Volume 60 - Number 2 - Summer 1994

C. Spatial Distribution

Studies with an emphasis on locational patterns and their interpretation.

C.1. General Spatial Distribution

Studies of rural and urban populations considered together. Studies that are concerned primarily with the movement of population are classified under H. Migration . Studies concerned with the definition of urban or rural areas and with boundary changes are classified here or in O.1. Population Statistics, General Aspects .

60:20035 Anderson, William P.; Papageorgiou, Yorgos Y. An analysis of migration streams for the Canadian regional system, 1952-1983. 2. Disequilibrium. Geographical Analysis, Vol. 26, No. 2, Apr 1994. 110-23 pp. Columbus, Ohio. In Eng.
"This is part two of a two-part series that seeks to specify the factors and processes contributing to aggregate change in the Canadian population distribution over the recent past....In part two, we use an adjustment process for our regional population system to calculate equilibrium population distributions. The estimated migration probabilities of part one are essential for this calculation, thus linking equilibria with the socioeconomic factors previously identified. Disequilibrium, defined as the difference between observed and equilibrium population distributions, is then used to infer relative growth and decline tendencies in the system."
For Part 1, also published in 1994, see 60:10487.
Correspondence: W. P. Anderson, McMaster University, Department of Geography, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

60:20036 Biraben, Jean-Noel. Population dynamics and the distribution of humans: some historical examples. [Dynamique demographique et repartition des hommes d'apres des exemples historiques.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 2, 1993. 169-76 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The author uses historical data for selected countries to illustrate variations in laws defining spatial distribution and population density. The focus is on the measurement of economic effects, including land use, on demographic processes.
Correspondence: J.-N. Biraben, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20037 Champion, A. G. Geographical distribution and urbanization. In: The changing population of Europe, edited by Daniel Noin and Robert Woods. 1993. 23-37 pp. Blackwell: Cambridge, Massachusetts/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This chapter begins by demonstrating the very uneven distribution of population within the [European] Community and goes on to consider the way in which this can be related to patterns of urbanization and rural population change. It then turns to an examination of metropolitan trends and counter-urbanization. Finally, the main features of the evolving map of population change are described and alternative interpretations are discussed. Where possible, the statistical data refer to the EC as constituted in 1991, including the former German Democratic Republic within the united Germany."
Correspondence: A. G. Champion, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Department of Geography, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20038 Charrie, Jean-Paul. Demographic and spatial dynamics in the Middle Garonne region. [Dynamique demographique et spatiale dans les pays de la Moyenne Garonne.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 2, 1993. 229-36 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Population density and spatial distribution trends in the predominantly rural Middle Garonne region of France are described. The focus is on changes in the region since 1968.
Correspondence: J.-P. Charrie, Universite Michel de Montaigne, Bordeaux III CESURB, 33405 Talence Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20039 Golikov, N. F.; Dvoskin, B. Ya.; Spektor, M. D. Problems of population distribution in Kazakhstan. [Problemy rasseleniya naseleniya Kazakhstana.] ISBN 5-628-00357-3. LC 90-188354. 1989. 246 pp. Nauka Kazakhskoi SSR: Alma-Ata, USSR. In Rus.
An analysis of the spatial distribution of the population of Kazakhstan is presented. Part I examines theoretical aspects of such an analysis. Part II examines the urban population and urbanization in Kazakhstan. Part III looks at the characteristics of the rural population, including migration patterns and labor force participation.
Correspondence: Nauka Kazakhskoi SSR, Pushkina 111/113, 480100 Alma-Ata, Kazakhstan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20040 Ipanga, Tshibwila. Land planning in Zaire through the spatial distribution of the population. [Organisation de l'espace zairois par la distribution de la population.] Espace Geographique, No. 4, 1992. 304-20 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"Land planning in Zaire is examined through the analysis of population distribution by density and potential. The difference between these two techniques is that the calculation of population potential takes into account a genuinely geographical element, which is the distance between one given place and the other places within the area under consideration....Taking potential as a criterion leads to developing an axis of communication from one end of the country to the other through densely populated, high-potential areas. Population density leads to a limited axis in each of the two regions with a high density of human occupation. In conclusion, the contribution of distance in land planning is to facilitate access for larger numbers of people and increase potential exchanges and contacts with other territories."
Correspondence: T. Ipanga, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Geographie, 1 place Montesquieu, B.P. 17, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA.

60:20041 Jacquot, Alain. Spatial friction between population and employment. [Les frictions spatiales entre la population et l'emploi.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 2, 1993. 177-87 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"We examine whether the distribution of jobs and that of people over the French territory display a greater degree of 'harmony' in 1990 than they did in 1982. Counter-urbanization around the cities is still going on. But...there has been virtually no change in the degree of concentration of people over the territory. The increase of employment, however, [was observed more in] cities (especially the larger ones) than [in] the country. This widening gap between the distribution of people and that of jobs has resulted in an increase of commuting."
Correspondence: A. Jacquot, Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, Division Statistiques et Etudes Regionales, 18 boulevard Adolphe Pinard, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20042 Marconis, Robert; Arnaune, Anne-Marie; Cabanne, Marie-Helene. Demographic revival and geographical disparities in the Midi-Pyrenees region. [Renouveau demographique et disparites geographiques dans la region Midi-Pyrenees.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 2, 1993. 237-45 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Population growth and changes in spatial distribution in the Midi-Pyrenees region of France are discussed. The authors find that "since 1954, the...region's demographic revival has...been beneficial to the Greater Toulouse area....The growing gap between Toulouse and all the rest of the...region is keeping pace with a leading trend of periurbanization which contributes to the emergence of a widespread residential area all around Toulouse, including all the nearest medium sized towns."
Correspondence: R. Marconis, Universite de Toulouse-Le Mirail, Centre Interdisciplinaire d'Etudes Urbaines, UFR Geographie et Amenagement, 5 allee A. Machado, 31058 Toulouse Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20043 White, Stephen E. Ogallala oases: water use, population redistribution, and policy implications in the high plains of western Kansas, 1980-1990. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 84, No. 1, Mar 1994. 29-45 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper examines the relationship between proximity to groundwater use and population change in the Ogallala aquifer region of Kansas during the 1980s. The analysis focuses on three levels; the county, incorporated and census designated places, and rural census county subdivisions. The association between proximity to groundwater and population change is statistically significant among counties, among places larger than 500 inhabitants, and among more densely-populated rural areas. Groundwater use is not associated, however, with population change in places with fewer than 500 people or in sparsely-populated rural census county subdivisions. These patterns of population change are not merely reflections of historical inertia. They are better explained by active responses to the advantages of agglomeration and access to groundwater than to the passive unfolding of past patterns of population redistribution."
Correspondence: S. E. White, Kansas State University, Department of Geography, Manhattan, KS 66506. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

C.2. Urban Spatial Distribution

Studies of urban populations, including those of metropolitan areas and suburban and semi-urban zones. Also includes studies on urbanization insofar as they relate to the effects of migration on urban areas or the socioeconomic and demographic structure of urban populations. Studies on the actual process of rural-urban migration are coded under H.6. Rural-Urban Migration .

60:20044 Berry, Brian J. L. Supply-side urbanization? A pooled time series analysis. Geographical Analysis, Vol. 26, No. 2, Apr 1994. 93-109 pp. Columbus, Ohio. In Eng.
Data for various time periods from 1831 to 1980 are used to test George S. Tolley's supply-driven urban growth model. The results do not conform to the model's predictions except for higher-income market economies. The need is demonstrated for an urban growth theory with dynamics that are grounded in an understanding of the periodic structure of economic macrohistory.
Correspondence: B. J. L. Berry, University of Texas at Dallas, School of Social Sciences, Bruton Center for Development Studies, Richardson, TX 75083-0688. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

60:20045 Castellan, Michel; Goldberger, Marie-Francoise; Marpsat, Maryse. The districts which benefit: a great diversity. [Les quartiers en convention: une grande diversite.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 2, 1993. 315-23 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The authors compare residence and demographic characteristics in urban districts in France that receive local or national funding. Consideration is given to unemployment, public housing, and living conditions.
Correspondence: M. Castellan, Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, 18 boulevard Adolphe Pinard, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20046 Damais, Jean-Philippe. Residential mobility in the major French urban centers from 1968 to 1990. [La mobilite residentielle dans les grandes agglomerations francaises de 1968 a 1990.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 2, 1993. 221-8 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper concerns the evolution of residential mobility [in France]...for the last twenty years. This analysis is unfinished owing to the...form in which the recent statistical data (Census of 1990) are now available: it is not possible...to isolate the residential changes between communes in each urban center from those between all the French communes. Nevertheless, it appears that...residential mobility has been clearly less intense and less varying between 1982 to 1990 than during the two previous intercensal periods...."
Correspondence: J.-P. Damais, Universite de Paris XIII, Departement de Geographie, avenue Jean-Baptiste Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20047 Fanouillet, J.-C. Where does the city end? [Ou finit la ville?] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 2, 1993. 189-95 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Data for France for the period 1962-1990 are analyzed to determine trends in urbanization. Among the findings, the author notes that "the 'new city dwellers' live further and further from the city itself: inhabited by farmers in the past, the dwellings of the rural areas are now occupied by a great number of people working every day in [the] metropolis."
Correspondence: J.-C. Fanouillet, Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, 18 boulevard Adolphe Pinard, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20048 Hourihan, Kevin. Population change in Irish cities, 1981-86: county boroughs, suburbs and daily urban systems. Irish Geography, Vol. 25, No. 2, 1992. 160-8 pp. Dublin, Ireland. In Eng.
"This paper is concerned with the changes in population distribution which occurred in Dublin, Cork and Limerick [Ireland] between 1981 and 1986....It is also concerned...with the more dramatic changes which have occurred outside the cities proper, in the functional regions which are dominated by them, and which have become increasingly important in the development of the cities." The author finds that "the heavy population losses in the city centres and decreases in the cities overall were more than compensated for by the increases in the city suburbs and commuting areas outside. Quantitative models of these trends show the process of change with continued flattening of the density profiles....The models suggest probable changes in the future. These developments have many implications for transport in particular, and also for the administration and planning of the cities."
Correspondence: K. Hourihan, University College, Department of Geography, Cork, Ireland. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

60:20049 Kim, Won Bae. The role and structure of metropolises in China's urban economy. East-West Center Reprints: Population Series, No. 285, 1991. [23] pp. East-West Center, Program on Population [POP]: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
The author discusses metropolitan growth in China since the 1980s. The impact of migration control measures and socialist ideology on urban development is analyzed. "Since 1978 when China started economic reforms, China's urban economy has been undergoing significant structural changes...[indicating] a renewed importance of metropolises in China's urban economy and [implying] rapid metropolitan growth in coming years."
This paper is reprinted from Third World Planning Review (Liverpool, England), Vol. 13, No. 2, 1991, pp. 155-77.
Correspondence: East-West Center, Program on Population, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20050 Li, Xinjian. The functions of urban areas and the development of towns in China. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 5, No. 1, 1993. 23-30 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author discusses the development and functions of urban areas and towns in China. Aspects considered include elements of urban areas; internal and external functions; relationships among urban areas; and the evolution, growth, and changes of towns and their functions.
Correspondence: X. Li, Nankai University, Institute of Population and Development, Balitai, Tianjin 300071, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20051 Martine, George. The recent trends towards deconcentration and demetropolization in Brazil. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population: Montreal 1993, Volume 2. 1993. 121-30 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The author "reviews urbanization patterns in Brazil during the 1940-91 period, with emphasis on the turnaround in urbanization/concentration patterns, particularly as they affect the Metropolitan Area...of Sao Paulo. Various factors underlying these changes are discussed."
Correspondence: G. Martine, Institute for the Study of Society, Population and Nature, Caixa Postal 9944, Brasilia 70001-970, D.F. Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20052 Morocco. Direction de la Statistique. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques [CERED] (Rabat, Morocco). Migration and urbanization in Morocco. [Migration et urbanisation au Maroc.] Etudes Demographiques, ISBN 9981-20-014-X. 1993. 264 pp. Rabat, Morocco. In Fre.
This volume contains four studies on urbanization in Morocco. They concern urbanization, urban spatial distribution, and general spatial distribution; migration and urbanization in major urban areas; small and medium-sized towns and whether they act as relay stations for further migration or as a final destination; and the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of rural migrants.
Correspondence: Direction de la Statistique, Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques, B.P. 178, Rue Mohamed Belhassan, El Ouazzani-Haut Agdal, Rabat, Morocco. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20053 Oberai, A. S. Population growth, employment and poverty in third world mega-cities: problems and policies. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population: Montreal 1993, Volume 2. 1993. 105-19 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, to examine the problems of rapid population growth, employment and poverty faced by Third World mega-cities. Second, to suggest the direction in which future policies need to be developed to deal more effectively with these problems."
Correspondence: A. S. Oberai, International Labour Office, Employment and Development Department, 1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20054 Pihet, Christian; Violier, Philippe. Local policies and distribution of the elderly: the case of Angers. [Politiques locales et repartition des populations agees: l'exemple d'Angers.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 2, 1993. 335-42 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"In Angers, a medium size city of Western France, the 1975 and 1990 censuses point out a great mobility of old people (over 75 years)....They...aggregate in the city's [peripheral] area. As a consequence, the central district gets...more populated with younger people. These changes in the age structure arise from three main processes: in the central district real estate rehabilitation and restoration [drive] out old people; in the less coveted [peripheral] area, the greater number of elderly people results from the development of retirement homes and from the local public policy of keeping elderly citizens at home."
Correspondence: C. Pihet, Universite d'Angers, Departement de Geographie, 35 rue de la Barre, 49000 Angers, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20055 Reijo, Marie; Valkonen, Tapani. Population development and the changes in the economic structure of Finnish urban areas. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 31, 1993. 25-46 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"This article describes population development in urban communities [in Finland] and differences therein found during the period 1975-1990. The causes behind these differences are analyzed by using data on the economic development of the communities (e.g. the changes in industry and unemployment). Economic development in 1975-90 is linked to the regional transition in labor distribution and industrial activity, with a focus on deindustrialization and the growing predominance of the service sector in the trade structure. Using a community typology compiled on the basis of the analyses, estimates are made of future development in various communities up to the year 2010."
Correspondence: M. Reijo, Academy of Finland, P.O. Box 57, 00551 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20056 Rubin-Kurtzman, Jane R.; Ham-Chande, Roberto; Van Arsdol, Maurice D.; Wang, Qian-wei. Demographic and economic interactions in trans-border cities: the Southern California-Baja California mega-city. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population: Montreal 1993, Volume 2. 1993. 131-42 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"In this paper we consider local, national and global influences on the social demography of the Southern California-Baja California trans-border mega-city. We discuss first the significance of trans-border urban demography and its relation to research on mega-cities. We define the Southern California-Baja California mega-city and analyze its growth and composition. We follow with a set of questions regarding demographic and economic interactions in trans-border cities and conclude with a research agenda derived from these questions."
Correspondence: J. R. Rubin-Kurtzman, University of Southern California, University Park, Los Angeles, CA 90089. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20057 Sui, Dian-Zhi. GIS-based spatial analysis, modeling, and simulation: a case study on the changing spatial structure of Hong Kong, 1966-2006. Pub. Order No. DA9329850. 1993. 288 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The practicality of using geographic information systems (GIS) to examine the dynamics of urban spatial structure is explored using the example of Hong Kong. The study was developed as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Georgia.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 54(6).

60:20058 Vennetier, Pierre. Urbanization and development in tropical countries. [Urbanisation et developpement dans les pays tropicaux.] Espaces Tropicaux, No. 4, ISBN 2-906621-19-6. 1991. 198 pp. Domaine Universitaire de Bordeaux, Centre d'Etudes de Geographie Tropicale: Bordeaux, France. In Fre.
This is a collection of studies by various authors on aspects of urbanization in tropical countries. The works were presented at a conference held in Talence, France, in September 1989. The primary geographical focus is on Sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean. The collection is divided into two sections. The first includes eight papers which look at urban growth, the problems associated with it, and the relationship between urban growth and development. The second section has five papers which examine living conditions in urban areas.
Correspondence: Domaine Universite de Bordeaux, Centre d'Etudes de Geographie Tropicale, 33405 Talence Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20059 Xie, Jinyu; Yu, Jing. A comparative study on the population urbanized under or outside state plan: different status of mobile urban population and permanent new urban residents in the urbanization of the Chinese population according to the fourth census in China. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 5, No. 1, 1993. 43-55 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The economic reform and more flexible government policies [in China have]...led to the coexistence of two types of urban population....In this article, the authors refer to these two types of population as population urbanized under state plan (PUSP) and population urbanized outside state plan (POSP)." Aspects considered include the impact of the two types on the urbanization process, differences in characteristics of those moving to urban areas, reasons for migration to urban areas, decision-making and differences in motivation, levels of adaptation to urban areas, and the impact on fertility rates.
Correspondence: J. Xie, Nankai University, Institute of Population and Development, Balitai, Tianjin 300071, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

C.3. Rural Spatial Distribution

Studies of agricultural and farming populations.

No citations in this issue.


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