Volume 59 - Number 4 - Winter 1993

F. Fertility

Studies that treat quantitative fertility data analytically. References to crude data are coded under S. Official Statistical Publications . Methodological studies specifically concerned with fertility are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary.

F.1. General Fertility

Analytical studies of quantitative birth data and reproduction rates and studies of fertility and its concomitants. Studies of age at marriage, divorce, and factors influencing family size are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

59:40175 Anderson, Douglas K. Adolescent mothers drop out. American Sociological Review, Vol. 58, No. 5, Oct 1993. 735-40 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author comments on an article by Dawn M. Upchurch and James McCarthy on the relationship between adolescent childbearing and completion of high school in the United States. A reply by Upchurch, McCarthy, and Linda R. Ferguson is included (pp. 738-40).
For the article by Upchurch and McCarthy, published in 1990, see 56:20229.
Correspondence: D. K. Anderson, University of Wisconsin, Sociology Department, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40176 Andina, Michele M. "Is two better than too many?" Reproductive behavior of rural Jamaican women. Pub. Order No. DA9318209. 1993. 303 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study is based on data collected between 1984 and 1989 on 50 low-income women in the parish of St. Thomas, Jamaica. It was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Columbia University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 54(2).

59:40177 Atoh, Makoto; Mita, Fusami. Trends in fertility and policy responses in Western Europe. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 47, No. 4, Jan 1992. 44-57 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
The authors review trends in fertility in Western Europe since the 1960s and government policy responses. Factors associated with the declines in fertility are the contraceptive revolution, changes in marriage patterns, changes in women's roles, and the growth of individualism. The authors note that while many governments in Western Europe specifically abstain from trying to influence fertility trends, with the significant exceptions of France and Sweden, nearly all have substantial policies in place to protect the family.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40178 Bachu, Amara. Fertility of American women: June 1992. Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, No. 470, Jun 1993. xxiii, 38, [21] pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Statistics on U.S. childbearing and birth expectations are presented using data from the June 1992 supplement to the Current Population Survey. The accompanying text examines such issues as fertility differentials by race and ethnic group, births outside marriage, data quality, age patterns of fertility, labor force characteristics of mothers with newborn children, dual-employed families, fertility of never-married women, and birth expectations.
For a previous report concerning fertility as of June 1990, see 58:10202.
Correspondence: U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D.C. 20402. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40179 Balakrishnan, T. R.; Wu, Zheng. Regional pattern of nuptiality and fertility in Canada: 1921-1986. Genus, Vol. 48, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1992. 151-71 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"The present paper...[documents] levels and changes in regional nuptiality and fertility in Canada from 1921 to 1986 using the Canadian Census and Vital Statistics data, and...[provides] some tentative explanations for the changes. Coale's decomposition method [is] employed to examine the changes in nuptiality and fertility over time and the changes of relative importance of each of...three components in determining the period fertility....The patterns show that regional differences have been decreasing both in nuptiality and fertility behaviours supporting the hypothesis that industrialization and economic development breaks down regional barriers in human behaviours."
Correspondence: T. R. Balakrishnan, University of Western Ontario, Department of Sociology, London, Ontario N6A 3K7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40180 Balakrishnan, T. R.; Feng, Hou. Status of women, economic development and fertility. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 93-10, ISBN 0-7714-1564-8. Aug 1993. 19 pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
"This paper has the objective of examining the relative effects of economic development and the status of women on fertility in the developing countries of the world."
Correspondence: University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre, Room 3227, Social Science Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40181 Bankole, Akinrinola; Rodriguez, German; Westoff, Charles F. The mass media and reproductive behavior in Nigeria. OPR Working Paper, No. 93-3, Apr 1993. 22 pp. Princeton University, Office of Population Research [OPR]: Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
Data from the Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey are used to examine how media exposure to the family planning message affected the reproductive behavior of the 6,696 women interviewed in the survey.
This paper was originally presented at the 1993 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40182 Baron, Malka. Correlation between changes in the age structure and marriage and fertility rates in the last 20 years. Research Department Discussion Paper Series, No. 90.07, 1990. 29 pp. Bank of Israel, Research Department: Jerusalem, Israel. In Heb.
Fertility and marriage trends in Israel over the last 20 years are analyzed, with particular consideration given to the effect of changes in the age structure on fertility.
Correspondence: Bank of Israel, Research Department, P.O.B. 780, Jerusalem 91007, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40183 Blanchet, Didier; Pennec, Sophie. A simple model for interpreting cross-tabulations of family size and women's labour force participation. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 9, No. 2, 1993. 121-42 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Simple 2 x 2 contingency tables cross-tabulating family size and activity status of mothers are analyzed with a logistic or log-linear model whose parameters can be interpreted as, respectively, the intrinsic value given to work by mothers, the value given to large families, and the degree of incompatibility between work and child care. An analysis of French data for 1968 and 1982 suggests that it is the increased value given to work which accounts best for activity and fertility changes over this time period, variation of the two other parameters playing only a minor role....But this simple explanation of activity and fertility differentials does not apply when analyzing fertility and activity differentials across EEC countries, using data from the EUROSTAT Labour Force Survey of 1990."
Correspondence: D. Blanchet, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40184 Bosveld, Willy. Childbirth at higher ages in four countries of Europe. PDOD Paper, No. 19, Jun 1993. 14, [8] pp. Universiteit van Amsterdam, Postdoctorale Onderzoekersopleiding Demografie [PDOD]: Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
Changes in the timing of births in Czechoslovakia, Denmark, France, and the Netherlands are analyzed, with the focus on births to older women.
Correspondence: Universiteit van Amsterdam, Planologisch en Demografisch Instituut, Postdoctorale Onderzoekersopleiding Demografie, Nieuwe Prinsengracht 130, 1018 VZ Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40185 Bravo, Jorge H. Theoretical views of the fertility transition in Latin America: what is the relevance of a diffusionist approach? [Visiones teoricas de la transicion de la fecundidad en America Latina: que relevancia tiene un enfoque difusionista?] Notas de Poblacion, Vol. 20, No. 56, Dec 1992. 33-55 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"The relevance of transition theory and the diffusionist approach as explanatory approaches [to] the fertility transitions in Latin America is reviewed. The discussion suggests that the elements of the standard transition theory appear to be useful, but limited in the explanation of observed declines in the region. The available evidence for the last few decades shows that, in general, aggregate relations between fertility and development indicators have shifted and become less steep over time."
Correspondence: J. H. Bravo, UN Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia, Edificio Naciones Unidas, Avenida Dag Hammarskjold, Casilla 91, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40186 Caldwell, John C.; Caldwell, Pat. The South African fertility decline. Population and Development Review, Vol. 19, No. 2, Jun 1993. 225-62, 424, 426 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Until recently, less has been known about demographic change in South Africa than in many other sub-Saharan African countries. This situation is now changing with the publication of analyses based on household fertility surveys. Each of the country's four 'racial' groups is seen to have participated in demographic transitions albeit at distinctly different times. The fertility of black South Africans (numerically by far the largest of the four groups) began to decline in the early 1960s, and, with a current total fertility rate of 4.6, this decline represents the earliest and most advanced African fertility transition south of the Sahara. The decline has been assisted by a vigorous national family planning program, which helps to answer the question as to how African fertility might be affected if Asian-type family planning programs were implemented elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa."
Correspondence: J. C. Caldwell, Australian National University, Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, GPO Box 4, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40187 Carvalho, Jose A. M. de; Wong, Laura R. Fertility transition in Brazil. Causes and consequences. [La transicion de la fecundidad en Brasil. Causas y consecuencias.] Notas de Poblacion, Vol. 20, No. 56, Dec 1992. 107-41 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The authors examine fertility trends in Brazil for the period 1940-1985. "Although it followed the processes of socio-economic and industrial development and of urbanization, the [fertility] reduction was most pronounced in two periods: 1970-75 and 1980-85. The first period coincides with what has been called the 'Economic Miracle' which was paradoxically accompanied by indicators of a substantial deterioration in the quality of life of the least favored socio-economic groups. The second period coincides with the international economic crisis of the 1980s, which has disproportionately affected Brazil, when compared with other Latin American countries, given that it is more industrialized and involved in the international market."
Correspondence: J. A. M. de Carvalho, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, CEDEPLAR, Avenida Antonio Carlos 6627, Campus Pampulha 31270, CP 1621, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40188 Castles, Ian. Fertility in Australia. Pub. Order No. 2514.0. ISBN 0-642-16967-7. [1992]. v, 38 pp. Australian Bureau of Statistics: Belconnen, Australia. In Eng.
"This report is a description of Australian fertility trends and patterns based largely on data from the 1986 Census....The census questions on fertility asked for retrospective data which allow comparison of the fertility of different generations as well as of different sub-groups of the population. This report discusses changes over time in the average number of children classified by mother's age, age at marriage, duration of marriage, education, employment status and other social characteristics."
Correspondence: Australian Bureau of Statistics, P.O. Box 10, Belconnen, ACT 2616, Australia. Location: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Paris, France.

59:40189 Clarke, Sue; Diamond, Ian; Spicer, Keith; Chappell, Roma. The relationship between marital breakdown and childbearing in England and Wales. Studies on Medical and Population Subjects, No. 55, 1993. 123-36 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The paper uses data on women from the General Household Surveys for 1986-89 [for England and Wales] to form combined multiple decrement tables on the transitions from first marriage through childbearing, divorce and remarriage. It shows that ultimately women who experience one marital breakdown tend to have around the same number of children...as those who remain married. However, their time to complete childbearing is rather longer with this extra time being concentrated largely in the birth interval in which the marital breakdown takes place. The group of women who experience more than one marital breakdown tend to have more children and consequently shorter birth intervals."
Correspondence: S. Clarke, Macquarie University, Department of Actuarial Studies and Demography, Sydney NSW 2109, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40190 Coleman, David. Britain in Europe: international and regional comparisons of fertility levels and trends. Studies on Medical and Population Subjects, No. 55, 1993. 67-93 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This chapter compares fertility patterns and trends in Britain with those in other West European countries. Britain shares many features in common with the rest of Western Europe: fertility below the replacement level, late childbearing with births over age 30 becoming more common. Britain stands out, however, by having one of the highest birth rates in Europe and is one of the few European countries not facing population decline in the medium term. Average age at first marriage and first birth are relatively young. Britain also has one of the highest proportions (30 per cent) of births outside marriage...[with] at least a quarter of all children...likely to experience a single parent home or a reconstituted family before age 16." Some data for the rest of the United Kingdom are also discussed.
Correspondence: D. Coleman, Oxford University, Department of Applied Social Studies and Social Research, Barnett House, Wellington Square, Oxford OX1 2ER, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40191 Costa Rica. Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social. Departamento de Medicina Preventiva. Programa Salud Reproductiva (San Jose, Costa Rica). National Survey of Reproductive Health: preliminary study. [Encuesta Nacional de Salud Reproductiva: informe preliminar.] Jul 1993. iii, 31 pp. San Jose, Costa Rica. In Spa.
Preliminary results are presented from a 1992 national survey on reproductive health carried out in Costa Rica. 3,619 women of reproductive age were included; data primarily concern fertility and contraceptive practice.
Correspondence: Programa Salud Reproductiva, Apartado 1434-1011 Y-Griega, San Jose, Costa Rica. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40192 Das Gupta, Monica. Fertility decline in Punjab, India: parallels with historical Europe. PSTC Working Paper Series, No. 93-11, Oct 1993. 22 pp. Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center [PSTC]: Providence, Rhode Island. In Eng.
The author examines fertility decline in Punjab, India, and draws parallels with the historical European experience, suggesting that the stability of expectations may be a key factor in initiating fertility declines.
Correspondence: Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40193 Eickelman, Christine. Fertility and social change in Oman: women's perspectives. Middle East Journal, Vol. 47, No. 4, Autumn 1993. 652-66 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Trends in fertility and social change in Oman are analyzed from an anthropological perspective, using data gathered during the author's two visits in 1979-1980 and 1988.
Correspondence: C. Eickelman, Dartmouth College, Department of Anthropology, Hanover, NH 03755. Location: Princeton University Library (SY).

59:40194 Ferrando, Delicia; Aramburu, Carlos E. Fertility transition in Peru. [La transicion de la fecundidad en Peru.] Notas de Poblacion, Vol. 20, No. 56, Dec 1992. 173-202 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"The fertility transition in Peru is examined, emphasizing the differences across socio-cultural groups. Changes in the level and structure of fertility in the Coastal region, the Mountain Range, and the Jungle are compared. Then, the role of nuptiality and contraception in explaining the fertility decline is discussed. In order to better understand the complexity of factors involved in the practice of contraception, some results of a study on attitudes toward sexuality and contraception of women from three generational groups and three cultural contexts are presented."
Correspondence: C. E. Aramburu, Instituto Andino de Estudios en Poblacion y Desarrollo, Lima, Peru. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40195 Guengant, Jean-Pierre; May, John F. Fertility trends in Haiti. [Tendances de la fecondite en Haiti.] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 21, No. 1, Spring 1992. 167-83 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Is fertility in Haiti increasing, decreasing or constant? To answer this question, the article uses five sample surveys (1971-73, 1977, 1983, 1987, and 1989) and two censuses (1971 and 1982). Notwithstanding their limitations, the available data suggest that fertility has remained high throughout the last twenty years."
Correspondence: J.-P. Guengant, Institut Francais de Recherche pour le Developpement en Cooperation, 24 rue Bayard, 75008 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40196 Hamilton, Brady E. A macro-sociological re-evaluation of the social mobility/fertility hypothesis. Pub. Order No. DA9313988. 1992. 137 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The author uses 1960 data for 60 countries to analyze the relationship between social mobility and declines in fertility. The study was undertaken as a doctoral dissertation at Purdue University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 54(1).

59:40197 Hammel, E. A. Economics 1, Culture 0? Factors in early fertility decline in the northwest Balkans. Program in Population Research Working Paper, No. 34, Mar 1993. 48, [28] pp. University of California, Institute of International Studies, Program in Population Research: Berkeley, California. In Eng.
"In this paper I bring data from ethnography, history, and family reconstitution to bear on the understanding of an apparent early fertility decline under quasi-mediaeval institutions, in [the Balkans]."
Correspondence: University of California, Institute of International Studies, Program in Population Research, 2232 Piedmont Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40198 Handwerker, W. Penn. Empowerment and fertility transition on Antigua, WI: education, employment, and the moral economy of childbearing. Human Organization, Vol. 52, No. 1, Spring 1993. 41-52 pp. Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. In Eng.
The author examines the impact of education and employment opportunities on the fertility transition in Antigua, using data collected in field studies in 1987 and 1989. The results indicate that "Antiguan women's birth trajectories are functions of their view of the moral economy of childbearing, which in turn is a function of the conjunction of improved employment opportunities and increased educational attainment. Women's educational attainment, however, is a function of improved employment opportunities. Education by itself had almost nothing to do with Antigua's decline to replacement-level fertility. Education together with expanding employment opportunities had everything to do with it."
Correspondence: W. P. Handwerker, Humboldt State University, Department of Anthropology, Arcata, CA 95521. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:40199 Haub, Carl. Births per U.S. woman? Depends on race, ethnicity. Population Today, Vol. 21, No. 9, Sep 1993. 6-7, 9 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Fertility and parity trends for women in the United States are reviewed, with a focus on differences among racial and ethnic groups.
Correspondence: C. Haub, Population Reference Bureau, 1875 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 520, Washington, D.C. 20009-5728. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40200 Haurin, Ruth J. The determinants of fertility in remarriage: an analysis of white American experience. Pub. Order No. DA9307770. 1992. 232 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The author examines how remarriage affects expectations about future childbearing and the probability and timing of first births among whites in the United States. The study was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Ohio State University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 53(11).

59:40201 Hirschman, Charles; Tan, JooEan; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Guest, Philip. Explaining the rapid fertility decline in Thailand. Seattle Population Research Center Working Paper, No. 93-13, Aug 1993. 38, [9] pp. University of Washington, Seattle Population Research Center: Seattle, Washington; Battelle Seattle Research Center: Seattle, Washington. In Eng.
The authors examine the relative impact of various factors on the fertility decline that occurred in Thailand from the late 1960s to the late 1970s. They use a multilevel model incorporating both structural and individual-level variables. Shifts in the status of women and economic roles of children are identified as key factors.
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1993 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Seattle Population Research Center, c/o University of Washington, Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology Library, Department of Sociology DK-40, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40202 Hirschman, Charles; Tan, JooEan; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Guest, Philip. The path to below replacement-level fertility in Thailand. Seattle Population Research Center Working Paper, No. 93-12, Aug 1993. 22, [4] pp. University of Washington, Seattle Population Research Center: Seattle, Washington; Battelle Seattle Research Center: Seattle, Washington. In Eng.
The authors "report annual fertility rates for Thailand for the decade of the 1980s which suggest that below replacement-level fertility was reached by the late 1980s." Data are from official sources and surveys.
Correspondence: Seattle Population Research Center, c/o University of Washington, Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology Library, Department of Sociology DK-40, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40203 Hong, Lawrence K. The baby boom of the late 1980s: life course of a post-World War II cohort. Sociological Spectrum, Vol. 12, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1992. 315-28 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study examines the 1980 surge in birthrates in the context of the life course of women of the post-World War II baby boom. It attempts to describe in more exact detail the role of these women in the 1980 baby boom. Additionally, the study contends that historical time, social time, and life time all have influence on the timing of their reproductive decisions. The data are compiled from reports issued by the U.S. Bureau of the Census, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, and the Population Reference Bureau. Some attitudinal data are obtained from the 1988 General Social Survey."
Correspondence: L. K. Hong, California State University, Los Angeles, CA 90032. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40204 Horowitz, Avery M. The economic determinants of fertility: an analysis based on the 1980 U.S. census of population. Population Review, Vol. 37, No. 1-2, Jan-Dec 1993. 52-63 pp. La Jolla, California. In Eng.
"This paper analyzes some of the social and economic determinants of fertility behavior. It looks at race specific data taken mainly from the 1980 United States Census of Population....The study looks separately at data for blacks and whites in each of the SMSA's by running separate regressions." It is found that "female earnings consistently show up as a significant variable with the expected negative coefficient. Other key variables are the percentage of female high school graduates, industrial structure (for blacks only), the female unemployment rate, the abortion variable, the percentage foreign born, and the percentage Hispanic."
Correspondence: A. M. Horowitz, Yeshiva University, 500 West 185th Street, New York, NY 10033. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40205 Hua, Min. A demographic dynamic model of age, marriage, parity and parity interval. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 4, No. 4, 1992. 339-50 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The age-specific, marriage, parity and parity interval fertility model put forward in this article is also a family-establishment model. Based on our experience, I believe that the model suits China's peculiar conditions in population prediction and analysis."
Correspondence: M. Hua, Zhongshan University, Institute of Population Research, Guangzhou, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40206 Ilinigumugabo, Aloys. Birth interval differentials in Rwanda. [La variation des intervalles intergenesiques au Rwanda.] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 21, No. 1, Spring 1992. 67-98 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"After a brief presentation of the data and methodology, the article shows that women in Rwanda who begin their reproduction period later eventually recuperate lost fertility due to late marriage. This behavior is confirmed when age and parity are introduced as control variables. Education, residence and women's economic activities are the main factors differentiating the [rhythm] of procreation among [Rwandan] women. Although less important, ethnicity and type of union also influence birth intervals." Data are from a 1983 survey conducted among 5,739 women between the ages of 15 and 50 living in urban and rural areas.
Correspondence: A. Ilinigumugabo, Universite Nationale du Rwanda, Office National de la Population, BP 56, Butare, Rwanda. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40207 Inaba, Hisashi. Human population reproduction via first marriage. Institute of Population Problems Working Paper Series, No. 16, Jun 1993. 24 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
A dynamic model of population reproduction in which childbearing occurs only within a first marriage is formulated and used to interpret recent declines in Japanese fertility.
Correspondence: Institute of Population Problems, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-45, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40208 Jensen, An-Magritt; Khasakhala, Anne A. Too many children? Fertility and family planning in a Muslim society of Kenya. NIBR Report, No. 15, Oct 1993. x, 152 pp. Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research [NIBR]: Oslo, Norway. In Eng.
This study explores the interplay between fertility, child mortality, and family planning. It is based on extensive interviews with 67 Muslim women in a rural area of coastal Kenya in 1990. It discusses changes in the position of women and consequences for fertility and family planning. Particular attention is given to fertility problems and child mortality. The study reveals that about one in four women suffer from subfecundity problems, and approximately half the women interviewed have lost at least one child. These two factors are negatively related to family planning acceptance. At the same time, the study identifies changes in the social position of women, which are associated with a future fertility decline. These include an increase in age at first marriage, female autonomy, and education. An improvement in women's reproductive health and in child mortality may, in the short run, increase population growth. At the same time it is suggested that such improvements are necessary for family planning to be widely accepted.
Correspondence: Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research, Gaustadalleen 21, P.O. Box 44, Blindern, 0313 Oslo, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40209 Kaneko, Ryuichi. A projection system for future age-specific fertility rates. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 49, No. 1, Apr 1993. 17-38 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper presents detailed description of a newly developed fertility projection system which was used in population projections for Japan, and population projections by prefectures, officially announced in September and November 1992 respectively. The system is based on a model of age-specific fertility rates by birth order, and it converts parameters which convey behavioral traits of cohort fertility into age-specific fertility rates of future years."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40210 Kravdal, Oystein. Further reproduction among American and Norwegian two-child mothers: the influence of education, income and labour force participation. NSFH Working Paper, No. 26, Feb 1990. 48 pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"Trends and variations in third birth progressions in the United States and Norway are examined with survey and register data, respectively."
Correspondence: University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40211 Kumar, Anuradha. On their own two feet: women and reproduction in Rajasthan. Pub. Order No. DA9309906. 1992. 248 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study examines the relationships among the status of women, female education, and fertility in rural India from a feminist perspective. It was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 53(11).

59:40212 Lam, David A.; Miron, Jeffrey A. The effects of the weather on fertility in human populations. Population Studies Center Research Report, No. 93-291, Sep 1993. 21 pp. University of Michigan, Population Studies Center: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
Population data from official sources and temperature data obtained from the U.S. National Climatic Center are used to examine the effects of weather on fertility. "There is significant seasonality in births in every population studied, suggesting an influence of weather on conceptions."
Correspondence: University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2609. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40213 Li, Li. Deviant fertility in China. Pub. Order No. DA9306846. 1992. 226 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study, prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, focuses on fertility behavior that violates family planning regulations in China. Data are from three sources: the Chinese In-Depth Fertility Survey, the Old-Age Security Survey, and the records of County Family Planning Commissions.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 53(11).

59:40214 Lillard, Lee A.; Waite, Linda J. Joint model of marital childbearing and marital disruption. Demography, Vol. 30, No. 4, Nov 1993. 653-81 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper uses data from the [U.S.] Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) to test the hypothesis that the risk of [marital] disruption faced by a married woman affects the chances that she will conceive and bear a child. The model used takes into account the simultaneous relationships between marital dissolution and marital fertility by including the hazard of disruption as a predictor of timing and likelihood of marital conception, and by including the results of previous fertility decisions as predictors of disruption of the marriage. We find that the hazard of disruption has strong negative effects on the hazard of marital childbearing, lengthening the intervals between births and decreasing the chances that a child will be born. This effect appears to be strongest for women who have had at least one child, either before or during the current marriage, although it is also large for childless women."
Correspondence: L. A. Lillard, RAND, 1700 Main Street, Santa Monica, CA 90407. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40215 Low, Bobbi S.; Clarke, Alice. Resource control, fertility and migration. In: Population-environment dynamics: ideas and observations, edited by Gayl D. Ness, William D. Drake, and Steven R. Brechin. 1993. 195-224 pp. University of Michigan Press: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This paper focuses on environment's influence on population. To predict population changes accurately, and to make effective policy influencing the direction and rate of such change, several levels of analysis are necessary: regional, local, social/economic sub-groups, and within-family comparisons....Nineteenth century demographic data from Sweden [are used]...." The population variables considered are fertility and demand for children, migration, and resource allocation patterns in two Swedish parishes.
Correspondence: B. S. Low, University of Michigan, School of Natural Resources and Environment, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

59:40216 Low, Bobbi S.; Clarke, Alice L. Resources and the life course: patterns through the demographic transition. Ethology and Sociobiology, Vol. 13, No. 5-6, Sep-Nov 1992. 463-94 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"We analyzed wealth and lifetime reproductive success in a nineteenth-century Swedish population in four economically diverse parishes....Children of both sexes born to poorer parents were more likely than richer children to die or emigrate before reaching maturity. Poorer men, and women whose fathers were poorer, were less likely to marry in the parish than others....Of all adults of both sexes...richer individuals had greater lifetime fertility and more children alive at age ten, than others. The age-specific fertility of richer women rises slightly sooner, and reaches a higher peak, than that of poorer women. These patterns persisted throughout the period of the sample (1824-1896). Thus, wealth appears, even during the demographic transition in an egalitarian society, to have influenced lifetime reproductive success positively."
Correspondence: B. S. Low, University of Michigan, School of Natural Resources, Dana Building, 430 East University, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1115. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40217 Macunovich, Diane. Will U.S. fertility rise? Watch the wage. Population Today, Vol. 21, No. 10, Oct 1993. 6-7, 9-10 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author reviews various methods for projecting U.S. fertility trends and finds that "a promising approach to anticipate the course of future fertility is to examine the tradeoffs women see between children and work outside the home, especially in the context of men's earnings."
Correspondence: D. Macunovich, Williams College, Department of Economics, Williamstown, MA 01267. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40218 Manning, Wendy D. First birth timing among single, cohabiting, and married women in the United States. Pub. Order No. DA9231700. 1992. 255 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
Data from the National Survey of Families and Households and the National Survey of Family Growth are used in this study, prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Wisconsin at Madison.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 53(10).

59:40219 Mansoorian, Mohammad-Karim; Rajulton, Fernando. Analysis of relative risks of early births in Iran before and after Islamic Revolution. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 93-1, ISBN 0-7714-1488-9. Jan 1993. 23, [5] pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
This study focuses on the effect of women's education on fertility before and after the Islamic Revolution using data from the 1988 Pars Province Growth Rate Survey--Iran.
Correspondence: University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40220 Miah, M. Mizanur R. The cultural-structural contexts of high fertility in Bangladesh: a sociological analysis. International Review of Modern Sociology, Vol. 22, No. 1, Spring 1992. 99-110 pp. De Kalb, Illinois. In Eng.
"This paper addresses the issue of cultural and structural contexts of high fertility in Bangladesh. Two major forces--agrarian social structure and the religious beliefs and practices--are considered to be intrinsically linked with high fertility in this country. The agrarian social structure influences fertility through three specific kind of factors: economic, familial and political. Religion, on the other hand, supports high fertility through an elaborate system of rituals that are anchored in rural Bangladesh's age-old beliefs and practices. The paper concludes by identifying the implications of cultural-structural contexts of high fertility for Bangladesh's family planning programs."
Correspondence: M. M. R. Miah, Southern Illinois University, School of Social Work, Carbondale, IL 62901. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40221 Murphy, Mike; Berrington, Ann. Constructing period parity progression ratios from household survey data. Studies on Medical and Population Subjects, No. 55, 1993. 17-32 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"An own-child analysis is applied to the household composition data of two rounds of the U.K. Labour Force Survey, each of which has a sample size of about 200 thousand people. Period parity progression ratios and the corresponding total fertility measure (TFPPR) are derived for up to twenty years before the survey date. The biases that arise when using such a source are discussed and assessed by replication using surveys in different years. Methods for correcting bias are developed. Analysis of the standard errors of the measures suggests that such sources provide the most precise, routine and timely indicators of period fertility in many situations...."
Correspondence: M. Murphy, London School of Economics, Population Studies Department, Houghton Street, London WC2A 2AE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40222 Murphy, Mike. Time-series approaches to the analysis of fertility change. Studies on Medical and Population Subjects, No. 55, 1993. 51-66 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"A variety of time-series approaches to the analysis of fertility are considered. Attention is concentrated on published official data [for the United Kingdom], although alternative approaches such as more sophisticated period measures and cohort indicators are also discussed. The advantages of a period perspective are emphasized. A proximate determinants approach to the analysis of fertility is advocated."
Correspondence: M. Murphy, London School of Economics, Population Studies Department, Houghton Street, London WC2A 2AE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40223 Nath, Dilip C.; Singh, Kaushalendra K.; Land, Kenneth C.; Talukdar, Pijush K. Age of marriage and length of the first birth interval in a traditional Indian society: life table and hazards model analysis. Human Biology, Vol. 65, No. 5, Oct 1993. 783-97 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
"We examine the effects of various sociodemographic covariates (with an emphasis on the role of age at marriage) on the length of the first birth interval for two states of India: Assam and Uttar Pradesh. Life table and multivariate hazards modeling techniques are applied to the data. Covariates such as age at marriage, present age of mother, female's occupation, family income, and place of residence have strong effects on the variation of the length of the first birth interval. For each subgroup of females (classified according to different levels of the covariates), the median length of the first birth interval for the Assam (Bengali-speaking) sample is shorter than that of the Uttar Pradesh (Hindi-speaking) sample."
Correspondence: D. C. Nath, Duke University, Department of Sociology, Durham, NC 27708-0088. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40224 Ni Bhrolchain, Maire. Describing time-trends in fertility using maternity history information. Studies on Medical and Population Subjects, No. 55, 1993. 33-50 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The problems that can arise in documenting trends in mean family size, parity progression ratios, mean age at birth and interbirth intervals are examined by means of the maternity histories collected in the [U.K.] General Household Survey of 1989. Methods of removing the various biases are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of adopting each approach are discussed. The period parity progression approach to fertility measurement is the most efficient way of using maternity history information to document trends, but it is a little more complex to apply than other methods."
Correspondence: M. Ni Bhrolchain, University of Southampton, Department of Social Statistics, Southampton S09 5NH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40225 Ni Bhrolchain, Maire. How to answer the fertility/employment question (and how not to). Studies on Medical and Population Subjects, No. 55, 1993. 151-7 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The chapter reviews briefly the history of inquiries into the relationship between women's employment and fertility, at the individual level. Research on the subject appears to have reached an impasse....The first aim of the present chapter is to clarify why this is so and to present a view regarding what can be done to move the subject forward....A core problem is considered that impedes progress in investigating the individual-level relationship between labour force activity and fertility and how this may be resolved. A second aim is to put forward a schematic theory that might form the basis for organizing ideas on the subject. The chapter draws mainly on research carried out in developed countries...."
Correspondence: M. Ni Bhrolchain, University of Southampton, Department of Social Statistics, Southampton S09 5NH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40226 Ni Bhrolchain, Maire. New perspectives on fertility in Britain. Studies on Medical and Population Subjects, No. 55, ISBN 0-11-691552-8. 1993. xi, 157 pp. Office of Population Censuses and Surveys [OPCS]: London, England. In Eng.
"This collection of papers was prepared in response to...the relative dearth [in the United Kingdom] of recent research and writing on fertility by comparison with the level of research activity on marriage, family and related phenomena....The volume is intended as a contribution to updating and extending our knowledge of recent fertility developments in Britain....Contributions...address: (1) key current methodological issues; (2) the intersection between fertility and recent innovations in marriage and related behaviour--primarily cohabitation and marital breakdown; and (3) several topic areas--British fertility in a wider European context, costs of children and fertility differentials--that have received less attention recently than they warrant."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: HMSO Publications Centre, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40227 Nordisk Medicinalstatistisk Komite [NOMESKO] (Copenhagen, Denmark). Births and infant mortality in the Nordic countries. [Fodsler og spaedbornsdodelighed i de nordiske lande.] NOMESKO Publication, No. 39, ISBN 87-89702-04-2. 1993. 149 pp. Copenhagen, Denmark. In Eng; Dan.
This report examines birth registration in the Scandinavian countries. The organization of birth registration and rules for payment of maternity benefits are described in Chapter 1. Chapter 2 examines recent trends in fertility, infant mortality, and perinatal mortality. Chapter 3 presents an analysis of the causes of infant mortality in 1987 and 1988.
Correspondence: Nordisk Medicinalstatistisk Komite, c/o Nordisk Statistisk Sekretariat, Postboks 2550, Sejrogade 11, 2100 Copenhagen 0, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40228 Osheba, Ibrahim K. T. The proximate determinants of fertility change in the regions of Egypt (1980-88). CDC Working Paper, No. 26, 1992. [39] pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng. with sum. in Ara.
"The objective of this paper is to examine the factors underlying the fertility decline between 1980 and 1988 and their relative contribution in the five main regions of Egypt, namely, the urban governorates, urban Lower Egypt, urban Upper Egypt, rural Lower Egypt and rural Upper Egypt."
Correspondence: Cairo Demographic Centre, 2 Lebanon Street, P.O. Box 73, Mohandiseen 12655, Cairo, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40229 Pagnini, Deanna L. American fertility in transition: rural family building patterns in the early twentieth century. Pub. Order No. DA9309927. 1992. 227 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"Using 1910 [U.S.] census data, and oral histories collected in the 1930s, this dissertation examines family and fertility among rural, native born Americans in the first few decades of the twentieth century." It was prepared at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 53(11).

59:40230 Pampel, Fred C. Relative cohort size and fertility: the socio-political context of the Easterlin effect. American Sociological Review, Vol. 58, No. 4, Aug 1993. 496-514 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Although evidence supports Easterlin's hypothesis that changes in relative cohort size account for swings in fertility in the post-war United States (at least until the 1980s), studies of fertility in Europe show only weak effects of relative cohort size on fertility. I argue that institutional structures of collective social protection and changes in rates of female labor force participation influence cohort relative economic status and thereby specify the effect of relative cohort size....I test this interaction hypothesis using time-series data from 1949 to 1986 for 18 high income nations. Estimates...show a clear positive effect of relative cohort size on fertility, but the relationship is weak in countries with collectivist social protection policies and...high rates of female labor force participation. Easterlin's socioeconomic-choice model can be extended to include socio-political factors that shape the meaning of relative cohort size to families and its impact on fertility."
Correspondence: F. C. Pampel, University of Iowa, Department of Sociology, Iowa City, IA 52242. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40231 Panicker, Dhinesh. Economic development and fertility: an empirical analysis using cross-national data. Genus, Vol. 48, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1992. 109-18 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"Until the early 1950s the study and analysis of fertility was believed to be outside the scope of economic theory. However, with the extension of economics to account for non-market household behaviour and human capital such analysis has become possible. Several theories on the relationship between economic development and fertility have been proposed. These theories are often tested with multiple regression and areal cross-national data. This paper examines the statistical assumption underlying such models."
Correspondence: D. Panicker, National University of Singapore, Department of Business Policy, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore 0511. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40232 Pantelides, Edith. More than a century of Argentine fertility: its evolution since 1869. [Mas de un siglo de fecundidad en la Argentina: su evolucion desde 1869.] Notas de Poblacion, Vol. 20, No. 56, Dec 1992. 87-106 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This study reviews the process of Argentine fertility descent from a descriptive perspective....Special attention is paid to the period of initiation of the fertility descent in the years following 1895. Limited by the lack of totally adequate information, an attempt is made to demonstrate that the massive arrival of foreigners coming from countries with lower fertility rates than [those] prevailing in Argentina had a depressing effect on fertility levels. Additionally, this variable combined with local factors such as the progressive concentration of population in areas of lower fertility (specifically urban areas)....Finally, the study ends in the decade of the 1970s, noting the explosion of births, and the conclusion is reached that here one is dealing with a genuine increase of cohort completed fertility."
Correspondence: E. Pantelides, Centro de Estudios de Poblacion, Seccion Publicaciones, Casilla 4397, Correo Central, 1000 Buenos Aires, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40233 Peng, Peiyun. Current population situation in China. China Population Today, Vol. 10, No. 2, Apr 1993. 2-6 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
Fertility trends in China during 1991-1992 are reviewed by the minister in charge of the State Family Planning Commission. It is found that "great achievements were made in the implementation of the family planning programme in 1992 with the birth rate declining from 19.68 per thousand in 1991 to 18.24 per thousand in 1992 and the rate of natural increase from 12.98 per thousand to 11.60 per thousand."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40234 Perez, Julia. Spain remains without children and couple formation declines. [Espana se queda sin ninos y las parejas entran en crisis.] Cambio, Vol. 16, No. 1.099, Dec 14, 1992. 44-50 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
The author examines changes in fertility and nuptiality in Spain since the 1980s, with a focus on declines in fertility and trends away from marriage. Consideration is given to older maternal age at first birth, female labor force participation, and changing attitudes toward couple formation.
Location: Cornell University Library, Ithaca, NY.

59:40235 Pollak, Robert A.; Watkins, Susan C. Cultural and economic approaches to fertility: a proper marriage or a mesalliance? Seattle Population Research Center Working Paper, No. 93-6, Jul 1993. 61 pp. University of Washington, Seattle Population Research Center: Seattle, Washington; Battelle Seattle Research Center: Seattle, Washington. In Eng.
The authors review the consistency of research findings involving the use of economic models to analyze fertility preferences. They discuss "variable-preference economic models, the various roles that diffusion may play in these models, and the relationship between cultural explanations and economic explanations of fertility."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1992 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Seattle Population Research Center, c/o University of Washington, Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology Library, Department of Sociology DK-40, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40236 Raut, Lakshmi K. Effect of social security on fertility and savings: an overlapping generations model. Indian Economic Review, Vol. 27, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1992. 25-43 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This paper studies the general equilibrium effects of various social security programs on the rates of population growth and capital accumulation within an overlapping generations framework with endogenous fertility and savings. It also shows that if the rate of inter-generational transfers of income from old to young or child care cost is low, a competitive equilibrium follows a path of over-population and capital accumulation in a modified Pareto optimal sense; a social security program in such a case is Pareto improving."
Correspondence: L. K. Raut, University of California at San Diego, Department of Economics, La Jolla, CA 92093. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

59:40237 Robey, Bryant; Rutstein, Shea O.; Morris, Leo. The fertility decline in developing countries. Scientific American, Vol. 269, No. 6, Dec 1993. 60-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
A general review of recent fertility declines and their causes in developing countries is presented. Data are from a variety of published sources, including Demographic and Health Surveys. The authors note that, in contrast to the demographic transition undergone by the now developed world, "birth rates in the developing world have fallen even in the absence of improved living conditions. The decrease has also proceeded with remarkable speed. Developing countries appear to have benefited from the growing influence and scope of family-planning programs, and from new contraceptive technologies and from the educational power of mass media."
Correspondence: B. Robey, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Center for Communication Programs, 11 Market Place, Suite 310, Baltimore, MD 21202-4024. Location: Princeton University Library (SW).

59:40238 Rodriguez, German. Spacing and limiting components of the fertility transition in Latin America. [Los componentes de espaciamiento y limitacion de la transicion de la fecundidad en America Latina.] Notas de Poblacion, Vol. 20, No. 56, Dec 1992. 57-86 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"In this paper we examine trends in marital fertility within categories of three socio-economic factors: residence, wife's education and husband's occupation, for the six Latin American countries which have participated both in the World Fertility Survey (WFS) and Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) programs. We use a statistical model of the period marital fertility of individual women which permits a succinct description of levels and patterns of fertility by age and duration of union, and yields estimates of indices of spacing and control....Despite the diversity of conditions in the region, the indices of spacing and control in the different social strata appear to have followed a common path of increase over time, which is shown to be consistent with a simple mathematical model of social diffusion."
Correspondence: G. Rodriguez, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40239 Sarjono. Determinants of mother's age at first birth in Indonesia. Center for the Study of Population Working Paper, No. WPS 93-109, [1993]. 46 pp. Florida State University, College of Social Sciences, Center for the Study of Population: Tallahassee, Florida. In Eng.
"The aim of this study is to investigate the determinants of age at first birth [in Indonesia]....The study will analyze data derived from the Contraceptive Prevalence Survey 1987."
Correspondence: Robert Weller, Editor, Working Paper Series, Florida State University, Center for the Study of Population, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4063. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40240 Sharma, Sushma; Singhal, D. S.; Sharma, B. B. L.; Gupta, Y. P. Factors associated with fertility moderation in India. Asian Journal of Economics and Social Studies, Vol. 10, No. 2, Apr 1991. 137-55 pp. Muzaffarnagar, India. In Eng.
The authors analyze intermediate variables associated with fertility decline in India from the 1960s to 1988. The focus is on comparisons among states as revealed primarily by data on couples protected from unwanted pregnancies by family planning methods. Variables considered include female age at marriage, female literacy, infant mortality, poverty, expenditure on health and family welfare, and income. Data are from official sources.
Correspondence: S. Sharma, National Institute of Health and Family Welfare, New Delhi 110 067, India. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

59:40241 Skretowicz, Biruta. The determinants of desired and completed fertility calculated using path analysis. [Determinanty dzietnosci jeszcze pozadanej i calkowitej w swietle analizy sciezki.] Wiadomosci Statystyczne, Vol. 38, No. 5, May 1993. 3-9 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng.
Recent fertility trends in Poland are examined using path analysis. "The...analysis confirmed that social and occupational affiliation causes variation in the number of children. Each social and occupational group transmits its accepted pattern of reproductive behaviour. The environment of an early socialization phase had a stable, though low influence on the existing number of children. The greatest indirect influence was exerted through education."
Correspondence: B. Skretowicz, Instytut Medycyny Wsi im. Witolda Chodzki, ul. Jaczewskiego 2, 20-950 Lublin, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40242 United Nations. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia [CELADE] (Santiago, Chile). Latin America: age-specific fertility rates, 1950-2025. [America Latina: tasas de fecundidad por edad, 1950-2025.] Boletin Demografico/Demographic Bulletin, Vol. 36, No. 52, Jul 1993. 124 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Eng; Spa.
This issue presents recent data on and projections of fertility in Latin America. Following an initial section covering the entire region for the period 1950-2025, data are provided separately by country on estimated and projected fertility rates and structures, according to various hypotheses concerning changes in fertility.
Correspondence: UN Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia, Edificio Naciones Unidas, Avenida Dag Hammarskjold, Casilla 91, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40243 United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis (New York, New York). Women's education and fertility behaviour: a case-study of rural Maharashtra, India. No. ST/ESA/SER.R/134, Pub. Order No. E.93.XIII.12. ISBN 92-1-151257-3. 1993. vii, 41 pp. UN Department of Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis: New York, New York. In Eng.
This report concerns one of three case studies undertaken as part of an ongoing research program on the relationship between women's status and fertility, and concerns the state of Maharashtra, India. The first chapter describes the background of the study. In the second chapter, "the direct relationship between female education and family size is evaluated...and the links between education and each of the channels through which it is expected to affect fertility are reviewed. These include...age at marriage and the pace of child-bearing...; family size preferences and the structure of values and disvalues attached to children...; and contraceptive costs and deliberate fertility regulation behaviour....Finally, the relative importance of the various effects of female education is assessed by means of a decomposition of their combined impact on fertility, contraceptive use and the unmet need for contraception...."
Correspondence: UN Department of Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, United Nations, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40244 Wetlesen, Tone S. Fertility choices and constraints: a qualitative study of Norwegian families. ISBN 82-560-0752-4. 1991. ix, 144 pp. Solum Forlag: Oslo, Norway. In Eng.
An analysis of recent fertility trends in Norway is presented, with an emphasis on why fertility levels are so low. The data concern 87 middle-class families who were interviewed in depth. The author pays particular attention to the changing roles of women as homemakers and wage earners and to how these changes affect the process of building a family.
Correspondence: Solum Forlag, Postboks 140 Skoyen, 0275 Oslo 2, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40245 Wijsen, Cecile. Timing the fertility life course: a deliberate choice. PDOD Paper, No. 20, Jun 1993. 15 pp. Universiteit van Amsterdam, Postdoctorale Onderzoekersopleiding Demografie [PDOD]: Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
A theoretical framework is presented designed to study individual decision-making on the timing of fertility. It is applied to data from the Netherlands. The primary focus is on the reasons for the higher age at childbirth recorded for Dutch women.
Correspondence: Universiteit van Amsterdam, Planologisch en Demografisch Instituut, Postdoctorale Onderzoekersopleiding Demografie, Nieuwe Prinsengracht 130, 1018 VZ Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40246 Yang, Philip Q. The differential effects of husbands' and wives' statuses on marital fertility. Population and Environment, Vol. 15, No. 1, Sep 1993. 43-58 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"As an extension of prior subjectively-oriented studies that predicted couples' fertility decisions or outcomes [in the United States] by the expected costs and benefits of childbearing to husbands and wives, this article examines the differentiated effects of husbands' and wives' objective statuses on marital fertility, using...cumulative 1972-1990...data. An interesting finding is that wives' education has a significant, negative effect on fertility while the effect of husbands' education is positive and statistically insignificant. This suggests that the generalization of the negative effect of education on fertility may be misleading if one fails to make a distinction between marital partners. Meanwhile, this study finds no significant differences in the effects of husbands' and wives' occupational and work statuses on fertility."
Correspondence: P. Q. Yang, University of California, Department of Sociology, Los Angeles, CA 90024. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40247 Zhu, Jun. A model of the age patterns of births by parity in natural fertility populations. OPR Working Paper, No. 92-6, Sep 1992. 22, [3] pp. Princeton University, Office of Population Research [OPR]: Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
The model is shown to provide excellent fits to fertility for rural Chinese women in the 1950s.
Correspondence: Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.2. Differential Fertility

Studies on differences in fertility patterns and levels in subgroups of a population. Also included are studies on age-specific fertility, such as teenage pregnancy.

59:40248 Astone, Nan M. Are adolescent mothers just single parents? Johns Hopkins Population Center Papers on Population, No. 92-06, [1992]. 19, [9] pp. Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
The author analyzes aspects of adolescent childbearing in the United States, including the impact of age at first birth on household income over time for both blacks and whites. Data are from the U.S. Panel Study of Income Dynamics.
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Population Center, 615 North Wolfe Street, Room 2300, Baltimore, MD 21205-2179. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40249 Astone, Nan M.; Washington, Mary L. The association between grandparental co-residence and adolescent childbearing. Johns Hopkins Population Center Papers on Population, No. 93-03, [1993]. 14, [4] pp. Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Population Center: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"This paper makes a first step toward incorporating extended kin into models of early childbearing by investigating the association between co-residence with a grandparent and early childbearing." Data are from the High School and Beyond study and concern the United States.
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Population Center, 615 North Wolfe Street, Room 2300, Baltimore, MD 21205-2179. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40250 Doeana, Sjaiful S. Indonesia's urban formal and informal sectors differentials on parity and desired family size. Center for the Study of Population Working Paper, No. WPS 93-104, [1993]. 27 pp. Florida State University, College of Social Sciences, Center for the Study of Population: Tallahassee, Florida. In Eng.
The author examines fertility differences between those employed in the formal sector and those in the informal sector in urban Indonesia.
Correspondence: Robert Weller, Editor, Working Paper Series, Florida State University, Center for the Study of Population, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4063. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40251 Gorgen, Regina; Maier, Birga; Diesfeld, Hans J. Problems related to schoolgirl pregnancies in Burkina Faso. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 24, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1993. 283-94 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A qualitative study of pregnancy among schoolgirls in a small town in Burkina Faso was conducted that described the situation of pregnant students and their motherhood, their social environment, and the situation of their children. The analysis of findings revealed four main factors that influenced students' pregnancies: lack of contraceptive knowledge, ambiguous feelings about pregnancy and contraception, conflicting messages concerning the reproductive role of young women, and the girls' low self-esteem in their interaction with older, experienced male partners. The study revealed that existing family planning programs fail to address the needs of the sexually active school-age population. Recommendations are made concerning sex education and service delivery."
Correspondence: R. Gorgen, University of Heidelberg, Institute of Tropical Hygiene and Public Health, Heidelberg 6900, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40252 Hardy, Janet B.; Zabin, Laurie S. Adolescent pregnancy in an urban environment: issues, programs, and evaluation. ISBN 0-87766-519-2. LC 90-12908. 1991. xvi, 398 pp. Urban and Schwarzenberg: Baltimore, Maryland; Urban Institute Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This study looks at reasons why the United States has one of the highest adolescent pregnancy rates in the world. "The authors set the stage by providing an in-depth discussion of national and local statistics regarding teenage and adolescent pregnancy....From there, using a city-wide, random sample of adolescent births, the problems and adverse consequences of adolescent pregnancy in an urban setting are explored....A model pregnancy and parenting program and its evaluation are described in detail....Chapters have been written by experts in the various disciplines needed to establish such a program. These include the medical management, nutrition, social service, educational, nursing, and ethical aspects of program implementation. The issues of contraception and abortion are then discussed and...successful interventions in pregnancy prevention are explored. Lastly, the authors give us practical...suggestions for future policies."
Correspondence: Urban and Schwarzenberg, 428 East Preston Street, Baltimore, MD 21202. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40253 Isiugo-Abanihe, Uche C.; Ebigbola, J. Akin; Adewuyi, A. A. Urban nuptiality patterns and marital fertility in Nigeria. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 25, No. 4, Oct 1993. 483-98 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This study identifies links between marriage, fertility and socioeconomic factors in urban Nigeria. The objective is to identify the major determinants of age at first marriage and, by controlling for this and other nuptiality variables, to examine differentials in urban fertility." It is found that "urban marital patterns in nine Nigerian cities influence fertility. Fertility is also influenced by age at marriage, region of residence, ethnicity and religion; education and employment lead to marriage delay and tend to conflict with childbearing by enhancing the status of women."
Correspondence: U. C. Isiugo-Abanihe, University of Ibadan, Department of Sociology, Ibadan, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40254 Kojima, Hiroshi. International migrants and fertility in developed countries. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 48, No. 2, Jul 1992. 28-39 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
The author reviews the literature on the fertility of immigrants in developed countries. He concludes that immigrant fertility is universally higher than that of the indigenous population, and that immigrant women differ with regard to family planning practice and the incidence of premature birth and stillbirth.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40255 Meekers, Dominique. Sexual initiation and premarital childbearing in Sub-Saharan Africa. DHS Working Paper, No. 5, Aug 1993. iii, 26 pp. Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
Adolescent sexual activity and premarital childbearing in seven countries in Sub-Saharan Africa are analyzed using data from demographic and health surveys. "In particular, the effects of socioeconomic indicators on adolescent sexual and reproductive behavior are estimated and theories concerning the motivation for different types of adolescent sexual and reproductive behavior are examined."
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 8850 Stanford Boulevard, Suite 4000, Columbia, MD 21045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40256 Nabi, A. K. M. Nurun. A political demographic perspective of differential fertility in Bangladesh: elites versus non-elites. Pub. Order No. AADNN70128. ISBN 0-315-70128-5. 1991. 199 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
Data from the Bangladesh Fertility Survey are used to examine fertility differentials by social class in this study prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Alberta, Canada.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 53(10).

59:40257 Ni Bhrolchain, Maire. Recent fertility differentials in Britain. Studies on Medical and Population Subjects, No. 55, 1993. 95-109 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Recent differentials in fertility in Britain are examined in a multivariate analysis using a combined sample of the 1986-89 General Household Surveys. The range of quantum and tempo indicators analyzed covers: total births, proportion ever marrying and each parity progression ratio up to the fourth, mean age at marriage and each birth interval up to the fourth. The differentials appearing are, by and large, narrow and are consistent with traditional findings and recent research....In the case of education, however, several quantum variables, having displayed an initially inverse association, become directly associated with terminal education age when initial age and other factors are controlled."
Correspondence: M. Ni Bhrolchain, University of Southampton, Department of Social Statistics, Southampton S09 5NH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40258 Okojie, Christiana E. E. Women's status and fertility in Bendel State of Nigeria. Genus, Vol. 48, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1992. 173-92 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"The paper reports empirical evidence on socioeconomic fertility differentials from a 1985 sample of fifteen rural and urban communities in Bendel State of Nigeria. A distinction is made between women's public and private status. The microeconomic theory of household behaviour provided the theoretical framework for the analysis. Among the factors important in determining fertility differentials are female education which decreases completed family size and husband's education which is positively associated with fertility. Other significant variables were age, ethnic group, husband-wife age difference and marriage type. Economic (public status) variables accounted for most of the explained variation in fertility."
Correspondence: C. E. E. Okojie, University of Benin, Department of Economics and Statistics, Benin City, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40259 Romo, Harriet; Falbo, Toni. Teen motherhood: "I wanted him" Texas Population Research Center Paper, No. 13.12, 1992-1993. 39 pp. University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center: Austin, Texas. In Eng.
This paper "discusses the relationship between teen motherhood, family relationships, and school difficulties [in the United States]."
Correspondence: University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center, Main 1800, Austin, TX 78712. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40260 United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] (Atlanta, Georgia). Teenage pregnancy and birth rates--United States, 1990. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 42, No. 38, Oct 1, 1993. 733-7 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
This report concerns pregnancies and births to U.S. women aged 15-19. It "presents pregnancy and birth rates for states by race/ethnicity for 1990 and compares rates with those for 1980."
Correspondence: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40261 Woods, Robert. Working-class fertility decline in Britain. Past and Present, No. 134, Feb 1992. 200-11 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author critically analyzes an article by Wally Seccombe concerning the decline in fertility during the past century among working-class populations in the United Kingdom. The focus of the criticism is that Seccombe's argument seems framed within theories of social history rather than demography. A reply by Seccombe is included (pp. 207-11).
For the article by Seccombe, published in 1990, see 56:20220.
Correspondence: R. Woods, University of Liverpool, Department of Geography, POB 147, Liverpool L69 3BX, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

59:40262 Yeboah, Yaa. Equal opportunities for women: the implications of adolescent pregnancy and childbirth in Sub-Saharan Africa for ILO policies and programmes. World Employment Programme Research Working Paper: Labour and Population, No. 186, ISBN 92-2-108977-0. Jun 1993. vi, 65 pp. International Labour Office [ILO]: Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
"This paper considers the issues of adolescent pregnancy and childbirth in Sub-Saharan Africa." The focus is on the implications for human resources development, vocational training and employment, poverty, and gender equity.
Correspondence: International Labour Office, 4 route des Morillons, 1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology

Studies on infertility, as well as studies of spontaneous abortion, prematurity, and other relevant pathologies of pregnancy.

No citations in this issue.

F.4. Actions and Activities Directly Affecting Fertility

Studies concerning activities, including family planning programs, that are primarily designed to influence fertility.

F.4.1. General Fertility Control and Contraception

General aspects of fertility control, primarily those concerned with family planning and family planning programs.

59:40263 Asociacion Pro-Bienestar de la Familia Nicaraguense [PROFAMILIA] (Managua, Nicaragua); United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]. Division of Reproductive Health (Atlanta, Georgia). Nicaragua Family Health Survey, 1992-1993. Preliminary results. [Encuesta sobre Salud Familiar Nicaragua 92-93. Informe preliminar.] Aug 1993. v, 43 pp. Managua, Nicaragua. In Spa.
Preliminary results are presented from the Nicaragua Family Health Survey of 1992-1993. The data are primarily concerned with contraceptive use and maternal health.
Correspondence: Asociacion Pro-Bienestar de la Familia Nicaraguense, Km. 5 1/2 Carretera a Masaya, Frente al Colegio Teresiano, Apdo. 4220, Managua, Nicaragua. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40264 Bouzidi, Mohammed; Fischer, Curt. Community-based family planning services in Africa: the programme manager's perspective. [1992?]. 129 pp. International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]: London, England; Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit [GTZ]: Eschborn, Germany. In Eng.
This is the product of a workshop held in Harare, Zimbabwe, in September 1991 on community-based family planning services. "The main objectives of the workshop were: to increase the acceptability of community-based services in the eyes of policy-makers and medical professionals; and to produce guidelines for programme managers in the planning, implementation and management of programmes." Eight papers are based on field experiences in Africa, but eight additional papers focus on the tools available to program managers, drawing on the experiences of other developing countries.
Correspondence: International Planned Parenthood Federation, Regent's College, Inner Circle, Regent's Park, London NW1 4NS, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40265 Brewis, Alexandra A. Reproductive ethnophysiology and contraceptive use in a rural Micronesian population. PSTC Working Paper Series, No. 93-07, Jun 1993. 22, [1] pp. Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center [PSTC]: Providence, Rhode Island. In Eng.
"This paper examines women's knowledge of reproductive physiology and anatomy and its relationship to patterns of biomedical contraceptive use in a rural Micronesian population [in Kiribati]."
Correspondence: Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40266 Chen, Youhua. An analysis of the causes for avoiding contraception among Chinese women. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 4, No. 4, 1992. 357-65 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article will analyze the [reasons] among Chinese women [for avoiding] contraception based on the 1982 sample survey on the fertility rate of [one per thousand] of the Chinese population and the 1988 national sample survey on fertility and contraception. A major index used in this article is the contraception avoidance rate...among married and fertile women, which means the percentage of the fertile women (including divorcees and widows)...who did not take any contraceptive measure among the total married and fertile women surveyed."
Correspondence: Y. Chen, Committee on Family Planning, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40267 Ketting, E. Contraception in Western Europe: a current appraisal. ISBN 1-85070-290-X. 1990. xii, 114 pp. Parthenon Publishing Group: Park Ridge, New Jersey/Carnforth, England. In Eng.
This is a collection of papers presented at a symposium held by the International Health Federation in Basel, Switzerland, in July 1988. The papers cover contraceptive behavior in "Italy, France, Great Britain, Spain, the Federal Republic of Germany, Austria, Sweden and Denmark....The results of...studies in the eight countries surveyed [are] presented together. (A comprehensive overview of these results is presented in the Appendix to this report.) Furthermore, experts in the fields of contraception and family planning from the eight countries were invited to comment and to discuss specific aspects of contraception and family planning in their respective countries....Medical journalists from the eight countries were also invited...[and] a number of representatives from pharmaceutical companies active in the field of contraception, notably oral contraceptives, participated in the meeting."
Correspondence: Parthenon Publishing Group, Casterton Hall, Carnforth, Lancashire LA6 2LA, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

59:40268 Leigh, Barbara C.; Temple, Mark T.; Trocki, Karen F. The sexual behavior of U.S. adults: results from a national survey. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 83, No. 10, Oct 1993. 1,400-8 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper describes the prevalence of various sexual behaviors in a nationally representative sample of adults in the United States. Data were collected as part of a household probability survey of adults (n=2,058) in the United States. Data collected on sexual behavior included sexual orientation, frequency of intercourse, condom use, and number of sexual partners." The results indicate that "a significant proportion of individuals were found to have intercourse with multiple partners without using condoms. A minority of these respondents acknowledge that their behavior may place them at risk for HIV transmission."
Correspondence: B. C. Leigh, Medical Research Institute of San Francisco, 2000 Hearst Street, Berkeley, CA 94709. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

59:40269 Maggwa, Baker N.; Mati, Japheth K.; Mbugua, Susan; Hunter, David J. Validity of contraceptive histories in a rural community in Kenya. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 22, No. 4, Aug 1993. 692-7 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"To determine the validity of self-reported contraceptive histories obtained from rural Kenyan women, we interviewed 122 women participants in a long-term study during which their contraceptive use had been recorded regularly at clinics. Interview information was compared with each woman's clinic record. In all 71 women (58%) reported ever use of oral contraceptives, while 76 (62%) of the clinic records documented ever use....The validity of reported duration of use of each method showed a similar pattern to that of the history of ever use....We conclude that contraceptive histories obtained using this approach were reasonably valid, with methods involving clinic procedures such as injectables and intrauterine devices having the highest validity."
Correspondence: B. N. Maggwa, University of Nairobi, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, POB 30197, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40270 McFarlane, Carmen P.; Friedman, Jay S.; Morris, Leo. Contraceptive Prevalence Survey, Jamaica, 1993: preliminary report. Oct 1993. 24, [17] pp. National Family Planning Board: Kingston, Jamaica; U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]: Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
Preliminary results are presented from the fifth in a series of contraceptive prevalence surveys carried out in Jamaica. "The scope of the survey, as in earlier studies, is designed to gather information on a broad range of areas including knowledge, attitudes and practices in contraception; perceptions on the role of men and women, including views on sexuality, child bearing, child rearing and health care."
Correspondence: U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40271 Oddens, B. J.; Vemer, H. M.; Visser, A. Ph.; Ketting, E. Contraception in Germany: a review. Advances in Contraception, Vol. 9, No. 2, Jun 1993. 105-16 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"In this paper studies on current contraceptive use and attitudes toward various contraceptive methods in Germany are reviewed. Both the former West and East Germany are considered. On the basis of the existing studies it is difficult to have a clear impression of which methods are currently used in both countries and how contraceptive practice developed over time, due to methodological differences between studies. Nevertheless, it can be concluded that use of reliable contraceptive methods is widespread in both East and West Germany."
Correspondence: B. J. Oddens, International Health Foundation, Avenue Don Bosco 8, 1150 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40272 Osheba, Ibrahim K. T.; Sayed, Hussein A.-A. The fertility impact of contraceptive use in Egypt: an aggregate analysis. CDC Working Paper, No. 23, [1991]. [46] pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng. with sum. in Ara.
The authors examine trends in fertility and contraceptive use in Egypt using data from the 1980 Egyptian Fertility Survey and the 1988 Egyptian Demographic and Health Survey.
Correspondence: Cairo Demographic Centre, 2 Lebanon Street, P.O. Box 73, Mohandiseen 12655, Cairo, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40273 Pillai, Vijayan K.; Achola, Paul P. W.; Barton, Thomas. Adolescents and family planning: the case of Zambia. Population Review, Vol. 37, No. 1-2, Jan-Dec 1993. 11-20 pp. La Jolla, California. In Eng.
"This paper examines several strategies for providing family planning services to female adolescents in Zambia. In particular we focus on three separate but related aspects of teenage fertility: teenage sexual activity, teenage pregnancy, and teenage motherhood. In this regard, we survey the strategies employed in the developed countries to provide family planning services to teenagers. Finally, we examine whether some of these strategies can be implemented in Zambia."
Correspondence: V. K. Pillai, University of North Texas, Department of Sociology and Social Work, P.O. Box 13675, Denton, TX 76203. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40274 Popov, Andrej A.; Visser, Adriaan Ph.; Ketting, Evert. Contraceptive knowledge, attitudes, and practice in Russia during the 1980s. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 24, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1993. 227-35 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article reviews five [KAP] surveys that were conducted in Moscow and two other cities (Saratov and Tartu) during the period 1976-84. In addition, some data from a large-scale survey conducted in 1990 and covering the entire former Soviet Union are presented. The surveys indicate that the rhythm method, condoms, vaginal douches, and withdrawal were the main contraceptive methods used; only 1 to 3 percent of the women interviewed were using oral contraceptives, and about 10 percent used intrauterine devices. The low prevalence of use of reliable modern methods may explain the high incidence of induced abortion in Russia."
Correspondence: A. A. Popov, Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Employment Studies, Centre of Demography and Human Ecology, Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40275 Potts, Malcolm. Unmet demand for family planning. Interdisciplinary Science Reviews, Vol. 18, No. 2, Jun 1993. 103-11 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The author reviews global population trends and both the need for effective family planning programs and the actual demand for those services. "Successful family planning programmes are discussed and it is shown that they all have certain factors in common: they are widespread, cheap, provide a range of methods, encourage long periods of breastfeeding and address the problems of unsafe abortion. Various policies and management structures are reviewed, as are the costs and cost effectiveness of family planning. Finally the relationships between family planning and economic progress, demographics, ecology, cultural and religious traditions and other factors are discussed."
Correspondence: M. Potts, International Family Health, 15 Bateman's Building, London W1V 5TW, England. Location: Cornell University Library, Ithaca, NY.

59:40276 Prasad, Ram K. Population planning, policy and programmes. ISBN 81-7100-241-2. 1990. 164 pp. Deep and Deep: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
This is an analysis of population policies and programs in India that focuses on the situation in the state of Bihar. The author first presents profiles of both India's population as a whole and the population of Bihar. He then describes relevant policies and programs and assesses their effectiveness.
Correspondence: Deep and Deep Publications, F-159 Rajouri Gardens, New Delhi 110 027, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40277 Samosir, Omas B. Contraceptive use in Indonesia: a history of the programme and the characteristics of users. Majalah Demografi Indonesia/Indonesian Journal of Demography, Vol. 19, No. 38, Dec 1992. 25-79 pp. Jakarta, Indonesia. In Eng. with sum. in Ind.
The author first reviews government family planning efforts in Indonesia since 1968, when the first program was begun. Consideration is then given to fertility patterns and user characteristics. Data are mainly from the 1987 National Indonesian Contraceptive Prevalence Survey.
Correspondence: O. B. Samosir, University of Indonesia, Demographic Institute, Faculty of Economics, Salemba Rya 4, Jakarta, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40278 Semana, Emmanuel. 1985-1992: seven years of a population/family planning program in Gitarama prefecture. [1985-1992: sept ans deja du programme de population/PF en prefecture de Gitarama: bilan et perspectives.] Imbonezamuryango/Famille, Sante, Developpement, No. 23, Apr 1991. 4-6 pp. Kigali, Rwanda. In Fre.
The author describes the development of a family planning program in Gitarama prefecture, Rwanda, over the period 1985-1991. The results indicate that only about 13% of eligible couples are using contraception, and that in 1991 the number of program dropouts exceeded the number of new acceptors.
Correspondence: E. Semana, ONAPO, B.P. 914, Kigali, Rwanda. Location: Northwestern University Library, Evanston, IL.

59:40279 Sun, Jinghua. An analysis of contraception among Chinese women in the past 20 years. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 4, No. 4, 1992. 309-18 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Based on the 1988 national fertility and contraception sample survey, this article describes the methods of contraception that married Chinese women have been using, and compares the differences in the use of contraception among women of different age, parity, location, ethnicity, custom and occupation. The survey covered 27 categories of contraception, which are divided into the following three groups: 1) ligation...; 2) intrauterine device (IUD); and 3) other devices and medicines (including long- and short-acting oral contraceptives, injections, subcutaneous implant, external medicine and periodic abstinence)."
Correspondence: J. Sun, Family Planning Commission of Jiangsu Province, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40280 Terefe, Almaz; Larson, Charles P. Modern contraception use in Ethiopia: does involving husbands make a difference? American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 83, No. 11, Nov 1993. 1,567-71 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The relative effectiveness of home visitation with and without husband's participation on the use of modern contraception in Ethiopia is explored using data collected in 1990-1991 for some 500 women in Addis Ababa. The results show that couples in which the husband participated in the initial contraceptive decision demonstrate higher levels of contraceptive continuation at both 2 and 12 months following home visitation.
Correspondence: C. P. Larson, Montreal Children's Hospital, Gilman Pavilion, 2300 Tupper Street, Montreal, Quebec H3H 1P3, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

59:40281 United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP] (Bangkok, Thailand). Family planning programmes in Asia and the Pacific: implications for the 1990s. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 116, Pub. Order No. ST/ESCAP/1189. 1993. ix, 136 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
This volume contains a selection of papers presented at a seminar held prior to the Fourth Asian and Pacific Population Conference in Beijing, China, March 17-21, 1992. The focus is on the factors associated with successful family planning programs in the region. Following a general review of policies and programs in the region and in China in particular, the papers are presented under the headings of program planning and development, including management lessons; contraceptive technology, cost-effectiveness, logistics, and availability, and integration of family planning and other social programs; the determinants of successful programs; demand creation strategies; and monitoring and evaluation.
Correspondence: UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, United Nations Building, Rajdamnern Nok Avenue, Bangkok 10200, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40282 VanLandingham, Mark J.; Suprasert, Somboon; Sittitrai, Werasit; Vaddhanaphuti, Chayan. Two views of risky sexual practices among northern Thai males: the health belief model and the theory of reasoned action. Seattle Population Research Center Working Paper, No. 93-9, Apr 1993. 29, [18] pp. University of Washington, Seattle Population Research Center: Seattle, Washington; Battelle Seattle Research Center: Seattle, Washington. In Eng.
Data from a 1991 survey of 1,472 men which was conducted in Chiang Mai, Thailand are used in "an analysis of unsafe sexual practices (inconsistent condom use with prostitutes) among men living in a high HIV-prevalence area."
This paper was originally presented at the 1993 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Seattle Population Research Center, c/o University of Washington, Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology Library, Department of Sociology DK-40, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40283 Visser, A. Ph.; Bruyniks, N.; Remennick, L. Family planning in Russia: experience and attitudes of gynecologists. Advances in Contraception, Vol. 9, No. 2, Jun 1993. 93-104 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The authors report on family planning knowledge and attitudes among Russian gynecologists, based on questionnaires distributed to 375 physicians. "The survey seems to indicate serious gaps in the training of Russian gynecologists. More attention should be paid to the knowledge on modern contraceptives, a non-directive style of counseling, and integration of family planning services into the existing health care system."
Correspondence: A. Ph. Visser, International Health Foundation, Avenue Don Bosco 8, 1150 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40284 Wilopo, Siswanto A.; Mosley, W. Henry. The relationship of child survival intervention programs to the practice of contraception: a case study in Indonesia. Johns Hopkins Population Center Papers on Population, No. WP 93-08, Feb 1993. v, 75 pp. Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Population Center: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"The analyses use explanatory variables drawn from three different data sources in order to first measure the gross relationships between villages and subdistrict characteristics, and: a) coverage with child survival interventions and contraceptives; and b) levels of fertility and mortality, and second, to model at the individual level the determinants of use of contraceptives and child survival interventions." Data concern East Nusa Tenggara, the western region of Timor.
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Population Center, 615 North Wolfe Street, Room 2300, Baltimore, MD 21205-2179. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40285 Wong, Rebeca; Agarwal, Kokila. The common determinants of utilization of child-survival and fertility-control interventions. Johns Hopkins Population Center Papers on Population, No. 92-15, [1992]. 20 pp. Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
The authors analyze factors affecting use of both child-survival and fertility interventions in a household. Data are from the 1988 Tunisian Demographic and Health Survey.
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Population Center, 615 North Wolfe Street, Room 2300, Baltimore, MD 21205-2179. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40286 Wright, Catherine. Factors associated with contraceptive behavior among black college students. Pub. Order No. DA9305247. 1992. 88 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
Data concerning 348 black college students in the southeastern United States are used to explore factors associated with contraceptive usage. This doctoral dissertation was prepared at the University of Oregon.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 53(10).

59:40287 Zaki, Khalida P.; Johnson, Nan E. Does women's literacy affect desired fertility and contraceptive use in rural-urban Pakistan? Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 25, No. 4, Oct 1993. 445-54 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The present study explored the relationship of the rural-urban gap in female literacy to differences in contraceptive use [in Pakistan]. In rural areas, literacy did not increase women's perceptions of having reached a 'sufficient' number of living children, although the opposite was true for urban areas. Yet rural women with an 'insufficient' number of living children were more likely to use contraception if they were literate, as did their urban counterparts. Thus, raising the literacy rate in rural Pakistan would not narrow the rural-urban gap in contraception to cease childbearing but would narrow the rural-urban gap in contraception used to space wanted births further apart."
Correspondence: K. P. Zaki, Michigan State University, Social Science Center for Integrative Studies, East Lansing, MI 28824. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.2. Clinical Aspects & Use-Effectiveness Studies

Selected studies on the medical aspects of fertility control methods, including studies on side effects and use-effectiveness.

59:40288 Chi, I-cheng. What we have learned from recent IUD studies: a reseacher's perspective. Contraception, Vol. 48, No. 2, Aug 1993. 81-108 pp. Stoneham, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The author reviews the English-language literature on studies of IUD safety and efficacy and finds that "many studies published on intrauterine devices (IUDs) during the last six years have consistently reported findings in favor of IUD use. Notable among these findings are: IUDs are not abortifacients; newly developed IUDs are highly effective and the efficacy is long-lasting; IUDs can be safely used by most lactating women, with lower removal rates attributable to bleeding and/or pain; and immediate postplacental IUD insertion reduces the risk of expulsion usually associated with postpartum insertion. Most importantly, in apparent contrast to results often reported in the late 1960s through the early 1980s, recent findings show that IUDs per se, especially the medicated ones, are not associated with an increased risk of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), nor are they associated with an increased risk of ectopic pregnancy or subsequent infertility."
Correspondence: I-c. Chi, Family Health International, P.O. Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40289 Cooke, I. D.; Senanayake, P. Benefits and risks of oral contraception. Proceedings of a plenary session at the XII World Congress of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Singapore, 17 September 1991. Advances in Contraception, Vol. 7, Suppl. 1, Dec 1991. 75 pp. Society for the Advancement of Contraception: Manchester, England; Kluwer Academic: Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
This special issue contains six papers on the benefits and risks of oral contraceptives, covering such topics as cancer prevention, breast cancer, cardiovascular disease, other health benefits, contraception over age 35, and oral contraceptive use in developing countries. A summary of the discussion at the plenary session is included, as is an overall assessment of oral contraception.
Correspondence: Kluwer Academic Publishers Group, P.O. Box 322, 3300 AH Dordrecht, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40290 Donaldson, Molla S.; Dorflinger, Laneta; Brown, Sarah S.; Benet, Leslie Z. Clinical applications of mifepristone (RU 486) and other antiprogestins: assessing the science and recommending a research agenda. ISBN 0-309-04949-0. LC 93-85360. 1993. xi, 288 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C.; Institute of Medicine, Division of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, Committee on Antiprogestins: Assessing the Science: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This publication is the product of an international expert committee convened "to conduct an evaluation and to develop recommendations concerning future research on the potential clinical use of antiprogestins in the United States." The meeting was held in Washington, D.C., April 13-14, 1993. "The committee's report...reviews the data that served as the bases for approval of mifepristone in other countries. The report includes 20 recommendations about various scientific issues that are important to the evaluation of mifepristone and other antiprogestins." The report also includes the texts of the 12 background papers prepared for the meeting.
Correspondence: National Academy Press, Box 285, 2101 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20055. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40291 Elias, Christopher J.; Heise, Lori. The development of microbicides: a new method of HIV prevention for women. Programs Division Working Paper, No. 6, 1993. vi, 105 pp. Population Council, Programs Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper is concerned primarily with the development of female-controlled microbicides for intravaginal use in preventing the heterosexual transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STI)."
Correspondence: Population Council, Programs Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40292 Ford, Nicholas; Mathie, Elspeth. The acceptability and experience of the female condom, Femidom among family planning clinic attenders. British Journal of Family Planning, Vol. 19, No. 2, Jul 1993. 187-92 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This article describes survey findings from a study of user's experience and acceptability of the female condom, Femidom. Women were recruited to the study at family planning clinics and general practices in 17 different centres [in the United Kingdom]....Key findings are outlined with respect to pre-use, first impressions, reasons for discontinuation, reported mishaps, perceived efficacy, insertion, effect on penetration and sexual pleasure, use in different coital positions, changes in view with repeated use, perceived attributes and final assessment. The findings indicate a varied (positive and negative) range of users' experience and overall attitudes to Femidom, with ease of insertion increasing with repeated use."
Correspondence: N. Ford, University of Exeter, Institute of Population Studies, Exeter EX4 6DT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40293 Frank, M. L.; Poindexter, A. N.; Bateman, L. Factors associated with the choice of Norplant by women attending subsidized clinics in the U.S. Advances in Contraception, Vol. 9, No. 2, Jun 1993. 161-74 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"U.S. women attending family planning clinics in Texas, were surveyed to determine which characteristics, experiences, behavior and specific needs were associated with the selection of the contraceptive Norplant. Race, ethnic origin, age and education were unrelated to choice of method. Increased numbers of previous pregnancies, familiarity with the method, dissatisfaction with previous methods, and sources of information about Norplant were associated with its selection. There was significant variation among the clinics in the proportion of patients to which they dispensed the method. Therefore, clinic selection may have influenced the outcomes of contraceptive decisions."
Correspondence: M. L. Frank, Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Houston, TX. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40294 Frank, Margaret L.; Poindexter, Alfred N.; Cornin, Lisa M.; Cox, C. Adriana; Bateman, Louise. One-year experience with subdermal contraceptive implants in the United States. Contraception, Vol. 48, No. 3, Sep 1993. 229-43 pp. Stoneham, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"Women who received Norplant contraceptive implants from any of fifteen clinical settings in southeast Texas, U.S.A., were followed for one year to determine their reactions to the method. Of 1,385 who enrolled to receive Norplant implants, 1,253 had implants inserted. Side effects were reported by 78%...and 70% described changes in bleeding patterns. Spotting or irregular bleeding, weight gain and headaches were the conditions reported most frequently....At the one year anniversary, 143 of women receiving implants had had them removed. Those who discontinued method use were less satisfied, reported more side effects and were more likely to have planned to have another child, thus using the method for spacing, or to have had a change in their marital status while they were using the contraceptive."
Correspondence: A. N. Poindexter, Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40295 Indian Council of Medical Research. Division of Human Resource Development Research (New Delhi, India). Phase III clinical trial with Norplant II (two covered rods): report on five years of use. Contraception, Vol. 48, No. 2, Aug 1993. 120-32 pp. Stoneham, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"The subdermal implant NORPLANT II contraceptive was studied for its safety, efficacy and acceptability over a period of 5 years of use in a phase III multicentre clinical trial [conducted in India]. A total of 1,466 women were observed....Only four pregnancies were reported during the study period, giving a method failure rate of 0.8 per 100 users at 5 years of use. The continuation rates were 61.4, 49.0 and 42.1 per 100 users at 3, 4, and 5 years of use, respectively. The majority of the discontinuations were due to bleeding irregularities....The next common reason was planning pregnancy which was observed mainly in women having one child. The discontinuations due to infection, expulsion or displacement of device were very low....Due to vigorous efforts made by the centers to follow the subjects, the lost-to-follow-up rate was very low...."
Correspondence: Senior Deputy Director General and Chief, Indian Council of Medical Research, Division of Human Resource Development Research, Ansari Nagar, Delhi 110 029, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40296 Liu, Xiaozhang; Li, Shunqiang. Vasal sterilization in China. Contraception, Vol. 48, No. 3, Sep 1993. 255-65 pp. Stoneham, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The authors review vasal sterilization techniques currently in use in China. "There have been two major developments in vasectomy technique, the no-scalpel method and the percutaneous chemical vas occlusion....The effective rate is over 98% for both methods. The clients experience less pain, fewer complications and more rapid recovery."
Correspondence: X. Liu, No. 17, Section 4, South People's Road, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40297 Weisman, Carol S.; Plichta, Stacey B.; Tirado, Doris E.; Dana, Kitty H. Norplant adoption: comparison of early Norplant adopters and oral contraceptive users in a family planning clinic in Baltimore. Johns Hopkins Population Center Papers on Population, No. 92-16, [1992]. 12 pp. Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
Data for 245 U.S. women attending a clinic in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1991 who chose to use either oral contraceptives or Norplant are analyzed. The focus is on differences between the two acceptor groups.
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Population Center, 615 North Wolfe Street, Room 2300, Baltimore, MD 21205-2179. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.3. Evaluation of Programs

Studies evaluating either the demographic impact or other criteria of effectiveness of family planning programs.

59:40298 Bertrand, Jane T.; McBride, Mark E.; Mangani, Nlandu; Baughman, Nancy C.; Kinuani, Mombela. Community-based distribution of contraceptives in Zaire. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 19, No. 3, Sep 1993. 84-91 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article describes one of the few well-documented community-based distribution efforts in a francophone Sub-Saharan country, a project that began in 1981 in Bas Zaire, a region in the Republic of Zaire." Results indicate that "the average number of couple-months of contraceptive protection per month provided by each distributor varied widely across the project's eight sites, from 204 in Miabi to 1,310 in Matadi. Within each site, the average performance of distributors remained constant during the life of the project....The only significant predictors of distributors' performance were age and project site (reflecting local demand for contraception and managerial efficiency). Costs per couple-month of protection declined over time....The proportion of married women using modern contraceptives increased at each site during the project...."
Correspondence: J. T. Bertrand, Tulane University, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70118. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40299 Diaz, J.; Diaz, M. Quality of care in family planning in Latin America. Advances in Contraception, Vol. 9, No. 2, Jun 1993. 117-28 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This paper reviews the level of quality of services in family planning in Latin America following Judith Bruce's framework and proposes some activities that may improve it. The analysis found severe deficiencies in almost all the elements mentioned by Bruce, mainly in choice, technical competence, and mechanisms for improving continuity. The authors propose that to improve quality, services should (a) generate top management commitment to quality, (b) stay close to the client/user, (c) improve work conditions of providers/health workers, (d) measure quality, and (e) reward quality."
For the article by Bruce, published in 1990, see 56:20286.
Correspondence: J. Diaz, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Cidade Universitaria Zeferino Vaz, CP 1170, 13081 Campinas, SP, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40300 Lynam, Pamela; Rabinovitz, Leslie M.; Shobowale, Mofoluke. Using self-assessment to improve the quality of family planning clinic services. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 24, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1993. 252-60 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A follow-up study was conducted to evaluate the effect of a self-assessment technique called COPE (client-oriented, provider-efficient) on the quality of family planning clinic operations in Africa. In 1991 the Association for Voluntary Surgical Contraception revisited 11 clinics where it had introduced COPE from five to 15 months earlier. Changes that had occurred as a result of the COPE intervention were assessed by (1) determining how many of the clinic problems identified by staff at the COPE introduction had been solved; (2) comparing the results of a second client-flow analysis with the initial analysis; and (3) interviewing service providers to obtain their opinions of the effects of COPE....The study revealed improvements in the quality of care provided as well as increased staff involvement in solving clinic problems."
Correspondence: L. M. Rabinovitz, Association for Voluntary Surgical Contraception, 122 East 42nd Street, New York, NY 10168. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40301 Mauldin, W. Parker; Sinding, Steven W. Review of existing family planning policies and programs: lessons learned. Population Council Research Division Working Paper, No. 50, 1993. 49 pp. Population Council: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper gives a broad overview of the characteristics and strengths and weaknesses of family planning programs in East and Southeast Asia, South Asia, Latin America, the Arab States, and sub-Saharan Africa. It also assesses the impact of family planning programs on the use of contraception, and declines in fertility rates, taking into consideration the social and economic conditions in each country."
Correspondence: Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40302 McDivitt, Judith A.; Zimicki, Susan; Hornik, Robert; Abulaban, Ayman. The impact of the Healthcom mass media campaign on timely initiation of breastfeeding in Jordan. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 24, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1993. 295-309 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article examines the impact of a mass media breastfeeding campaign in Jordan within the context of other activities occurring during and after the child's birth. The campaign had a positive impact on all mothers' knowledge, and on timely initiation of breastfeeding for home and public hospital deliveries, but not for those in private hospitals. The findings indicate that a communication campaign can bring about change in breastfeeding initiation behavior...."
Correspondence: J. A. McDivitt, Tulane University, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112-2699. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40303 Vernon, Ricardo; Lopez-Canales, Jose R.; Carcamo, Jose A.; Galindo, Judith. The impact of a perinatal reproductive health program in Honduras. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 19, No. 3, Sep 1993. 103-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"To improve perinatal service delivery at the Hospital Materno-Infantil in Tegucigalpa, the Honduran Social Security System created a reproductive health program with five main components: a prenatal education program, a reproductive health counseling service, an expansion of contraceptive options offered in the postpartum period, a postpartum clinic for women to visit on the 40th day after birth, and an improved perinatal data collection system. The prenatal education program, attended by approximately half of the more than 6,000 women who delivered at the hospital during the 15-month period, significantly increased the women's knowledge about such topics as reproductive risk factors, warning signs during pregnancy, breastfeeding and infant care. Rates of acceptance of postpartum family planning increased significantly and rapidly....Over a 10-month period, the number of women seeking family planning and reproductive health counseling increased from 33 per month to 296 per month."
Correspondence: R. Vernon, Population Council, Apartado Postal 105-152, C.P. 11560, Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.4. Attitudes Toward Fertility & Fertility Control

Studies concerned with the interrelations between fertility control and attitudinal variables, including studies on wanted and unwanted pregnancy and children, motivation for parenthood, sex preference, and voluntary childlessness. Studies on knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of family planning and attitudes toward family size are classified under this heading.

59:40304 Chowdhury, A. I.; Bairagi, Radheshyam; Koenig, Michael A. Effects of family sex composition on fertility preferences and behaviour in rural Bangladesh. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 25, No. 4, Oct 1993. 455-64 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"In this paper, the effects of familial sex composition on fertility preference and behaviour in rural Bangladesh are investigated. Specifically, the relationship between sex composition and preferences for an additional child, use of contraception, and subsequent fertility experience are examined. The effect of sex composition under conditions of changing contraceptive prevalence is explored by comparing the effect of sex composition in the Matlab intervention area during a period of comparatively low contraceptive use (1977-82) with a period of substantially higher use (1984-88)."
Correspondence: A. I. Chowdhury, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, GPO Box 128, Dhaka 2, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40305 de Feijter, Henk. Pioneers of demographic change. [Voorlopers bij demografische veranderingen.] NIDI Rapport, No. 22, ISBN 90-70990-30-X. LC 91-176859. 1991. xii, 200 pp. Nederlands Interdisciplinair Demografisch Instituut [NIDI]: The Hague, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"This study examines the changes in Dutch society which occurred in the areas of primary relationships, [including] sexuality, parenthood, and birth control. The main questions are: 'Which population groups were the first to adopt attitudes that later became widely accepted, who were the first to behave according to these new ideas and which factors influenced the rate of their diffusion.' The empirical part of the study is mainly based on a secondary analysis of surveys carried out among the Dutch population in the period 1965-1985."
Correspondence: Nederlands Interdisciplinair Demografisch Instituut, Postbus 11650, Lange Houtstraat 19, 2511 CV The Hague, Netherlands. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

59:40306 Dixon-Mueller, Ruth. The sexuality connection in reproductive health. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 24, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1993. 269-82 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article identifies some of the linkages between sexuality and reproductive health that are relevant to family planning professionals....[It] reviews the treatment of sexuality and gender in the conventional family planning literature, proposes a broader framework for understanding sexuality in a gendered context, and suggests a number of connections between sexuality, gender, and reproductive health...." The geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: R. Dixon-Mueller, International Women's Health Coalition, 24 East 21st Street, New York, NY 10010. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40307 Indacochea, Carlos M. Determinants of family formation attitudes of Peruvian adolescents. Pub. Order No. DA9318892. 1993. 302 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
Data from a survey of 10,672 Peruvian schoolchildren are used to analyze attitudes about family formation, contraception, age at marriage, and family size. The study was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Cornell University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 54(2).

59:40308 Kannae, Lawrence A. The masculine side of family planning: male government employees' attitudes and use of family planning methods in Ghana. Pub. Order No. DA9318159. 1993. 185 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This research attempts to establish a link between the low levels of contraceptive prevalence in African countries and the neglect of accounting for men's traditional values...." Data concern 484 male government employees in Ghana. The study was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Akron.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 54(2).

59:40309 Ketting, E.; Visser, A. Ph.; Uzel, R.; Lehert, P. Oral contraception in the former Czech and Slovak Federal Republic: attitudes and use. Advances in Contraception, Vol. 9, No. 2, Jun 1993. 141-52 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This paper presents and discusses data on oral contraception from a [1991] national representative survey (n=1,072) on knowledge, attitudes and practice with regard to contraceptive use in the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic (CSFR). Only 7% of the women at risk of unplanned pregnancy used the pill. The low rate of use seems to be due to the general negative image of oral contraception, reinforced by the experiences of past users and opinions expressed by relatives, friends, doctors, and the media. In particular, perceived psychological disadvantages have an important bearing on the decision not to use the method, whereas perceived advantages have hardly any impact."
Correspondence: E. Ketting, Netherlands Institute of Social Sexological Research, Utrecht, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40310 Pagnini, Deanna L.; Rindfuss, Ronald R. The divorce of marriage and childbearing: changing attitudes and behavior in the United States. Population and Development Review, Vol. 19, No. 2, Jun 1993. 331-47, 426, 428 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Using data from four cross-sectional surveys undertaken between 1974 and 1989, the authors document that [U.S.] attitudes toward births outside of a marital relationship became increasingly permissive. They examine the social and demographic correlates of these attitudes and find that the structure of the determinants has not changed over time. The shift in attitudes was pervasive across social groups. They also present evidence on a concomitant change in attitudes toward a new gender-role orientation within two-parent families."
Correspondence: D. L. Pagnini, Duke University, Center for Demographic Studies, 2117 Campus Drive, Durham, NC 27706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40311 Spinelli, A.; Grandolfo, M.; Donati, S.; Medda, E. Family planning in Italy. Advances in Contraception, Vol. 9, No. 2, Jun 1993. 153-60 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The authors review family planning trends in Italy, with a focus on changes in knowledge, attitude, and practice over the past 20 years. The incidence of induced abortion is also examined.
Correspondence: A. Spinelli, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40312 Sufian, Abu J. M. Determinants of contraceptive knowledge and family planning services in Bangladesh. Genus, Vol. 48, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1992. 119-28 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"In this paper, contraceptive knowledge measured by the number of modern methods known by source to currently married women below 50 years of age in Bangladesh, and family planning service measured by whether or not such a woman was visited by any family planning worker during six months preceding the survey have been examined with data gathered in the Bangladesh Contraceptive Prevalence Survey--1983....Women who attended school have demonstrated knowledge by source of a greater number of methods than women without schooling. Similar results hold in case of urbanites, current users of contraception, employed women, and owners of cultivable land when contrasted respectively with ruralites, current non-users, unemployed women, and non-owners of cultivable land."
Correspondence: A. J. M. Sufian, King Faisal University, POB 1982, Dammam 31441, Saudi Arabia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40313 Visser, Adriaan Ph.; Remennick, Larissa; Bruyniks, Nico. Contraception in Russia: attitude, knowledge and practice of doctors. Planned Parenthood in Europe, Vol. 22, No. 2, Jun 1993. 26-9 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Information on knowledge about modern contraceptives and human reproduction among 375 doctors in Russia is explored using data from questionnaires distributed at three symposia. "The questionnaire covered general personal and worksite characteristics, experience with family planning, opinion on the needed changes in this field, practice, knowledge and attitudes concerning several types of contraception and knowledge on modern contraceptives."
Correspondence: A. Ph. Visser, International Health Foundation, Avenue Don Bosco 8, 1150 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40314 Yehya, Riad M. The role of communication in family planning: the case of the Philippines. Pub. Order No. DA9237699. 1992. 141 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Bowling Green State University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 53(10).

F.4.5. Induced Abortion

Studies on induced abortion, including those on attitudes, with the exception of studies primarily concerned with government regulation of abortion, which are coded under M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility . Studies of spontaneous abortion appear under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology .

59:40315 Association Suisse pour le Droit a l'Avortement et a la Contraception [ASDAC] (Lausanne, Switzerland). Abortion in Switzerland: the law, practice, and prevention. [Interruption de grossesse en Suisse: loi, pratiques et prevention.] 2nd ed. May 1991. 113 pp. Lausanne, Switzerland. In Fre.
This is a review of the current situation concerning abortion in Switzerland. Given that the federal law which makes abortion a criminal offense is still in effect, the report focuses on how the law is interpreted differently in the various cantons. It classifies the cantons as liberal, quite liberal, and restrictive, and shows how women in restrictive cantons travel to more liberal ones for abortions. The report concludes that attitudes toward abortion are becoming more liberal.
Correspondence: Association Suisse pour le Droit a l'Avortement et a la Contraception, Case Postale 38, 1000 Lausanne 9, Switzerland. Location: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Paris, France.

59:40316 Barbosa, Regina M.; Arilha, Margareth. The Brazilian experience with Cytotec. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 24, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1993. 236-40 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors investigate the use of Cytotec in Brazil, based on a 1992 study of the drug. "Cytotec, the commercial name for misoprostol,...was approved for use in Brazil in 1986 to treat gastric and duodenal ulcers. The drug can and has also been used to induce abortion, which has created controversy in a country in which induced abortion is illegal....Data obtained from gynecologists show that Cytotec's addition to the obstetric therapeutic arsenal was welcome and also confirmed the drug's influence in reducing the complications of illegal abortions shown in other studies."
Correspondence: R. M. Barbosa, Institute of Health, Maternal and Child Health Division, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40317 Bromham, D. R.; Cartmill, R. S. V. Are current sources of contraceptive advice adequate to meet changes in contraceptive practice? A study of patients requesting termination of pregnancy. British Journal of Family Planning, Vol. 19, No. 2, Jul 1993. 179-83 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this paper we examine previously published data and our own study of 769 patients requesting termination of pregnancy...[in the United Kingdom] in order to assess the degree to which lack of knowledge about contraception, particularly secondary or emergency precautions, may have contributed to unplanned pregnancies resulting in a request for termination...." The authors find that "during the 1980s there have been two prominent changes in family planning....One change has been a gradual [increase] in the proportion of patients receiving advice from general practitioner family planning doctors. A much more dramatic change began in the middle of the decade with the promotion of condom use by 'safer sex' campaigns."
Correspondence: D. R. Bromham, St. James University Hospital, Fertility Control Unit, Beckett Street, Leeds LS9 7TF, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40318 Bugalho, Antonio; Bique, Cassimo; Almeida, Luisa; Faundes, Anibal. The effectiveness of intravaginal misoprostol (Cytotec) in inducing abortion after eleven weeks of pregnancy. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 24, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1993. 319-23 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"At Maputo Central Hospital in Mozambique, intravaginal misoprostol...was used by 169 women whose request for interruption of pregnancy had been approved. The drug was used by women who had completed between 12 and 23 weeks of gestation. The initial dose was 800 micrograms, repeated 24 hours later if abortion had not occurred or was not in progress....During the course of the study, the dosage was successively reduced to 600, 400, and 200 micrograms. Abortion was successfully induced in 154 women (91.1 percent); there were 10 failures (5.9 percent), and five women (3.0 percent) dropped out of the study. The mean time from initial dose to abortion was 14.3 hours. No significant association of success rate and time from dosage to expulsion was found with age, parity, previous abortion, or gestational age."
Correspondence: A. Faundes, Population Council, Caixa Postal 6181, 13081-970 Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40319 Conway, Karen S.; Butler, Michael R. State abortion legislation as a public good--before and after Roe v. Wade. Economic Inquiry, Vol. 30, No. 4, Oct 1992. 609-26 pp. Huntington Beach, California. In Eng.
"This paper develops a theoretical model of the public demand for abortion legislation [in the United States], taking account of two possible types of demand, external and private. All voters possess an external demand for abortion legislation whereas only those voters who could potentially have an abortion possess a private demand. We estimate the public demand for abortion legislation using state-level data prior to Roe v. Wade, and then predict the likely outcome for each state should Roe be overturned. Our predictions suggest that the country as a whole is unlikely to return to as restrictive an environment as existed pre-Roe."
Correspondence: K. S. Conway, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

59:40320 Forum Against Sex Determination and Sex Pre-selection [FASDSP] (Bombay, India). Using technology, choosing sex: the campaign against sex determination and the question of choice. Development Dialogue, No. 1-2, 1992. 91-102 pp. Uppsala, Sweden. In Eng.
This article describes some of the problems caused by the preference for boys over girls in India. It is found that the growing availability of amniocentesis enables parents to abort fetuses of the unwanted sex. The implications for women's rights and the sex ratio in India are discussed.
Correspondence: Forum Against Sex Determination and Sex Pre-selection, Bombay, India. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

59:40321 Heinen, Jacqueline; Matuchniak-Krasuska, Anna. Abortion in Poland: the cross and the banner. [L'avortement en Pologne: la croix et la banniere.] Logiques Sociales, ISBN 2-7384-1585-7. 1992. 240 pp. L'Harmattan: Paris, France. In Fre.
This study concerns the initiative undertaken in Poland in 1989, primarily by Catholic authorities, to make abortion a criminal offence by repealing the 1956 laws legalizing the procedure. Data are primarily from 68 men and women aged 18-60 who were interviewed in 1989. Information is included on contraception and on Catholic and lay attitudes toward it.
Correspondence: Editions L'Harmattan, 5-7 rue de l'Ecole Polytechnique, 75005 Paris, France. Location: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Paris, France.

59:40322 Hull, Terence H.; Sarwono, Sarsanto W.; Widyantoro, Ninuk. Induced abortion in Indonesia. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 24, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1993. 241-51 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This report presents a brief review of the evolution of pregnancy termination services in [Indonesia]....It describes how the medical profession has been able to expand the provision of safe abortion services in a manner accepted by the government and society, even though the literal interpretation of the law would state that such practices are illegal. Finally, the dilemmas that result from referring to the law are discussed, with particular attention to the debate arising from the 1992 Health Law, which has increased confusion concerning the legality of abortion in Indonesia."
Correspondence: T. H. Hull, University of Indonesia, Faculty of Public Health, Depok Campus, West Java, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40323 Paxman, John M.; Rizo, Alberto; Brown, Laura; Benson, Janie. The clandestine epidemic: the practice of unsafe abortion in Latin America. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 24, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1993. 205-26 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors examine the widespread occurrence of clandestine, unsafe induced abortion in Latin America. "We focus on the following questions: What trends and practices describe the incidence of induced abortion in Latin America? What are the consequences of these trends and practices for women's health? What are the costs of clandestine abortion--both economic and social? What propels the practice? How does contraceptive practice relate to abortion? What limits the quality of induced abortion and impedes women's access to safe abortion care? And finally: What must be done to remedy the current situation?"
Correspondence: J. M. Paxman, Keene Associates, 5 Sheridan Street, Lexington, MA 02173. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40324 Popov, Andrej A. A short history of abortion and population policy in Russia. Planned Parenthood in Europe, Vol. 22, No. 2, Jun 1993. 23-5 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This article briefly describes the changing legal status of abortion in Russia, and the background and consequences of it."
Correspondence: A. A. Popov, Russian Academy of Sciences, Center of Demography and Human Ecology, Leninskii Pr. 14, 117901 Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40325 Rasevic, Mirjana. Toward an understanding of abortion in Serbia. [Ka razumevanju abortusa u Srbiji.] [1993]. 234 pp. Univerzitet u Beogradu, Institut Drustvenih Nauka, Centar za Demografska Istrazivanja: Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
This study begins with a review of the history of induced abortion. The author then examines abortion trends in Serbia and notes that abortion was widely used in the past, but its use has declined since the spread of contraception. Current trends are analyzed using data from a 1990 survey conducted in Belgrade among approximately 400 women.
Correspondence: Univerzitet u Beogradu, Institut Drustvenih Nauka, Centar za Demografska Istrazivanja, Narodnog Fronta 45, Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40326 Russo, Nancy F.; Horn, Jody D.; Tromp, Shannon. Childspacing intervals and abortion among blacks and whites: a brief report. Women and Health, Vol. 20, No. 3, 1993. 43-51 pp. Binghamton, New York. In Eng.
"Using secondary analysis, this study examines the characteristics of 596 [U.S.] mothers who sought abortions in 1987 by race and age. Nearly 25% of these mothers had at least one child under two years of age. Abortion patients with such young children were more likely to be Black and have low incomes than abortion patients with older children. More than half of the mothers studied had more than two children." The potential public health impact of more restrictive abortion laws and policies is assessed.
Correspondence: N. F. Russo, Arizona State University, Department of Psychology, Tempe, AZ 85287-1104. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40327 Tang, G. W. K.; Lau, O. W. K.; Yip, P. Further acceptability evaluation of RU486 and ONO 802 as abortifacient agents in a Chinese population. Contraception, Vol. 48, No. 3, Sep 1993. 267-76 pp. Stoneham, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The authors describe characteristics of women seeking abortion in Hong Kong, with a focus on those choosing RU-486 as an abortifacient. "Of 144 consecutive women who requested early induced abortion, 99 (68.7%) and 45 (31.3%) women chose RU486 combined with ONO 802 (medical method) and suction evacuation (surgical method), respectively. Logistic regression analysis of covariates showed that age and marital status were significantly correlated with the acceptability and hence the choice of the medical method. There were also more working women in this medical group....This group of women appeared to have a tendency of treating their disease with medication rather than with surgery if the condition would allow."
Correspondence: G. W. K. Tang, University of Hong Kong, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Department of Statistics, Tsan Yuk Hospital, Hong Kong. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility

Studies on lactation, nutrition, fecundability, sex behavior, menarche and menopause, and other biological factors or social customs as they affect fertility directly. Factors affecting contraceptive practice and factors affecting fertility indirectly are not included here.

59:40328 Becker, Stan; Begum, Suraiya. Reliability study of reporting of days since last sexual intercourse in Matlab, Bangladesh. Johns Hopkins Population Center Papers on Population, No. 92-01, [1992]. [13] pp. Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
Data from interviews with 51 women in Matlab, Bangladesh, in the late 1970s, concerning frequency of sexual intercourse are analyzed for accuracy. The authors conclude that "data on days since last intercourse are reasonably reliable and continued collection of sexual intercourse frequency using this question is recommended."
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Population Center, 615 North Wolfe Street, Room 2300, Baltimore, MD 21205-2179. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40329 Brewis, Alexandra A.; Regmi, Gokarna. Post partum amenorrhoea differentials and patterning in a rural Pacific Island population. PSTC Working Paper Series, No. 93-05, May 1993. 28, [4] pp. Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center [PSTC]: Providence, Rhode Island. In Eng.
"Retrospective demographic and ethnographic data collected on the South-Eastern Micronesian atoll of [Butaritari, Republic of Kiribati] are employed to test for factors affecting the differentials and patterning of post partum amenorrhoea in this well-nourished population."
Correspondence: Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40330 Kiragu, Karungari; Zabin, Laurie S. The correlates of premarital sexual activity among school-age adolescents in Kenya. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 19, No. 3, Sep 1993. 92-7, 109 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"About 3,000 adolescents enrolled in 46 coeducational primary, secondary and vocational schools in Kenya were surveyed in 1989 to investigate factors associated with premarital sexual behavior. Depending on the type of school, 48-77% of the males report ever having had coital experience, compared with 17-67% of the females. Nearly half the sexually experienced males report multiple sex partners. A multiple regression analysis of the secondary school subsample shows that males who socialize with sexually experienced peers are nearly seven times as likely as those whose peers are not sexually experienced to have had sex themselves; similar females are three times as likely to have had sex."
Correspondence: K. Kiragu, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Center for Communications Programs, 111 Market Place, Suite 310, Baltimore, MD 21202-4024. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40331 Margulis, Susan W.; Altmann, Jeanne; Ober, Carole. Sex-biased lactational duration in a human population and its reproductive costs. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, Vol. 32, No. 1, 1993. 41-5 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"We tested the proposition that among humans (1) differences in lactational duration result in differences in costs of reproduction even under rich nutritional conditions; and (2) elimination of factors postulated to favor male-biased parental care will be reflected in elimination or reversal of sex-biased care. To do so, we examined the relationship between lactational duration and fertility among Hutterites [in Canada and the United States]....We demonstrate that even under good nutritional conditions, duration of nursing was a significant predictor of the length of time to next pregnancy and that nursing continued to suppress fertility after the resumption of menses."
Correspondence: S. W. Margulis, University of Chicago, Allee Laboratory of Animal Behavior, Committee on Evolutionary Biology, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40332 Perez-Escamilla, Rafael. Update on the breastfeeding situation in Africa. Nutrition Research, Vol. 13, No. 5, 1993. 597-609 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The specific objectives of this paper are to: a) summarize and integrate recent information describing breastfeeding patterns in Africa, b) compare breastfeeding patterns across countries, c) conduct within and/or across country analyses of breastfeeding patterns among subgroups (i.e. urban vs rural, low vs high socioeconomic status), [and] d) document exclusive breastfeeding rates among 0-4 [month-old] infants." The author "integrates and summarizes the results from thirteen Demographic and Health Surveys carried out between 1986 and 1990 in Africa."
Correspondence: R. Perez-Escamilla, University of California, Department of Nutrition, Davis, CA 95616-8669. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40333 Rodgers, Joseph L.; Harris, David F.; Vickers, Karen B. Seasonality of first coitus in the United States. Social Biology, Vol. 39, No. 1-2, 1993. 1-14 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
Trends in the seasonal occurrence of first intercourse among U.S. adolescents and young adults are analyzed using data from the Adolescent Sexuality data set of 1,405 adolescents in Tallahassee, Florida, and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. "Analysis of a small and local dataset is suggestive that loss of virginity is particularly likely during the summer. A test of this 'Summer Vacation Theory' using a large national dataset supports the generality of the phenomenon."
Correspondence: J. L. Rodgers, University of Oklahoma, Department of Psychology, Norman, OK 73019. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40334 Rutenberg, Naomi. The estimation of fecundability from survey data on coital activity. Pub. Order No. DA9328058. 1993. v, 164 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Princeton University. "This thesis uses data on coital activity collected by the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) program in Brazil, Burundi, Ghana, and Sri Lanka...."
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40335 Sichona, Francis J. The polygyny-fertility hypothesis revisited: the situation in Ghana. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 25, No. 4, Oct 1993. 473-82 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper re-examines the effect of polygyny on the fertility of married Ghanaian women using multiple regression analysis. A number of variables thought to affect fertility are incorporated in the regression model." Using data from the 1988 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey, the author finds that "polygyny has no effect on the number of children ever born; i.e. polygynously married women are as fertile as those monogamously married. Husband's age has no significant role in determining the number of children ever born to a woman."
Correspondence: F. J. Sichona, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square 300A, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40336 Vega Lopez, Maria G.; Gonzalez Perez, Guillermo J. Maternal factors related to duration of breast-feeding in areas surrounding Guadalajara, Mexico. [Factores maternos asociados a la duracion de la lactancia en areas perifericas de Guadalajara, Mexico.] Boletin de la Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana, Vol. 115, No. 2, Aug 1993. 118-27 pp. Washington, D.C. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"The aim of the present study is to determine the duration of breast-feeding by mothers covered by the Mexican Social Security Institute and living in...outlying areas of the city of Guadalajara, Mexico; to identify possible maternal factors associated with early weaning; and to consider the social importance of this phenomenon....The findings indicate that few mothers breast-feed their children in these areas, since 34.8% of the children were breast-fed for less than one month. Three maternal risk factors were statistically associated with early weaning...: maternal age under 20 years...; single marital status...; and social class, i.e., the mother's belonging to a 'non-worker' social group...."
Correspondence: M. G. Vega Lopez, Universidad de Guadalajara, Instituto Regional de Investigacion en Salud Publica, Medrano 316, Sector Reforma, C.P. 44450, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40337 Worthman, Carol M.; Jenkins, Carol L.; Stallings, Joy F.; Lai, Daina. Attenuation of nursing-related ovarian suppression and high fertility in well-nourished, intensively breast-feeding Amele women of lowland Papua New Guinea. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 25, No. 4, Oct 1993. 425-43 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This report presents a prospective, direct observational study of the relationship of nursing patterns to postpartum resumption of maternal reproductive function in a relatively better-nourished adult population with intense and prolonged breast-feeding, good health care and high fertility. Reproductive function is evaluated from endocrine and demographic measures (prolactin levels, ovarian function, and duration of post-partum amenorrhoea and birth interval) from a cohort of Amele mothers in Papua New Guinea."
Correspondence: C. M. Worthman, Emory University, Department of Anthropology, Atlanta, GA 30322. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.6. Fertility Outside Marriage

Studies on nonmarital fertility, including illegitimacy. Studies of common-law marriage and other forms of cohabitation or voluntary single parenthood are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

59:40338 Katus, Kalev. Trends in non-marital fertility in Baltic region. Rahvastiku-Uuringud/Population Studies Series B, No. 21, ISBN 9985-820-07-X. 1993. 13, [6] pp. Estonian Interuniversity Population Research Centre: Tallinn, Estonia. In Eng.
Trends in nonmarital fertility in the Baltic countries of Estonia, Finland, Latvia, and Lithuania are analyzed and compared.
Correspondence: Estonian Interuniversity Population Research Centre, P.O. Box 3012, EE0090 Tallinn, Estonia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40339 Lelievre, Eva. Extra-marital births occurring in cohabiting unions. Studies on Medical and Population Subjects, No. 55, 1993. 111-22 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Accompanying the rapid rise of unmarried cohabitation and the decline in nuptiality, Britain experienced a sharp increase in the number and proportion of births outside wedlock....84% of this recent increase corresponds to jointly registered births which can therefore be assumed to occur to informal couples. This chapter explores this new fertility trend using General Household Survey data for 1989, focusing on first births to single never-married cohabitants. The informality of cohabitation as a living arrangement and shortfalls in the data...are discussed....The chapter then attempts to provide some insights into the circumstances of the first birth, the timing of birth and marriage and the relative levels of fertility in the different unions."
Correspondence: E. Lelievre, London School of Economics, Department of Population Studies, Houghton Street, London WC2A 2AE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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