Volume 59 - Number 4 - Winter 1993

E. Mortality

Studies that treat quantitative mortality data analytically. Methodological studies primarily concerned with mortality are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary. The main references to crude data are in the vital statistics items in S. Official Statistical Publications .

E.1. General Mortality

Studies of overall mortality and comparisons of several types of mortality. Studies dealing with two or more of the topics listed in this division are classified under the major section covered, or, if this is not self-evident, included here under General Mortality.

59:40100 Anson, Jon. The shape of mortality curves: an analysis of counties in England and Wales, 1911. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 9, No. 1, 1993. 33-54 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Previous analysis has shown that life tables may be distinguished by two orthogonal pieces of information, the level of mortality in the population and the relative shape of the mortality curve. We show that both the regions of England and Wales in 1911, and locality types (county boroughs, other urban, and rural) differ in the shape of their mortality curves. Using data for the administrative counties, we examine the underlying correlates of this differentiation, paying particular attention to the socio-economic structure of the counties as reflected in their wealth, opportunity levels, and degree of urbanisation."
Correspondence: J. Anson, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Department of Social Work, 84 105 Beersheba, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40101 Coale, Ansley J. Mortality schedules in China derived from data in the 1982 and 1990 censuses. OPR Working Paper, No. 93-7, Jul 1993. 5, [13] pp. Princeton University, Office of Population Research [OPR]: Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
The author proposes a method of estimating recent mortality trends in China using census data. The model takes into account the apparent undercount of deaths in the period immediately preceding the 1990 census.
Correspondence: Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40102 Getty, J. Arch; Rittersporn, Gabor T.; Zemskov, Viktor N. Victims of the Soviet penal system in the pre-war years: a first approach on the basis of archival evidence. American Historical Review, Vol. 98, No. 4, Oct 1993. 1,017-49 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Population dynamics in the penal system (or GULAG) in the Soviet Union during the 1930s are analyzed using data from recently available secret police and Communist party documents. The focus is on the total loss and destruction of life. The authors conclude that the lower previous estimates of mortality may be more accurate than higher ones.
Correspondence: J. A. Getty, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521. Location: Princeton University Library (SH).

59:40103 Landers, John. Death and the metropolis: studies in the demographic history of London 1670-1830. Cambridge Studies in Population, Economy and Society in Past Time, No. 20, ISBN 0-521-35599-0. LC 92-10887. 1993. xxiii, 408 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This book has the...goal of understanding eighteenth-century London's recorded burial surpluses as a demographic phenomenon--as an outward expression of...a 'vital regime'....The first part of the book is concerned with developing [a] frame of reference, grounding it in the specific circumstances of eighteenth-century London, and carrying out some preliminary empirical tests on the resulting model. This is followed, in part II, by an attempt to measure the level of mortality by means of a family reconstitution study carried out on the vital registers of London Quakers and an aggregative analysis of material from the London Bills of Mortality. Part III is based primarily on numerator statistics and examines the seasonality, short-run instability, and spatial variability, of mortality patterns using material taken from both the annual and weekly Bills, as well as two samples of parish registers."
Correspondence: Cambridge University Press, Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1RP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40104 Ohba, Tamotsu. An application of spectrum analysis to time series data of frequencies of death. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 48, No. 2, Jul 1992. 15-21 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
The author applies spectrum analysis to time series data on mortality for Japan in an attempt to identify seasonal variations. Evidence of a weekly cycle is obtained, but the data do not suggest any monthly variation.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40105 Shao, Zhihong; Gao, Wenli; Yao, Yinmei; Zhuo, Yansong; Riggs, Jack E. The dynamics of aging and mortality in the People's Republic of China, 1957-1990. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, Vol. 67, No. 3, 1993. 239-46 pp. Limerick, Ireland. In Eng.
"Estimated age-specific mortality rates from the People's Republic of China for seven years from 1957 to 1990 were analyzed using the method of longitudinal Gompertzian analysis. The results in this population further validate the Strehler-Mildvan modification of the Gompertz relationship between aging and mortality."
Correspondence: J. E. Riggs, West Virginia University, Health Sciences Center, Department of Neurology, P.O. Box 9180, Morgantown, WV 26506-9180. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40106 Stephan, Peter. Mortality in past centuries. [Sterben in fruheren Jahrhunderten.] Biologisches Zentralblatt, Vol. 112, No. 1, 1993. 28-81 pp. Stuttgart, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
"Mortality and life expectancy over a time period of 300 years were studied for a relatively large village population [in Germany]. From synchronous and diachronous comparisons of the data concerning different social classes of this village (subdivided according to their sex and age, social rank, number of children/family and birth rank, registration of orphans, half-orphans, illegitimate children as well as progeny of old parents and children with a high inbreeding degree, and interpretation of causes of death) significant differences in mortality were deduced."
Correspondence: P. Stephan, Judendorf 11, 4320 Aschersleben, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.2. Prenatal and Perinatal Mortality

Studies dealing primarily with fetal and neonatal mortality, except those dealing with spontaneous abortions, which are classified under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology , and those studies dealing with induced abortions, which are classified under F.4.5. Induced Abortion . Perinatal mortality is defined as mortality occurring between the twenty-eighth week of gestation and the seventh day of life.

59:40107 Taha, El T.; Gray, Ronald H. Malaria and perinatal mortality in Central Sudan. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 138, No. 8, Oct 15, 1993. 563-8 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
The association between maternal malaria and perinatal mortality is examined using data from hospital and community studies conducted in Central Sudan in 1989 and 1990. "There was no overall association between perinatal mortality and malaria. However, the risk of stillbirth...was significantly increased among women who reported malaria attacks in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy...."
Correspondence: R. H. Gray, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Department of Population Dynamics, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

E.3. Infant and Childhood Mortality

Studies of infant mortality under one year of age, including neonatal mortality occurring after the seventh day of life, and childhood mortality after one year of age. The subject of infanticide, deliberate or implied, is also classified under this heading.

59:40108 Bairagi, Radheshyam; Koenig, Michael A.; Mazumder, Khorshed A. Mortality-discriminating power of some nutritional, sociodemographic, and diarrheal diseases indices. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 138, No. 5, Sep 1, 1993. 310-7 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"This study compared the predictive power of selected nutritional (anthropometric), socioeconomic, and diarrheal disease morbidity variables for subsequent childhood mortality over a 1-year period. The data consisted of observations of approximately 1,900 children aged 6-36 months obtained from a longitudinal demographic surveillance system located in a rural area of Bangladesh in 1988-1990. The results suggested that weight-for-age [percent] was the best predictor of subsequent mortality over a 1-year period, followed by weight velocity (monthly weight gain or loss in grams)."
Correspondence: R. Bairagi, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, GPO Box 128, Dhaka 2, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

59:40109 Ballweg, John A.; Pagtolun-an, Imelda G. Determinants of infant and child mortality: a Philippine study. Genus, Vol. 48, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1992. 129-50 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"Using bivariate and multivariate analyses, this study examines the impact of behavioral, biological, health, and socio-economic factors associated with infant and child mortality. Data for the study were collected from the Northern Mindanao region of the Philippines. Parental investment and health factors were shown to be the most crucial determinants of infant and child mortality. As expected, the greater the parental investment on a child, the greater the chance that the child would survive to age five, regardless of the effects of biological, health and socio-economic factors. Similarly, effects of health factors were found to be independent of other factors."
Correspondence: J. A. Ballweg, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Department of Sociology, Blacksburg, VA 24061. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40110 Becerra, Jose E.; Atrash, Hani K.; Perez, Nilsa; Saliceti, Jose A. Low birthweight and infant mortality in Puerto Rico. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 83, No. 11, Nov 1993. 1,572-6 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The 257,537 live births and 3,373 infant deaths that occurred in Puerto Rico from 1986 through 1989 are examined using multiple regression models. The results suggest that some 60% of infant deaths are potentially avoidable if low birth weight is eradicated. The importance of reducing delivery risks at public hospitals is also noted.
Correspondence: J. E. Becerra, Puerto Rico Department of Health, P.O. Box 70184, San Juan, PR 00936. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

59:40111 Chimere-Dan, O. New estimates of infant and child mortality for blacks in South Africa, 1968-1979. South African Medical Journal/Suid-Afrikaanse Mediese Tydskrif, Vol. 83, No. 3, 1993. [1] pp. Pinelands, South Africa. In Eng.
This research note "is part of a project to evaluate and improve the quality of mortality data for blacks in South Africa. Infant and child mortality rates of 79/1,000 and 81/1,000 were estimated for 1968-1974 and 1973-1979 respectively. A child mortality rate of 43/1,000 was estimated for 1973-1977. Estimates of infant mortality rates for 1970-1974 and 1975-1979, and the child mortality rate for 1973-1977, are higher than the results reported earlier by other analysts." Data are from a 1982 cross-sectional fertility survey.
Correspondence: O. Chimere-Dan, University of Witwatersrand, Department of Sociology, Population Research Programme, 1 Jan Smuts Avenue, P.O. WITS, Johannesburg 2050, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40112 Cooper, Mary H. Infant mortality: why is the U.S. death rate high compared with other nations? CQ Researcher, Vol. 2, No. 28, Jul 31, 1992. 643-63 pp. Congressional Quarterly: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Reasons are examined for the relatively poor U.S. record with regard to infant mortality in comparison with other countries. The author notes that most experts believe the inability of pregnant women from poor families to get early and continuous prenatal care is a major cause of the problem.
Correspondence: Congressional Quarterly, 1414 22nd Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037. Location: Princeton University Library (DR).

59:40113 Ericson, Anders; Eriksson, Margareta; Kallen, Bengt; Zetterstrom, Rolf. Secular trends in the effect of socio-economic factors on birth weight and infant survival in Sweden. Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine, Vol. 21, No. 1, 1993. 10-6 pp. Oslo, Norway. In Eng.
"Time trends in the effect of socio-economic factors on low birth weight, stillbirth, perinatal deaths and deaths up to the age of one [in Sweden] were studied using a medical birth registry linked to census information from 1975, 1980 and 1985....Two socio-economically different groups of women were studied, defined by occupation/education, cohabitation, and citizenship--one privileged and one underprivileged group....In 1976, there was virtually no difference in infant mortality between the two groups. In 1981 and 1986, infant mortality had decreased in both groups but more strongly so in the privileged group...."
Correspondence: A. Ericson, National Board of Health, Department of Epidemiology, 10630 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40114 Forbes, Douglas. Ethnic variation in infant mortality, Bexar County, Texas, 1964-1984. Pub. Order No. DA9309167. 1992. 185 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study uses logistic regression models to analyze the convergence of Anglo and Hispanic infant mortality rates over time. It was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Texas at Austin.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 53(12).

59:40115 Frankenberg, Elizabeth A. Infant and early childhood mortality in Indonesia: the impact of access to health facilities and other community characteristics on mortality risks. Pub. Order No. DA9308571. 1992. 284 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
Data from the Indonesian Demographic and Health Survey of 1987 are used to examine the impact of access to health facilities on infant mortality. The study was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Pennsylvania.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 53(11).

59:40116 Hasmi, Eddy N. Rural-urban differences in infant mortality in Indonesia. Center for the Study of Population Working Paper, No. WPS 93-105, [1993?]. 41, [11] pp. Florida State University, College of Social Sciences, Center for the Study of Population: Tallahassee, Florida. In Eng.
"Using data from the Indonesian Demographic and Health Survey 1987, this study focussed on the rural-urban differences in infant mortality...."
Correspondence: Robert Weller, Editor, Working Paper Series, Florida State University, Center for the Study of Population, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4063. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40117 Hummer, Robert A. Race and infant mortality in the United States: a comprehensive examination of individual-level mediating factors. Pub. Order No. DA9318517. 1993. 174 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
Data from the 1988 U.S. National Maternal and Infant Health Survey were used in this doctoral dissertation prepared at Florida State University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 54(2).

59:40118 Hummer, Robert A. Racial differentials in infant mortality in the U.S.: an examination of social and health determinants. Center for the Study of Population Working Paper, No. 93-101, [1993]. 35, [8] pp. Florida State University, College of Social Sciences, Center for the Study of Population: Tallahassee, Florida. In Eng.
"This paper examines the...association between race and infant mortality [in the United States. It is found that]...the overall rate of infant mortality among Blacks [is] about 2.2 times higher than Whites."
Correspondence: Robert H. Weller, Editor, Working Paper Series, Florida State University, Center for the Study of Population, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4063. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40119 Katapa, Rosalia S.; Astone, Nan M. Mother's marital status, antenatal care and child survival in Tanzania. Johns Hopkins Population Center Papers on Population, No. 93-09, [1993]. 25, [8] pp. Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Population Center: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"The association between marital status on the one hand and antenatal care and child survival on the other is the subject of this paper. Data are from [the] Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey."
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Population Center, 615 North Wolfe Street, Room 2300, Baltimore, MD 21205-2179. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40120 Kidanemariam, Andemariam. Infant mortality differentials and development in the developing countries: a political economy approach. Pub. Order No. DA9315534. 1993. 271 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The author analyzes differences in the decline in infant mortality in Brazil, Bangladesh, South Korea, and Sri Lanka, focusing on the impact of the development policies of these countries. The study was undertaken as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Kentucky.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 54(1).

59:40121 Kishor, Sunita. Gender inequality and development: a district-level analysis of juvenile sex ratios and gender differences in early childhood mortality in India. Pub. Order No. DA9315667. 1992. 304 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The author uses 1992 data from the Indian District Development Database to analyze factors affecting differential child mortality by sex. The study was undertaken as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Maryland at College Park.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 54(1).

59:40122 Lardelli, Pablo; Blanco, Jose I.; Delgado-Rodriguez, Miguel; Bueno, Aurora; de Dios Luna, Juan; Galvez, Ramon. Influence of socioeconomic and health care development on infant and perinatal mortality in Spain 1975-86. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 47, No. 4, Aug 1993. 260-4 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This study aimed to analyse the influence of social, economic, and health development on infant and perinatal mortality in Spain between 1975 and 1986, and to identify possible changes in these relationships over time....Mean infant and perinatal mortality were estimated for two periods--1975-8 and 1983-6. Social, economic, and health care indicators were collected as independent variables for these two periods....Mean familial income was the main predictive factor for infant and perinatal mortality in the first period but in the second period health care indicators were more relevant. The reduction in Spanish infant and perinatal mortality over the period can be attributed mainly to the improvement in prenatal and neonatal health care in Spain in recent years, while economic factors seem less important."
Correspondence: P. Lardelli, University of Granada, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Avenida de Madrid 11, 18012 Granada, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40123 Mbacke, Cheikh S. M.; LeGrand, Thomas K. Sex differentials in mortality and the use of health services in Mali. [Differences de mortalite selon le sexe et utilisation des services de sante au Mali.] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 21, No. 1, Spring 1992. 99-119 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Data from the 1987 Malian Demographic and Health Survey reveal excess mortality of girls starting at about three months of age. Boys appear to be favored in terms of medical treatment for diarrhea and fever and, in urban areas, for multiple vaccinations for polio and the disease set of diptheria, pertussis and tetanus. The nutritional status and age at weaning of boys and girls is similar. The problems of using DHS data for this type of analysis are discussed in detail."
Correspondence: T. K. LeGrand, Universite de Montreal, CP 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40124 Rashad, Hoda. A reappraisal of how oral rehydration therapy affected mortality in Egypt. Policy Research Working Paper: Population, Health, and Nutrition, No. WPS 1052, Nov 1992. 26 pp. World Bank, Population and Human Resources Department: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author suggests that "an upper ceiling for the potential impact of oral rehydration therapy in Egypt is a 25 percent reduction in the infant mortality rate."
Correspondence: World Bank, Population and Human Resources Department, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

59:40125 Sharma, Khim K. R. Medical geography of infant mortality in the Deokhari Valley, western Nepal. Pub. Order No. DA9313843. 1992. 224 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
Data concerning 621 mothers who gave birth between 1984 and 1986 in 26 Nepalese villages are used in this study of infant mortality, which was undertaken as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Cincinnati.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 54(1).

59:40126 Snow, R. W.; Basto de Azevedo, I.; Forster, D.; Mwankuyse, S.; Bomu, G.; Kassiga, G.; Nyamawi, C.; Teuscher, T.; Marsh, K. Maternal recall of symptoms associated with childhood deaths in rural east Africa. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 22, No. 4, Aug 1993. 677-83 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
An analysis of the accuracy of the verbal autopsy method of obtaining data on causes of death is presented. "We have examined the accuracy with which specific symptoms are recalled over time by mothers or normal guardians of 491 children who died on the paediatric wards of two district hospitals in East Africa." The results indicate that data collected by this method are generally accurate.
Correspondence: R. W. Snow, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, Headington, Oxford OX3 9DU, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40127 Soemantri, Soeharsono. Infant and maternal mortality rates in Indonesia. [Angka kematian bayi dan angka kematian maternal di Indonesia: variasi dan kecenderungannya.] Majalah Demografi Indonesia/Indonesian Journal of Demography, Vol. 19, No. 38, Dec 1992. 81-96 pp. Jakarta, Indonesia. In Ind. with sum. in Eng.
"Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) and Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) are usually used as indicators of social development. This paper reviews the situation of both indicators in Indonesia, based on various methods and data resources. The result of the study shows the high inequality of interregional mortality indicated by the trend of IMR and the differentials in IMR and MMR."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40128 Ssekamatte-Ssebuliba, John B. Determinants of infant and child survival in Uganda. Pub. Order No. DA9308895. 1992. 334 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
Data from the 1988 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey are used to analyze factors influencing the survival of infants and children in this study, prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Brown University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 53(11).

59:40129 Vella, Venanzio; Tomkins, Andrew; Borghesi, Armando; Migliori, Giovanni B.; Ndiku, John; Adriko, Basil C. Anthropometry and childhood mortality in northwest and southwest Uganda. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 83, No. 11, Nov 1993. 1,616-8 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The relationship between anthropometry and childhood mortality in Uganda is explored using data collected in 1987 and 1988 on some 5,000 children. The focus is on measuring malnutrition to identify children at risk. "The findings of this study confirm that mid-upper arm circumference is the indicator of choice to identify children at higher risk of death."
Correspondence: V. Vella, World Bank, AF6PH, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

59:40130 Wennemo, Irene. Infant mortality, public policy and inequality--a comparison of 18 industrialised countries, 1950-85. Sociology of Health and Illness, Vol. 15, No. 4, Sep 1993. 429-46 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Using new comparative data bases this paper examines whether infant mortality rates in industrialised nations are affected by public policies and income inequality....The study shows that the level of economic development has a strong, but decreasing impact on the infant mortality rate. Income inequality and relative poverty rates appear to be of greater importance for the variation in infant mortality rates than the level of economic development between rich countries. Levels of unemployment and of social security benefits seem to affect the infant mortality rate; the combination of high unemployment and low unemployment benefits seems to be associated with particularly high mortality rates. A high level of family benefits is also associated with low infant mortality rates."
Correspondence: I. Wennemo, Stockholms Universitet, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:40131 Zenger, Elizabeth A. Infant mortality, birth order, and sibship size: the role of heteregeneous risk and the previous-death effect. Mathematical Population Studies, Vol. 4, No. 2, 1993. 103-16, 149 pp. New York, New York/Yverdon, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper derives an analytic model to study biases in infant mortality estimates by birth order and sibship size, which occur when the death of an infant tends to shorten the next birth interval and mortality risk varies among families. We find that order-specific and sibship-size-specific estimates are biased by a selection for high-risk women across birth orders, since women with higher risk will tend to have shorter intervals, and more births, within a given period of time. Sibship-size-specific estimates are, in addition, biased by a selection of women who have experienced deaths, even if there is no heterogeneity in risk. Numerical examples based on data from Matlab, Bangladesh, are used to illustrate the possible magnitude of these biases. The results resemble patterns of infant mortality by birth order and sibship size which are often observed empirically."
Correspondence: E. A. Zenger, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.4. Mortality at Other Ages

Studies of age-specific mortality and of mortality in special groups defined by age.

59:40132 Carvalheiro, Clarisse D. G.; Manco, Amabile R. X. Female mortality during the reproductive period in a city of southeastern Brazil. Evolution over the last 20 years. [Mortalidade feminina no periodo reprodutivo em localidade urbana da regiao sudeste do Brasil. Evolucao nos ultimos 20 anos.] Revista de Saude Publica, Vol. 26, No. 4, 1992. 239-45 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
"The mortality of women aged between 15 and 49 years of the municipality of Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Brazil, was studied for the period from 1985 to 1989 and compared to that of the period from 1970 to 1974. Mortality data were obtained from the civil Registry Offices of the municipality and population data were estimated on the basis of the last 2 censuses....It is concluded that the indicators studied show a tendency towards...the occurrence of an epidemiological transition linked to the contradictions inherent in the present state of development in Brazil."
Correspondence: C. D. G. Carvalheiro, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto, Departamento de Medicina Social, Avenida Bandeirantes 3900, 14049-900 Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40133 Li, Zhao-Cheng; Morikawa, Yuko; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Yoshita, Katsushi; Tabata, Masaji; Nishijo, Muneko; Senma, Masami; Kawano, Shunichi; Kido, Teruhiko; Chen, Yu-De. Comparison of mortality rates of elderly people in China and Japan. Japanese Journal of Health and Human Ecology, Vol. 58, No. 6, 1992. 336-43 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
"The mortality rates and causes of death among elderly people aged sixty five and over were compared between China and Japan. The data used for comparison was China's 1990 and Japan's 1990 vital statistics. It appears that the mortality rate in China was higher than Japan. Comparing the causes of death, it was found that the death rates involving cerebrovascular diseases, malignant neoplasms and heart diseases in urban districts of China [were] higher than those in Japan. Also the death rate of people with bronchitis in rural districts was significantly higher in China....The differences in the medical systems and life styles in China and Japan were suspected as the reasons for the differences of death rates and causes of death...."
Correspondence: Z.-C. Li, Ministry of Public Health, Center for Health Statistics Information, Houhai Beiyan 44, Beijing 100 725, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40134 Moore, David E. Socially structured survival: the effects of occupational mobility and occupational context on older men's mortality. Pub. Order No. DA9312724. 1992. 156 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
Data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience of Mature Men are used to examine the implications of socially structured lifestyles for older men's survival. The study was undertaken as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Washington.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 54(1).

59:40135 Rosengren, Annika; Orth-Gomer, Kristina; Wedel, Hans; Wilhelmsen, Lars. Stressful life events, social support, and mortality in men born in 1933. British Medical Journal, Vol. 307, No. 6912, Oct 30, 1993. 1,102-5 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The relationship between stressful life events and mortality in middle-aged men is examined. Data are on 752 men aged 50 living in Gothenburg, Sweden, and followed up over the period 1983-1991. The results indicate that "stressful life events are associated with high mortality in middle aged men. Men with adequate emotional support seem to be protected."
Correspondence: A. Rosengren, Ostra Hospital, Department of Medicine, 416 85 Gothenburg, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

E.5. Life Tables

Studies that present actual life table data and all studies concerned primarily with life tables, including the appropriate methodological studies. Life table studies that are concerned with topics other than mortality are classified under the appropriate heading and cross-referenced to this heading.

59:40136 Nath, D. C.; Choudhury, L. A comparative study of the life tables of Assam, Kerala and India, 1980. Janasamkhya, Vol. 8, No. 2, Dec 1990. 143-56 pp. Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
The authors construct "life tables for Assam...using the Sample Registration System data of 1980 [and applying] Greville's method of constructing abridged life tables. These tables are compared with those of Kerala and India. Brass' two parameter logit system [when] fitted to survivors shows that risk of mortality of Kerala females, is much lower than that of India and Assam."
Correspondence: D. C. Nath, Gauhati University, Department of Statistics, Gauhati, 781 014 Assam, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.6. Differential Mortality

Studies on the ratio of mortality in different subgroups of a population, classified according to certain criteria, such as sex, social class, occupation, and marital status. Also includes studies on excess mortality and comparative mortality.

59:40137 Beer, Valeria; Bisig, Brigitte; Gutzwiller, Felix. Social class gradients in years of potential life lost in Switzerland. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 37, No. 8, Oct 1993. 1,011-8 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors analyze years of potential life lost to premature mortality (before age 75) in Switzerland, using official data from death certificates for the period 1979-1982. "Emphasis is given on causes contributing to most years of life lost, especially to accidents and violent deaths, which result in more than 30% of total years of life lost. The distribution of years of life lost of the most important causes to social classes is illustrated also for age-specific groups." The results emphasize the disadvantaged position of skilled manual workers compared with professionals.
Correspondence: V. Beer, University of Zurich, Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, Sumatrastrasse 30, 8006 Zurich, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:40138 Behm Rosas, Hugo. Social inequalities in mortality in Latin America. [Las desigualdades sociales ante la muerte en America Latina.] CELADE Serie B, No. 96, Pub. Order No. LC/DEM/R/182. Dec 1992. 58 pp. UN Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia [CELADE]: Santiago, Chile; Netherlands Universities Foundation for International Co-Operation [NUFFIC]: The Hague, Netherlands. In Spa.
The author reviews socioeconomic differentials in mortality for infants and adults in Latin America. The first section deals with mortality determinants by social group and with the progress of individuals from health to illness. Sections 2 and 3 concern socioeconomic differences in mortality for infants and adults respectively.
Correspondence: UN Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia, Edificio Naciones Unidas, Avenida Dag Hammarskjold, Casilla 91, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40139 Brajczewski, Czeslaw; Rogucka, Elzbieta. Social class differences in rates of premature mortality among adults in the city of Wroclaw, Poland. American Journal of Human Biology, Vol. 5, No. 4, 1993. 461-71 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Mortality rates among adult men and women, inhabitants of the city of Wroclaw [Poland], were studied within 5-year age classes between 20 and 64 years of age relative to two social variables: education and marital status of the deceased. Age- and sex-specific mortality rates reveal a systematic social gradient. They are highest among persons with primary or 'basic vocational' school education, lower among those with secondary school education, and lowest among those with college education. This gradient consistently appears in each of the age classes of males and females, although it is more pronounced among males."
Correspondence: C. Brajczewski, Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Anthropology, Kuznicza 35, 50-951 Wroclaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40140 Chor, Dora; Duchiade, Milena P.; Jourdan, Angela M. F. Differences in mortality between men and women in southeastern Brazil--1960, 1970 and 1980. [Diferencial de mortalidade em homens e mulheres em localidade da regiao Sudeste, Brasil--1960, 1970 e 1980.] Revista de Saude Publica, Vol. 26, No. 4, Aug 1992. 246-55 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
"Male and female mortality rates in the city of Rio de Janeiro [Brazil] in 1960, 1970 and 1980 are studied with a view to analysing the different risks to which men and women are subject by age group. Mortality differentials by sex and cause were studied by means of male/female mortality ratios, relative and absolute differences among rates, and standardized rates....Male mortality rates were higher than the female rates in all age groups in the three years studied, with an increase of the male/female mortality ratio for the 15-34 age group over this period. The excess of male death was mainly due to the increase of deaths from violent causes among young men...."
Correspondence: D. Chor, Escola Nacional de Saude Publica, Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz, Rua Leopoldo Bulhoes 1480, 8o andar, 21041-210 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40141 Eames, Margaret; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Marmot, M. G. Social deprivation and premature mortality: regional comparison across England. British Medical Journal, Vol. 307, No. 6912, Oct 30, 1993. 1,097-102 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The relationship between social deprivation and geographical differentials in mortality in England is analyzed using official data for the period 1981-1985. The authors note that "increasing deprivation was significantly associated with mortality from all causes, coronary heart disease, and smoking related diseases."
Correspondence: M. Eames, University of Hertfordshire, Department of Medical Statistics, Hatfield AL10 9AB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

59:40142 Gomez Redondo, Rosa. Causes of death in Spain, 1981-1985: a differential analysis by sex and age. [Las causas de muerte en Espana, 1981-1985: analisis diferencial por sexo y edad.] Serie Documentos de Trabajo, No. 4, Sep 1990. 94 pp. Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas [CSIC], Instituto de Demografia: Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
This is an analysis of mortality differentials in Spain by age and sex for the period 1981-1985, using official data on causes of death.
Correspondence: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Instituto de Demografia, Calle Amaniel 2, 28015 Madrid, Spain. Location: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Paris, France.

59:40143 Hisanaga, Fujiro. Abnormal trends in mortality for birth cohorts born around 1930. Japanese Journal of Health and Human Ecology, Vol. 58, No. 4, 1992. 193-208 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
Variations in mortality in Japan for cohorts born during the period 1927-1932 are analyzed and compared. "Abnormal trends in mortalities...were clearly observed among males, starting at [the] age of 35...for all causes and many of the main chronic degenerative diseases....Susceptibilities for those diseases might have been induced by poor nutritional conditions [that] prevailed...due to the social and economic chaos just after the World War II."
Correspondence: F. Hisanaga, Fukoaka University, School of Medicine, Department of Public Health, 8-19-1 Nanakuma, Jonan-ku, Fukoaka 814-01, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40144 Hohn, Charlotte; Pollard, John H. Personal habits, behavior, and mortality differentials by marital status in West Germany. [Personliche Gewohnheiten und Verhaltensweisen und Sterblichkeitsunterschiede nach dem Familienstand in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 18, No. 4, 1992. 415-33 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"A survey of unmarried persons was undertaken by the Federal Institute for Population Research in 1988 [in West Germany]..., which included a number of questions on personal behaviour and health practices. The problem was to relate the answers to these questions to the observed mortality differentials between persons of different marital status....We attempted to explain at least some of the differentials which are observed amongst unmarried Germans in terms of personal behaviour and health practices....The consistency which emerges, however, suggests that a major survey, including married persons, might provide a much clearer picture of the effects the different personal habits of unmarried persons and married persons have on their respective mortalities."
Correspondence: C. Hohn, Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung, 65180 Wiesbaden, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40145 Korenman, Sanders; Goldman, Noreen. Health and mortality differentials by marital status at older ages: economics and gender. OPR Working Paper, No. 93-8, Jul 1993. 28, [8] pp. Princeton University, Office of Population Research [OPR]: Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
"This paper employs data from the [U.S.] Longitudinal Study of Aging to link mortality, health and economic differentials by marital status."
Correspondence: Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40146 Langford, Christopher; Storey, Pamela. Sex differentials in mortality early in the twentieth century: Sri Lanka and India compared. Population and Development Review, Vol. 19, No. 2, Jun 1993. 263-82, 425-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article focuses on sex differentials in mortality in Sri Lanka early in the twentieth century and on comparisons and contrasts with India at that time....Since Sri Lanka shares cultural similarities with south India, including a relatively benign attitude toward women, it should on this basis also resemble south India with respect to sex differentials in mortality. However, evidence for the early twentieth century points to much higher excess female mortality in Sri Lanka than in south India, indeed more like the situation in north India. As their main explanation the authors suggest that hookworm disease and malaria were far more severe in Sri Lanka than in south India and that these diseases affected women more than men."
Correspondence: C. Langford, London School of Economics and Political Science, Houghton Street, London WC2A 2AE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40147 Laourou, Martin. Regional differences in mortality in Benin. [Les disparites regionales de la mortalite au Benin.] Les Dossiers du CEPED, No. 24, ISBN 2-87762-060-3. Aug 1993. 36 pp. Centre Francais sur la Population et le Developpement [CEPED]: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Regional differences in mortality in Benin and their causes are analyzed. The impact of the level of social development and of visits to health centers is noted. A clear distinction between the north and south of the country is established, with lower mortality found in the latter.
Correspondence: Centre Francais sur la Population et le Developpement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Medecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40148 Lawson, James S.; Black, Deborah. Socioeconomic status: the prime indicator of premature death in Australia. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 25, No. 4, Oct 1993. 539-52 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The link between socioeconomic status and health has long been recognised. This study of deaths among Australian men aged 15-59 years demonstrates that during the 20-year period, 1966-86 the number of premature deaths was dramatically reduced among all socioeconomic groups, primarily as a result of falls in death rates due to heart disease, stroke and trauma. However, the marked differences in death rates according to social class remain, to the extent that if men of all social classes had the same mortality experiences as professional and technical workers the overall death rates for Australian men would be reduced by 60%. Socioeconomic status is the most important indicator of health status among Australians."
Correspondence: J. S. Lawson, University of New South Wales, School of Health Services Management, Sydney, NSW, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40149 Nicholls, Eric S. Differential mortality from noncommunicable diseases by socioeconomic status: the case of Latin America. [Diferenciales de mortalidad en las enfermedades no transmisibles segun el nivel socioeconomico: el caso de America Latina.] Boletin de la Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana, Vol. 115, No. 3, Sep 1993. 255-69 pp. Washington, D.C. In Spa.
The author examines differentials in mortality from noncommunicable diseases among adults of differing socioeconomic status in Latin America. Comparisons with mortality levels in the United States and Europe are made using data from published sources.
Correspondence: E. S. Nicholls, Pan American Health Organization, Division of Health Promotion and Protection, 525 23rd Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40150 Pitkanen, Kari J.; Mielke, James H. Age and sex differentials in mortality during two nineteenth century population crises. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 9, No. 1, 1993. 1-32 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The exceptionally detailed Finnish materials are used to examine age- and sex-specific mortality in different regions during the country's last famine, the Great Famine of the 1860s. This is compared with another mortality crisis, the 1808-09 War. The results show that in cases when multiple infectious diseases were responsible for elevated mortality, the increases for different age categories were, by and large, proportional to the levels prevailing during normal times. However, excess mortality showed more variability for children. Furthermore, age- and sex-specific social behaviour (specifically large-scale temporary migration) during the crisis period shaped the age patterns and sex differentials in mortality."
Correspondence: K. J. Pitkanen, University of Helsinki, Department of Economic and Social History, P.O. Box 33, 00014 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40151 Rosenberg, Harry M.; Burnett, Carol; Maurer, Jeff; Spirtas, Robert. Mortality by occupation, industry, and cause of death: 12 reporting states, 1984. NCHS Monthly Vital Statistics Report, Vol. 42, No. 4, Suppl., Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 93-1120. Sep 30, 1993. 64 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
"This report presents statistics on mortality [in the United States] by occupation and industry from information reported on death certificates." The data concern all 269,767 deaths occurring among those who were 20 years of age or older in the 12 reporting states in 1984.
Correspondence: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40152 Silber, Jacques. Inequality in mortality: measuring the contributions of various causes of death. Genus, Vol. 48, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1992. 93-107 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"Following earlier work on the decomposition of income inequality by population subgroup, a method is proposed to break down the inequality of the ages at death into three components: the contribution of the inequality of the ages at death for given causes of death; the role of the 'between causes' [of] inequality in the average ages at death; [and] an interaction term which measures the degree of overlapping between the distributions of ages at death for the various causes. An illustration based on Italian data for the period 1881-1964 is given...."
Correspondence: J. Silber, Bar-Ilan University, Department of Economics, 52 100 Ramat-Gan, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40153 Takahashi, Shigesato. Health and mortality differentials among the elderly in Japan: a regional analysis with special emphasis on Okinawa. Institute of Population Problems Working Paper Series, No. 17, Jul 1993. 26 pp. Institute of Population Problems: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"The purpose of the present report is to describe briefly the levels and trends of mortality and life expectancy among the Japanese people and to explore demographic and social factors affecting them."
Correspondence: Institute of Population Problems, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-45, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40154 Wadley, Susan S. Family composition strategies in rural north India. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 37, No. 11, Dec 1993. 1,367-76 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
Recent increases in female child mortality among the poor in Karimpur, in Uttar Pradesh, India, are examined using data collected through surveys undertaken in 1983-1984. The author suggests that "this trend can only be understood in the larger context of family composition strategies, strategies which have changed due to the socio-economic changes wrought by the green revolution and other development programs of the past 25 years. Moreover, mortality cannot be understood without also considering fertility behavior and the overall shape of the resulting families. My hypothesis is that the Karimpur poor are using high fertility and sex-specific child mortality to maximize the number of surviving males in attempting to insure family welfare."
Correspondence: S. S. Wadley, Syracuse University, Department of Anthropology, 308 Bowne Hall, Syracuse, NY 13244-1200. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

E.7. Mortality by Cause

Studies of demographic relevance on causes of death. Studies of morbidity and of public health measures are included only if they relate specifically to mortality. Also included are maternal mortality and comparisons of causes.

59:40155 Bern, C.; Sniezek, J.; Mathbor, G. M.; Siddiqi, M. S.; Ronsmans, C.; Chowdhury, A. M. R.; Choudhury, A. E.; Islam, K.; Bennish, M.; Noji, E.; Glass, R. I. Risk factors for mortality in the Bangladesh cyclone of 1991. Bulletin of the World Health Organization/Bulletin de l'Organisation Mondiale de la Sante, Vol. 71, No. 1, 1993. 73-8 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Cyclones continue to pose a dangerous threat to the coastal populations of Bangladesh, despite improvements in disaster control procedures. After 138,000 persons died in the April 1991 cyclone, we carried out a rapid epidemiological assessment to determine factors associated with cyclone-related mortality and to identify prevention strategies....Future cyclone-associated mortality in Bangladesh could be prevented by more effective warnings leading to an earlier response, better access to designated cyclone shelters, and improved preparedness in high-risk communities. In particular, deaths among women and under-10-year-olds could be reduced by ensuring that they are given special attention by families, neighbours, local authorities, and especially those in charge of early warnings and emergency evacuation."
Correspondence: C. Bern, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, Mailstop G-04, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40156 Bhatia, Jagdish C. Levels and causes of maternal mortality in southern India. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 24, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1993. 310-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A study conducted in 1986 in South India demonstrates a new approach to investigating maternal mortality that combines the collection of information from hospital and health-facility records, field surveys, and case-control studies. The findings from this study indicate that there were 7.98 maternal deaths per 1,000 live births. Approximately one-half of the deaths occurred in the home or on the way to the hospital. Maternal deaths accounted for 36 percent of mortality for women of reproductive age. Analysis reveals that many of these deaths were preventable and that significant differentials existed with regard to demographic, social, and behavioral factors between the cases of maternal deaths and the controls."
Correspondence: J. C. Bhatia, Indian Institute of Management, Bannerghatta Road, Bangalore 560 076, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40157 Bulatao, Rodolfo A. Mortality by cause, 1970 to 2015. In: The epidemiological transition: policy planning and implications for developing countries, edited by James N. Gribble and Samuel H. Preston. 1993. 42-68 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author estimates and projects cause of death patterns for six age groups in six regions by sex for the years 1970, 1985, 2000, and 2015. The six regions or country groupings are industrial market economies, industrial nonmarket economies, Latin America and the Caribbean, Sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East and North Africa, and Asia and the Pacific. The author predicts a general decline in mortality from communicable diseases.
Correspondence: R. A. Bulatao, World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40158 Chang, Hwa-Gan H.; Morse, Dale L.; Noonan, Candace; Coles, Bruce; Miki, Jaromir; Rosen, Alan; Putnam, David; Smith, Perry F. Survival and mortality patterns of an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) cohort in New York State. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 138, No. 5, Sep 1, 1993. 341-9 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"The survival experience and causes of death of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients were studied using a cohort of 3,699 AIDS patients in New York State, excluding New York City, whose illness was diagnosed before January 1990 at age 13 years or older. The median length of survival for all cases was 11.5 months, and survival increased over time from 5.3 months pre-1984 to 9.3 months in 1984-1986 and to 13.2 months in 1987-1989....Risk of dying was higher for persons aged 35 years or more at diagnosis....In this AIDS cohort, 2,834 (77 percent) persons died before 1991; 87 percent of the death certificates listed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS or an AIDS indicator disease as one of the multiple causes of death. The finding that 13 percent of the death certificates did not mention AIDS/HIV suggests that use of death certificates alone to count HIV-related deaths would result in an undercount."
Correspondence: H.-G. H. Chang, New York State Department of Health, Corning Tower Building, Room 632, Empire State Plaza, Albany, NY 12237. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

59:40159 Chu, Susan Y.; Buehler, James W.; Lieb, Loren; Beckett, Geoff; Conti, Lisa; Costa, Sam; Dahan, Beverley; Danila, Richard; Fordyce, E. James; Hirozawa, Ann; Shields, Anne; Singleton, James A.; Wold, Cheryl. Causes of death among persons reported with AIDS. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 83, No. 10, Oct 1993. 1,429-32 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study describes causes of death in persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and assesses the completeness of reporting of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or AIDS on death certificates of persons with AIDS [in the United States]." The data concern 32,513 persons who died of AIDS through December 1989. The critical role of physicians and other health-care professionals in accurately documenting HIV-related mortality on death certificates is stressed.
Correspondence: S. Y. Chu, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Division of HIV/AIDS, MSE-47, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

59:40160 Cossa, Luciana. Tuberculosis, malaria, diphtheria and pellagra. The mortality trend from 1887 to 1955. [Tubercolosi, malaria, difterite e pellagra. Andamento della mortalita dal 1887 al 1955.] Rapporti ISTISAN, No. 92/35, 1992. 30 pp. Istituto Superiore di Sanita [ISTISAN]: Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng.
Mortality trends from four major diseases in Italy are traced from 1887 to 1955.
Correspondence: Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, Rome 00161, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40161 D'Avanzo, Barbara; La Vecchia, Carlo; Negri, Eva; Beghi, Ettore. Update of trends in mortality from stroke in Italy from 1955 to 1987. Neuroepidemiology, Vol. 11, 1992. 196-203 pp. Basel, Switzerland. In Eng.
"Mortality from stroke in Italy over the period 1955-1987 was analysed in terms of age-specific, age-standardised death certification rates, and by means of a log-linear model to separate the effects of age, cohort of birth and calendar period of death. In males the overall age-adjusted rate on the world standard population fell from 118.4/100,000 population in 1955-1959 to 72.0 in 1985-1987 and in females from 94.8 in 1955-1959 to 54.7 in 1985-1987. The overall decline in age-standardised rates over the 3 decades was thus 39% for males...and 42% for females....These favourable trends are discussed in relation to better control of hypertension and the potential impact of other risk factors."
Correspondence: E. Beghi, Istituto Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via Eritrea 62, 20157 Milan, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40162 Duncan, S. R.; Scott, Susan; Duncan, C. J. An hypothesis for the periodicity of smallpox epidemics as revealed by time series analysis. Journal of Theoretical Biology, Vol. 160, 1993. 231-48 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Parish registers have been studied by time series analysis to detect smallpox epidemics in England during 1600-1800. Confirmatory evidence was provided by the seasonality of child mortality. A 5-year cycle in smallpox epidemics was detected in medium-sized, rural towns....We suggest that the short wavelength oscillations (5-6 years) in mortality in many rural parishes are driven, in part, by regular oscillations in wheat prices which exacerbate famine, poor nutrition and hardship, and thereby promote the explosion of smallpox epidemics."
Correspondence: C. J. Duncan, University of Liverpool, Department of Environmental and Evolutionary Biology, P.O. Box 147, Liverpool L69 3BX, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40163 Harmon, Mary P.; Coe, Kathryn. Cancer mortality in U.S. counties with hazardous waste sites. Population and Environment, Vol. 14, No. 5, May 1993. 463-80 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study examines the possible connection between residential proximity to a hazardous waste site [in the United States] and rates of mortality due to cancer. Results indicate that counties with hazardous waste sites are more likely to have higher total cancer rates and higher rates of respiratory and digestive cancers. Moreover, the analysis suggests that the Superfund Program has not identified the most hazardous sites, as was intended by Congressional Legislation."
Correspondence: M. P. Harmon, Arizona State University, College of Nursing, Tempe, AZ 85287-2602. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40164 Kellermann, Arthur L.; Rivara, Frederick P.; Rushforth, Norman B.; Banton, Joyce G.; Reay, Donald T.; Francisco, Jerry T.; Locci, Ana B.; Prodzinski, Janice; Hackman, Bela B.; Somes, Grant. Gun ownership as a risk factor for homicide in the home. New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 329, No. 15, Oct 7, 1993. 1,084-91 pp. Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The effects on mortality of keeping a gun in the home are analyzed using data on some 400 home homicides in three U.S. counties between 1987 and 1992. The results indicate that "the use of illicit drugs and a history of physical fights in the home are important risk factors for homicide in the home. Rather than confer protection, guns kept in the home are associated with an increase in the risk of homicide by a family member or intimate acquaintance."
Correspondence: A. L. Kellerman, Emory University, School of Public Health, Emory Center for Injury Prevention, 1599 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30329. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

59:40165 Knight, John; Song, Lina. The length of life and the standard of living: economic influences on premature death in China. Applied Economics Discussion Paper, No. 115, Jul 1991. 26 pp. University of Oxford, Institute of Economics and Statistics: Oxford, England. In Eng.
Data from a 1976 national survey of causes of death in China are used to analyze the relationship between premature death and socioeconomic variables.
Correspondence: Oxford University, Institute of Economics and Statistics, St. Cross Building, Manor Road, Oxford OX1 3UL, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40166 Lawson, Andrew B. On the analysis of mortality events associated with a prespecified fixed point. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A: Statistics in Society, Vol. 156, No. 3, 1993. 363-77 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"A model-based approach to the analysis of disease incidence around a fixed point is presented by considering the radial and directional effects to be expected from emissions from a putative source. In addition we present some score statistics which can be used to test for spatial effects." The methods discussed are applied to the analysis of bronchitis mortality around a reprocessing plant in Bonnybridge, Scotland.
Correspondence: A. B. Lawson, Dundee Institute of Technology, Department of Mathematical and Computer Sciences, Bell Street, Dundee DD1 1HG, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

59:40167 Manton, Kenneth G.; Lowrimore, Gene; Yashin, Anatoli. Methods for combining ancillary data in stochastic compartment models of cancer mortality: generalization of heterogeneity models. Mathematical Population Studies, Vol. 4, No. 2, 1993. 133-47, 149 pp. New York, New York/Yverdon, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"We present a mortality model where nationally representative survey data on risk factor distributions are combined with data on cohort mortality rates to increase information, i.e., a fixed marginal risk factor distribution is combined with a cohort model representing unobserved individual risk heterogeneity. The model is applied to lung cancer mortality in nine U.S. white male cohorts aged 30 to 70 in 1950 and followed 38 years. Estimates of the cohort specific proportions of smokers were made from the National Health Interview Survey. Comparisons are made for models with different patterns of changes with age of individual heterogeneity."
Correspondence: K. G. Manton, Duke University, Center for Demographic Studies, 2117 Campus Drive, Durham, NC 27706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40168 McGinnis, J. Michael; Foege, William H. Actual causes of death in the United States. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 270, No. 18, Nov 10, 1993. 2,207-12 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
Trends in the major causes of death in the United States are analyzed based on a review of literature published between 1977 and 1993. The results indicated that "the most prominent contributors to mortality in the United States in 1990 were tobacco (an estimated 400,000 deaths), diet and activity patterns (300,000), alcohol (100,000), microbial agents (90,000), toxic agents (60,000), firearms (35,000), sexual behavior (30,000), motor vehicles (25,000), and illicit use of drugs (20,000). Socioeconomic status and access to medical care are also important contributors, but difficult to quantify independent of the other factors cited."
Correspondence: J. M. McGinnis, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 330 C Street SW, Room 2132, Washington, D.C. 20201. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

59:40169 Nathanson, Constance A. Smoking, mortality, and the position of women in developed countries. Johns Hopkins Population Center Papers on Population, No. 92-08, [1992]. 45 pp. Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
The author examines the extent to which improved women's status in developed countries will lead to the adoption of behaviors such as smoking, which are associated with higher mortality. The effect on mortality differentials by sex is also studied.
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Population Center, 615 North Wolfe Street, Room 2300, Baltimore, MD 21205-2179. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40170 Pollard, J. H. Heterogeneity, dependence among causes of death and Gompertz. Mathematical Population Studies, Vol. 4, No. 2, 1993. 117-32, 149 pp. New York, New York/Yverdon, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The robustness of results under the Gompertz 'law' suggest that this model might provide a useful building block in the development of a model of heterogeneity and the analysis of dependence among causes of death, at least for those causes afflicting the older members of the population and now predominant in developed populations....We therefore develop some theoretical results concerning the expectation of life at age x under the Gompertz model and test their accuracy in real (non-Gompertz) populations. We then apply these ideas...to the problem of heterogeneity and...to the problem of dependence among causes of death."
Correspondence: J. H. Pollard, Macquarie University, School of Economic and Financial Studies, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40171 Rehm, Jurgen; Fichter, Manfred M.; Elton, Martin. Effects on mortality of alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, and close personal relationships. Addiction, Vol. 88, No. 1, 1993. 101-12, 151-2, 156 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The study analyses the risks of mortality associated with alcohol consumption and smoking, as well as possible counteracting effects of physical activity and social support through close personal relationships." Data concern 1,430 individuals from Germany's Upper Bavarian Study surveyed between 1975 and 1977 and followed up 13 years later. "Results indicate that alcohol intake and cigarette smoking increased mortality while physical activity and the availability of a steady partner had protective effects. There were no interactive effects between the four variables studied, except for a dramatically increased risk for women drinking more than 20 ml of pure alcohol a day and reporting no physical exercise....Specific analyses of the relationship between alcohol consumption, smoking, physical exercise and personal relationships...and...different causes of death, are presented."
Correspondence: J. Rehm, Swiss Institute for the Prevention of Alcohol and Drug Problems, Case Postale 870, 1001 Lausanne, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40172 Sexton, Peter T.; Woodward, David R.; Gilbert, Neil; Jamrozik, Konrad. Interstate differences in trends in coronary mortality and risk factors in Australia. Medical Journal of Australia, Vol. 152, No. 10, May 21, 1990. 531-4 pp. Kingsgrove, Australia. In Eng.
Mortality from coronary heart disease and its risk factors are examined and compared for the states of Australia. Special consideration is given to trends in Tasmania, where such mortality exhibits a slower rate of decline.
Correspondence: P. T. Sexton, University of Tasmania Clinical School, 43 Collins Street, Hobart, Tasmania 7000, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40173 Sichieri, Rosely; de Lolio, Cecilia A.; Correia, Valmir R.; Everhart, James E. Geographical patterns of proportionate mortality for the most common causes of death in Brazil. Revista de Saude Publica, Vol. 26, No. 6, Dec 1992. 424-30 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Eng. with sum. in Por.
"The geographical variation in proportionate mortality for chronic diseases for 17 Brazilian state capitals for the year 1985 and their association with socio-economic variables and infectious disease was studied. Calculations were made of correlation coefficients of proportionate mortality for adults of 30 years or above due to ischaemic heart disease, stroke and cancer of the lung, the breast and stomach with 3 socio-economic variables, race, and mortality due to infectious disease....There were major differences in the proportionate mortality due to chronic diseases among the capitals which could not be accounted for by the social and environmental factors and by the mortality due to infectious disease."
Correspondence: R. Sichieri, Av. Colombo 3690, 87020-900 Maringa, PR, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40174 United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] (Atlanta, Georgia). Cigarette smoking-attributable mortality and years of potential life lost--United States, 1990. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 42, No. 33, Aug 27, 1993. 645-9 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
Trends in mortality from cigarette smoking in the United States are analyzed. It is concluded that "cigarette smoking is the single most preventable cause of premature death in the United States. An estimated 390,000 smoking-attributable deaths in the United States occurred in 1985, and more than 434,000 deaths occurred in 1988; in 1988, an estimated 1,198,887 years of potential life lost (YPLL) before age 65 were attributed to smoking."
Correspondence: U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D.C. 20402. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


Copyright © 1993-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.