hypothesis that the higher the status of women, the higher would be their life expectancy compared to men."
Correspondence: B. Ram, Statistics Canada, Demography Division, Demographic Characteristics Section, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20161 Rao, Keqin; Chen, Yude. Impact of changes in China's urban mortality on the average life expectancy. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 5, No. 1, 1993. 67-73 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Based on changes in the ALE [average life expectancy] and disease-caused mortality among China's urban population between 1973 and 1989, the authors analyze in this article differences and changes in gender-specific and age-specific mortality during two periods of time (1973-80 and 1980-89) and their impact on the growth of ALE during each period, discuss the relationships between changes in ALE and those in disease-caused mortality and predict the probability of growth in ALE."
Correspondence: K. Rao, Ministry of Public Health, Center of Health Statistics and Information, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20162 Smith, Ken R.; Zick, Cathleen D. Linked lives, dependent demise? Survival analysis of husbands and wives. Demography, Vol. 31, No. 1, Feb 1994. 81-93 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Past research has found that married individuals have substantially lower risks of mortality than their single counterparts. This paper examines how household characteristics affect spouses' risks of mortality [in the United States]. A paired hazard rate model is estimated and tests are made to ascertain whether the estimated coefficients associated with risk factors differ between husbands' and wives' equations. Cigarette smoking, risk-avoidance behavior, poverty, and children are found to affect wives' and husbands' mortality in similar ways. Divorce, which can be interpreted as the termination of this shared household environment, is found to affect spouses differently."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1991 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: K. R. Smith, University of Utah, Department of Family and Consumer Studies, 228 AEB, Salt Lake City, UT 84112. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20163 Tabutin, Dominique; Willems, Michel. Excess mortality among young girls in the South: from the 1970s to the 1980s. [La surmortalite des petites filles dans de Sud: des annees 1970 aux annees 1980.] Institut de Demographie Working Paper, No. 173, ISBN 2-87209-332-X. Dec 1993. 54 pp. Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre.
The authors analyze changes in the mortality patterns of young girls in the developing world over the course of the 1970s and 1980s, with the focus on excess mortality. They identify regional differences in such mortality, and focus particularly on Sub-Saharan Africa. The relationship between excess female child mortality and selected indicators of social development is considered.
Correspondence: Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie, Place Montesquieu 1, B.P. 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20164 Valkonen, Tapani. Socio-economic mortality differences in Europe. NIDI Hofstee Lecture Series, No. 1, 1993. 41 pp. Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute [NIDI]: The Hague, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The lecture reviews current knowledge about the extent of socio-economic differences [in mortality] in Europe as well as trends in these differences. Detailed data including life expectancies at birth are presented for Finland, for which country the data are most complete. In all countries for which data are available, mortality is higher in the lower socio-economic classes. The differences are, as a rule, larger among males than among females. The extent of socio-economic differences in mortality varies between countries and is smaller in Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and the Netherlands than in Finland, the United Kingdom, and France. In most countries for which data are available, socio-economic mortality differences have increased. The explanations suggested for socio-economic mortality differences are discussed."
Correspondence: Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute, Postbus 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20165 van Reek, Jan. Mortality by social class among males in the Netherlands since the nineteenth century. Genus, Vol. 49, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1993. 159-64 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita.
"In this paper socio-economic differential mortality [in the Netherlands] at the individual level will be analyzed by two national and two local surveys. The purpose is to describe socio-economic differential mortality in several periods....[It is found that] mortality by social classes among males was higher among lower classes in the Netherlands in 1896-1903. The gradient...disappeared in 1947-1952. There was...socio-economic differential mortality again in 1959-1961 and 1972-1981."
Correspondence: J. van Reek, Rijksuniversiteit Limburg, P.O.B. 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.7. Mortality by Cause

Studies of demographic relevance on causes of death. Studies of morbidity and of public health measures are included only if they relate specifically to mortality. Also included are maternal mortality and comparisons of causes.

60:20166 Aickin, D. R. Maternal mortality in New Zealand. New Zealand Medical Journal, Vol. 106, No. 963, Sep 8, 1993. 375-6 pp. Wellington, New Zealand. In Eng.
"New Zealand's maternal mortality rate in the triennium 1986-8 was reviewed in comparison with the rates from Australia and the United Kingdom during 1985-7....Two important questions [are addressed]....(1) How does the New Zealand maternal death rate compare with that from other countries?...[and] (2) Are there changes in the rates of death attributed to specific causes in New Zealand which could reflect changes in childbirth care?"
Correspondence: D. R. Aickin, Christchurch Women's Hospital, Maternal Deaths Assessment Committee, Private Bag, Christchurch, New Zealand. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

60:20167 Bartecchi, Carl E.; MacKenzie, Thomas D.; Schrier, Robert W. The human costs of tobacco use. New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 330, No. 13 and 14, Mar 31 and Apr 7, 1994. 907-12; 975-80 pp. Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
In this two-part article, a review of the impact of tobacco use on morbidity and mortality in the United States is presented, with the emphasis on cigarette smoking. In Part 1, the authors examine separately the effect of smoking on cardiovascular disease, cancer, lung disease, children and adolescents, women, minorities, and the elderly. In Part 2, the authors examine the economic costs of tobacco use, the tobacco industry, and the campaign to prevent tobacco use.
Correspondence: R. W. Schrier, University of Colorado School of Medicine, C281, 4200 East 9th Avenue, Denver, CO 80262. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

60:20168 Boedhi-Darmojo, R. The pattern of cardiovascular disease in Indonesia. World Health Statistics Quarterly/Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales, Vol. 46, No. 2, 1993. 119-24 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"A review of the data from recent community surveys [in Indonesia] indicates an increase in cardiovascular diseases, particularly ischaemic heart disease and hypertension and its sequelae, as causes of morbidity and mortality, most markedly among the elderly, while rheumatic heart disease and congenital heart disease continue to have much lower incidences. In response to this situation, Indonesia has joined the WHO MONICA Project as an associate member. The first population screening, completed in 1988 on 2,073 randomly selected subjects, disclosed important risk factors including hypertension, smoking and physical inactivity."
Correspondence: R. Boedhi-Darmojo, Diponegoro University, Research Institute, Imam Barjo, Sh. 1-3, P.O.B. 270, Semarang, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20169 Bourbeau, Robert. Comparative analysis of violent deaths in developed countries and in some developing countries during the period 1985-1989. [Analyse comparative de la mortalite violente dans les pays developpes et dans quelques pays en developpement durant la periode 1985-1989.] World Health Statistics Quarterly/Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales, Vol. 46, No. 1, 1993. 4-33 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"A comparative analysis of crude death rates and specifically of deaths from violence was conducted for a large number of developed and developing countries which provide data to the World Health Organization's data bank. For these countries, the analysis shows, first of all, that violent deaths rank third among the major causes of death, after diseases of the circulatory system and malignant tumours, in most developed countries and in some developing countries with reliable data. The comparative analysis also reveals substantial variations in the level and structure of death rates, both among the developed and the developing countries." Differences according to age, sex, and cause of death are examined for the period 1985-1989.
Correspondence: R. Bourbeau, Universite de Montreal, CP 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20170 Casabona Barbara, Jordi; Blanch Mur, Carles; Vall Mayans, Marti; Salvador Vilalta, Xavier. Premature mortality related to AIDS among men and women in Catalonia. AIDS, Vol. 7, No. 8, Aug 1993. 1,099-103 pp. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
The authors "evaluate the mortality pattern observed in relation to the AIDS epidemic, and...estimate the current and future demographic impact of AIDS among the population aged between 20 and 39 years in Catalonia, Spain....Data from the population-based AIDS registry and death certificates in Catalonia were used....Since 1982 there has been a continuous increase in crude mortality rates, particularly significant for men aged 20-39 years after 1986....While AIDS was the fourth most likely cause of death among people aged 20-39 years in 1988, by 1991 it was the second most likely....During the last few years AIDS-related deaths have had the highest mortality rate progression among young adults."
Correspondence: J. Casabona Barbara, Generalitat de Catalunya, Health Department, AIDS Programme, Travessera de les Corts 131-159, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

60:20171 Diekstra, R. F. W.; Gulbinat, W. The epidemiology of suicidal behaviour: a review of three continents. World Health Statistics Quarterly/Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales, Vol. 46, No. 1, 1993. 52-68 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The authors analyze the epidemiology of suicide in 31 countries in the Americas, Asia, and Europe, based on information from the WHO mortality data bank. Country differences are examined according to age and sex, with particular emphasis on suicide in adolescents and young adults and in those over age 75. "The epidemiological analysis of suicidal behaviour globally does not identify clear-cut risk factors amenable to preventive programmes. It does, however, pinpoint countries with 'unusual' suicide patterns which, it is hoped, will initiate country-specific research into causes of such behaviour."
Correspondence: R. F. W. Diekstra, Rijksuniversiteit Leiden, Department of Psychology, Stationsweg 46, P.O.B. 9500, 2300 RA Leiden, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20172 Dyson, Tim. Demographic responses to famines in South Asia. IDS Bulletin, Vol. 24, No. 4, Oct 1993. 17-26 pp. Brighton, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The author explores the demographic impact of famine in India and Bangladesh since the 1940s. Consideration is given to fertility decline and mortality increase, and to the factors that contribute to these trends. It is noted that the prevalence of disease, as well as migration, rainfall, and relief aid all affect mortality and fertility during and after times of famine. Famine mortality differentials are also studied by age and sex. Problems with famine-related data sources are briefly discussed.
Correspondence: T. Dyson, London School of Economics and Political Science, Houghton Street, Aldwych, London WC2A 2AE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

60:20173 Izsak, Janos. Comparative analysis of death cause diversity curves in various countries. Genus, Vol. 49, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1993. 67-77 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita.
"We used diversity indices to quantify the dominance conditions of death cause frequencies [in England, Finland, Hungary, Japan, and Norway]. Plotting age-diversity values, the curves exhibit large changes in the death cause diversity/concentration by age....The differences are mostly attributed to the site and value of the characteristic maximum. In both studied sections (Neoplasms and Circulatory Diseases) the Japan diversity curves differ considerably from corresponding curves of the European countries. Characteristic departures are observable between the diversity graphs of the male and female groups."
Correspondence: J. Izsak, Berzsenyi College, Zoological Department, Szombathely, Hungary. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20174 Jeanneret, Olivier; Sand, E. A. Intentional violence among adolescents and young adults: an epidemiological perspective. World Health Statistics Quarterly/Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales, Vol. 46, No. 1, 1993. 34-51 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The purpose of this article is to draw attention to intentional violence....The subject is seen from a public health perspective and supported with factual data, for the 15-19 and 20-24 age groups. The article looks at the secular trend in deaths by murder and suicide in a number of countries, and to data gleaned from recent literature on morbidity (injuries), risk factors and/or protective factors, etc....The relative proportions of murders and suicides vary considerably from one country to another, though they remain fairly constant over time, whether the diachronic progression of mortality due to intentional violence increases, remains stable or falls in the country concerned; this is true for both sexes and for both the age groups considered...."
Correspondence: O. Jeanneret, Universite de Geneve, Faculte de Medecine, 3 Place de l'Universite, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20175 Koc, Ismet; Albayrak, Funda. Suicide in Turkey. [Turkiye'de intihar olgusu.] Nufusbilim Dergisi/Turkish Journal of Population Studies, Vol. 15, 1993. 55-68 pp. Ankara, Turkey. In Tur. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper mainly deals with the socio-demographic characteristics and sex differentials of persons [committing] suicide [in Turkey] on the basis of the 1990 Suicide Statistics....Causes of suicide and suicide methods are also [discussed]....There is a strong relationship between socio-demographic factors, such as urbanization, aging and household patterns and suicide rates." The impact of sex roles and socialization is considered.
Correspondence: I. Koc, Hacettepe Universitesi, Nufus Etutleri Enstitusu, Arastirma Gorevlisi, Hacettepe Parki, Ankara, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20176 Lopez, Alan D. Assessing the burden of mortality from cardiovascular diseases. World Health Statistics Quarterly/Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales, Vol. 46, No. 2, 1993. 91-6 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"In this article, various approaches to assess the cardiovascular disease burden in [developing] countries will be discussed, based on data and information available to WHO....The most promising avenue is that of the progressive implementation of clearly defined mortality surveillance systems that cover all deaths and permit the attribution of probable causes via lay reporting. The reliability of the data largely depends on the specificity and clarity of the verbal autopsy algorithm employed and on the availability of medically trained personnel to validate the returns."
Correspondence: A. D. Lopez, World Health Organization, Tobacco Programme, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20177 Lundgren, Jens D.; Pedersen, Court; Clumeck, Nathan; Gatell, Jose M.; Johnson, Anne M.; Ledergerber, Bruno; Vella, Stefano; Phillips, Andrew; Nielsen, Jens O. Survival differences in European patients with AIDS, 1979-89. British Medical Journal, Vol. 308, No. 6936, Apr 23, 1994. 1,068-73 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Patterns of survival in AIDS patients in Europe for the period 1979-1989 are analyzed using data on 6,578 adults from 17 countries. "The median survival after diagnosis was 17 months, with an estimated survival at three years of 16%....Survival of AIDS patients seems to vary within Europe, being shorter in southern than central and northern Europe. The magnitude of these differences, however, has declined gradually over time. Short term survival has improved in recent years, but the long term prognosis has remained equally poor, reflecting the fact that the underlying infection with HIV and many of the complicating diseases remains essentially uncontrolled."
Correspondence: J. D. Lundgren, University of Copenhagen, Department of Infectious Diseases (144), Coordinating Centre for AIDS in Europe, 2650 Hvidovre, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

60:20178 MacDonald, Iain L.; Lerer, Leonard B. A time-series analysis of trends in firearm-related homicide and suicide. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 23, No. 1, Feb 1994. 66-72 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In order to determine whether firearm use was an increasing component of the general pattern of homicide in Cape Town, South Africa, hidden Markov time-series models were used to examine a week-by-week count of firearm homicides, non-firearm homicides, firearm suicides and non-firearm suicides for the 6-year period from 1986 to 1991. Of several models fitted to the proportion of homicides that involved firearms, the one which incorporated a discrete upward shift in the middle of 1991 was the most successful. There was no evidence of a similar upward shift in the proportion of the suicides that involved firearms."
Correspondence: I. L. MacDonald, University of Cape Town, Department of Business Science, Acturial Science Section, Rondebosch 7700, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20179 McDaniel, Antonio; Preston, Samuel H. Patterns of mortality by age and cause of death among nineteenth-century immigrants to Liberia. Population Studies, Vol. 48, No. 1, Mar 1994. 99-115 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The majority of studies relating to mortality conditions in nineteenth-century Africa deal with the small number of white settlers or visitors. This paper examines the level and causes of mortality in Liberia of Africans who emigrated from the United States. We describe crude and age-standardized death rates by cause of death, and examine the age pattern of mortality and its conformity to existing models of age patterns for causes of death. The results of this analysis indicate that the age pattern of mortality of the Liberian immigrant population recapitulates rather precisely existing models of age patterns for all causes of death, and from specific causes."
Correspondence: A. McDaniel, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6297. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20180 Mulder, Daan W.; Nunn, Andrew J.; Kamali, Anatoli; Nakiyingi, Jessica; Wagner, Hans-Ulrich; Kengeya-Kayondo, Jane F. Two-year HIV-1-associated mortality in a Ugandan rural population. Lancet, Vol. 343, No. 8904, Apr 23, 1994. 1,021-3 pp. New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
"The mortality in 15 villages in South-West Uganda was studied in relation to HIV infection." The results quantify the greatly increased mortality due to HIV infection in Africa, particularly among those aged 25-34, even in an area where the overall HIV-1 adult prevalence rate is relatively low.
Correspondence: D. W. Mulder, MRC (UK)/ODA/UVRI Programme on AIDS in Uganda, P.O. Box 49, Entebbe, Uganda. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

60:20181 Negri, Eva; La Vecchia, Carlo; Levi, Fabio; Randriamiharisoa, Alex; Decarli, Adriano; Boyle, Peter. The application of age, period and cohort models to predict Swiss cancer mortality. Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology, Vol. 116, No. 2, 1990. 207-14 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"In order to project trends in mortality from 11 major cancer sites in Switzerland to the end of the current century, a log-linear Poisson age/period/cohort model with arbitrary constraints on the parameters was used, fitted to the observed rates for the period 1950-84....The various models suggest that the age-standardized mortality from oral cancer in men will probably increase up to the end of the century...while cancer of the oesophagus is likely to level-off around current values, as other tobacco-related neoplasms, prostate cancer in men, and breast cancer in women will probably do. Some steady decline is predicted by various models fitted to the incidence of stomach and intestinal cancer in both sexes, and to ovarian cancer. Lung cancer will continue to rise in women but will stop rising in men, and it will possibly fall if the hypothesis of a decline in exposure to tobacco carcinogens proves correct."
Correspondence: C. La Vecchia, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via Eritrea 62, 20157 Milan, Italy. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

60:20182 Nicholls, Eric S.; Peruga, Armando; Restrepo, Helena E. Cardiovascular disease mortality in the Americas. World Health Statistics Quarterly/Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales, Vol. 46, No. 2, 1993. 134-50 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Despite subregional differences, mortality profiles have undergone major changes in most countries of the Americas. While the proportion of deaths caused by noncommunicable diseases, particularly cardiovascular diseases, has increased, overall age-adjusted mortality rates attributable to all cardiovascular disease are declining in 13 of the 15 countries selected for the present study. About half the countries showed decreasing mortality rates for ischaemic heart disease; the other half had increasing rates. The mortality rates for cerebrovascular disease and hypertensive disease declined in all but four countries....With few exceptions the male-to-female mortality ratios increased for all cardiovascular disease, ischaemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease, reflecting a greater decline in female mortality."
Correspondence: E. S. Nicholls, Pan American Health Organization, 525 23rd Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20183 Osmond, Dennis; Charlebois, Edwin; Lang, William; Shiboski, Stephen; Moss, Andrew. Changes in AIDS survival time in two San Francisco cohorts of homosexual men, 1983 to 1993. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 271, No. 14, Apr 13, 1994. 1,083-7 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
The impact of the application of new treatments for AIDS and HIV infections on survival time is examined using data on 761 HIV-positive homosexual men in San Francisco followed-up for at least nine years. The results indicate that the increases in life expectancy in this population are marginal at best.
Correspondence: D. Osmond, San Francisco General Hospital, Division of Epidemiology and Medicine, Ward 95, San Francisco, CA 94110. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

60:20184 Patterson, K. David. Cholera diffusion in Russia, 1823-1923. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 38, No. 9, May 1994. 1,171-91 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"All six cholera pandemics of the 19th and early 20th centuries struck Russia, causing millions of deaths. Cholera entered Russia from the south, with the Volga river system being a common and efficient route into the heart of the country. Diffusion was predominantly linear, along the navigable rivers and later, along the railroads. In contrast to Pyle's findings for the U.S.A., urban hierarchical diffusion was of only local significance in Russia."
Correspondence: K. D. Patterson, University of North Carolina, Graduate School, Charlotte, NC 28223. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

60:20185 Pinikahana, Jayaratne; Dixon, Robert A. Trends in malaria morbidity and mortality in Sri Lanka. Indian Journal of Malariology, Vol. 30, No. 2, Jun 1993. 51-5 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"Trends since 1930 in malaria morbidity and mortality in Sri Lanka were analysed. The Malaria Control Programme, which began in 1945 with DDT spraying, was associated with a 100-fold reduction in morbidity and mortality over the following ten years, and gave way to the Malaria Eradication Programme in 1958. DDT spraying ceased in 1964 and a vivax malaria epidemic in 1968 returned...the island to 1952 morbidity levels, though with little mortality. After the discovery of DDT resistance in 1969, malathion spraying took over in 1973, and [a] USAID-assisted control programme, involving case-detection and treatment, started in 1977. However, morbidity levels comparable to 1952 levels were observed in 1975 and 1986 when falciparum malaria morbidity levels were especially high. Mortality rates since 1960 have however remained lower than at any other previous time."
Correspondence: J. Pinikahana, University of Ruhuna, Department of History and Sociology, Matara, Sri Lanka. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

60:20186 Reddy, K. S. Cardiovascular diseases in India. World Health Statistics Quarterly/Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales, Vol. 46, No. 2, 1993. 101-7 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"India is undergoing an epidemiological transition and is on the threshold of an epidemic of cardiovascular disease....Demographic projections suggest a major increase in cardiovascular disease mortality as life expectancy increases and the age structure of the growing population changes. Surveys in urban areas suggest that coronary risk factors are already widespread and that urgent action is needed to prevent a further rise as socioeconomic development proceeds."
Correspondence: K. S. Reddy, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Cardiology, Cardiothoracic Centre, New Delhi 110 029, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20187 Riggs, Jack E. Rising lung cancer mortality in the United States, 1968-1988: the manifestation of altered disease competition. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, Vol. 18, No. 2, 1993. 261-74 pp. San Diego, California. In Eng.
"Rising lung cancer mortality is commonly attributed to cigarette smoking....However, longitudinal Gompertzian analysis indicates that the major force increasing lung cancer mortality in the United States is the declining competitiveness of other causes of death, particularly ischemic heart disease and stroke. Indeed, this analysis demonstrates that the 'environmental' influence upon lung cancer mortality began to decline in the United States in the mid-1970s, supporting the effectiveness of programs aimed at decreasing tobacco use."
Correspondence: J. E. Riggs, West Virginia University, School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Morgantown, WV 26506. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20188 Seaman, John. Famine mortality in Africa. IDS Bulletin, Vol. 24, No. 4, Oct 1993. 27-32 pp. Brighton, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The effect of famine on mortality in Africa is reviewed. The focus is on the probable biological impacts of food shortage, displacement, and disease. Problems in separating famine mortality data from data on mortality from other causes are also discussed.
Correspondence: J. Seaman, Save the Children Fund, Overseas Policy Development Unit, London, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

60:20189 Selik, Richard M.; Chu, Susan Y.; Buehler, James W. HIV infection as leading cause of death among young adults in U.S. cities and states. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 269, No. 23, Jun 16, 1993. 2,991-4 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
The authors "describe the extent to which human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has become the leading cause of death among young adults (25 to 44 years of age) in U.S. states and cities of at least 100,000 population...using national vital statistics for 1990 by state and city....Infection with HIV was the leading cause of death among young men in five states....Among young women, HIV was not the leading cause of death in any state. Among young men, HIV infection was the leading cause of death in 64 cities....Among young women, HIV infection was the leading cause of death in nine cities...."
Correspondence: R. M. Selik, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of HIV/AIDS, Surveillance Branch, Mailstop E47, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

60:20190 Shiferaw, Tesfaye; Tessema, Fasil. Maternal mortality in rural communities of Illubabor, southwestern Ethiopia: as estimated by the "sisterhood method" Ethiopian Medical Journal, Vol. 31, No. 4, Oct 1993. 239-49 pp. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. In Eng.
"In this study, the 'sisterhood method', a new indirect technique, utilizing a cross-sectional survey by retrospective recall for deriving population-based estimates of maternal mortality for rural communities, was used in rural Illubabor region, Southwestern Ethiopia, in December 1991. The findings indicate a lifetime risk of maternal mortality of...1 in 23 women; approximating a maternal mortality ratio of 570 per 100,000 live-births. The communities experience high maternal mortality which is compounded by high fertility as reflected by the total fertility rate of 7.6. The method can readily be applied to our settings to estimate the lifetime risk of maternal mortality and derive the maternal mortality ratio."
Correspondence: T. Shiferaw, Jima Institute of Health Sciences, Department of Community Health, P.O. Box 378, Jima, Illubabor, Ethiopia. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

60:20191 Sundari, T. K. The untold story: how the health care systems in developing countries contribute to maternal mortality. International Journal of Health Services, Vol. 22, No. 3, 1992. 513-28 pp. Amityville, New York. In Eng.
"This article attempts to put together evidence from maternal mortality studies in developing countries of how an inadequate health care system characterized by misplaced priorities contributes to high maternal mortality rates. Inaccessibility of essential health information to the women most affected, and the physical as well as economic and sociocultural distance separating health services from the vast majority of women, are only part of the problem....[Additional factors include] the lack of minimal life-saving equipment at the first referral level; the lack of equipment personnel, and know-how even in referral hospitals; and...faulty patient management."
Correspondence: T. K. Sundari, Centre for Development Studies, Prasanth Nagar Road, Ulloor, Trivandrum 695 011, Kerala, India. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

60:20192 Tallarida, Ronald J. The association of age and current world cancer mortality rates in relation to a century of cancer deaths in the U.S. Life Sciences, Vol. 53, No. 26, 1993. PL459-64 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Recent data from a variety of countries and from the individual states in the U.S. show that the annual cancer death rate is highly correlated with the percentage of the population aged 60 or more years. Historical data for the United States over the period 1900-1990 reveal that the percentage of its population [60 years old or over] increased with a corresponding increase in the annual cancer death rate. When the U.S. data over this time period are viewed against the current world data and the current individual state data there is a striking similarity, thereby demonstrating that the current world and state cancer mortality values provide an accurate historical picture of the U.S. cancer death rate over almost a century." The data are mainly presented in tabular format.
Correspondence: R. J. Tallarida, Temple University School of Medicine, 3420 North Broad Street, Philadelphia, PA 19140. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20193 Thaddeus, Sereen; Maine, Deborah. Too far to walk: maternal mortality in context. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 38, No. 8, Apr 1994. 1,091-110 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors analyze factors contributing to maternal mortality in developing countries, focusing on those affecting the interval between the onset of an obstetric complication and its outcome. "The literature clearly indicates that while distance and cost are major obstacles in the decision to seek care, the relationships are not simple. There is evidence that people often consider the quality of care more important than cost. These three factors--distance, cost and quality--alone do not give a full understanding of [the] decision-making process. Their salience as obstacles is ultimately defined by illness-related factors, such as severity. Differential use of health services is also shaped by such variables as gender and socioeconomic status."
Correspondence: S. Thaddeus, Johns Hopkins University, Center for Communication Programs, 111 Market Place, Suite 310, Baltimore, MD 21202-4024. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

60:20194 United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] (Atlanta, Georgia). Deaths resulting from firearm- and motor-vehicle-related injuries--United States, 1968-1991. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 43, No. 3, Jan 28, 1994. 37-42 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
Data on mortality caused by firearm injuries and motor vehicle accidents are presented and analyzed for the United States for the period 1968-1991. It is noted that "although the number of deaths from motor-vehicle crashes has exceeded those from firearms, since 1968, differences in the number of deaths have declined: from 1968 through 1991, motor-vehicle-related deaths decreased by 21% (from 54,862 to 43,536) while firearm-related deaths increased by 60% (from 23,875 to 38,317)....Based on these trends, by the year 2003, the number of firearm-related deaths will surpass the number of [deaths from] motor-vehicle crashes, and firearms will become the leading cause of injury-related death...."
Correspondence: U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Mailstop C-08, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20195 Yao, Chonghua; Wu, Zhaosu; Wu, Yingkai. The changing pattern of cardiovascular diseases in China. World Health Statistics Quarterly/Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales, Vol. 46, No. 2, 1993. 113-8 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"In China, morbidity and mortality attributable to cardiovascular disease increased rapidly from the 1950s to the 1980s due to an increased life expectancy and changes in lifestyle. Cardiovascular disease has become the leading cause of death in the country. There is a high incidence of stroke, which is the commonest or second commonest cause of death. Hypertension...is the most prevalent cardiovascular disease, and should be given first priority in control programmes. Smoking, a common habit in males, is to be a principal focus of preventive activities over the next few years."
Correspondence: C. Yao, Beijing Heart, Lung and Blood Vessel Medical Centre, Department of Community Health, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20196 Yokoyama, Eise; Nozaki, Sadahiko. Deaths from heart disease as analyzed according to occupation. Nihon University Journal of Medicine, Vol. 34, No. 5, Oct 1992. 249-61 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"In order to analyze the deaths from heart disease associated with various occupations, we examined [1985 vital statistics for Japan] and calculated the risk ratio as well as the attributable risk percent (ARP), for deaths from all forms of heart disease, from ischemic heart disease, [and] from heart failure. The risk ratio for all forms of heart disease was highest in Group E (agricultural, forestry and fisheries workers) and Group F (mining workers) in most age groups. The second highest ratio was seen in Group J (service workers), especially those in their 30s and over. The ratio was also higher in Group D (sales workers) in their 50s and over."
Correspondence: E. Yokoyama, Nihon University School of Medicine, Department of Public Health, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173, Japan. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.


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