Volume 60 - Number 1 - Spring 1994

F. Fertility

Studies that treat quantitative fertility data analytically. References to crude data are coded under S. Official Statistical Publications . Methodological studies specifically concerned with fertility are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary.

F.1. General Fertility

Analytical studies of quantitative birth data and reproduction rates and studies of fertility and its concomitants. Studies of age at marriage, divorce, and factors influencing family size are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

60:10218 Axinn, William G. The effects of children's schooling on fertility limitation. Population Studies, Vol. 47, No. 3, Nov 1993. 481-93 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Many theories of fertility predict that mass education reduces fertility, but this effect may be produced in a variety of ways. In this paper, microdemographic data from a rural community in Nepal, in which the spread of mass education and fertility limitation is just beginning, are used to examine these links. The analyses contrast the influence of parents' and children's educational experiences on parents' fertility preferences and behaviour. The results indicate that children's schooling has a strong influence on both fertility preferences and behaviour. The effects of parental schooling are weaker, and also inconsistent in different models. These findings provide support for theories that link mass education to the onset of fertility limitation through children's schooling experience."
Correspondence: W. G. Axinn, University of Chicago, Population Research Center, 1155 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:10219 Azelmat, Mustapha; Ayad, Mohamed; Housni, El Arbi. National Survey on Population and Health (ENPS-II), 1992. [Enquete Nationale sur la Population et la Sante (ENPS-II), 1992.] Aug 1993. xxviii, 281 pp. Ministere de la Sante Publique, Service des Etudes et de l'Information Sanitaire: Rabat, Morocco; Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Fre.
The results of the second survey undertaken as part of the Demographic and Health Survey program in Morocco are presented. The survey includes 9,256 women aged 15-49 and 1,336 men aged 20-70. Chapters cover the country in general, household characteristics, fertility, family planning, nuptiality and exposure to risk of pregnancy, fertility preferences, maternal and child health, infant nutrition and breast-feeding, infant and child mortality, maternal mortality, and a survey of the men on fertility preferences and family planning knowledge, attitudes, and usage.
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Suite 300, Calverton, MD 20705-3119. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.2. Differential Fertility

Studies on differences in fertility patterns and levels in subgroups of a population. Also included are studies on age-specific fertility, such as teenage pregnancy.

60:10277 Babb, Penny. Teenage conceptions and fertility in England and Wales, 1971-91. Population Trends, No. 74, Winter 1993. 12-7 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This article focuses on the trends in teenage conceptions and fertility [in England and Wales] over the past twenty years. Recent trends have included a large increase in births outside marriage, and a corresponding decrease in births within marriage. Teenage fertility rates within the United Kingdom are compared with the rates in other countries in Western Europe."
Correspondence: P. Babb, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, Population Statistics Division, St. Catherine's House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:10278 Chimere-Dan, Orieji. Racial patterns of fertility decline in South Africa. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population: Montreal, 1993, Volume 1. 1993. 43-51 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"Available data show that fertility is declining for blacks, coloureds, indians and whites in South Africa. However, the timing and speed of fertility decline vary among these racial groups....This paper shows the context in which the racial groups maintained different patterns of transition decline with emphasis on possible reasons for the observed lag in fertility decline among blacks."
Correspondence: O. Chimere-Dan, University of the Witwatersrand, Department of Sociology, Population Research and Training Programme, 1 Jan Smuts Avenue, Johannesburg, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology

Studies on infertility, as well as studies of spontaneous abortion, prematurity, and other relevant pathologies of pregnancy.

60:10289 Larsen, Ulla. Levels, age patterns and trends of sterility in selected countries south of the Sahara. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population: Montreal, 1993, Volume 1. 1993. 593-603 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"Using recently available data collected in cooperation with the World Fertility Surveys (WFS) and the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) the present study aims at determining the levels, age patterns and trends of sterility in Benin, Burundi, Cameroon, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Nigeria, Senegal, Sudan, Togo and Uganda....The prevalence of sterility varies markedly across countries and within countries in sub-Saharan Africa. From the present study we cannot explain the marked differences by province...[but] the distribution of sterility lends evidence for the hypothesis that STDs [sexually transmitted diseases] are a main cause of sterility in Africa. Our results using the subsequently infertile estimator document exceptionally high levels of sterility in most of sub-Saharan Africa relative to the levels prevailing among the Hutterites."
Correspondence: U. Larsen, State University of New York, Department of Sociology, Stony Brook, NY 11794-4356. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:10290 Prioux, France. Infertility in Europe. [L'infecondite en Europe.] In: European population. Volume 2: demographic dynamics, edited by Alain Blum and Jean-Louis Rallu. 1993. 231-51 pp. John Libbey Eurotext: Montrouge, France. In Fre.
Infertility rates and trends for cohorts of European women born since 1930 are examined and compared. Topics covered include problems in the measurement and reporting of infertility, nuptiality effects, marital and nonmarital fertility, age at leaving the parental home, and educational and employment status. Some comparisons between Eastern and Western Europe are made.
Correspondence: F. Prioux, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4. Actions and Activities Directly Affecting Fertility

Studies concerning activities, including family planning programs, that are primarily designed to influence fertility.

F.4.1. General Fertility Control and Contraception

General aspects of fertility control, primarily those concerned with family planning and family planning programs.

60:10291 Bairagi, Radheshyam. Is gender preference an obstacle to the success of family planning programmes in rural Bangladesh? In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population: Montreal, 1993, Volume 1. 1993. 121-34 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"This paper investigates the level and trend of the effects of gender preference on fertility intention and contraceptive use in Matlab, Bangladesh in order to examine whether the gender preference will act as an obstacle to the success of family planning programmes in this country. Data for this study come from the three KAP surveys conducted in 1977, 1984 and 1990 in Matlab, Bangladesh....Although gender preference did not change and contraceptive use rose from 16% to 57%, the effect of gender preference on contraceptive use was not substantial in Matlab during the study period. Thus, the relative importance of gender preference as a determinant of contraceptive use should decrease with an increase in contraceptive use and gender preference should not be an obstacle to the success of family planning programmes in rural Bangladesh."
Correspondence: R. Bairagi, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, G.P.O. 128, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:10292 Baron, Danielle L.; Kumah, Opia M.; Lettenmaier, Cheryl L.; Krenn, Susan C.; Bashin, Michelle E.; Jato, Miriam; Church, Cathleen A.; Kim, Young Mi; Langlois, Philippe F. Qualitative research for family planning programs in Africa. Center for Communication Programs Occasional Paper Series, No. 2, 1993. ii, 62 pp. Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Center for Communication Programs: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
This report summarizes results from focus groups and individual interviews in the seven African countries of Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Ivory Coast, Gambia, Ghana, Kenya, and Nigeria. "This report is designed to help those involved in family planning programs to appreciate the value of qualitative research, to explain how such research is planned and implemented, and to encourage them to incorporate the results in their own work."
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Center for Communication Programs, 111 Market Place, Baltimore, MD 21202-4024. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.2. Clinical Aspects & Use-Effectiveness Studies

Selected studies on the medical aspects of fertility control methods, including studies on side effects and use-effectiveness.

60:10324 Mauck, Christine K.; Cordero, Milton; Gabelnick, Henry L.; Spieler, Jeffrey M.; Rivera, Roberto. Barrier contraceptives: current status and future prospects. ISBN 0-471-30440-9. LC 93-34517. 1994. xviii, 384 pp. Wiley-Liss: New York, New York. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of the Fourth Contraceptive Research and Development Program International Workshop held in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, March 22-25, 1993. The objectives of the workshop were to "present the state-of-the-art of barrier methods in preventing pregnancy and STDs; review and update technical data in related areas; identify future research priorities in contraception and prevention of STDs; facilitate networking among and between researchers and other participants; educate relevant policy-makers and public health workers; address obstacles to barrier method development, use and acceptability; and review current and potential products." The publication includes the text of 25 papers presented at the meeting, as well as 5 reports from working groups.
Correspondence: Wiley-Liss, 605 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10158-0012. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:10325 Steiner, Markus; Piedrahita, Carla; Glover, Lucinda; Joanis, Carol. Can condom users likely to experience condom failure be identified? Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 25, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1993. 220-3, 226 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The analysis presented in this article examines possible explanations for the wide range of [condom] breakage rates presented in the literature and attempts to provide a basis for identifying condom users who are at increased risk of breaking condoms. This analysis uses a subset of data from a [U.S.] study conducted by Family Health International (FHI) to assess the value of laboratory tests in predicting condom breakage....We also calculate rates of condom slippage and overall failure (slippage and breakage combined)....Our data support the theory that a small group of condom users is responsible for a disproportionate number of condom failures. Couples with no condom experience in the year before the study and couples who had experienced condom breakage during that period had relatively high rates of condom failure. This suggests that such couples have characteristics or behave in ways that increase their risk of failure."
Correspondence: M. Steiner, Family Health International, P.O. Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.3. Evaluation of Programs

Studies evaluating either the demographic impact or other criteria of effectiveness of family planning programs.

60:10327 Abeykoon, A. T. P. L.; Wickramasuriya, Kusum; Devapriya, D. P. P. Situation analysis: identification of pockets where population programme activities need to be strengthened. Population Information Centre Research Paper Series, No. 6, Dec 1992. 31 pp. Ministry of Health and Women's Affairs, Population Division, Population Information Centre: Colombo, Sri Lanka. In Eng.
The authors examine data for Sri Lanka to determine "(1) Fertility trends, levels and preferences (2) Contraceptive knowledge levels and gaps (3) Family planning acceptance and contraceptive prevalence levels (4) Current service delivery programmes (5) Current information, education and communication channels and activities."
Correspondence: Ministry of Health and Women's Affairs, Population Division, Population Information Centre, 231 De Saram Place, Colombo 10, Sri Lanka. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:10328 Adeokun, Lawrence. Strategies for successful implementation of family planning programmes. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population: Montreal, 1993, Volume 1. 1993. 151-3 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The author "comments on the feasibility of arriving at empirical generalizations from the wealth of experiences derived from family [planning] programme performances." The focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: L. Adeokun, Makerere University, Institute of Statistics and Applied Economics, P.O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.4. Attitudes Toward Fertility & Fertility Control

Studies concerned with the interrelations between fertility control and attitudinal variables, including studies on wanted and unwanted pregnancy and children, motivation for parenthood, sex preference, and voluntary childlessness. Studies on knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of family planning and attitudes toward family size are classified under this heading.

60:10338 Bretin, Helene. Contraception: what choice and for what kind of life? Women's stories and doctors' statements. [Contraception: quel choix pour quelle vie? Recits de femmes, paroles de medecins.] Analyses et Prospective, ISBN 2-85598-545-5. LC 93-105626. 1992. ix, 229 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
This study concerns the provision of contraceptive services to a population in the outer Paris urban region of France where the populace is primarily of foreign origin. The provision of injectable hormonal contraceptives to a relatively marginal population, including North African immigrants, gypsies, and poor French women, is the primary focus. The author examines the attitude of such women toward having children and to the contraceptive methods available, the attitudes of the doctors providing services, and problems of communication and how they are exacerbated by linguistic and cultural differences.
Correspondence: Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, 100 rue de Tolbiac, 75654 Paris Cedex 13, France. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

60:10339 Holden, Christine; Levy, David M. Birth control and the amelioration controversy. History of Political Economy, Vol. 25, No. 2, Summer 1993. 283-311 pp. Durham, North Carolina. In Eng.
The authors explore the opposition among nineteenth-century Marxists to the birth control movement, with a focus on the movement's perceived effect on "the amelioration of the lot of the poor....We focus our inquiry [on three questions]. (1) Will birth control make members of the working class better or worse off? (2) Can the members of the working class be counted upon to know their own interests? (3) Even if they know their own interests, will they act on them?...The case we make is that birth control makes sense only in a world of scarcity which, according to Marxism, will not exist under communism." A case study of the discourse surrounding the controversy in Imperial Germany is discussed.
Correspondence: C. Holden, University of Southern Maine, Department of History, Gorham, ME 04038. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

F.4.5. Induced Abortion

Studies on induced abortion, including those on attitudes, with the exception of studies primarily concerned with government regulation of abortion, which are coded under M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility . Studies of spontaneous abortion appear under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology .

60:10346 Anderson, Barbara A.; Katus, Kalev; Puur, Allan; Silver, Brian D. Characteristics of women having abortions in Estonia. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population: Montreal, 1993, Volume 1. 1993. 215-34 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"This paper investigates the characteristics of women who had legal abortions in Estonia in 1991. It is based on an exploratory analysis of hospital and survey data for 360 women who had in-hospital abortions in the city of Tallinn during that year....The paper also investigates the relation between the abortion history and other aspects of the sexual and reproductive history of the women. It provides insights into the relation between abortion and contraceptive history and the decision to marry."
Correspondence: B. A. Anderson, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:10347 Avdeev, Alexandre; Blum, Alain; Troitskaja, Irina. Abortion and contraception in Russia and the former Soviet Union: past and present. [L'avortement et la contraception en Russie et dans l'ex-URSS: histoire et present.] INED Dossiers et Recherches, No. 41, Oct 1993. 72 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
The authors first examine changes in Soviet thinking and legislation on abortion and contraception. They then analyze trends in abortion practice and law from the period preceding 1920 up to the present, and examine regional differences within the USSR. They briefly discuss some recent data on contraceptive practice. Extensive statistics on induced abortions in the USSR and Russia are presented in appendixes.
Correspondence: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility

Studies on lactation, nutrition, fecundability, sex behavior, menarche and menopause, and other biological factors or social customs as they affect fertility directly. Factors affecting contraceptive practice and factors affecting fertility indirectly are not included here.

60:10359 Letamo, Gobopamang. Modernization and premarital dyadic formations in Botswana. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population: Montreal, 1993, Volume 1. 1993. 369-79 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The author investigates the impact of modernization on traditional practices regarding premarital sex and pregnancy in Botswana. "There seems to be clear evidence which supports the view that the traditional social institutions and social controls that existed in Botswana to prevent premarital sexual intercourse have disappeared." Possible contributing factors include less frequent segregation of boys and girls, migration of young people to urban areas, fewer punishments for premarital sex and pregnancy, the disappearance of polygamy, and low sex ratios.
Correspondence: G. Letamo, Bowling Green State University, Department of Sociology, Bowling Green, OH 43403-0231. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:10360 Nathanson, Constance A.; Schoen, Robert. A bargaining theory of sexual behaviour in women's adolescence. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population: Montreal, 1993, Volume 1. 1993. 285-97 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"In this paper we propose a bargaining theory of sexual relationships in women's adolescence. The theory builds on economic models of utility maximization, but modifies this theory by the addition of socially, culturally, and ideologically-based constraints on women's behaviour. The elements of this theory are 1) gender-specific economic opportunities; 2) sexual and family ideologies; 3) social class; and 4) race. Hypotheses are advanced to illustrate how this theory may be used to predict outcomes such as the timing of sexual debut, first cohabitation, first marriage, and the number of sexual partners....To introduce and illustrate the elements of this theory, we draw on research from two very different settings: sub-Saharan Africa and California."
Correspondence: C. A. Nathanson, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.6. Fertility Outside Marriage

Studies on nonmarital fertility, including illegitimacy. Studies of common-law marriage and other forms of cohabitation or voluntary single parenthood are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

60:10362 Irarrazaval, Ignacio; Valenzuela, Juan P. Illegitimacy in Chile. Toward a change in family formation? [La ilegitimidad en Chile. Hacia un cambio en la formacion de la familia?] Serie Documentos de Trabajo, No. 188, Dec 1992. 46 pp. Centro de Estudios Publicos: Santiago, Chile. In Spa.
Trends in births outside marriage in Chile since 1960 are analyzed. The authors show that the percentage of extramarital births has increased from 15.9% in 1960 to 34.3% in 1990. They note that women with more education are increasingly choosing to have children outside of marriage, and suggest that this indicates a trend toward a new concept of the family.
Correspondence: Centro de Estudios Publicos, Monsenor Sotero Sanz 175, Santiago 9, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:10363 Prioux, France. Regional aspects of family formation and illegitimacy in Austria. [Aspects regionaux de la formation de la famille et de l'illegitimite en Autriche.] Population, Vol. 48, No. 3, May-Jun 1993. 711-34 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The author analyzes the relationship between extramarital births and family formation in Austria, with a focus on regional variations. "In the second part of this paper, we consider how people in different regions have reacted to successive measures that favoured marriage or lone parenthood. It is shown that not only have illegitimate births increased again in regions where they have traditionally been frequent, but that they have also become more common in areas where previously such tradition had not existed."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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