Volume 59 - Number 3 - Fall 1993

H. Migration

Studies that treat quantitative data on migration analytically. Methodological studies concerned primarily with migration are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , as appropriate. Includes some consideration of policy aspects, but studies relating primarily to policies designed to affect migration are coded under M.3. Measures Affecting Migration .

H.1. General Migration

Studies that concern both international and internal migration.

59:30401 Boserup, Ester. Labour-migration and rural development in Africa. In: Vortrage auf den Tagungen des Arbeitskreises "Demographie der Entwicklungslander" der Deutschen Gesellschaft fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft in Kiedrich und in Bielefeld. 1992. 5-13 pp. Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung: Wiesbaden, Germany. In Eng.
The author examines the migration of agricultural workers in Africa to earn incomes in regions of agricultural export production. The history of rural development in Africa since the end of World War II is reviewed, shifts in migration patterns are examined, and the impact on social structure is discussed. It is shown that international emigration played an important role in the past, but future prospects for flexible adaptation between international movements of labor and agricultural products are bleak.
Correspondence: E. Boserup, Casa Campagnola, Nevedone, CH-6614 Brissago, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30402 Charney, Alberta H. Migration and the public sector: a survey. Regional Studies, Vol. 27, No. 4, 1993. 313-26 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"A review of the existing literature on human migration reveals relatively few studies that explicitly examine the relationships between public policy decisions and human migration flows. The surveyed literature includes studies of national policies, such as defence spending, migration subsidies and intergovernmental transfers, as well as sub-national policies, such as welfare and unemployment benefits, state and local taxes, education and other public services. Suggestions for incorporating public sector information into existing migration analysis frameworks and further areas of research are provided." The geographical focus is on developed countries.
Correspondence: A. H. Charney, University of Arizona, College of Business and Public Administration, Division of Economic and Business Research, Tucson, AZ 85721. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

59:30403 Chermak, Zdenek. Developing the forms of spatial mobility of the population. [Razvitie na formite na prostranstvena mobilnost na naselenieto.] Naselenie, Vol. 9, No. 3-4, 1991. 76-80 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng.
The author classifies types of migration, including commuting, temporary migration, labor migration, and permanent movement.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30404 Carvalho, Jose A. M. de; Machado, Claudio C. Questions about migration in the 1991 population census. [Quesitos sobre migracoes no censo demografico de 1991.] Revista Brasileira de Estudos de Populacao, Vol. 9, No. 1, Jan-Jul 1992. 22-34 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
"Innovations introduced in the 1991 Brazilian Demographic Census, relating to questions about migration, are analysed in this work, stressing their analytical potential as well as the comparability of data from the last two censuses."
Correspondence: J. A. M. de Carvalho, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Centro de Desinvolvimento e Planejamento Regional, Cidade Universitaria, 31270 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30405 Dustmann, C. Earnings adjustment of temporary migrants. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1993. 153-68 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"The present paper shows that in the case of temporary migration the optimal investment into country specific human capital should be lower than in the case of permanent migration. Investments may not be sufficient to allow migrants' earnings to catch up with those of native workers." Earnings profiles of temporary migrants in West Germany are analyzed and compared with those of permanent migrants in Australia, Canada, and the United States. Data concern the 1980s.
Correspondence: C. Dustmann, University of Bielefeld, Department of Economics, P.O. Box 100131, 4800 Bielefeld, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30406 Gomez Diaz, Donato. The labor market and migratory flows of the population of Spain in 1887. A method for analysis using censuses. [Mercado de trabajo y flujos migratorios de la poblacion espanola en 1887. Un metodo para su analisis a traves de los censos.] Boletin de la Asociacion de Demografia Historica, Vol. 11, No. 1, 1993. 41-64 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
The author uses data from the 1887 census to examine migratory flows in Spain during that year. Most of the data are presented by province; international migration statistics for the period 1877-1933 are also included for comparative purposes.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30407 Greenwood, Michael J. Migration: a review. Regional Studies, Vol. 27, No. 4, 1993. 295-383 pp. Carfax Publishing: Abingdon, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
This special issue presents seven articles that review current research trends in the relationship between migration and regional science. The primary geographical focus is on the United States, with some consideration given to developed countries as a group.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Carfax Publishing, P.O. Box 25, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3UE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

59:30408 Hunt, Gary L. Equilibrium and disequilibrium in migration modelling. Regional Studies, Vol. 27, No. 4, 1993. 341-9 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"Equilibrium and disequilibrium approaches to migration modelling are elucidated and distinguishing features are identified. Relevant econometric evidence bearing on these distinctions is reviewed. A summary of current knowledge and priorities for future research is presented."
Correspondence: G. L. Hunt, University of Maine, Department of Economics, Orono, ME 04473. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

59:30409 Mulder, Clara H. Log-rate models for synchronized events in the life course: the case of marriage and migration. In: Quantitative geographical methods, applied in demography and urban planning research, edited by W. F. Sleegers and A. L. J. Goethals. 1993. 69-84 pp. Netherlands Universities Institute for Coordination of Research in Social Sciences [SISWO]: Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
The author reports on the third stage of a research project that "studies the change in migration behaviour [of the Dutch birth cohorts] in the course of life...through time and between birth cohorts....This paper presents one of the types of models to be used in the third research stage. The focus is a specific aspect of the analysis: the study of synchronized events in the life course. The events of marriage and migration are taken as an example throughout the paper."
Correspondence: C. H. Mulder, University of Amsterdam, Department of Planning and Demography, Jodenbreestraat 23, 1011 NH Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30410 Oberg, Sture; Boubnova, Helena. Poverty, ethnicity and migration potentials in Eastern Europe. IIASA Working Paper, No. WP-92-36, May 1992. v, 32 pp. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
"This paper analyzes migration streams within and out of the former USSR, here called Eastern Europe. It also discusses potential streams during the coming decades. The main part of the paper, however, is descriptive and builds on information from census data."
Correspondence: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30411 Pakistan. Population Census Organisation (Islamabad, Pakistan). Monograph on migration and urbanization. [1989]. xiii, 154 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
This analysis of migration in Pakistan is based on 1981 census data. It "covers volume, [trends, and patterns] of migration within the country, Pakistanis gone abroad during the past ten years and those repatriated from abroad, migration streams, urban growth and its components, and some socio-economic and demographic characteristics of the migrant population. At the end of the study, [a] summary of the main findings, their policy implications, limitations of the study, recommendations for the 1991 Population Census and policy planning and some useful areas of the research are highlighted."
Correspondence: Population Census Organisation, Government of Pakistan, 69-E Adeel Plaza Blue Area, P.O. Box 1026, Islamabad, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30412 Penev, Goran. The relationship between migration and age structure. [Odnos migracija i starosne strukture stanovnistva.] Migracijske Teme, Vol. 6, No. 2, Aug 1990. 173-82 pp. Zagreb, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
The author examines and compares the relationship between migration and age distribution in Yugoslavia using data for the populations of Kosovo and Vojvodina. "It is shown that in both cases migration had the same direction of effect (rejuvenation of the total population), but that the importance of the migration component in changing the age structure was less in Vojvodina than in Kosovo....An examination is made of the influence of migration on changes in the age structure by way of an effect on fertility...." Data concern the period 1968-1981.
Correspondence: G. Penev, Univerzitet u Beogradu, Instituta Drustvenih Nauka, Centar za Demografska Istrazivanja, P.O. Box 927, 11000 Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30413 Relethford, John H. Cross-cultural analysis of migration rates: effects of geographic distance and population size. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 89, No. 4, 1992. 459-66 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A model is developed that treats migration rates among populations as a function of the geographic distance between them and the size of both sources and recipient population....Methods of parameter estimation and hypothesis testing using maximum likelihood are outlined. These methods are applied to migration matrix data from 13 samples obtained from the literature representing a wide range of ecological settings. All samples show a significant effect of geographic distance on migration, and all but one show a significant effect of differential population size. All but one sample show an overall tendency for migration to be negative density-dependent; that is, the relative migration rate is greater from larger populations to smaller populations than the reverse."
Correspondence: J. H. Relethford, State University of New York College at Oneonta, Department of Anthropology, Oneonta, NY 13820. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30414 Ribakovski, Leonid. Migration behavior, its specific features and regulators. [Migratsionnoto povedenie, negovite osobenosti i regulatori.] Naselenie, Vol. 9, No. 3-4, 1991. 61-9 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng.
"The author studies the factors motivating the intention for migration and the transition from a decision [to] real migration behaviour. It is underscored that this transition is determined by the nature of relationships between the three major factors--the environment, social norms and needs....The article outlines the gravest migration problems in the Soviet Union and the main trends and ways by which the society can influence migration processes. These include stabilisation of the population in the countryside and in individual regions by improving social, living and transport conditions, changing social norms and restructuring the needs and value orientation of the inhabitants."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30415 Sprangers, A. H. International migration during the last two centuries. [Twee eeuwen buitenlandse migratie.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 41, No. 6, Jun 1993. 32-7 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The author reviews migratory trends to, within, and from the Netherlands over the period 1800-1992. Migrations for political reasons and to seek work are considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30416 Vishnevskii, Anatolii; Zaionchkovskaia, Zhanna. Waves of migration: a new situation. Problems of Economic Transition, Vol. 36, No. 2, Jun 1993. 78-99 pp. Armonk, New York. In Eng.
An attempt is made to forecast migration trends affecting those countries that were formerly part of the Soviet Union. "The new migratory trends are characterized by at least three fundamentally important elements: the ouster of the newly arrived population from the social niche that it had recently occupied, emigration from overpopulated regions, and growing emigration beyond the borders of the former Union."
This is a translation of the Russian article in Svobodnaya Mysl', No. 12, 1992, pp. 4-16.
Correspondence: A. Vishnevskii, Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, Leninsky Pr. 14, 117901 Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:30417 Wils, Anne B. European long-term migration data: overview and evaluation of existing data collection. IIASA Working Paper, No. WP-93-28, Jun 1993. v, 31 pp. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
An overview of national definitions of long-term international migration used by the countries of Europe is presented. International efforts to collect compatible migration data are described.
Correspondence: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, 2361 Laxenburg, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.2. International Migration

Studies concerned with international migration, including the brain drain.

59:30418 Badets, Jane. Canada's immigrants: recent trends. Canadian Social Trends, No. 29, Summer 1993. 8-11 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
Recent trends in immigration to Canada are analyzed. The author notes that immigrants are concentrated in the major urban areas, particularly Toronto, Vancouver, and Montreal. An increasing proportion are Asian-born, although over half of all immigrants living in Canada in 1991 were born in Europe.
Correspondence: J. Badets, Statistics Canada, Housing, Family and Social Statistics Division, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:30419 Badie, Bertrand. Migration trends and international relations. [Flux migratoires et relations transnationales.] Etudes Internationales, Vol. 24, No. 1, Mar 1993. 7-16 pp. Quebec, Canada. In Fre.
The author examines contemporary trends in international migration and their effects on the relationships between sending and receiving countries.
Correspondence: B. Badie, Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris, 27 rue Saint-Guillaume, 75337 Paris Cedex 07, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

59:30420 Baez Evertsz, Franc. International migration from the Dominican Republic and migration policy: old foci and new trends. [Migracion internacional dominicana y politica de migracion: viejos enfoques y nuevas tendencias.] Sintests, No. 17, May-Aug 1992. 47-61 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
This is a review of recent trends in international migration affecting the Dominican Republic. The author notes that a larger percentage of the Dominican population lives abroad than lives in their country of origin, and that the country is heavily dependent on migrant remittances. Large-scale labor migration from Haiti is also a major feature of the migration situation.
This paper was originally published in Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Sociales (Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic) No. 4, Jan-Jun 1991.
Correspondence: F. Baez Evertsz, Universidad Autonoma de Santo Domingo, Ciudad Universitaria, Apartado 1355, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

59:30421 Bailey, Adrian J.; Ellis, Mark. Going home: the migration of Puerto Rican-born women from the United States to Puerto Rico. Professional Geographer, Vol. 45, No. 2, May 1993. 148-58 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper analyzes the migration of Puerto Rican-born women from the United States to Puerto Rico using longitudinal data. We hypothesize that sojourn length in the United States is a function of both structural (macro-level economic and cultural factors) and behavioral (micro-level life-cycle experiences and personal attributes) variables. We test these hypotheses by estimating a proportional hazards model. The parameter estimates of this model indicate that sojourn length in the United States, and thus the decision to return to Puerto Rico, is a function of wage trends and community characteristics on the mainland plus a number of individual attributes that include education, marriage, and childbirth."
Correspondence: A. J. Bailey, Dartmouth College, Department of Geography, Hanover, NH 03755-3571. Location: Princeton University Library (SG).

59:30422 Bisogno, Enrico; Gatto, Chiara; Neri, Fabio. Foreign immigration in the Veneto and in Friuli-Venezia Giulia: demographic and economic aspects. [L'immigrazione straniera in Veneto e Friuli-Venezia Giulia: aspetti demografici ed economici.] Quaderni di Economia, No. 5, ISBN 88-13-18185-X. 1993. 355 pp. Casa Editrice Dott. Antonio Milani [CEDAM]: Padua, Italy. In Ita.
The authors analyze recent immigration in the two Italian regions of the Veneto and Friuli-Venezia Giulia. The first chapter examines economic and demographic trends in Italy as a whole, while Chapter 2 focuses on those trends in the two regions under examination. Chapter 3 is concerned with qualitative and quantitative aspects of immigration to the two regions from outside the European Community. Chapter 4 looks at how immigrants participate in both the regular and informal economies. Chapter 5 considers several issues, including the social consequences of immigration and how the governments of Italy, West Germany, and France have attempted to control international migration through legislation.
Correspondence: Casa Editrice Dott. Antonio Milani, Via Jappelli 5/6, 35121 Padua, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30423 Blanco Fdez. De Valderrama, Cristina. The new hosts: the case of Spain. International Migration Review, Vol. 27, No. 1, Spring 1993. 169-81 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
The author examines recent changes in the characteristics of immigration in Spain. Aspects considered include migrant origin, social and demographic characteristics, economic activity, unemployment, age structure, and educational level. The extent of illegal immigration is also discussed.
Correspondence: C. Blanco Fdez. De Valderrama, Universidad des Pais Vasco, Apdo. 1397, 48080 Bilbao, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30424 Briggs, Vernon M. Immigrant labor and the issue of "dirty work" in advanced industrial societies. Population and Environment, Vol. 14, No. 6, Jul 1993. 503-14 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Trends in the recruitment of unskilled immigrants to fill low-wage jobs in industrialized countries are analyzed for the period since World War II. Reasons for the United States to cease admitting such migrants are outlined.
Correspondence: V. M. Briggs, Cornell University, NYS School of Industrial and Labor Relations, 393 Ives Hall, Ithaca, NY 14851-0952. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30425 Burda, Michael C. The determinants of East-West German migration: some first results. European Economic Review, Vol. 37, No. 2-3, Apr 1993. 452-61 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
Determinants of the propensity to migrate are explored using data collected in a survey of East German residents following German reunification in 1991. The author notes that in the period 1989-1992, some 870,000 individuals migrated to West Germany, representing about 5% of the total East German population and 10% of the work force. He suggests that "recent developments in the literature on the option value of waiting may yield important insights into these determinants."
Correspondence: M. C. Burda, INSEAD, Boulevard de Constance, 77305 Fontainebleau, France. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

59:30426 Cacopardo, Maria C. Potential emigration of young Italian-Argentines. [La emigracion potencial de jovenes italoargentinos.] Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos, Vol. 7, No. 22, Dec 1992. 453-95 pp. Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The author examines trends in out-migration among young, highly skilled Argentines, with a focus on those of Italian descent. Data are from interviews conducted among young adults in Buenos Aires, Mar del Plata, and Rosario. Major factors influencing migration include perceived labor force and economic opportunities.
Correspondence: M. C. Cacopardo, Universidad Nacional de Lujan, Centro de Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos, CC221, 6700 Lujan, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30427 Cicak-Chand, Ruzica. International migration in the Arab region. [Medunarodna migracija u arapskoj regiji.] Migracijske Teme, Vol. 6, No. 4, Dec 1990. 481-95 pp. Zagreb, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
"The main aim of the present paper was to establish the dimensions of international labour migration in the Arab world in the last ten to fifteen years, to describe the major characteristics of a particular process of movement of labour in the area and to point to the factors that have [affected] the politics of the countries of employment. A further aim was to show the specific features of labour force presence of a particular country of origin (Arab and Asian) and to give the socio-economic characteristics of the different migrant groups employed in the countries of the Middle East."
Correspondence: R. Cicak-Chand, Sveucilista u Zagrebu, Institut za Migracije i Narodnosti, Trg Marsala Tita 14, POB 815, 41000 Zagreb, Croatia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30428 Cuffaro, Nadia. International migration, agriculture, and development: reflections from some case studies. [Migrazioni internazionali, agricoltura e sviluppo: riflessioni su alcuni casi di studio.] Studi Emigrazione/Etudes Migrations, Vol. 30, No. 109, Mar 1993. 75-99 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The author examines the relationships among migration, agricultural development, and economic development in the labor-exporting countries of Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, and Turkey. She finds that "massive migration contributes much more to the growth of the service sector than to agricultural or industrial development in the countries of departure."
Correspondence: N. Cuffaro, Universita degli Studi di Cassino, Via G. Marconi, 03043 Cassino, Frosinone, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30429 Curtis, Gregory. Immigration: R.I.P.? Population and Environment, Vol. 14, No. 6, Jul 1993. 495-502 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author briefly describes the political, social, and economic factors that may result in a movement by the U.S. government to significantly curb immigration to the United States.
Correspondence: G. Curtis, Laurel Foundation, Three Gateway Center, 6 North, Pittsburgh, PA 15222. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30430 D'Arca, Renato. Third-world immigrants in Apulia: methodological aspects and principal results. [L'immigrazione dai paesi in via di sviluppo in Puglia: aspetti metodologici e principali risultati.] Studi Emigrazione/Etudes Migrations, Vol. 30, No. 109, Mar 1993. 100-26 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The author uses results of an early 1990s survey of migrants in Apulia, Italy, to examine cultural background and assimilation factors. The survey was designed to aid in the planning of training programs for migrants from developing countries.
Correspondence: R. D'Arca, Centro di Ricerca e Documentazione Febbraio '74, Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30431 de Tinguy, Anne. Migration from the East: where do we stand three years after the fall of the Berlin wall? [Migrations de l'Est: ou en est-on trois ans apres la chute du mur de Berlin?] Etudes Internationales, Vol. 24, No. 1, Mar 1993. 141-61 pp. Quebec, Canada. In Fre.
The author analyzes trends in migration from East to West following the breakdown of migration controls associated with the 1989 collapse of Communist regimes in Eastern Europe.
Correspondence: A. de Tinguy, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Internationales, 15 quai Anatole France, 75700 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

59:30432 Diop, A. Moustapha. West African immigration in Europe. [L'immigration ouest-africaine en Europe.] Etudes Internationales, Vol. 24, No. 1, Mar 1993. 111-24 pp. Quebec, Canada. In Fre.
Recent trends in international migration from West Africa to Europe are reviewed.
Correspondence: A. M. Diop, Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales, 2 rue de Lille, 75343 Paris Cedex 07, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

59:30433 Emmer, Pieter C.; Morner, Magnus. European expansion and migration: essays on the intercontinental migration from Africa, Asia, and Europe. ISBN 0-85496-300-6. LC 91-18969. 1992. viii, 312 pp. Berg: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This is a collection of articles investigating the relationship between European expansion and international migration. "In surveying these long distance migrations we will first attempt to establish the relative quantitative volume of the various movements [since 1500]. Secondly, attention will be paid to the demographic, socioeconomic, and cultural differences that existed, and still exist, between the international migrants from Europe, Africa, and Asia. Finally, a balance sheet of the various migration movements will be drawn up in an attempt at predicting the future of intercontinental migrations now that Europe has virtually dissolved its empires." The authors examine "i) push-pull factors, ii) the demography of the sending regions, iii) female migration, iv) transportation, v) integration or isolation in the receiving areas, vi) return migration, [and] vii) capital movements related to migration."
Correspondence: Berg Publishers, 165 Taber Avenue, Providence, RI 02906. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

59:30434 Faini, Riccardo; Venturini, Alessandra. Trade, aid and migrations: some basic policy issues. European Economic Review, Vol. 37, No. 2-3, Apr 1993. 435-42 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
The link between trade policy and international migration is explored using data from the United States and Europe. "We conclude that restrictive trade policies in industrialised countries have most likely added to migration pressures. We then turn to the broader question of the effects of income growth in the sending countries on the propensity to migrate. We argue that, in relatively poor countries, an increase in income will be associated with higher migration flows. For middle income countries, however, income growth will lead to lower migrations. In the medium run, therefore, the relationship between development levels, as measured by GDP per capita, and the propensity to migrate follows an inverse-U pattern. Econometric analysis of aggregate migration flows from Southern Europe provides considerable support for such conjecture."
Correspondence: R. Faini, Universita degli Studi di Brescia, Facolta di Economia e Commercio, Departimento di Scienze Economiche, Via F.LL1 Porcellaga 21, I-25121, Brescia, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

59:30435 Freeman, Richard B. Immigration from poor to wealthy countries: experience of the United States. European Economic Review, Vol. 37, No. 2-3, Apr 1993. 443-51 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
The U.S. experience with immigration from poor countries is examined using the results of two projects carried out by the National Bureau of Economic Research. Questions considered include what determines the supply of immigrants, how such immigrants fare in the U.S. job market, and how this immigration affects the prospects of native-born workers.
Correspondence: R. B. Freeman, London School of Economics, Center for Economic Performance, Houghton Street, London WC2A 2AE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

59:30436 Goza, Franklin. Brazilian migration to North America. [A imigracao brasileira na America do Norte.] Revista Brasileira de Estudos de Populacao, Vol. 9, No. 1, Jan-Jul 1992. 65-82 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
"This article is a comparative study of Brazilian immigration to Canada and the United States. Analyses of recently collected data, in Toronto, Ontario, as well as in a medium sized U.S. community permit this study to examine the adaptation and adjustment experiences of a new group of immigrants to North America. This article begins with a discussion of the origins of this recent immigrant group, and its rapid expansion. Next, this study focuses on the labor force activities of Brazilian immigrants and compares and contrasts their experiences in the U.S. and Canada. A final section examines social adaptation in North America by exploring linguistic and cultural dimensions."
Correspondence: F. Goza, Bowling Green State University, Department of Sociology, Bowling Green, OH 43403. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30437 Hollifield, James F. Immigration and state logic in international relations: immigration, between law and the market. [Immigration et logiques d'Etats dans les relations internationales: l'immigration, entre droit et marche.] Etudes Internationales, Vol. 24, No. 1, Mar 1993. 31-50 pp. Quebec, Canada. In Fre.
The author examines reasons why large Western democracies have difficulty controlling immigration. The issue is discussed from the viewpoint of a political economist who maintains that there is a certain "state logic" concerning immigration in the major receiving countries. The implications of this approach for the development of immigration policy and international relations are explored. The geographical focus is on the United States, France, and Germany.
Correspondence: J. F. Hollifield, Auburn University, Department of Political Science, Auburn, AL 36849. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

59:30438 Huddle, Donald L. Dirty work: are immigrants only taking jobs that the native underclass does not want? Population and Environment, Vol. 14, No. 6, Jul 1993. 515-38 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The contention in this article is that immigration [to the United States], legal and illegal, has greatly reduced the net number of jobs available to the low-skill worker....I examine the evidence from four experiments regarding the impact of immigrants on American workers jobs: first, field data from the 1982 experiment termed Project Jobs in which thousands of illegal immigrants were deported by the Reagan administration in an attempt to create jobs for American workers. Then, three individual field studies in the Houston [Texas] Metropolitan Area during the 1980's which attempted to measure the willingness of the unemployed to take dirty jobs typically held by illegal immigrants....Finally, two recent comprehensive econometric measures of job displacement and wage depression are reviewed."
Correspondence: D. L. Huddle, Rice University, Department of Economics, Box 1892, Houston, TX 77251. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30439 Ip, David F. Reluctant entrepreneurs: professionally qualified Asian migrants in small business. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 2, No. 1, 1993. 57-74 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"The abandonment of the White Australia Policy after World War II and the implementation of a points system in Australia's immigration program have led to a dramatic increase in the number of highly educated Asian migrants in the country. A study of 144 entrepreneurs of small business in the Indian and Chinese communities in Brisbane and Sydney found that, faced with institutionalized blockages, few of these highly educated migrants could practice what they were originally trained for. The majority of them, with their class resources, determination and optimism, became reluctant entrepreneurs."
Correspondence: D. F. Ip, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4067, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30440 Knerr, Beatrice. Methods for assessing the impact of temporary labour emigration. Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 31, No. 4, Pt. 2, Winter 1992. 1,207-39 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
The author analyzes temporary labor migration and its impact on economic development in developing countries. "The paper presents four methods...namely partial sectoral analysis by regression computations, cost-benefit analysis, social accounting matrices, and computable general equilibrium models. It considers their respective advantages for different ends, questions, and policy goals, and explains their data requirements." A comment by Mohammad Afzal is included (pp. 1,237-9).
Correspondence: B. Knerr, Hohenheim University, Institute of Agricultural and Social Economics in the Tropics, Postfach 70 05 62, 7000 Stuttgart 70, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30441 Kojima, Hiroshi. International migration and marriage in developed countries. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 48, No. 1, Apr 1992. 38-48 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
An analysis of the relationship between inter-nationality marriage and international migration in developed countries is presented. The author notes that marriages of this kind are on the increase and that they represent a practical way to facilitate international migration.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30442 Kuyavska-Misiong, Agneshka; Latukh, Mikolai. The drive to improve material conditions of life as a stimulus for Polish migration abroad. [Maternalnite usloviya na bita--stimul za migratsiya na polskoto naselenie v chuzhbina.] Naselenie, Vol. 9, No. 3-4, 1991. 81-8 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng.
Migration from Poland as a life-style improvement strategy is examined. "It is pointed out that one of the key motives for...migration decisions is the drive for improving material conditions of life, which is typical of all forms and trends of migration but is particularly strong as regards migration abroad. The authors study changes in the material conditions of life in today's society...."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30443 Layard, Richard; Blanchard, Olivier; Dornbusch, Rudiger; Krugman, Paul. East-West migration: the alternatives. ISBN 0-262-12168-9. LC 92-24291. 1992. ix, 94 pp. MIT Press: Cambridge, Massachusetts/London, England. In Eng.
The authors examine problems posed by East-West migration, particularly the growing migration pressure from Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union to Western Europe. They argue in favor of the free movement of labor and for the reduction in trade barriers and for investment in the former Communist countries. It is also suggested that free trade and capital flows will reduce the flow of migration, but that Europe should still permit the immigration of skilled workers on a scale similar to that of the United States.
Correspondence: MIT Press, 55 Hayward Street, Cambridge, MA 02142. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

59:30444 Leveau, Remy. Migration and social images in light of the Gulf War. [Migrations et imaginaires sociaux a l'epreuve de la guerre du Golfe.] Etudes Internationales, Vol. 24, No. 1, Mar 1993. 103-10 pp. Quebec, Canada. In Fre.
The author compares Arab migration to Europe and to the oil-producing countries of the Middle East and discusses the impact of the Gulf War of 1991 on the Arab migrant population in the two regions.
Correspondence: R. Leveau, Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris, 27 rue Saint-Guillaume, 75337 Paris Cedex 07, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

59:30445 Levy, Maria S. F. International migration and fertility. [A imigracao internacional e a fecundidade.] Revista Brasileira de Estudos de Populacao, Vol. 8, No. 1-2, Jan-Dec 1991. 3-19 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
The author examines labor migration from overseas to the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, from the 1880s to 1940. Migrant fertility levels and their impact on overall population growth in the region are analyzed.
Correspondence: M. S. F. Levy, Universidad de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Epidemiologia, Faculdade de Saude Publica, Cidade Universitaria, CP 8191, 05508 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30446 Longspaugh, Gerard. The hidden costs of American immigration. Journal of Social, Political and Economic Studies, Vol. 18, No. 1, Spring 1993. 79-84 pp. McLean, Virginia. In Eng.
The author argues against further immigration to the United States, citing the hidden costs of such migration to the receiving country. These are identified as carrying costs, infrastructure disbursement costs, cultural degradation, and ethnic fragmentation.
Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

59:30447 Lucrezio Monticelli, Guiseppe. Immigrants in Italy. [Gli immigrati in Italia.] Affari Sociali Internazionali, Vol. 20, No. 3, 1992. 63-80 pp. Milan, Italy. In Ita.
An analysis is presented of recent trends in immigration in Italy from 1989, when Italian migration policy changed, to 1991. Topics covered include spatial distribution of migrants, reasons for migration, countries of origin, and religion of migrants.
Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

59:30448 Lucrezio Monticelli, Guiseppe; Pittau, Franco. Recent migration to Europe from the third world and the East: the Italian case and its impact on social security. [Le nuove migrazioni in Europa dal terzo mondo e dall'Est: il caso italiano e il suo impatto previdenziale.] Diritto del Lavoro, Vol. 66, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1992. 193-219 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita.
The impact of immigration from developing countries and from Eastern Europe on social security systems in the rest of Europe during the 1980s and early 1990s is examined using the example of Italy.
Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

59:30449 MacDonald, John S. Chain migration reconsidered. Bollettino di Demografia Storica, No. 16, 1992. 35-43 pp. Pisa, Italy. In Eng.
Aspects of migration, particularly chain migration, from Italy to Australia, Latin America, and the United States during the period 1850-1960 are analyzed and compared with migration to countries of the European Community since 1960. Consideration is given to occupational status and other migrant characteristics and to effects on the sending countries.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30450 Mammey, Ulrich. First results of the Aussiedler survey of the Federal Institute for Population Research (BiB). Materialien zur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, No. 75, 1992. 59-74 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Eng.
Results are presented from the first survey, conducted in 1991, of Aussiedler, or ethnic Germans who have returned to Germany. The survey concentrated on migrants from Poland, Romania, and the former Soviet Union and their living situation, employment, acculturation, demographic structure, and future plans.
Correspondence: U. Mammey, Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung, Gustav-Stresemann-Ring 6, Postfach 5528, 6200 Wiesbaden, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30451 Martin, Philip L. The missing bridge: how immigrant networks keep Americans out of dirty jobs. Population and Environment, Vol. 14, No. 6, Jul 1993. 539-65 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper explains how the availability of immigrant workers changes employment practices in ways that push and pull Americans out of jobs which remain 'dirty' or unattractive to U.S. workers....Examples from fruit and vegetable agriculture, garments, and shoes will be discussed."
Correspondence: P. L. Martin, University of California, Department of Agricultural Economics, Davis, CA 95616-8512. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30452 McDowell, John M.; Singell, Larry D. An assessment of the human capital content of international migrants: an application to U.S. immigration. Regional Studies, Vol. 27, No. 4, 1993. 351-63 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
The authors present a methodology for measuring the magnitude of international migration flows that includes an earnings equation approach as an economic dimension. "Applying our methodology to U.S. immigration, we find considerable variation across source regions in the value of immigrants. Moreover, we find that simply comparing initial earnings without controlling for differences in the characteristics and migration patterns of immigrants from the various source regions can misrepresent the relative earnings potential or value of migrants."
Correspondence: J. M. McDowell, Arizona State University, Department of Economics, Tempe, AZ 85287. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

59:30453 Nejasmic, Ivica. Emigration from Croatia to overseas and to European countries from the middle of the nineteenth century to 1981--an attempt at quantification. [Iseljavanje iz Hrvatske u Evropske i prekomorske zemlje od sredine 19. stoljeca do 1981. godine--pokusaj kvantifikacije.] Migracijske Teme, Vol. 6, No. 4, Dec 1990. 511-26 pp. Zagreb, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
"The paper analyses the quantitative aspect of emigration [from Croatia] to European and overseas countries in the period from the middle of the 19th century till 1981 (the time of the last census). Analysing various sources and studies, the author presents data on emigration form individual Croatian lands (Istria, civil Croatia, Dalmatia) in relation to individual emigration flows (to Europe, overseas) and periods (before World War I, the inter-war period, the post-war period), and at the same time he examines external migration as an effect of the two world wars."
Correspondence: I. Nejasmic, Sveucilista u Zagrebu, Institut za Migracije i Narodnosti, Trg Marsala Tita 14, POB 815, 41000 Zagreb, Croatia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30454 Nevile, John. The benefits and costs of immigration. Growth, No. 39, Pub. Order No. VBP0641. ISBN 0-85801-198-0. Sep 1991. 80 pp. Committee for Economic Development of Australia [CEDA]: Melbourne, Australia. In Eng.
This is a collection of five articles on the costs and benefits of immigration to Australia. Topics discussed include the macroeconomic impact of migration on development, the incompatibility between current economic and immigration policies, and the relative contribution of natural increase and immigration to population growth.
Correspondence: Committee for Economic Development of Australia, CEDA House, 123 Lonsdale Street, GPO Box 2117T, Melbourne, Victoria 3000, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30455 Newbold, K. Bruce; Chammbers, Shelley A.; Liaw, Kao-Lee. Effects of personal factors on the destination choice patterns of Canadian immigrants: an evaluation within a multivariate framework. Journal of Population Studies, No. 15, Dec 1992. 77-100 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Eng. with sum. in Chi.
"The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of personal factors on the established destination choice patterns of Canadian immigrants in 1981 within a multivariate context, using the micro data in the Public Use Sample (PUS) of the 1981 Canadian population census. Six personal attributes encompassing ethnic origin, level of education, occupation, class of work, income and period of immigration are...used."
Correspondence: K. B. Newbold, McMaster University, Department of Geography, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30456 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD] (Paris, France). The changing course of international migration. ISBN 92-64-13827-7. 1993. 263 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
This publication, which is also available in French, presents the main contributions to the International Conference on Migration, held in Rome, Italy, March 13-15, 1991. It contains 25 papers from the conference's three sessions. The first session looks at new aspects of international migration, including South-North migration, labor migration, the single European market, refugees and asylum seekers, East-West migration, and Soviet emigration. The second session covers economic development and job creation as an alternative to migration from developing countries. The third session deals with migration policies in developed countries, as well as with policies designed to help migrant integration into receiving countries.
Correspondence: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Head of Publications Service, 2 rue Andre-Pascal, 75775 Paris Cedex 16, France. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

59:30457 Palomba, Rossella; Righi, Alessandra. The day the Albanians will invade Italy...Attitudes of public opinion and of the Italian press on the question of migration from Albania. [Quel giorno che gli albanesi invasero l'Italia...Gli atteggiamenti dell'opinione pubblica e della stampa italiana sulla questione delle migrazioni dall'Albania.] Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione Working Paper, No. 08/92, [1992]. 19 pp. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione [IRP]: Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre; Spa.
The authors analyze some 400 articles published in Italian newspapers in 1991 concerning two waves of Albanian refugees arriving that year in Italy. The relationship of press reports to attitudes toward such migrants is examined.
Correspondence: Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione, Viale Beethoven 56, 00144, Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30458 Pflaumer, Peter. Population projection methods and migration. In: Operations Research Proceedings 1992, DGOR. Papers of the 21st Annual Meeting of DGOR in Cooperation with OGOR, edited by K.-W. Hansmann et al. ISBN 0-387-56642-2. 1993. 391-8 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng. with sum. in Ger.
"The objective of this paper is to examine the effect of migration on the size and the age structure of the population in Germany by applying population projection models." Projections are made to the year 2100.
Correspondence: P. Pflaumer, Herzogweg 12, 71083 Herrenberg, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30459 Poot, Jacques. Adaptation of migrants in the New Zealand labor market. International Migration Review, Vol. 27, No. 1, Spring 1993. 121-39 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article addresses economic aspects of New Zealand immigration during the 1980s. General features are overall net emigration coinciding with high levels of immigration from Asia and Pacific Island countries. Earnings by years in New Zealand profiles for immigrants with selected occupations are steeper for Pacific Island-born males than for other immigrant groups. Although there are few data, there is some evidence that profiles differ between cohorts."
Correspondence: J. Poot, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30460 Prujiner, Alain. Nationality, migration, and international relations. [Nationalite, migration et relations internationales.] Etudes Internationales, Vol. 24, No. 1, Mar 1993. 63-78 pp. Quebec, Canada. In Fre.
The author examines the relationship between the international movements of capital and of labor. He notes that whereas there is growing acceptance for the free circulation of capital, goods, and services among countries, this is being accompanied by a trend among receiving countries to control the circulation of labor.
Correspondence: A. Prujiner, Universite Laval, Maitrise en Relations Internationales, Cite Universitaire, Quebec, Quebec G1K 7P4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

59:30461 Ravenel, Bernard. Migration trends. [Les flux migratoires.] Confluences-Mediterranee, No. 5, Winter 1993. 7-120 pp. L'Harmattan: Paris, France. In Fre.
This special issue presents 13 papers on various aspects of migration in the Mediterranean region. The focus is on South-North migration, and the papers examine not only quantitative aspects but also issues of migration policy, relations between sending and receiving countries, and risks migrants are willing to take to reach their chosen destinations.
Correspondence: L'Harmattan, 77 rue Blomet, 75015 Paris, France. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

59:30462 Russell, Sharon S. International migration in North America, Europe, Central Asia, the Middle East and North Africa: research and research-related activities. 1993. v, 83 pp. UN Economic Commission for Europe [ECE]: Geneva, Switzerland; World Bank, Population and Human Resources Department: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This document identifies international migration research and research-related activities in North America, Europe, Central Asia, the Middle East, and North Africa....The material has been organized broadly by geographical regions and secondarily by research issues or topics. The first section considers Europe generally and includes references to overviews, summary data sources, and issues that cut across regional boundaries (e.g., migration of the highly skilled; integration of migrants). The subsequent sections address in turn East-West migration (activities that pertain to migration from and within Eastern and Central Europe and the CIS); South-North migration generally; migration in the Mediterranean basin, including North Africa; and migration to, from, and within...the Middle East."
Correspondence: United Nations, Sales Section, Geneva, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30463 Safir, Nadji. The migration question, security, and cooperation in the western Mediterranean. [Question migratoire, securite et cooperation en Mediterranee occidentale.] Etudes Internationales, Vol. 24, No. 1, Mar 1993. 79-102 pp. Quebec, Canada. In Fre.
The author examines issues concerning recent trends in international migration, with a focus on migration from Northern Africa to Southern Europe.
Correspondence: N. Safir, Universite d'Alger, Institut de Sociologie, 2 rue Didouche Mourad, Algiers, Algeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

59:30464 Sales, Teresa. Alien immigrants, Brazilian immigrants: a bibliographic revision and some research notes. [Imigrantes estrangeiros, imigrantes brasileiros: uma revisao bibliografica e algumas anotacoes para pesquisa.] Revista Brasileira de Estudos de Populacao, Vol. 9, No. 1, Jan-Jul 1992. 50-64 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
The author examines migration to Europe and the United States, with a focus on labor force and social issues. The emphasis is on Brazilian movement to the United States.
Correspondence: T. Sales, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, IFCH, Departamento de Sociologia, CEP 13081 Campinas, SP, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30465 Sales, Teresa. New migratory flows of the Brazilian population. [Novos fluxos migratorios da populacao brasileira.] Revista Brasileira de Estudos de Populacao, Vol. 8, No. 1-2, Jan-Dec 1991. 21-32 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
"This article focuses [on] the recent emigration of Brazilians abroad. In the post World War II period, a new type of international migration was observed, caused by demands for labor in the receiving countries, where immigrants are integrated into the secondary labor market. The programs created to stimulate temporary foreign migrations resulted in the recent illegal migrations of Brazilians, most of them working in unskilled jobs. The study is based on data from a preliminary survey on the migratory flow from the city of Governador Valadares in the State of Minas Gerais, to Boston, in the U.S."
Correspondence: T. Sales, Universidad Estadual de Campinas, Instituto de Filosofia, Departamento de Sociologia, CEP 13081 Campinas, SP, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30466 Santiso Gonzalez, M. Concepcion. Basque emigration between 1840 and 1870. Models for analysis of Basque success in America: family networks, primary education, and other considerations. [Emigracion vasca entre 1840 y 1870. Pautas de analisis acerca del exito vasco en America: cadenas familiares, primeras letras y otras consideraciones.] Boletin de la Asociacion de Demografia Historica, Vol. 11, No. 1, 1993. 83-105 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
The author reviews migration from the Basque Provinces to the Americas during the period 1840-1870. She considers various incentives to migrate including kinship networks, educational opportunities, and perceived possibilities for social and economic advancement.
Correspondence: M. C. Santiso Gonzalez, Ixpila Plaza 5, 4oA, 20800 Zarautz, Gipuzkoa, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30467 Satzewich, Vic. Deconstructing a nation: immigration, multiculturalism and racism in '90s Canada. ISBN 1-895868-07-5. 1992. 538 pp. Fernwood Publishing: Halifax, Canada; University of Saskatchewan, Department of Sociology, Social Research Unit: Saskatoon, Canada. In Eng.
This is a collection of 20 studies presented at a conference held at the University of Saskatchewan, Canada, in March 1991 on the implications of current immigration trends and policies in Canada, and on multicultural and aboriginal relations. "In particular, the chapters of this book seek to understand the complex ways in which class relations, racism and gender relations shape, and are constituted by, processes of immigration, and multicultural and aboriginal relations."
Correspondence: Fernwood Publishing, P.O. Box 9409, Station A, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3K 5S3 Canada. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

59:30468 Schiller, Nina G.; Basch, Linda; Blanc-Szanton, Cristina. Towards a transnational perspective on migration: race, class, ethnicity, and nationalism reconsidered. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 645, ISBN 0-89766-703-4. LC 92-10551. 1992. xv, 259 pp. New York Academy of Sciences: New York, New York. In Eng.
This is a collection of papers prepared for a workshop on developing a transnational perspective on migration, with the focus on migration to the United States. "Immigrants are understood to be transmigrants when they develop and maintain multiple relations--familial, economic, social, organizational, religious, and political--that span borders....In Part I, the Introduction, we propose a transnational perspective on migration. We argue for a global perspective, linking the emergence of transnationalism to recent changes in the world economy, especially the extensive penetration of capital into the third world....The papers in Part II proceed by discussing the ways in which the identity of the new transnational subject is currently being constructed....In Part III, the relationship between transnational populations and nation states is examined, and the challenge posed to nationalism by the existence of these transnational populations is described."
Correspondence: New York Academy of Sciences, 2 East 63rd Street, New York, NY 10021. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30469 Schmidt di Friedberg, Ottavia. African immigration to Italy: the Senegalese case. [L'immigration africaine en Italie: le cas senegalais.] Etudes Internationales, Vol. 24, No. 1, Mar 1993. 125-40 pp. Quebec, Canada. In Fre.
The author examines some of the problems associated with immigration to Italy from Africa, using as an example recent migration from Senegal.
Correspondence: O. Schmidt di Friedberg, Universita Commerciale Luigi Bocconi, Via R. Sarfatti 25, 20136 Milan, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

59:30470 Sevaldson, Per. Growth and structure of immigrant populations. Working Papers from Department for Statistics on Individuals and Households: Population and Living Conditions, Vol. 4, 1992. 167-212 pp. Oslo-Kongsvinger, Norway. In Eng.
"A study of the laws governing the development of a subpopulation of immigrants and their descendants [in Norway] is the subject of this study. We also utilize these laws to develop a set of 'baseline' projections for growth and structure of a population group of immigrants and descendants under conditions which seem to be realistic for Norway...." Data concern the period 1985-1986.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30471 Slany, Krystyna. Emigration from Poland in the 1980s to main overseas and continental countries of immigration: demographic and social aspects. [Emigracja z Polski w latach osiemdziesiatych do glownych krajow imigracji zamorskiej i kontynentalnej: aspekty demograficzno-spoleczne.] Przeglad Polonijny, Vol. 17, No. 4, 1991. 27-46, 159-60 pp. Cracow, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng.
The author examines migration from Poland using data from receiving countries, including Australia, Austria, Canada, Sweden, the United States, and West Germany. "The image of the Polish Diaspora of the 1980s is viewed in the light of other significant demographic and social features of immigrants such as their age, sex, social and professional groups to which they belong, [and] the place where they have settled down in their country of immigration. The author has also paid some attention to the causes of emigration, and in particular, to the size of political emigration...."
Correspondence: K. Slany, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Golebia 24, 31-007 Cracow, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30472 Sulaberidze, A. V. Socioeconomic problems of regulating migration in the mountain regions of the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic. [Sotsialno-ikonomicheski problemi na reguliraneto na migratsiyata na naselenieto v planinskite raioni na Gruzinska SSR.] Naselenie, Vol. 9, No. 3-4, 1991. 70-5 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng.
Migration trends in the former Soviet republic of Georgia for the period 1959-1979 are analyzed and compared with those in other former Soviet republics. The influences of agriculture and kinship ties are noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30473 Termote, Marc. The causes and economic consequences of international migration: theory and practice. [Causes et consequences economiques de la migration internationale: theorie et realite.] Etudes Internationales, Vol. 24, No. 1, Mar 1993. 51-61 pp. Quebec, Canada. In Fre.
The author develops the theme that migration, far from being an indication that the socioeconomic system is malfunctioning, is in fact a necessary condition for the effective functioning of such a system. The relevance of this theoretical approach to the actual situation concerning contemporary international migration is considered.
Correspondence: M. Termote, Universite du Quebec, Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique-Urbanisation, 3465 rue Durocher, Montreal, Quebec H2X 2C6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

59:30474 Trlin, Andrew D. The social effects and institutional structure of immigration in New Zealand in the 1980s. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 2, No. 1, 1993. 1-26 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"The aim of this paper is to facilitate an understanding and explanation of the social effects of immigration in New Zealand during the 1980s. Working within the framework of social demography...this objective will be pursued in two stages. First, a concise overview will be given of some of the more commonly known social effects that can be related to the composition and volume of immigration. Second, to gain a deeper appreciation of the causes of change, attention will be directed to the nature and operation of what has been described as the 'institutional structure of immigration'...."
Correspondence: A. D. Trlin, Massey University, PO Palmerston North, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30475 Tseng, Haunntarng. The factors [that] influence Taiwanese immigrants adaptation and re-emigration from the Republic of South Africa. Journal of Population Studies, No. 15, Dec 1992. 103-34 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Eng. with sum. in Chi.
"This study [presents results]...of a questionnaire to measure the acculturation level of Taiwanese immigrants [in South Africa]. The study tries to demonstrate the usefulness of certain methodological techniques in selecting elements of acculturation which differentiate between local Chinese and Taiwanese immigrants, and the variables which determine Taiwanese immigrants' dissatisfaction and motivation to re-emigrate...."
Correspondence: H. Tseng, Taiwan Provincial Institute of Family Planning, Taichung, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30476 Vecoli, Rudolph J.; Sinke, Suzanne M. A century of European migrations, 1830-1930. Statue of Liberty-Ellis Island Centennial Series, ISBN 0-252-10796-X. LC 90-20301. 1991. 395 pp. University of Illinois Press: Urbana, Illinois. In Eng.
This volume is the outcome of a symposium held in Wayzata, Minnesota, November 6-9, 1986. It contains 16 papers on various aspects of migration from Europe to North America during the period 1830-1930. The papers are divided into five parts, which are concerned with macroperspectives; microanalysis, including chain migration, with studies concerning migration from Finland, the Netherlands, Norway, and Hungary, and to Pittsburgh; two case studies concerning Quebec and northwestern Italy; return migration; and ideologies and migrants.
Correspondence: University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL 61801. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

59:30477 Vizi, E. Sylvester. Reversing the brain drain from Eastern European countries: the "push" and "pull" factors. Technology in Society, Vol. 15, No. 1, 1993. 101-9 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The brain drain caused by the out-migration of intellectuals from Eastern Europe and the countries of the former Soviet Union is examined. The author focuses on the negative consequences for countries of origin if their most highly skilled professionals do not return. Steps that might be taken by governments and international agencies to improve conditions in sending countries are discussed, with a focus on encouraging return migration.
Correspondence: E. S. Vizi, Orvostovabbkepzo Egyetem, Department of Pharmacology, Szabolcs-u.35, POB 112, 1135 Budapest XIII, Hungary. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

59:30478 Weiner, Myron. Security, stability, and international migration. International Security, Vol. 17, No. 3, Winter 1992-1993. 91-126 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
Some implications of current trends in international migration are examined. The author notes that "Western liberal democracies believe in the right of emigration by individuals, but they simultaneously believe that governments retain the right to determine who and how many shall be permitted to enter [their countries. He concludes that] as a matter of political realism...a significant increase in the flow of refugees or of unwanted illegal economic migrants is likely to lead the governments of population-receiving countries to consider various forms of intervention to change the domestic factors that force or induce people to leave their homeland. If a people violate the boundaries of a neighboring country, then they and their government should expect others to intervene in their internal affairs."
Correspondence: M. Weiner, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Political Science, Cambridge, MA 02139. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

59:30479 Wihtol de Wenden, Catherine. Migration and human rights in Europe. [Migrations et droits de l'homme en Europe.] Etudes Internationales, Vol. 24, No. 1, Mar 1993. 163-76 pp. Quebec, Canada. In Fre.
The author examines the impact of recent trends in immigration to Europe on the countries of destination. She suggests that migration policies have been driven primarily by economic considerations, particularly labor force needs, and that the human rights aspects of migration policy historically have been ignored. She notes that European institutions and national judiciaries have had to become involved in immigrant human rights issues as a result of large-scale immigration.
Correspondence: C. Wihtol de Wenden, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre d'Etudes de Recherches Internationales, 15 quai Anatole France, 75700 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

59:30480 Wihtol de Wenden, Catherine; Badie, Bertrand. Migration and international relations. [Migrations et relations transnationales.] Etudes Internationales, Vol. 24, No. 1, Mar 1993. 1-176, 203-12 pp. Universite Laval, Faculte des Sciences Sociales, Centre Quebecois de Relations Internationales: Quebec, Canada. In Fre.
This special issue is a collection of interdisciplinary papers that examine trends in international migration and how they affect the relationships among the sending and receiving countries. The emphasis is on how such migration is driven by economic, demographic, political, social, cultural, and religious factors that are largely beyond the control of governments.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Universite Laval, Faculte des Sciences Sociales, Centre Quebecois de Relations Internationales, Quebec, Quebec G1K 7P4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

59:30481 Zolberg, Aristide R. An image of the world: international migration in historical perspective. [Un reflet du monde: les migrations internationales en perspective historique.] Etudes Internationales, Vol. 24, No. 1, Mar 1993. 17-29 pp. Quebec, Canada. In Fre.
This is a general review of international migration trends. The author asserts that migration reflects world events and is the result of actions of both the individuals and the countries concerned.
Correspondence: A. R. Zolberg, New School for Social Research, 66 West 12th Street, New York, NY 10011. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

H.3. Internal Migration

Studies concerned with internal migration.

59:30482 Camps i Cura, Enriqueta. Local migration in Spain, from the sixteenth to the nineteenth century. [Las migraciones locales en Espana, siglos XVI-XIX.] Boletin de la Asociacion de Demografia Historica, Vol. 11, No. 1, 1993. 21-40 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
Internal migration trends in Spain from the sixteenth to the nineteenth century are discussed, with a focus on urbanization and the emergence of the modern city. Data are from official and other published sources.
Correspondence: E. Camps i Cura, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30483 Douki, Caroline. Tuscan emigration from 1860 to 1914: rhythms and flows. [L'emigration toscane de 1860 a 1914: rythmes et flux.] Studi Emigrazione/Etudes Migrations, Vol. 30, No. 109, Mar 1993. 29-47 pp. Rome, Italy. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"The article describes the phenomenon of permanent outmigration from the Apennine regions [of Italy] (particularly from the provinces of Massa Carrara and Lucca) and analyses its causes and transformation from a localized exchange of labor (seasonal farmworkers, and peddlers) to the massive movement towards the end of the last century. At the same time, similar patterns were also occurring in the region's lowlands. The study attempts to distinguish the demographic, sociological and professional characteristics of these population movements and presents their preferred destinations between the middle of the 19th century and the first World War."
Correspondence: C. Douki, Centre d'Histoire de l'Europe du Vingtieme Siecle, FNSP, Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30484 Dunlevy, James A. Migrant stock vs. lagged migrant flow as a determinant of migrant settlement. A comment on Anjomani and Hariri. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1993. 181-8 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
The author comments on a study by Ardeshir Anjomani and Vida Hariri "of United States interstate migration which explicitly incorporates so-called 'flow diversion' and 'flow creation' effects. Their discussion and evaluation of the model, however, are marred by several factors. This paper contrasts the roles of migrant stock and lagged migration in migration analysis and then addresses (a) the problems encountered when the 'family-friends' effect is proxied with measures of lagged migrant flows, (b) the problem of using a two-period lagged value of earlier migrant flow as an explanatory variable, and (c) this paper suggests an alternative method of correcting the Anjomani-Hariri model's problems with multicollinearity."
For the article by Anjomani and Hariri, published in 1992, see 58:20514.
Correspondence: J. A. Dunlevy, Miami University, Department of Economics and Program in International Studies, Oxford, OH 45056. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30485 Ellis, Mark; Barff, Richard; Markusen, Ann R. Defense spending and interregional labor migration. Economic Geography, Vol. 69, No. 2, Apr 1993. 182-203 pp. Worcester, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The impact of defense-related industry on labor migration within the United States is analyzed using census data for the period 1975-1980. The results "suggest that workers follow jobs in the defense industry, rather than vice versa, and indicate that a process of defense-related regional labor pool formation, amplified by interstate migration, adds to the volume of interregional labor flows."
Correspondence: M. Ellis, Florida State University, Department of Geography, Tallahassee, FL 32306-2050. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

59:30486 Ellis, Mark; Barff, Richard; Renard, Beverly. Migration regions and interstate labor flows by occupation in the United States. Growth and Change, Vol. 24, No. 2, Spring 1993. 166-90 pp. Lexington, Kentucky. In Eng.
"This paper investigates the migration patterns of occupational groups [in the United States]. The results confirm previous analyses of the differences in movement behavior between occupations but, in addition, show that this variation is a function of the industrial sector of employment. The chief aim of the paper, however, is to uncover the geography of labor flows for different occupational groups using a principal components analysis of interstate flow matrices....Results indicate that migration regions vary by occupation and industry and we argue that these differences reflect job information flows and regional employment structure for various classes of labor." Data are from the Public Use Microdata Sample A taken from the 1980 census.
Correspondence: M. Ellis, Florida State University, Department of Geography, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4063. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

59:30487 Graves, Philip E.; Mueser, Peter R. The role of equilibrium and disequilibrium in modeling regional growth and decline: a critical reassessment. Journal of Regional Science, Vol. 33, No. 1, Feb 1993. 69-84, 89-97 pp. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
The authors critically examine a 1990 study by Alan W. Evans concerning the assumption of interregional equilibrium in recent migration research. "We here argue that Evans is unconvincing in his primary substantive argument; we provide an alternative reading of the literature that supports this assertion....[We then illustrate] the substantive issues in terms of a simple formal model that allows for both equilibrium and disequilibrium migration." The geographical focus is on the United States. A reply by Evans is included (pp. 89-97).
For the article by Evans, published in 1990, see 56:40464.
Correspondence: P. E. Graves, University of Colorado, Department of Economics, Boulder, CO 80309-0256. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

59:30488 Harrigan, Frank J.; McGregor, Peter G. Equilibrium and disequilibrium perspectives on regional labor migration. Journal of Regional Science, Vol. 33, No. 1, Feb 1993. 49-67, 85-8 pp. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"In this paper we consider the nature of possible equilibria in a regional economic system characterised by an absence of net migration flows but the presence of gross flows. We argue that the presence of gross flows in a stationary equilibrium is most easily generated through the introduction of stochastic elements into the decision maker's migration calculus....We then interpret the model of Schachter and Althaus (1989) in terms of a rational expectations equilibrium, and demonstrate how their tests are incapable of discriminating between equilibrium and disequilibrium models of migration behavior. We propose a set of alternative tests which explicitly recognize the stock-flow interactions between net migration and the distribution of regional population stocks and which make a clean distinction between equilibrium in the temporal and in the market-clearing sense." The geographical focus is on the United States. A reply by Schachter and Althaus is included (pp. 85-8).
For the article by Schachter and Althaus, published in 1989, see 55:20540.
Correspondence: F. J. Harrigan, University of Western Australia, Department of Economics, Nedlands, WA 6009, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

59:30489 Jamil, Kanta; Wong, Rebeca. Income aspirations and migrant women's labour force activity in Malaysia. Johns Hopkins Population Center Papers on Population, No. WP 93-04, [1993]. 17, [5] pp. Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Population Center: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
The migration of married women in Malaysia is analyzed using data from the Malaysian Family Life Survey 1976-77. Particular reference is made to factors affecting labor force participation.
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Population Center, 615 North Wolfe Street, Room 2300, Baltimore, MD 21205-2179. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30490 Kallan, Jeffrey E. A multilevel analysis of elderly migration. Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 74, No. 2, Jun 1993. 403-19 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"Multilevel models are used to examine the determinants of migration of older males in the United States, using individual data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics together with area-level data from external sources. While individual-level variables are the strongest predictors of migration, contextual variables and multilevel interactions improve the explanatory power of the models. Effects of some contextual variables, such as climate, crime rates, and cost of living, vary among elderly subgroups." A comment by Gary M. Fournier is included (pp. 417-9).
Correspondence: J. E. Kallan, National Research Council, Studies and Surveys Unit, OSEP, 2101 Constitution Avenue, Washington, D.C. 20418. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:30491 Komendarczyk, Ewa; Poniatowska-Jaksch, Malgorzata. Situation of small towns in Ciechanow Province in the settlement system, and permanent migration of the population (directions, structures, and effects). [Polozenie mniejszych miast wojewodztwa ciechanowskiego w systemie osadniczym a migracje stale ludnosci (kierunki, struktury i efekty).] Biuletyn IGS, Vol. 34, No. 3, 1991. 258 pp. Szkola Glowna Handlowa, Instytut Gospodarstwa Spolecznego: Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
This is an analysis of migration to and from seven small towns in Ciechanow Province, Poland, during the period 1976-1987.
Correspondence: Szkola Glowna Handlowa, Instytut Gospodarstwa Spolecznego, Al. Niepodleglosci 162, 02-554 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30492 Kucinski, Kazimierz; Rakowski, Witold. Determinants of migration to Warsaw. [Uwarunkowania imigracji do Warszawy.] Biuletyn IGS, Vol. 33, No. 4, 1990. 11-43, 224, 229 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The authors examine trends and determinants of internal migration to Warsaw, Poland. Consideration is given to occupational and socioeconomic status of migrants, rural-urban migration, and effects of migration on marriage.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30493 Milne, William J. Macroeconomic influences on migration. Regional Studies, Vol. 27, No. 4, 1993. 365-73 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"The changing composition and magnitude of internal migration flows are of critical importance in determining the potential economic growth of a region. Yet, there can be little doubt that the business cycle has a significant influence on migration flows and propensities. This paper explores the effects of macroeconomic events on migration [within Canada] through an examination of the extent of the influence of the national and regional business cycle on the in-, out- and net-migration rates."
Correspondence: W. J. Milne, University of New Brunswick, Department of Economics, Fredericton, New Brunswick E3B 5A3, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

59:30494 Morrison, Andrew R. Violence or economics: what drives internal migration in Guatemala? Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 41, No. 4, Jul 1993. 817-31 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"The purpose of this article is to embed political violence within a standard economic model of migration. It tests the hypothesis that violence is a key determinant of migration decisions in a country suffering from endemic political violence. In particular, a nonlinear relationship is suggested between violence and migration; while violence is posited to affect migration at all nonzero levels, this effect intensifies as the level of violence escalates. The country examined in this article is Guatemala, which has suffered from severe political violence since 1966."
Correspondence: A. R. Morrison, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

59:30495 Plane, David A. Demographic influences on migration. Regional Studies, Vol. 27, No. 4, 1993. 375-83 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"This paper explores the effects of demographic change on migration [within the United States] through an examination of migration rates of different age groups and cohorts over time, and the effect on total migration flows of the ageing of regional populations....[The author concludes that] the human investment framework provides a powerful analytical device for analysing migration decision-making at different stages of the life course. Labour supply pressure is advanced as a significant demographic influence on labour mobility."
Correspondence: D. A. Plane, University of Arizona, Department of Geography and Regional Development, Harvill Building, Box 2, Tucson, AZ 85721. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

59:30496 Plane, David A. Requiem for the fixed-transition-probability migrant. Geographical Analysis, Vol. 25, No. 3, Jul 1993. 211-23 pp. Columbus, Ohio. In Eng.
"In a recent paper...Andrei Rogers persuasively argues for the use of a multiregional perspective rather than a uniregional one in measuring and projecting the dynamics of internal migration. In particular, he highlights the deficiencies of using net migration rates in population projections, giving illustrations of the very large differences that can occur if constant net migration rates are assumed versus fixed interregional transition probabilities....This paper explores alternative, more behaviorally pleasing interregional models that posit a role for shifting destination populations in altering the attractiveness of migration alternatives. Density-dampened, destination-population-weighted transition probability structures are explored. The importance of modeling intraregional migration separately from nonmovement is stressed."
For the article by Rogers, published in 1990, see 56:40420.
Correspondence: D. A. Plane, University of Arizona, Department of Geography and Regional Development, Tucson, AZ 85721. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

59:30497 Pumain, Denise; Courgeau, Daniel. Migration and critical times. [Mobilite par temps de crise.] Population et Societes, No. 279, May 1993. 4 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
Current trends in internal migration in France are briefly analyzed for the period 1982-1990 using 1990 census data. The authors attribute the decline in mobility to worsening economic conditions.
Correspondence: D. Pumain, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30498 Robles Sosa, Zeida; Vargas Rodriguez, Edwin; Quisbert, Roberto P.; Ruiz, Martha. Analysis of migration in Bolivia. [Analisis de la realidad migratoria en Bolivia.] 1991. 78 pp. Conferencia Episcopal Boliviana [CEB], Secretariado Nacional de Pastoral Social [SENPAS]: La Paz, Bolivia. In Spa.
Levels, trends, and causes of internal migration in Bolivia are examined. Consideration is given to historical precedents, including agrarian reform; the drought of the 1980s; the impact of political factors; socioeconomic incentives to migrate; migrant characteristics and the informal sector; and access to basic health services for the migrant population. The focus is on the role of the Episcopal Church as a provider of social services.
Correspondence: Conferencia Episcopal Boliviana, Secretariado Nacional de Pastoral Social, Avenida 20 de Octubre 2031 Casilla 8777, La Paz, Bolivia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30499 Rogers, Andrei; Hemez-Descryve, Cecile. Changing patterns of interregional migration and population redistribution in the United States: a cohort perspective. Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 1, 1993. 35-46 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper examines the effect of relative cohort size on the levels, spatial structures and age patterns of the interdivisional migration of young adults in the United States. The goal is to test some of the hypotheses put forward by Plane and Rogerson in a recent article on the topic. Three cohorts are studied across three time intervals: 1935-1940, 1955-1960 and 1975-1980....Relative cohort size appears to affect the levels and age patterns of migration. However, the effect of relative cohort size on the spatial structures of migration is not clear...."
For the article by David A. Plane and Peter A. Rogerson, published in 1991, see 58:30534.
Correspondence: A. Rogers, University of Colorado, Population Program, Boulder, CO 80309-0484. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30500 Rosenbaum, Harry. Selectivity among various types of inter-provincial migrants, Canada 1976-1981. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 20, No. 1, 1993. 85-106 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This study examines inter-provincial migration in Canada from 1976 to 1981. Using dummy dependent-variable regression analysis and data from the individual file of the 1981 Canadian Census Public Use Sample Tape, the author investigates which factors best differentiate return movers from primary and onward movers. The analysis reveals that the destination region and a composite measure of marital status and family size are best able to differentiate return moves from the other types of moves; education, occupation and age are also significant factors affecting the type of move."
Correspondence: H. Rosenbaum, University of Winnipeg, 515 Portage Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3B 2E9, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30501 Shrestha, Nanda R.; Velu, Raja P.; Conway, Dennis. Frontier migration and upward mobility: the case of Nepal. Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 41, No. 4, Jul 1993. 787-816 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"The primary objective of this study is to investigate how frontier migration affects migrants' socioeconomic improvements in the Tarai, which is regarded as Nepal's land frontier as well as agricultural backbone....The first [section] provides a conceptual overview of the relationship between frontier migration and upward mobility that, for the purpose of this analysis, is defined as migrants' comparative socioeconomic improvements over their previous conditions. This is followed by a brief historical discussion of frontier migration and settlement in [the] region. Analysis and interpretation of the field data collected in 1988 form the content of the third section. Concluding remarks deal with implications of the findings for Nepal's local and national development."
Correspondence: N. R. Shrestha, University of Wisconsin, Whitewater, WI 53190. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

59:30502 Sydenstricker, John M.; Torres, Haroldo G. Mobility of migrants: autonomy or subordination in the Amazon region? [Mobilidade de migrantes: autonomia ou subordinacao na Amazonia legal?] Revista Brasileira de Estudos de Populacao, Vol. 8, No. 1-2, Jan-Dec 1991. 33-54 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
The authors examine the mobility of the population of the rural Machadinho Settlement Project in Brazil from July 1985 to June 1987. "Mobility is analyzed according to general demographic variables as sex, age and migratory experience. In spite of the relatively low levels of mobility, the differentials that arise reflect the conditions under which the occupation of Machadinho occurred and the seasonality of the regional agricultural cycle. Mobility patterns are examined in relation to the most recent debates on the 'peasantry' in Brazil and on the frontier. The existence of different strategies or distinctive projects within the same population is discussed...."
Correspondence: J. M. Sydenstricker, Universidad Estadual de Campinas, Nucleo de Estudos de Populacao, Caixa Postal 6166, CEP 13081 Campinas, SP, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30503 Treyz, George I.; Rickman, Dan S.; Hunt, Gary L.; Greenwood, Michael J. The dynamics of U.S. internal migration. Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 75, No. 2, May 1993. 209-14 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"In this paper we have theoretically derived a net migration equation and estimated it using time-series data for 51 [U.S.] regions over the period 1971-1988. The results indicate that the dynamic response of net migration is stable and is significantly related to stock equilibrium changes induced by amenity differentials, relative employment opportunities, relative real wages, and industry composition."
Correspondence: G. I. Treyz, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

59:30504 Vuddamalay, Vasoodeven. The migration and ethnic factor in French geography. [La fait migratoire et ethnique dans la geographie francaise.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 1, 1993. 85-91 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre.
The geographical aspects of the migration of ethnic groups within France are outlined, with a focus on the study of internal migration.
Correspondence: V. Vuddamalay, 109 rue de la Reunion, 75020 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.4. Settlement and Resettlement

Studies on international and internal settlement and resettlement, including programs concerned with refugees and their settlement and with forced migrations.

59:30505 Coulombe, Liisa. Frontier migration: a new field of study. [Les migrations transfrontalieres: un champ d'etude en devenir.] Etudes Internationales, Vol. 24, No. 1, Mar 1993. 203-12 pp. Quebec, Canada. In Fre.
This is a review of the recent literature on frontier migration, which is defined here as voluntary and involuntary migration across international borders, primarily involving refugees. Three themes are identified: the dynamics of voluntary international migration, the concept of asylum for refugees, and the problems involved in devising suitable migration policies.
Correspondence: L. Coulombe, Australian National University, Research School of Pacific Studies, Department of International Relations, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

59:30506 Elnajjar, Hassan. Planned emigration: the Palestinian case. International Migration Review, Vol. 27, No. 1, Spring 1993. 34-50 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article examines the UN policies encouraging emigration from the Palestinian refugee camps through educating Palestinians and sending them for work abroad. Data show that emigration is more related to certain types of employment, especially skilled labor and white-collar jobs, than to employment per se. The data were collected, through personal interviews, from Dair El Balah refugee camp in Gaza Strip in 1986. There are 291 observations representing individuals who are 19 years old or over. A major conclusion of this study is that the educational policies initiated and operated by the United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) contributed to the dispersion of about one third of the refugees in the 1960s and the 1970s."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30507 Gold, Steve; Kibria, Nazli. Vietnamese refugees and blocked mobility. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 2, No. 1, 1993. 27-56 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"This paper examines data from published sources and ethnographic studies conducted by the authors in Oakland, California and Philadelphia [Pennsylvania] to assess the economic situation of Vietnamese refugees in the United States. Evidence suggests that in strong contrast to being a 'success story,' the economic status of many recently arrived Vietnamese refugees is characterized by unstable, minimum-wage employment, welfare dependency and participation in the informal economy. The paper suggests that the group's economic opportunities have been limited by the configuration of circumstances that have surrounded their entry and settlement into the United States as refugees, as well as by the demographic structure of the group."
Correspondence: S. Gold, Whittier College, Whittier, CA 90608. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30508 Lisansky, Judith. Migrants to Amazonia: spontaneous colonization in the Brazilian frontier. Westview Special Studies on Latin America and the Caribbean, ISBN 0-8133-7495-2. LC 89-37518. 1990. xviii, 176 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/London, England. In Eng.
This is an anthropological study of spontaneous migration to Amazonia in Brazil. "It tells the story of the inhabitants of Santa Terezinha (Mato Grosso), a village in southeastern Amazonia settled primarily by northeastern Brazilian small farmers who had migrated westward in their search for unclaimed land. Tracing the impact on regional inhabitants of national development policies and specifically the establishment of corporate cattle ranches, the author analyzes the many constraints frontier households face and the survival strategies employed in trying to eke out a living and realize a dream of betterment."
Correspondence: Westview Press, 5500 Central Avenue, Boulder, CO 80301. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

59:30509 Shami, Seteney. The social implications of population displacement and resetttlement: an overview with a focus on the Arab Middle East. International Migration Review, Vol. 27, No. 1, Spring 1993. 4-33 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"Recent decades have witnessed a global increase in the collective displacement of populations as a result of natural disasters, wars and development projects. The social implications of displacement, and its corollary process of resettlement, are explored in this article, with a focus on the Arab world....[The author suggests that] an approach which emphasizes the relation between the causes and consequences of displacement, examines cases in their historical contexts, and selects the appropriate unit of analysis is essential in developing an adequate framework of analysis."
Correspondence: S. Shami, Yarmouk University, P.O. Box 566, Irbid, Jordan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.5. Temporary Migration

Migration, both internal and international, in which the stay is temporary. Includes return migration, transit migration, commuting, and seasonal migration.

59:30510 Chen, Chaonan. Extended commuting and migration in the Taipei metropolitan area. Journal of Population Studies, No. 15, Dec 1992. 161-82 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Eng. with sum. in Chi.
"The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between extended commuting and migration in the Taipei [Taiwan] metropolitan area. Specifically, we are interested in two aspects of this relationship. One is the relative size or contribution of extended commuting and migration to the labor force of the Taipei metropolitan area. The other is whether extended commuting and migration are alternatives for every type of labor group....We found that [the] volume of extended commuters supersedes that of migrants....When migrants are directly compared with extended commuters, we [also] find that migrants are younger than extended commuters. Of marital status and education, migrants are unmarried and with less education...." Differences in occupational status are discussed. Data are from a 1988 labor force survey.
Correspondence: C. Chen, Academia Sinica, Institute of Economics, Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30511 Forstall, Richard L. Going to town. American Demographics, Vol. 15, No. 5, May 1993. 42-7 pp. Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
The author examines intercounty commuting patterns and their impact on business practices in the United States. He finds that "although job growth has been rapid in America's suburbs, these urban frontiers will continue to depend on central cities for jobs well into the 21st century."
Correspondence: R. L. Forstall, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Population Division, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30512 Goldstein, Alice; Guo, Shenyang. Temporary migration in Shanghai and Beijing. PSTC Reprint Series, No. 93-06, Jul 1993. [17] pp. Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center [PSTC]: Providence, Rhode Island. In Eng.
"Using data from surveys in Shanghai and Beijing, this article focuses on the sociodemographic characteristics of temporary migrants in relation to their reasons for moving and the duration of their stay at destination. Many temporary migrants come to these cities in search of work; however, many others move for noneconomic reasons associated with family reunion and retirement. Moreover, the distinctive socioeconomic features of Shanghai and Beijing also influence the characteristics of temporary migrants and their reasons for coming to the cities."
This article is reprinted from Studies in Comparative International Development (New Brunswick, New Jersey), Vol. 27, No. 2, Summer 1992, pp. 39-56.
Correspondence: Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30513 Lien, Da-Hsiang D. Asymmetric information and the brain drain. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1993. 169-80 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"Within an asymmetric information framework, we investigate the effects of subsidies for return [to developing countries] when the size of the foreign student population is endogenous. Given the stability condition and the assumption that the education system is effective in the home country, we show that subsidies for return always act to improve the average ability of returning Ph.D.s but the impact upon the number of emigrants is ambiguous."
Correspondence: D.-H. D. Lien, University of Kansas, Department of Economics, Lawrence, KS 66045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30514 Lindquist, Bruce A. Migration networks: a case study in the Philippines. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 2, No. 1, 1993. 75-104 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"In an attempt to consider contract labor and other forms of temporary migration from the Philippines within the context of several interacting processes, I will first examine aspects of the international economy and government policy that set the stage for labor movement. It will then be argued that international migration flows emerge as a complex set of links that connect individuals and communities to the national capital region and ultimately to places abroad. This approach acknowledges that structural imbalances provide conditions for potential movement, but that this potential is translated into movement flows only when links between various people, places and mediating structures are actually activated through social networks. Once these links are established, a cascading system of migration emerges that is held together by a series of interpersonal relationships."
Correspondence: B. A. Lindquist, University of Hawaii, 2444 Dole Street, Honolulu, HI 96822. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30515 Michalowski, Margaret. Redefining the concept of immigration in Canada. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 20, No. 1, 1993. 59-84 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"In Canada, temporary movements of foreigners have so far been excluded from the system of international migration statistics, and consequently, from any demographic and socio-economic analysis of the impact of these movements on the socio-economic situation in the country....The purpose of this paper is to analyze the trends and selectivity among foreign temporary residents in Canada. The study covers the period between 1981 and 1990, and is confined to the following characteristics: sex, age, marital status, occupation, place of destination, length of stay, and type of authorization to remain in Canada."
Correspondence: M. Michalowski, Statistics Canada, Demography Division, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30516 Muschkin, Clara G. Consequences of return migrant status for employment in Puerto Rico. International Migration Review, Vol. 27, No. 1, Spring 1993. 79-102 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"At the aggregate level, return migrants in Puerto Rico in 1970 and 1980 faced greater employment-related difficulties, as compared with nonmigrants. This article explores the individual-level relationship of return migrant status to employment outcomes. The conceptual framework takes into consideration local and regional contextual factors, particularly the employment conditions prevailing in Puerto Rico during this period. Within this framework, specific hypotheses suggest a negative influence of return migrant status....The findings substantiate the hypotheses for both census years and indicate the importance of the duration of residence in the United States and the timing of the return move as mediating factors."
Correspondence: C. G. Muschkin, Duke University, Durham, NC 27706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30517 Rakowski, Witold; Gocal, Teresa. Spatial and socio-demographic characteristics of commuters in Olsztyn Voivodship. [Struktura przestrzenna i demograficzno-spoleczna dojazdow ludnosci do pracy (na przykladzie wojewodztwa olsztynskiego).] Biuletyn IGS, Vol. 33, No. 4, 1990. 173-99, 227, 231-2 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The authors discuss changes in commuting patterns and characteristics of commuters in Olsztyn Voivodship, Poland. It is found that "commuters to towns are considerably younger than [those] commuting in the opposite direction [and] a decisive majority of commuters are employed as manual workers (85%). Education level of female commuters in both directions was relatively higher than that of males, [with a] higher per cent of females [working] as white-collar workers."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30518 Reichert, Christoph. Labour migration and rural development in Egypt: a study of return migration in six villages. Sociologia Ruralis, Vol. 33, No. 1, 1993. 42-60, 119, 122 pp. Assen, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"The article outlines some results of research on the impact of return migration on social change in the Egyptian countryside. Fieldwork was done in six villages situated in three different provinces in 1987/88....Between 19 and 43 per cent of households in the villages concerned have some external migration experience. Within the more general framework of economic liberalization introduced in the Sadat era, international labour migration is related to structural change in village society. Workers' remittances are mainly used for construction and consumption purposes. Investment of remittances is less developed....The assumption underlying this analysis is that channeling savings into rural development is possible provided adequate support facilities for small enterprise development exist."
Correspondence: C. Reichert, Integration Gesellschaft fur Entwicklungs-Cooperation, Frankfurt am Main, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:30519 Shabanova, M. A. Migratory work today as a sociocultural phenomenon. Sociological Research, Vol. 32, No. 3, May-Jun 1993. 71-85 pp. Armonk, New York. In Eng.
The author analyzes seasonal labor migration patterns within the former USSR. She notes that much of this movement is officially illegal, involves long working hours, and has in part developed in response to supply and demand factors. The government has tolerated these migrations on the grounds that they help close the gap between the demand for labor and the supply of workers. Migrant characteristics and motives for migrating are considered.
This is a translation of the Russian article published in 1992 and cited in 58:30551.
Correspondence: M. A. Shabanova, Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics and Organization of Industrial Production, Siberia Division, Novosibirsk, Novosibirsk Oblast, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:30520 Sorlie, Kjetil. Fewer young adult Norwegians return to the municipality of their childhood. A study of two cohorts born 10 years apart. [Faerre unge tilbakeflyttere til norske kommuner. Vi folger to arskull fodt med ti ars mellomrom.] Working Papers from Department for Statistics on Individuals and Households: Population and Living Conditions, Vol. 4, 1992. 213-31 pp. Oslo-Kongsvinger, Norway. In Nor. with sum. in Eng.
Data for cohorts born in Norway in 1951 and 1961 are analyzed and compared for trends in temporary migration. The focus is on the propensity to return to the place of birth after leaving to attend university or for employment.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.6. Rural-Urban Migration

Migration from rural to urban areas (the rural exodus), both internal and international. Reverse or turnaround migration is also included.

59:30521 Dupont, Veronique. Impact of in-migration on industrial development in a middle-sized town of Gujarat. Gujarat Institute of Development Research Working Paper, No. 44, ISBN 81-85820-01-5. Sep 1992. 32 pp. Gujarat Institute of Development Research: Ahmedabad, India. In Eng.
This study examines two issues: "How has in-migration affected the process of industrialization in [Jetpur, India], and what specific role has commuting played? How have in-migration and/or absorption into the industrial sector affected the economic status of the migrants or commuters themselves?" Data are from fieldwork carried out during the period 1987-1989.
Correspondence: Gujarat Institute of Development Research, Gota 382 481, Ahmedabad, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30522 Gupta, Manash R. Rural-urban migration, informal sector and development policies: a theoretical analysis. Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 41, No. 1, Jun 1993. 137-51 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"A theoretical model of rural-urban migration has been developed with special reference to the informal sector. The wage rate and employment in the informal sector are determined endogenously. The paper shows the simultaneous existence of open unemployment and informal sector in the urban area in migration equilibrium. The effects of alternative subsidy policies on unemployment and welfare of the workers are studied." The model is intended primarily for use in analyzing trends and policies in developing countries.
Correspondence: M. R. Gupta, Arabinda Sarani, Basunagar, P.O. Madhyamgram, Dt. North 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

59:30523 Mitra, Arup. Rural-to-urban migration, urban workforce and tertiary sector employment: inter-relationship. Artha Vijnana, Vol. 34, No. 2, Jun 1992. 107-24 pp. Pune, India. In Eng.
"In this study, it is argued that the rural to urban migration rate is both influenced by and influences the workforce participation rate and the level of service employment in the cities." The geographical focus is on India.
Correspondence: A. Mitra, University of Delhi, Delhi School of Economics, Department of Economics, Delhi 100 007, India. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

59:30524 Poniatowska-Jaksch, Malgorzata. Permanent migration of the population of Ciechanow during the period 1976-1987. [Migracje stale ludnosci Ciechanowa w latach 1976-1987.] Biuletyn IGS, Vol. 33, No. 4, 1990. 44-88, 224, 229-30 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Trends in migration to the city of Ciechanow, Poland, from 1976 to 1987 are analyzed. The author finds that a "majority of population settling in this centre came from rural areas, and the percent share of this subpopulation in the total number of migrants grew from 62.8% in 1976 to over 80% in 1987." Consideration is given to changes in age distribution and family characteristics among migrants.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30525 Rakowski, Witold. Migration patterns among the rural agricultural population (example of Ciechanow voivodship). Regional problems in the Warsaw area. Volume 6. [Migracje ludnosci wiejskiej obszaru wybitnie rolniczego (na przykladzie wojewodztwa ciechanowskiego). Problemy regionu warszawskiego. Tom VI.] Biuletyn IGS, Vol. 33, No. 2, 1990. 208 pp. Szkola Glowna Handlowa, Instytut Gospodarstwa Spolecznego: Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Migratory flows in the voivodship of Ciechanow, Poland, are examined for the period 1976-1988. The focus is on movement to neighboring urban centers by the rural agricultural population, with emphasis on the impact of economic development on migration.
Correspondence: Szkola Glowna Handlowa, Instytut Gospodarstwa Spolecznego, Al. Niepodleglosci 162, 02-554 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30526 United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP] (Bangkok, Thailand). Small town and rural human resources development to reduce migration to large cities: China, India, Indonesia, Nepal, Papua New Guinea. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 110, Pub. Order No. ST/ESCAP/1102. 1991. vi, 260 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
This publication contains five studies prepared as part of a UN project to develop small towns in order to reduce migration to larger cities in developing countries. "The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of human resources development policies on urbanization and rural-urban migration and to develop policy guidelines for improving such policies and their implementation. The policies recommended are intended to reduce rural-urban migration and to improve human resources and their utilization, particularly in small towns and rural areas." The five case studies concern China, India, Indonesia, Nepal, and Papua New Guinea.
Correspondence: UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, United Nations Building, Rajdamnern Nok Avenue, Bangkok 10200, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30527 Wenk, DeeAnn; Hardesty, Constance. The effects of rural-to-urban migration on the poverty status of youth in the 1980s. Rural Sociology, Vol. 58, No. 1, Spring 1993. 76-92 pp. Bozeman, Montana. In Eng.
"The effects of rural-to-urban migration on the poverty status of migrants have not been adequately explored. Using data from the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine poverty status before and after a rural-to-urban migration, a proportional hazards model of time spent in poverty that begins in rural areas is estimated to determine whether moving to an urban area reduces the time spent in poverty while controlling for individual educational and family characteristics. Results indicate that moving from a rural to an urban area reduces time spent in poverty for white and black women but the effects are not statistically significant for men. Further, to adequately understand the relationship between moving to an urban area and poverty, the analysis examines the effects of moving on the length of time spent not employed."
Correspondence: D. Wenk, University of Oklahoma, Department of Sociology, Norman, OK 73019. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30528 Witkowski, Janusz. Recent studies on migration in Poland. Materialien zur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, No. 75, 1992. 75-95 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Eng.
The author reviews studies conducted between 1985 and 1990 concerning the impact of migration on socioeconomic development in Poland. The focus is on the consequences of rural-urban movement. "According to the results of [the] analysis, the demographic consequences of migration are...significant for rural areas, especially the ones showing large and long-term population outflow. The consequences of this stream of migration are not significant for the population situation on a nation-wide scale."
Correspondence: J. Witkowski, Szkola Glowna Handlowa, Instytut Statystyki i Demografii, Al. Niepodleglosci 162, 00-554 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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