Volume 59 - Number 4 - Winter 1993

G. Nuptiality and the Family

Studies that quantitatively analyze aspects of nuptiality and the family. Studies concerned equally with marriage and the family are coded first under G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to G.1. Marriage and Divorce . Methodological studies on nuptiality and the family are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , as appropriate.

G.1. Marriage and Divorce

Studies of trends in marriage and divorce, nuptiality, duration of marriage, age at marriage, and demographic characteristics of marriage partners. Also includes studies of unmarried cohabitation and consensual unions.

59:40340 Blossfeld, Hans-Peter; De Rose, Alessandra. Educational expansion and changes in entry into marriage and motherhood. The experience of Italian women. Genus, Vol. 48, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1992. 73-91 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"The purpose of this paper has been to assess empirically the question of whether women's growing economic independence, resulting from better education, is one of the major factors in determining the timing of marriage and motherhood in Italy....We have analysed the life histories of a sample of Italian women from different cohorts, collected on the occasion of the National Survey on Family Structures and Behaviours carried on by the National Institute of Statistics....The effect of level of education is negative. That is, it increases the age of entry into marriage. However, the size of the effect is small and seems limited to the passage from youth to adulthood, because the longer time the woman spends in the educational system increases the age at which she feels herself ready to marry. As far as the timing of the first child, it is almost independent of educational attainment, once marital status is taken into account."
Correspondence: H.-P. Blossfeld, European University Institute, Department of Political and Social Sciences, Via dei Rocettini 5, 50016 San Domenico di Fiesole, Florence, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40341 Cai, Duoduo. A study of change in age at first marriage and first fertility of Chinese women and population control. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 4, No. 3, 1992. 223-36 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author examines the decline in Chinese women's "age at first marriage..., going on to analyze trends of development in women's average age at first marriage and changes in the interval before first fertility over the last few decades, and from there proposes an effective way to alleviate the population peak and control the population--gradually lengthening the interval before first fertility on the basis of maintaining the average age at first marriage." Data are from the 1982 census and other official sources.
Correspondence: D. Cai, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Institute of Population Studies, 5 Jianguomen Nei Da Jie 5 Hao, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40342 Carver, Karen P.; Teachman, Jay D. Female employment and first union dissolution in Puerto Rico. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 55, No. 3, Aug 1993. 686-98 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"We examine the impact of employment histories on union dissolution in Puerto Rico for two groups of women: all women either married or living with a partner consensually, and women who did not cohabit before legal marriage. Results, using discrete-time proportional hazards models, indicate that: (a) transitions in female employment status within a union increase the risk of union disruption; (b) transitions in female employment status relative to union inception increase the risk of union dissolution, but this effect disappears when employment transitions within the union are controlled for; (c) working in jobs that pay a wage or salary increases union disruption as compared to women who do not work and women who work in more home-oriented occupations; and (d) working in types of occupations that are conducive to home-oriented roles does not affect the likelihood of union disruption."
Correspondence: K. P. Carver, University of Maryland, Center on Population, Gender and Social Inequality, Department of Sociology, College Park, MD 20742-1315. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40343 Csernak, Jozsefne. Marriage trends in Finland and Hungary. [Hazasodasi szokasok Finnorszagban es Magyarorszagon.] Statisztikai Szemle, Vol. 71, No. 10, Oct 1993. 782-806 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
"The study compares marriage trends of Finland and Hungary, using marriage tables of Finnish males and females born between 1939 and 1965 as well as those of Hungarian males and females born between 1939 and 1968." A major change in marriage behavior in Finland during the 1960s is attributed to changing social and economic conditions, particularly migration to the major cities. "Due to the changes a new marriage pattern is being shaped in Finland's population which is typical of postindustrial societies. In the youngest cohorts of Finnish females the average age at first marriage is likely to exceed 26 years, and at least 25 per cent of them remain ultimately unmarried. In the younger Hungarian cohorts significant decrease in first marriages can similarly be pointed out."
Correspondence: J. Csernak, Kozponti Statisztikai Hivatal, Keleti Karoly Utca 5-7, Budapest II, Hungary. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40344 Dahal, Dilli R.; Fricke, Tom; Thornton, Arland. The family contexts of marriage timing: women's entry into first marriage in a central Himalayan village of Nepal. Population Studies Center Research Report, No. 93-284, Aug 1993. 29, [4] pp. University of Michigan, Population Studies Center: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The authors examine the effect of parental social reproduction strategies on the timing of daughters' marriages using ethnographic and survey data collected between 1987 and 1991 from a Tamang-Ghale village in north central Nepal.
Correspondence: University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2609. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40345 Dianu, Tiberiu. Trends in divorce. [Tendinte de evolutie a divortului.] Sociologie Romaneasca, Vol. 2, No. 5-6, 1991. 383-91 pp. Bucharest, Romania. In Rum.
Recent trends in divorce in Romania are analyzed by age and sex.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40346 Donadje, Florentin. Men's marriage and reproductive strategies in South Benin: facts and opinions. [Nuptialite et fecondite des hommes au Sud-Benin: faits et opinions.] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 21, No. 1, Spring 1992. 45-65 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Using a survey carried out in 1989 involving a sample of 2,590 households residing in Cotonou [Benin] and in rural areas near Cotonou, the article examines marriage and reproductive patterns of men (family formation, polygamy, level and trend of fertility). Men's opinions on marriage, fertility and family planning are also discussed."
Correspondence: F. Donadje, Universite Nationale du Benin, Centre de Formation et de Recherche en Matiere de Population, Cotonou, Benin. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40347 Dumas, Jean; Peron, Yves. Marriage and conjugal life in Canada. [Mariage et vie conjugale au Canada.] La Conjoncture Demographique, Pub. Order No. 91-534F. ISBN 0-660-93792-1. Mar 1992. 167 pp. Statistics Canada: Ottawa, Canada. In Fre.
The authors analyze marriage trends in Canada from a demographic perspective. Chapter 1 looks at trends before 1921. Chapter 2 examines the nuptiality of the unmarried since 1921, and Chapter 3 that of the previously married for the same period. Chapter 4 considers divorce since 1969. Chapter 5 analyzes some of the social and demographic characteristics of marriage. Chapter 6 concludes the study with a review of how such factors as increasing divorce and the growing popularity of consensual union are affecting marriage patterns and conjugal life. This report is also available in English.
Correspondence: Statistics Canada, Publication Sales, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Paris, France.

59:40348 Esser, Hartmut. Social modernization and the increase in the divorce rate. Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics/Zeitschrift fur die Gesamte Staatswissenschaft, Vol. 149, No. 1, Mar 1993. 252-85 pp. Tubingen, Germany. In Eng.
The author develops a micro-model of marital interactions that is used to analyze factors affecting the divorce rate in modern industrialized societies. The core of the model is the concept of production of marital gain and mutual control of this production. "The increase of divorce rates, then, is explained by a steady decrease of institutional and social embeddedness, which helps to solve this kind of an 'assurance game.' The shape of the individual risk is explained by the typical form of change of the 'production functions' of marriages within the first period of adaptation. The inconsistent results concerning womens' labor market participation in linear regression models are explained as a consequence of the (theoretical and statistical) 'interaction' of decreases in embeddedness and increases in external alternatives for women." Comments are included by Karl-Dieter Opp (pp. 278-82) and Ulrich Witt (pp. 283-5).
Correspondence: H. Esser, Mannheim University, Department of Social Sciences, 6800 Mannheim, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

59:40349 Gage-Brandon, Anastasia J. The formation and stability of informal unions in Cote d'Ivoire. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 24, No. 2, Summer 1993. 219-33 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Using data on first unions from the Cote d'Ivoire Fertility Survey of 1980/81 this study presents a dynamic view of informal cohabitation, union formalization and dissolution....Factors influencing the formation of informal unions [are examined] in order to assess the potential effect of social change on the processes initiating a union. Then the interrelationship between informal cohabitation and formal marriage will be assessed. This will be followed by an investigation of the short and long-term effects of informal cohabitation on union stability."
Correspondence: A. J. Gage-Brandon, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:40350 Hall, David R. Reproductive individualism: exploring the relationship between religion, cohabitation and divorce. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 93-9, ISBN 0-7714-1556-7. Jul 1993. 42, [5] pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
The author uses data from the 1984 Canadian Fertility Survey to examine "the spatial, structural, and subjective foundations for a concept called reproductive individualism. By measuring this concept, hypotheses involving reproductive individualist attitudes, religiosity, cohabitation, and divorce were developed."
Correspondence: University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre, Room 3227, Social Science Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40351 Horton, Hayward D.; Burgess, Norma J. Where are the black men? Regional differences in the pool of marriageable black males in the United States. National Journal of Sociology, Vol. 6, No. 1, Summer 1992. 3-19 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"This paper approaches the issue of the marriageable black male [in the United States] from a demographic perspective. Specifically, the following questions are addressed: 1) What proportion of the unmarried black male population is marriageable? 2) How does black male marriageability vary by region? 3) How do black males differ from their white counterparts in terms of marriageability? and 4) What impact do demographic and social variables have on the marriageability of black males?...The findings revealed that most unmarried black males, approximately 80%, are not marriageable. However, neither are most unmarried white males."
Correspondence: H. D. Horton, Iowa State University, Department of Sociology, Ames, IA 50011. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40352 Istvan, Tiborne. Marital status of the population in Bekes county, 1980-1990. [A nepesseg csaladi allapota Bekes megyeben, 1980-1990.] Statisztikai Szemle, Vol. 71, No. 10, Oct 1993. 807-14 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
An analysis of marriage patterns in Bekes County, Hungary, is presented for the period 1980-1990. The author notes "that the number of married couples decreased, while that of unmarried, widowed and divorced increased, both on [the] national level and in [the] county....The study shows the marital status of the county's population by age and sex, and refers to the main reasons behind the changes [taking] place in this field."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40353 Kalmijn, Matthijs. Trends in black/white intermarriage. Social Forces, Vol. 72, No. 1, Sep 1993. 119-46 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"I examine annual marriage license data for 33 states from 1968 to 1986 to assess how the role of the black/white color line in marriage choice has changed. The analyses generally show that black/white intermarriage has increased rapidly since the U.S. Supreme Court lifted the legal ban on intermarriage. I further show that this trend is especially pronounced among black males and that the status characteristics of these marriages have remained traditional in the sense that intermarriage still occurs primarily when the white woman marries up in socioeconomic status. In my conclusion, I offer several interpretations of why the link between status and interracial marriage persists, and discuss what this implies for the nature of racial differentiation in contemporary American society."
Correspondence: M. Kalmijn, Utrecht University, Department of Sociology, Heidelberglaan 2, P.O. Box 80140, Utrecht 3508 TC, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40354 Katapa, Rosalia; Astone, Nan M. The correlates of mother's marital status in Tanzania. Johns Hopkins Population Center Papers on Population, No. WP 93-06, 1993. 16, [5] pp. Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Population Center: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
Data from the 1991-1992 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey are used to analyze the socioeconomic correlates of various marital status categories.
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Population Center, 615 North Wolfe Street, Room 2300, Baltimore, MD 21205-2179. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40355 Kulkarni, Purushottam M. Impact of mortality decline on marital duration and length of post-dissolution life at different divorce levels. Genus, Vol. 48, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1992. 45-61 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"The effects of changing life span on certain life cycle measures of post-marital life are examined with the help of numerically computed values of such measures under various mortality and divorce levels. The results show that in the absence of divorce the increase in mean marital duration effected by a mortality decline is even greater than the increase in total post-marriage life. Thus, in such populations, the expected length of widowhood actually declines in spite of the fact that a greater proportion of women face widowhood as mortality falls. But this is not true for populations with moderate or high divorce levels, which would experience relatively smaller improvements in mean marital durations and consequently the length of post-dissolution life increases through a mortality decline in such populations."
Correspondence: P. M. Kulkarni, Bharathiar University, Department of Population Studies, Coimbatore 641 046, Tamil Nadu, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40356 Li, Jiang Hong. Black and white differences in first marriage among women: influence of contextual factors. Seattle Population Research Center Working Paper, No. 93-8, Apr 1993. 32, [10] pp. University of Washington, Seattle Population Research Center: Seattle, Washington; Battelle Seattle Research Center: Seattle, Washington. In Eng.
The author analyzes racial differences in marriage patterns in the United States using data from the 1980 Census Public Use Microdata Sample D and the County Statistics File 3.
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1992 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Seattle Population Research Center, c/o University of Washington, Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology Library, Department of Sociology DK-40, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40357 Li, Jiang Hong; Lavely, William. Rural economy and male marriage in China: Jurong, Jiangsu 1933. Seattle Population Research Center Working Paper, No. 93-7, Jun 1993. 23, [16] pp. University of Washington, Seattle Population Research Center: Seattle, Washington; Battelle Seattle Research Center: Seattle, Washington. In Eng.
"This paper examines the relationship between economic and socio-demographic variables and male marriage patterns in rural villages of Jurong county, Jiangsu province, China, in 1933." Data are from a 1933-1934 survey of 56,524 households.
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1993 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Seattle Population Research Center, c/o University of Washington, Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology Library, Department of Sociology DK-40, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40358 Lundberg, Shelly; Pollak, Robert A. Separate spheres bargaining and the marriage market. Seattle Population Research Center Working Paper, Rev. ed. No. 93-3, Oct 1992. 28 pp. University of Washington, Seattle Population Research Center: Seattle, Washington; Battelle Seattle Research Center: Seattle, Washington. In Eng.
The authors introduce the separate spheres bargaining model of distribution within marriage. This differs from the divorce-threat bargaining model in that the threat point is not divorce but noncooperative equilibrium within marriage. The model is illustrated using child allowance allocations.
Correspondence: Seattle Population Research Center, c/o University of Washington, Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology Library, Department of Sociology DK-40, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40359 Manning, Wendy D. Cohabitation, marriage, and the timing of first births. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 1993-13, Aug 1993. 24, [6] pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"Using the 1987/88 [U.S.] National Survey of Families and Households analyses were conducted to determine whether cohabitation is an alternative form of marriage or a transitional stage before marriage, and to explore explanations of the relationship between cohabitation and marital fertility."
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6211. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40360 Mazzaggio, Huguette. Marriages in Reunion in 1990. [Les mariages a la Reunion en 1990.] Etudes et Syntheses, No. 14, Sep 1991. 86 pp. Observatoire Departemental de la Reunion: Saint-Denis, Reunion. In Fre.
This is an analysis of marriage patterns in Reunion based on a survey involving 3,733 couples getting married in 1990. The author examines marriage trends since the 1950s, marriage characteristics, age and marital status, socioeconomic factors, and migration intentions following marriage.
Correspondence: Observatoire Departemental de la Reunion, 1 rue de la Source, 97400 Saint-Denis, Reunion. Location: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Paris, France.

59:40361 McCaa, Robert. Ethnic intermarriage and gender in New York City. Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Vol. 24, No. 2, Autumn 1993. 207-31 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This article examines ethnic marriage patterns for both men and women in New York City from public use samples of United States census schedules for years with roughly comparable data: 1900, 1910, 1960, and 1980. Log-linear models which take into account both the married and the unmarried as well as differences by gender reveal the structures of ethnic pairings at each census and illuminate important transitions....The intermarriage transition in New York City suggests that, in the first stages of immigration, unbalanced ethnic sex-ratios were powerful forces precipitating intermarriage. The imbalance extended to second-generation ethnics, who, faced with heightened competition from the continued influx of ethnic compatriots, responded by marrying out instead of not marrying at all."
Correspondence: R. McCaa, University of Minnesota, Department of History, 628 Social Science Tower, Minneapolis, MN 55455. Location: Princeton University Library (SH).

59:40362 McLaughlin, Diane K.; Lichter, Daniel T. Marriage markets and marital behavior among low-income women. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 1993-04, Feb 1993. 28, [9] pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
This study has two objectives. "First, [the authors] evaluate the process of first marriage transitions among poor and nonpoor women during the 1980s....Second, [they] assess the effects of women's employment and the local pool of economically-attractive men on first marriage transitions among poor women." Data are from the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and the D file of the Public Use Microdata Sample of the 1980 U.S. census.
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 22 Burrowes Building, University Park, PA 16802-6202. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40363 Qian, Zhenchao; Preston, Samuel H. Changes in American marriage, 1972 to 1987: availability and forces of attraction by age and education. American Sociological Review, Vol. 58, No. 4, Aug 1993. 482-95 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"We describe recent changes in propensities to marry according to the age and educational attainment of potential spouses...[using] data from 1973, 1980, and 1988 [U.S.] Current Population Surveys. Multivariate analysis suggests that...declines between 1979 and 1987 were highly concentrated among younger women. Age and education homogamy increased during [this] period. Including cohabiting unions in the definition of marriage reduces the magnitude of the declines but does not alter their essential patterns."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1992 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Z. Qian, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40364 Saw, Swee-Hock. Muslim divorce trends and patterns in Singapore. Genus, Vol. 48, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1992. 29-44 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"This paper attempts to discuss the general trends in the incidence of divorce among the Muslim population in Singapore since 1921 and the patterns of divorce in the 1980s when detailed statistics were made available....The Singapore Muslims experienced an extremely high and steady incidence of divorce during the period up to 1958 when the procedures for processing divorce petitions were not well organised. Following the introduction of new legislation and the creation of the Syariah Court to handle marital disputes in 1958, there occurred an immediate and dramatic downturn in the rate of Muslim divorce. By 1970 the decline appeared to have stalled and a slight upturn has even taken place in the 1980s." The impact of rapid social and economic development is assessed.
Correspondence: S.-H. Saw, National University of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore 0511. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40365 Schoen, Robert; Weinick, Robin M. The slowing metabolism of marriage: figures from 1988 U.S. marital status life tables. Demography, Vol. 30, No. 4, Nov 1993. 737-46 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Recent changes in U.S. marriage and divorce rates, and the rise in nonmarital cohabitation, imply a fundamental shift in American patterns of union formation and dissolution....Previous research reported a trend toward a later age at first marriage, but the implications of the delay for the proportion ever marrying are not well measured. The pause in the long-term increase in divorce rates has been noted, but its effect on the proportion of marriages ending in divorce has not been determined. This paper addresses those issues using 1988 marital status life table figures for the United States, and compares them with results reported in recent research."
Correspondence: R. Schoen, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Department of Population Dynamics, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205-2179. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40366 Stone, Lawrence. Broken lives: separation and divorce in England 1660-1857. ISBN 0-19-820254-7. LC 92-31576. 1993. xviii, 355 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This volume of case-studies illustrates, through detailed narratives of individual lives, just how marriages broke up in early modern England....[It is] provided with an introduction which supplies an abbreviated summary of the social, moral, and legal background."
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, Walton Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40367 Tan, JooEan. The effect of social transformation on regional variations in Thai celibacy: 1970 to 1990. Seattle Population Research Center Working Paper, No. 93-14, Sep 1993. 12, [9] pp. University of Washington, Seattle Population Research Center: Seattle, Washington; Battelle Seattle Research Center: Seattle, Washington. In Eng.
The author explores "the provincial and regional variation in the proportions never-married among men and women ages 40-44 for three time periods, 1970, 1980 and 1990 using data from the Thai Population Censuses for these three years."
Correspondence: Seattle Population Research Center, c/o University of Washington, Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology Library, Department of Sociology DK-40, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40368 Uchida, Eiichi; Araki, Shunichi; Murata, Katsuyuki. Socioeconomic factors affecting marriage, divorce and birth rates in a Japanese population. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 25, No. 4, Oct 1993. 499-507 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The effects of low income, urbanisation and young age population on age-adjusted rates of first marriage, divorce and live birth among the Japanese population in 46 prefectures were analysed by stepwise regression for 1970 and for 1975....In both 1970 and 1975, the first marriage rate for females was inversely related to low income and the divorce rates for both males and females were positively related to low income. The live birth rate was significantly related to low income, urbanisation and young age population only in 1975. The first marriage rate for females and the divorce rates for both sexes increased significantly but the first marriage rate for males and live birth rate significantly decreased between 1970 and 1975. These findings suggest that low income was the essential factor affecting first marriage for females and divorce for males and females."
Correspondence: E. Uchida, University of Tokyo, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health, Tokyo, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40369 Watanabe, Yoshikazu; Bando, Rieko. Changes in SMAM and proportions never married by region in Japan: 1920-1985. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 47, No. 4, Jan 1992. 58-68 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Changes in marriage patterns in Japan are analyzed over the period 1920-1985.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40370 Weiss, Yoram. The formation and dissolution of families: why marry? Who marries whom? And what happens upon marriage and divorce. ERC/NORC Discussion Paper Series, No. 92-7, Aug 1992. 67 pp. University of Chicago, National Opinion Research Center [NORC], Economics Research Center: Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
The author "summarizes the main ideas that economists bring to the analysis of marriage and divorce....[Topics covered include] gains from marriage, resource allocation within the family and the role of altruism, assortative matching, search for a mate and divorce."
Correspondence: University of Chicago, National Opinion Research Center, Economics Research Center, 1155 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

59:40371 Zha, Ruichuan; Liu, Jintang. Period analysis and cohort analysis of marriage and fertility among Chinese women. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 4, No. 3, 1992. 249-62 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Trends in marriage and fertility among women in China are examined. Data are primarily from a 1988 two percent sample survey and are analyzed for cohort and period effects. Consideration is given to birth intervals, parity progression ratios, and marriage age.
Correspondence: R. Zha, People's University of China, Population Institute, 39 Haidian Road, Haidian District, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

G.2. Family and Household

Studies of household structure and of family composition and size and the factors influencing them. Includes the full range of family concepts from the one-parent to the extended family and includes studies on the life course of the family. Studies on attitudes toward family size are coded under F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control .

59:40372 Amoateng, Acheampong Y. Socio-cultural organization and fertility attitudes and behaviour of wives in Ezibeleni Township (Transkei). South African Journal of Sociology/Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Sosiologie, Vol. 23, No. 4, Nov 1992. 118-24 pp. Pretoria, South Africa. In Eng. with sum. in Afr.
"The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of socio-cultural organization on both desired and completed fertility of a group of married women in Ezibeleni township in the Transkei. Among the socio-cultural factors examined were religion, education, labour force participation, age, age at marriage, duration of marriage, birth and marriage cohorts etc. We found sufficient evidence to support the contention that childbearing is a fundamentally social behaviour. On the whole, families tend to be large in the township. The higher a woman's socio-economic status, the smaller the size of her family. Contrary to existing findings, age at marriage is positively associated with achieved family size, while the timing of entry into a marital union is negatively associated with desired family size. Finally, fertility desires have been changing over the years with the younger generation of wives desiring smaller family sizes compared to the older generation."
Correspondence: A. Y. Amoateng, University of Bophuthatswana, Department of Sociology, Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho 8681, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:40373 Antoine, Philippe; Bocquier, Philippe. A method for collecting data on kinship in demographic surveys: a compromise with the anthropological method. [Une methode de recueil de la parente dans les enquetes demographiques: un compromis avec l'approche anthropologique.] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 21, No. 1, Spring 1992. 7-27 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"We present herein a solution to operationalize the concept of kinship using the experience of the IFAN-ORSTOM survey carried out in Dakar [Senegal]. Our results confirm the increased dependence of the younger generation on older generations [during life cycle changes or demographic crises]. The urban way of life does not seem to disorganize family structures in Dhaka. At present, it is through family solidarity that the shock of the crisis is absorbed."
Correspondence: P. Antoine, Institut Francais de Recherche pour le Developpement en Cooperation, 24 rue Bayard, 75008 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40374 Behrman, Jere R.; Pollak, Robert A.; Taubman, Paul. The wealth model: efficiency in education and distribution in the family. Seattle Population Research Center Working Paper, No. 93-5, Nov 1992. 24, [12] pp. University of Washington, Seattle Population Research Center: Seattle, Washington; Battelle Seattle Research Center: Seattle, Washington. In Eng.
The authors examine the wealth model developed by Gary S. Becker and Nigel Tomes, which implies that "altruistic parents provide their children of differing abilities with different amounts of human capital." The model is applied to U.S. data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Results are shown to be inconsistent with the model's predictions.
For the paper by Becker and Tomes, published in 1976, see 43:1573.
Correspondence: Seattle Population Research Center, c/o University of Washington, Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology Library, Department of Sociology DK-40, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40375 Burch, Thomas K. Theories of household formation: progress and challenges. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 93-6, ISBN 0-7714-1553-2. Jul 1993. 27 pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
The author reviews the theoretical background to the demographic study of family, kinship, and households. The geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre, Room 3227, Social Science Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40376 Burton, Linda. Families and aging. Generations and Aging Series, ISBN 0-89503-114-0. LC 92-42277. 1993. iv, 157 pp. Baywood Publishing: Amityville, New York. In Eng.
"The purpose of this volume is to highlight the complexity and diversity of issues concerning contemporary families and the elderly [in the United States]. The topics covered...address a broad array of scholarly, practical, and policy-related interests concerning contemporary family structures, processes, roles, and relationships...." Each chapter is by a different author, with topics including the effects of divorce on a family's older generation, elders in Southeast Asian families, extended kinship networks in black families, the families of older homosexuals, parent-child support, sibling relationships, family caregiving programs, and suggestions for further reading.
Correspondence: Baywood Publishing, 26 Austin Avenue, P.O. Box 337, Amityville, NY 11701. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40377 Cooney, Teresa M. Recent demographic change: implications for families planning for the future. Marriage and Family Review, Vol. 18, No. 3-4, 1993. 37-55 pp. Binghamton, New York. In Eng.
The author "describes recent trends in mortality, fertility, marriage, divorce and employment, and considers their implications for how individuals and their families plan and prepare for their later adult years." The geographical focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: T. M. Cooney, University of Delaware, Department of Individual and Family Studies, 111 Alison Annex, Newark, DE 19716. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:40378 Desrosiers, Helene; Le Bourdais, Celine; Peron, Yves. Dynamics of female single parenthood in Canada. [La dynamique de la monoparentalite feminine au Canada.] European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 9, No. 2, 1993. 197-224 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"In this article we look at the timing and duration of episodes of single parent status during the life course of various cohorts of women. The analysis was carried out with the help of retrospective data from a Canadian family survey carried out in 1984 which had a sample size of over 7,000 women. The results, derived from life-table techniques, show that over one woman in three was likely to experience a period of single-parent status at some time in her life at the risks current in 1984."
Correspondence: H. Desrosiers, Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique--Urbanisation, 3465 rue Durocher, Montreal H2X 26C, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40379 Farkas, Janice I.; Hogan, Dennis P. The demography of changing intergenerational relationships. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 1993-14, Sep 1993. 24 pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"This paper analyzes the structure of kin lineages over the life course for persons in aging societies." Data are for 1986 and 1987 and are from the International Social Survey Program, which involved Australia, Austria, West Germany, Hungary, Italy, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6211. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40380 Finland. Tilastokeskus (Helsinki, Finland). Family formation by Finnish women. [Suomalaisnaisen perheellistyminen.] Vaesto/Befolkning/Population 1992, No. 10, ISBN 951-47-6017-4. 1992. 53 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Fin.
Trends in family formation in Finland over the past two decades are described based on interviews with over 4,100 women. Topics covered include leaving the parental home, marriage and consensual unions, fertility and timing of births, actual and ideal family size, contraception, and problems involving the care of small children.
Correspondence: Tilastokeskus, PL 504, 00101 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40381 Goldscheider, Frances; Thornton, Arland; Young-DeMarco, Linda. A portrait of the nest-leaving process in early adulthood. Demography, Vol. 30, No. 4, Nov 1993. 683-99 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper provides an in-depth portrait of the nest-leaving process in early adulthood [in the United States] as it emerged in the 1980s. Event histories are used to describe transitions in and out of the parental home during the years from age 15 through age 23. We focus on the role of the 'new' forms of living arrangements in the leaving-home process, namely nonfamily living and cohabitation. The results show that the transition to full residential independence is more gradual, with more intermediate steps, than previous studies suggested. Cohabitation is rare as a route out of the parental home, and both nonfamily living and cohabitation lead to much higher return rates than does marriage."
Correspondence: F. Goldscheider, Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40382 Goldstein, Alice; Goldstein, Sidney; Guo, Zhigeng. Changing family and household structure in the People's Republic of China. PSTC Working Paper Series, No. 93-10, Sep 1993. 17, [4] pp. Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center [PSTC]: Providence, Rhode Island. In Eng.
"This paper examines changes in family size and structure in [China in] the period 1952 to 1987 and how these are related to other demographic trends. A variety of sources will be used, but major reliance is placed on three censuses China has taken in 1953, 1962, and 1982, and on the 1987 national survey."
Correspondence: Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40383 Guo, Zhigang; Du, Peng; Liu, Xiaolan. An analysis of the changes of family size and structure in Beijing. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 4, No. 3, 1992. 285-94 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Changes in characteristics of families living in Beijing, China, are analyzed and compared using data from the 1982 and 1990 censuses.
Correspondence: Z. Guo, People's University of China, Institute of Population Science, 39 Haidian Road, Haidian District, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40384 Italy. Istituto Nazionale di Statistica [ISTAT] (Rome, Italy). A multifaceted picture of the family, 1987-1991. Part 2: families, population, and housing. [Indagine multiscopo sulle famiglie, anni 1987-91. 2: famiglie, popolazione, abitazioni.] 1993. 416, [15] pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita.
A selection of statistical data on the family in Italy over the period 1987-1991 is presented. The focus is on the social and demographic characteristics of individuals and families. Data are included on sex distribution, age distribution, marital status, educational status, and labor force participation of family members. Housing data are also included.
Correspondence: Istituto Nazionale di Statistica, Via Cesare Balbo 16a, 00184 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40385 Kent, Richard J. Household formation by the young in the United States. Applied Economics, Vol. 24, No. 10, Oct 1992. 1,129-37 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"A model of household formation by the young is specified and estimated. It was found that the headship rate for the young in the United States depends on income, the cost of housing, the number of families receiving AFDC payments, the age at first marriage for females and for males, and the percentage of males enrolled in college. Household formation by the young is much more sensitive to changes in income and the price of housing than household formation by the entire adult population. The estimated results are used to examine the change in the headship rate from 1961 to 1979 and from 1979 to 1987."
Correspondence: R. J. Kent, Kent State University, Department of Economics, Kent, OH 44242. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

59:40386 Lye, Diane N.; Waldron, Ingrid. Correlates of attitudes toward cohabitation, family and gender roles. Seattle Population Research Center Working Paper, No. 93-10, Jul 1993. 43, [7] pp. University of Washington, Seattle Population Research Center: Seattle, Washington; Battelle Seattle Research Center: Seattle, Washington. In Eng.
The authors "assess the relationships between a broad range of sociological variables and attitudes toward cohabitation, marriage, parenting, women's employment, and male and female roles." Data are from the 1985 Monitoring the Future survey of U.S. high-school seniors.
Correspondence: Seattle Population Research Center, c/o University of Washington, Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology Library, Department of Sociology DK-40, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40387 Moffitt, Robert A.; Rendall, Michael S. Cohort trends in the lifetime distribution of female headship in the U.S., 1968-1985. PSTC Working Paper Series, No. 93-09, Aug 1993. 46 pp. Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center [PSTC]: Providence, Rhode Island. In Eng.
"We use the Michigan Panel Study on Income Dynamics, 1968-1985, to estimate cohort trends in the lifetime incidence and duration of female family headship in the U.S."
Correspondence: Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40388 Popenoe, David. American family decline, 1960-1990: a review and appraisal. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 55, No. 3, Aug 1993. 527-55 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"Contrary to the view of some academics that the family in America is not declining but just changing, the thesis of this article is that family decline since 1960 has been extraordinarily steep, and its social consequences serious, especially for children. Drawing mainly on U.S. Census data, family trends of the past three decades are reviewed. The evidence for family decline is appraised in three areas: demographic, institutional, and cultural. It is argued that families have lost functions, power, and authority, that familism as a cultural value has diminished, and that people have become less willing to invest time, money, and energy in family life, turning instead to investments in themselves." Comments by Norval D. Glenn, Judith Stacey, and Philip A. Cowan and a reply by Popenoe are included (pp. 542-55).
Correspondence: D. Popenoe, Rutgers University, Office of the Dean, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, 77 Hamilton Street, New Brunswick, NJ 08903. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40389 Ravanera, Zenaida R.; Rajulton, Fernando; Burch, Thomas K. Tracing the life courses of Canadians, 1910-1970. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 93-3, ISBN 0-7714-1503-6. Mar 1993. 15, [3] pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
The authors use multi-state, multiple-decrement life tables to analyze changes in the life courses of Canadians. Data are from the 1990 General Social Survey on Family and Friends.
Correspondence: University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40390 Ravanera, Zenaida R.; Rajulton, Fernando; Burch, Thomas K. Variations in age at leaving the parental home: a picture from the Canadian General Social Survey 1990. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 93-5, ISBN 0-7714-1551-6. Jul 1993. 16, [7] pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to highlight the salient differences in the timing of home-leaving [in Canada] by respondents' socio-economic profiles."
Correspondence: University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre, Room 3227, Social Science Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40391 Roll, Jo. Putting a price tag on children. Studies on Medical and Population Subjects, No. 55, 1993. 137-50 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This chapter shows that...there are many different aspects to the cost of a child and...many different measures have been developed. The chapter...argues that theories of fertility need to specify carefully the definition of child costs and that the assumptions underlying existing measures need to be made plain....The review is divided into three major sections: babies, childcare and children. The sources covered range from popular magazines and Mothercare catalogues to the only large-scale official [U.K.] survey of maternity and its costs, undertaken in 1946. The items covered range from the price of babies' essentials to the fees at schools...as well as the costs of maintaining a child at university."
Correspondence: J. Roll, Family Policy Studies Centre, 231 Baker Street, London NW1 6XE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40392 Sgritta, Giovanni B. Family statistics. [Le statistiche sulle famiglie.] In: La statistica italiana per l'Europa del 1993, atti del convegno di studi, Roma, 21-23 maggio 1990, edited by Giorgio Alleva and Maria G. Ottaviani. 1991. 557-602 pp. Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Facolta di Scienze Statistiche Demografiche ed Attuariali: Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng.
"The main purpose of this paper is to focus attention on the methodological premises that form the general frame of reference within which both the conventional surveys on the family and the production of the statistical datum are carried out. The themes examined are developed on three distinct levels. The first pertains to the relationship between the individual and the collective. The others regard, respectively, the contrast between the monodisciplinary and the interdisciplinary approach, and the comparison between a cross-sectional and a longitudinal analysis. In the second part of the paper the problem of the quality of the statistical datum is examined." The geographical focus is on Italy.
Correspondence: G. B. Sgritta, Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Citta Universitaria, 00100 Rome, Italy. Location: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Paris, France.

59:40393 Stankuniene, Vladislava. Evolution of the family in the Baltic states. PSTC Working Paper Series, No. 93-03, Mar 1993. 10, [8] pp. Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center [PSTC]: Providence, Rhode Island. In Eng.
"This paper will review the main indicators of family evolution--marriage, divorce, and fertility--for Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia...."
Correspondence: Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40394 Zeng, Yi; Li, Wei; Liang, Zhiwu. The status quo, regional differences, and trend of the Chinese family structure. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 4, No. 3, 1992. 263-84 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Based on the 10% machine aggregate data of the fourth census of 1990 and the 1% computer sampling data, this article attempts to analyze the status quo and regional differences of China's family structure and their relationships with the level of social and economic development, and the trend of the Chinese family structure since the 1980s."
Correspondence: Y. Zeng, Beijing University, Institute of Population Science, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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