Volume 59 - Number 3 - Fall 1993

G. Nuptiality and the Family

Studies that quantitatively analyze aspects of nuptiality and the family. Studies concerned equally with marriage and the family are coded first under G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to G.1. Marriage and Divorce . Methodological studies on nuptiality and the family are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , as appropriate.

G.1. Marriage and Divorce

Studies of trends in marriage and divorce, nuptiality, duration of marriage, age at marriage, and demographic characteristics of marriage partners. Also includes studies of unmarried cohabitation and consensual unions.

59:30336 Antoine, Philippe; Nanite-Lamio, Jeanne. More single women in African cities: Pikine, Abidjan and Brazzaville. Population. English Selection, Vol. 3, 1991. 149-69 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
The authors examine increases in marriage age among women in Africa. They show that "this evolution towards later marriage is linked to schooling, but changes are also emerging among women who have not attended school....[The authors] show that the growing proportions of single women are not merely the result of marriage postponement, but a sign of more in-depth changes which are transforming African urban societies."
This is a translation of the article published in French in 1990 and cited in 56:20325.
Correspondence: P. Antoine, Institut Francaise de Recherche pour le Developpement en Cooperation, B.P. 1386, Dakar-Hann, Senegal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30337 Atoh, Makoto. Attitude toward marriage among the youth: causes for the recent rise in the proportion single among the twenties. Institute of Population Problems Reprint Series, No. 15, Feb 1993. 31 pp. Institute of Population Problems: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"The causes for the recent rise in the proportion single [in Japan] will be explored...." Data are from the Twentieth Mainichi Opinion Survey conducted in 1990.
This paper is reprinted from "Summary of Twentieth National Survey on Family Planning", pp. 203-5, Tokyo, Japan, Population Problems Research Council, 1990.
Correspondence: Institute of Population Problems, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-45, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30338 Blom, Svein. Entry into first marriage or cohabitation by Norwegian men and women born 1945 and 1960. Working Papers from Department for Statistics on Individuals and Households: Population and Living Conditions, Vol. 4, 1992. 5-35 pp. Oslo-Kongsvinger, Norway. In Eng.
"Our aim in this paper is to give a broad picture of different factors influencing the...transitions from the single state to first marriage or to first unmarried cohabitation using the method of hazard regression. Results will be based on the data of the [Norwegian] Survey of 1988 and will be presented for each sex separately for the two cohorts born in 1945 and 1960, which are the ones for which we have data for both sexes."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30339 Blossfeld, Hans-Peter; De Rose, Alessandra; Hoem, Jan M.; Rohwer, Gotz. Education, modernization, and the risk of marriage disruption: differences in the effect of women's educational attainment in Sweden, West-Germany, and Italy. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 76, ISBN 91-7820-072-5. Feb 1993. [iii], 46 pp. Stockholm University, Section of Demography: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
Using event history data collected during the 1980s, the authors show that an increase in women's education leads to an increased risk of marital disruption in Italy, Sweden, and West Germany.
Correspondence: Stockholms Universitet, Demografiska Avdelningen, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30340 Bozon, Michel. Women and the age gap between spouses: an accepted domination? Population. English Selection, Vol. 3, 1991. 113-48 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
"Why do the couples formed today, with a [possible] range of unions which did not exist in the past, perpetuate the conventional image of a younger woman with an older man? [The author] examines this question from the angle of the social significance of age for men and women at the time when they decide to form a couple. He relates this to their background and situation at that time, in particular with respect to education and employment." Data are from a 1986 family history survey conducted in France.
This is a translation of the two-part article published in 1990 in French and cited in 56:40354 and 57:10395.
Correspondence: M. Bozon, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30341 Brown-Demonet, Elisabeth. Thirty-five years of family formation in France. Trends in legal marriage and in the creation of new couples. [Trente cinq ans de formation des couples en France. Evolution de la nuptialite legale et nouveaux couples.] Acta Demographica, No. 10, Nov 1992. 5-22 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Fre.
Nuptiality trends in France are analyzed over the period 1950-1987. Separate consideration is given to age at first marriage and to the growing popularity of consensual unions.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30342 Chojnacka, Helena. Nuptiality during the early stages of the demographic transition. [La nuptialite dans les premieres etapes de la transition demographique.] Population, Vol. 48, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1993. 307-24 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The author examines the impact of nuptiality prior to and in the earliest stages of a demographic transition on the timing of the subsequent fertility decline. "We shall show that this timing depends on nuptiality during the period prior to the demographic transition. In populations in which women married at an early age and where marriage for them was nearly universal, the first stages of the transition coincided with changes in nuptiality, but fertility did not begin to fall until several decades later."
Correspondence: H. Chojnacka, Manhattanville College, Purchase, NY. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30343 DeMaris, Alfred; MacDonald, William. Premarital cohabitation and marital instability: a test of the unconventionality hypothesis. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 55, No. 2, May 1993. 399-407 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"This study examines whether the greater instability of marriages begun by premarital cohabitation can be accounted for by cohabitors' greater unconventionality in family ideology. The hypothesis was largely unsupported. Although family attitudes and beliefs tend to predict the attractiveness of a cohabiting lifestyle, they do not account for differences between cohabitors and noncohabitors in instability. Moreover, controlling for background differences, only serial cohabitation is associated with greater instability among intact first marriages of up to 10 years duration....Data for this study come from the [U.S.] National Survey of Families and Households 1987-88...."
Correspondence: A. DeMaris, Bowling Green State University, Department of Sociology, Bowling Green, OH 43403. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30344 Dittgen, Alfred. Recent trends in divorce in France: some comparisons with the Czechoslovak republics. [L'evolution recente de la divortialite en France: quelque comparaisons avec les republiques tchecoslovaques.] Acta Demographica, No. 10, Nov 1992. 123-49 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Fre.
The first part of this article presents a demographic analysis of differences in divorce patterns between France and Czechoslovakia. The second part examines social factors affecting divorce in France.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30345 Fang, Kaitai; Chen, Runtian; Ren, Zizhong; Wang, Guoliang. Distribution fitting of the women's first marriage, first birth and second birth. In: Fertility in China. Proceedings of the International Seminar on China's In-Depth Fertility Survey, Beijing, February 13-17, 1990. 1991. 115-29 pp. International Statistical Institute [ISI]: Voorburg, Netherlands. In Eng.
The timing of first marriage, first birth, and second birth in China is analyzed by applying "distribution fitting of the ages of first marriage in each year from 1959 to 1984 and the ages at the second birth of women in Hebei province, Shaanxi province and Shanghai municipality...utilizing the information from China's Phase One In-Depth Fertility Survey [of]...April, 1985....A distribution fitting of the first marriage model and first birth model of women of childbearing age [is also made] by utilizing the information from the National 1/1,000 Population Fertility Sample Survey...[of] September, 1982."
Correspondence: K. Fang, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Applied Mathematics, 52 San Li He Road, Beijing 100864, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30346 Fossett, Mark A.; Kiecolt, K. Jill. Mate availability and family structure among African Americans in U.S. metropolitan areas. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 55, No. 2, May 1993. 288-302 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"Census and vital statistics data for U.S. metropolitan areas in 1980 were analyzed to investigate the effects of mate availability, men's and women's levels of socioeconomic status and employment, level of public assistance, population size, and region on several aspects of family formation and family structure among African Americans. As predicted by theory, mate availability as measured by the sex ratio had a positive effect on marriage prevalence for women and a negative effect on marriage prevalence for men....Men's socioeconomic status had positive effects on men's and women's marriage prevalence, the prevalence of husband-wife families, the percentage of children residing in husband-wife families, and the percentage of marital births. Women's socioeconomic status and level of public assistance had negative effects on these variables. We conclude that mate availability, men's socioeconomic status, women's status and economic independence are important determinants of African American family formation and family structure."
Correspondence: M. A. Fossett, Texas A and M University, Department of Sociology, College Station, TX 77843. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30347 Fukurai, Hiroshi; Alston, Jon P. Ecological determinants of divorce: a structural approach to the explanation of Japanese divorce. Social Biology, Vol. 39, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1992. 257-77 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"This paper examines the ecological determinants of contemporary Japanese divorce rates on the prefectural level. LISREL and computer-generated graphics are the analytic methods used....Our analysis demonstrates that sex ratio, female labor force participation, female in-migration patterns, population increase, and net household income all play a significant role in affecting the divorce rate. Our findings also confirm the well-supported hypothesis that both population density and modernization positively influence modern Japan's divorce rates. The residual analysis also points out that in order to account for the large proportion of the unexplained variance of Japanese divorce, behavioral-related variables and island- or prefecture-specific dimensions need to be included in the ecological model of divorce."
Correspondence: H. Fukurai, University of California, Board of Studies in Sociology, Santa Cruz, CA 95064. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30348 Ghilagaber, Gebrenegus. Family initiation among Swedish males born 1936-1964: the choice between marriage and cohabitation. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 77, ISBN 91-7820-074-1. Jun 1993. 59 pp. Stockholm University, Demography Unit: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
Family formation behavior among Swedish males is analyzed using data from the 1985 Mail Survey of Swedish Men. "Results from a competing-risks analysis show a recent reversal of the great preference of unmarried cohabitation over marriage that had continued for the last few decades."
Correspondence: Stockholm University, Demography Unit, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30349 Grossbard-Shechtman, Shoshana. On the economics of marriage: a theory of marriage, labor, and divorce. ISBN 0-8133-8527-X. LC 92-38863. 1993. xviii, 349 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/Oxford, England. In Eng.
In this study, the author attempts to develop a theory that integrates the labor and marriage markets. She uses data, primarily from Israel and the United States, to predict the effects of particular factors, such as individual resources and market size, on individual and market labor supply and marital choices. The approach is interdisciplinary, combining aspects of sociology, demography, and anthropology, as well as economics. In Part 1, the author examines reasons why the economic analysis of marriage has not been widely attempted. Part 2 presents the author's general equilibrium theory of labor and marriage. Parts 3 and 4 consider some implications of the theory for the study of sex ratio effects and compensating differentials in marriage. Part 5 provides further applications to the study of cohabitation, divorce, and polygamy. Part 6 examines how a spouse's help increases a person's human capital.
Correspondence: Westview Press, 5500 Central Avenue, Boulder, CO 80301-2877. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

59:30350 Hirosima, Kiyosi; Yamamoto, Chizuko. Nuptiality and divorce in Japan: 1991. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 48, No. 4, Jan 1993. 31-50 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
The authors present nuptiality and divorce data for Japan. The focus is on the years 1990-1991, with retrospective data included to 1965.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30351 Kalibova, Kveta; Tutterova, Jitka. Dissolution of marital couples in Czechoslovakia and some of its consequences. Acta Demographica, No. 10, Nov 1992. 107-21 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Eng.
Trends in divorce in Czechoslovakia are analyzed over the period 1950-1985 using data from a number of sources, including a 1987 survey on the stability of the family.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30352 Kalmijn, Matthijs. Spouse selection among the children of European immigrants: a comparison of marriage cohorts in the 1960 census. International Migration Review, Vol. 27, No. 1, Spring 1993. 51-78 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article uses 1960 [U.S.] census data to describe patterns of spouse selection among the native-born children of European immigrants. The analysis builds on previous studies of ethnic intermarriage, but is new in that it focuses specifically on the second generation. In addition, it considers intermarriage as a multidimensional phenomenon and evaluates how the relative importance of national and educational boundaries in marriage choice has changed. Comparisons of synthetic marriage cohorts suggest that second generation European Americans marry increasingly into the native stock, they marry increasingly out of their national origin group, and the national boundaries that separate them have become weaker over time. At the same time, it is found that educational homogamy has increased across cohorts."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1991 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30353 Kayani, Ashraf K.; Khan, Jahangir. Marriage delays in Pakistan: analysis of selected view points. Pakistan Population Review, Vol. 3, No. 1, Spring 1992. 87-99 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
The authors explore reasons for the observed increases in marriage age in Pakistan. "Using anecdotal data from urban Pakistan, an attempt is made in this paper to analyse the perceived reasons that cause delay in marriage as well as some suggestions made by the respondents of this study to overcome the delay if necessary. In [pursuing] this objective, regional and gender variations with regard to reasons and suggestions are discussed."
Correspondence: A. F. Kayani, King Saud University, College of Applied Medical Sciences, POB 2454, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30354 Kluzowa, Krystyna; Slany, Krystyna. Remarriage in Poland. [Malzenstwa powtorne w Polsce.] Studia Demograficzne, No. 2/100, 1990. [25] pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in remarriage in Poland since 1960 are analyzed "by age, sex, marital status and place of residence of remarrying persons....In the period under investigation the proportion of remarriages in total number of marriages contracted increased. Remarriages are more frequent in urban than in rural areas and among males than females. The most common are marriages of divorced males and single women; remarriages of widowed persons occur the most seldom....Marriages [between] single-divorced persons have the highest reproductive potential; marriages [between] widowers-widows have the lowest one."
Correspondence: K. Kluzowa, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Instytut Socjologii, Golebia 24, 31-007 Krakow, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30355 Kojima, Hiroshi. Sibling configuration and marriage timing in Japan. Institute of Population Problems Working Paper Series, No. 13, Jan 1993. 54 pp. Institute of Population Problems: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"This study aims to clarify the effects of sibling configuration...on the probability of first marriage by...three types of postnuptial residence in Japan...." The types are living with husband's parents, living with wife's parents, and living independently.
Correspondence: Institute of Population Problems, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-45, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30356 Lampard, Richard. Availability of marriage partners in England and Wales: a comparison of three measures. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 25, No. 3, Jul 1993. 333-50 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Measures of partner availability introduced by Goldman, Westoff & Hammerslough (1984) and by Veevers (1988) are described and a new measure of partner availability, the Iterated Availability Ratio, is introduced. The three measures are applied to 1981 Census data for England and Wales and their abilities to predict regional variations in age-specific marriage rates are compared."
For the article by N. Goldman et al., see 50:20433; for the article by J. Veevers, see 55:30427.
Correspondence: R. Lampard, University of Warwick, Department of Sociology, Coventry CV4 7AL, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30357 Lehrer, Evelyn L.; Chiswick, Carmel U. Religion as a determinant of marital stability. Demography, Vol. 30, No. 3, Aug 1993. 385-404 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Using data from the 1987-1988 [U.S.] National Survey of Families and Households, this paper studies the role of the religious composition of unions as a determinant of marital stability. With the exceptions of Mormons and individuals with no religious identification, stability is found to be remarkably similar across the various types of homogamous unions. Consistent with the notion that religion is a complementary marital trait, interfaith unions have generally higher rates of dissolution than intrafaith unions. The destabilizing effect of out-marriage varies inversely with the similarity in beliefs and practices of the two religions as well as with the mutual tolerance embodied in their respective doctrines. The results also suggest that religious compatibility between spouses at the time of marriage has a large influence on marital stability, rivaling in magnitude that of age at marriage and, at least for Protestants and Catholics, dominating any adverse effects of differences in religious background."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1992 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: E. L. Lehrer, University of Illinois, Department of Economics, Chicago, IL 60680. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30358 Li, Rongshi. A study of early marriage in China. China Population Today, Vol. 10, No. 1, Feb 1993. 4-9 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
The author uses 1990 census data to examine early and illegal marriage rates in China. The focus is on the impact on fertility levels. Early marriages are defined as those occurring before age 22 for men and before 20 for women; illegal marriages include consanguineous marriage, compulsory marriage, and bigamy.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30359 Maneker, Jerry S.; Rankin, Robert P. Religious homogamy and marital duration among those who file for divorce in California, 1966-1971. Journal of Divorce and Remarriage, Vol. 19, No. 1-2, 1993. 233-47 pp. Binghamton, New York. In Eng.
The hypothesis that having a common religion is associated with more stable marriages is tested using California data on divorce for the period 1966-1971. The results confirm the hypothesis, and the authors note that "religious homogamy among Jewish couples is associated with longer [marriage] duration than any other group. Couples who report no religious affiliation appear to be at greatest risk of early filing for divorce. The religious groupings include the Jewish, the Conservative Protestant, the Liberal Protestant, the Roman Catholic and those with no religious affiliation."
Correspondence: J. S. Maneker, California State University, Department of Sociology and Social Work, Chico, CA 95929-0445. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

59:30360 Manting, Dorien. Cohabiting women in the Netherlands and their timing of marriage. In: Quantitative geographical methods, applied in demography and urban planning research, edited by W. F. Sleegers and A. L. J. Goethals. 1993. 85-108 pp. Netherlands Universities Institute for Coordination of Research in Social Sciences [SISWO]: Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
The author examines factors affecting the timing of marriage for cohabiting women in the Netherlands. "The purpose of this research is to assess empirically whether hypotheses formulated to clarify the timing of total first marriage also relate to the timing of marriage of cohabiting women....The timing of marriage among cohabiting women is studied for a series of birth cohorts."
Correspondence: D. Manting, University of Amsterdam, Department of Planning and Demography, Jodenbreestraat 23, 1011 NH Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30361 Matthiessen, Poul C. Family formation in Denmark. In: Welfare trends in the Scandinavian countries, edited by Erik J. Hansen, Stein Ringen, Hannu Uusitalo, and Robert Erikson. ISBN 0-87332-844-2. LC 91-26045. 1993. 320-6 pp. M. E. Sharpe: Armonk, New York/London, England. In Eng.
Recent trends in family formation in Denmark are analyzed. Separate consideration is given to trends in marriage and divorce, consensual union, and the social changes that affect family formation. The author notes that a sharp decline in legal marriage since the 1960s has been balanced by an increase in consensual union so that "the proportion of legal and consensual unions in the single age-groups has apparently remained rather constant."
Correspondence: P. C. Matthiessen, University of Copenhagen, Institute of Statistics, Studiestraede 6, 1455 Copenhagen K, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30362 Meekers, Dominique. Combining ethnographic and survey methods: a study of the nuptiality patterns of the Shona of Zimbabwe. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 1993-03, Jan 1993. [iii], 26 pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
This paper was originally presented at the 1993 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 22 Burrowes Building, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30363 Perreira, Pedro T. Age at first marriage, education and divorce: the case of the U.S.A. Economia, Vol. 15, No. 1, Jan 1991. 21-49 pp. Lisbon, Portugal. In Eng.
"This paper presents an analysis of the determinants of the age of marriage and the probability of divorce among women in the United States." The author hypothesizes that the possibility of divorce enters into women's decision to marry. "As expected, empirical results indicate that in the United States, where it is easier to obtain divorce, women tend to marry earlier. Furthermore, Catholic women tend to marry later....Results seem to indicate the age at marriage and education should not be considered to be exogenous in the study of the probability of divorce. Another important result is that women who marry earlier...show a lower probability of divorce...."
Correspondence: P. T. Perreira, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Faculdade de Economia, Praco do Principe Real 26, 1200 Lisbon, Portugal. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

59:30364 Rao, Vijayendra. Dowry "inflation" in rural India; a statistical investigation. Population Studies, Vol. 47, No. 2, Jul 1993. 283-93 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Dowries in most regions of South Asia have steadily become larger over the last 40 years, causing widespread destitution among families with daughters to be married. This paper attempts to investigate the reasons behind dowry 'inflation' with data on marriage transactions and other individual and household information from six villages in south-central India, and from the Indian census. It is found that a 'marriage squeeze' caused by population growth which resulted in a surplus of younger women in the marriage market, has played an important role in the increase in dowries. Other factors that increase the size of dowries include differences in the landholdings of the parental households, and residence in regions in the more northerly parts of India."
Correspondence: V. Rao, University of Chicago, Population Research Center, 1155 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30365 Riley, Nancy E.; Zhen, Jian. The role of parents in marriage: findings from the In-Depth Fertility Survey. In: Fertility in China. Proceedings of the International Seminar on China's In-Depth Fertility Survey, Beijing, February 13-17, 1990. 1991. 405-19 pp. International Statistical Institute [ISI]: Voorburg, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper will examine changes and variations in parental involvement in partner choice in...six Chinese provinces...using data from the In-Depth Fertility Survey, Phase II (1987). We will demonstrate that there has been enormous change over the last 50 years in all areas of China, but that significant differences in parental involvement continue to exist between urban and rural areas, cohorts, women of differing educational backgrounds and geographical areas."
Correspondence: N. E. Riley, East-West Center, East-West Population Institute, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30366 Sander, William. Catholicism and marriage in the United States. Demography, Vol. 30, No. 3, Aug 1993. 373-84 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"In this paper I examine the effects of Catholicism on 1) age at first marriage, 2) the odds of never having married, and 3) the likelihood of divorce [in the United States]. Estimates are presented by sex for three birth cohorts, with particular attention to how different measures of Catholicism affect the results. I compare Catholics with Baptists and with other Protestants." Data are taken from the National Opinion Research Center's General Social Surveys for 1987-1991.
Correspondence: W. Sander, DePaul University, Department of Economics, 25 East Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, IL 60604. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30367 Sander, William. Unemployment and marital status in Great Britain. Social Biology, Vol. 39, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1992. 299-305 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
The author examines the impact of male unemployment on marital status. "An empirical analysis of data from the General Household Survey 1985 in Great Britain shows that male unemployment is [an] important determinant of changes in marital status. High rates of male unemployment reduce the incidence of marriage and increase the likelihood of divorce."
Correspondence: W. Sander, DePaul University, Department of Economics, Chicago, IL 60604. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30368 Schoen, Robert; Weinick, Robin M. Partner choice in marriages and cohabitations. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 55, No. 2, May 1993. 408-14 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"This paper examines the extent to which cohabitation resembles marriage by comparing patterns of partner choice in the formation of married and cohabiting couples....On the assumption that cohabitations are not 'informal marriages' but relationships formed by a 'looser bond,' we use exchange theory to predict differences in partner choice. Since cohabitations are less permanent than marriages, we hypothesize that choices of a cohabitation partner give greater weight than choices of a marriage partner to achieved characteristics (such as education) which can reflect a short-term ability to contribute to the relationship. In turn, we expect that choices of a cohabitation partner give less weight to ascribed characteristics (such as age, race, and religion) that reflect long-term considerations. That study hypothesis is tested using propensities to marry and to cohabit calculated from the [U.S.] National Survey of Families and Households."
Correspondence: R. Schoen, Johns Hopkins University, Department of Population Dynamics, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30369 Smock, Pamela J. The economic costs of marital disruption for young women over the past two decades. Demography, Vol. 30, No. 3, Aug 1993. 353-71 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper examines the economic costs of separation and divorce for young women in the United States from the late 1960s through the late 1980s. Broadened opportunities for women outside marriage may have alleviated some of the severe economic costs of marital disruption for women. This paper contrasts the experiences of two cohorts of young women: those who married and separated or divorced in the late 1960s through the mid-1970s and those who experienced these events in the 1980s. Based on panel data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth 1979-1988, Young Women 1968-1978, and Young Men 1966-1978, the results show stability in the costs of disruption. A multivariate analysis shows that young women in the more recent cohort have more labor force experience before disruption than those in the earlier cohort, but prior work history does not protect women from the severe costs of marital disruption."
This paper was originally presented at the 1992 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: P. J. Smock, Louisiana State University, Department of Sociology, 126 Stubbs Hall, Baton Rouge, LA 70803. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30370 Univerzita Karlova. Faculte des Sciences. Departement de Demographie (Prague, Czechoslovakia); Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved. Ceskoslovenska Demograficka Spolecnost (Prague, Czechoslovakia). New Demographic Behavior. The fourth demographic colloquium, Prague, November 23-24, 1989. [Le Nouveau Comportement Demographique. Le quatrieme colloque demographique, Prague, le 23 et 24 novembre 1989.] Acta Demographica, No. 10, Nov 1992. 170 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Eng; Fre.
These are the proceedings of a meeting held in Prague Czechoslovakia, in 1989 and organized jointly by the Department of Demography at Charles University of Prague and the Institute of Demography at the University of Paris I (Sorbonne). The seven papers, six in French and one in English, are concerned primarily with trends in nuptiality in the two countries since 1950, with consideration given to family formation, fertility control, and divorce.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Ceskoslovenska Demograficka Spolecnost, nam A. Zapotockeho 4, 130 67 Prague 3, Czechoslovakia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30371 van Poppel, Frans; de Beer, Joop. Measuring the effect of changing legislation on the frequency of divorce: the Netherlands, 1830-1990. Demography, Vol. 30, No. 3, Aug 1993. 425-41 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors evaluate the impact of changes in divorce laws on divorce rates in the Netherlands. "In this paper we first give a short overview of the different methods that were used in ascertaining the effects of changes in divorce legislation on divorce rates. Then we present a statistical model for analyzing the effects of judicial changes on divorce frequencies and apply it to a historical time series for the Netherlands. We end with some general conclusions regarding the effects of institutional changes on divorce."
Correspondence: F. van Poppel, Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute, P.O. Box 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30372 Veres, Pavel. Trends in first marriages from 1961 to 1988. [Evolution de la nuptialite des celibataires de 1961 a 1988.] Acta Demographica, No. 10, Nov 1992. 23-39 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Fre.
Trends in first marriage in Czechoslovakia are analyzed for the period 1961-1988. A general decline in the popularity of marriage is noted as being in common with most other European countries, particularly for older persons. The existence of social policies that benefit only married couples, such as those regarding housing allocation, is not seen to affect significantly the trend away from marriage.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30373 Villeneuve-Gokalp, Catherine. From marriage to informal union: recent changes in the behaviour of French couples. Population. English Selection, Vol. 3, 1991. 81-111 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
The author uses data from the 1986 Family History Survey conducted in France to examine patterns of entry into marriage and the range of informal unions that exist. "Since unmarried cohabitation is only recent for first unions, we shall confine our analysis to first unions and, for homogeneity, to those begun before the 30th birthday." She examines the effects of occupational status and social background on marriage decisions.
This is a translation of the article published in 1990 in French and cited in 56:40376.
Correspondence: C. Villeneuve-Gokalp, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30374 Zhang, Weimin. Analysis on age at first marriage of Chinese women. In: Fertility in China. Proceedings of the International Seminar on China's In-Depth Fertility Survey, Beijing, February 13-17, 1990. 1991. 529-41 pp. International Statistical Institute [ISI]: Voorburg, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper tries to explain the current marital status of Chinese women and its characteristics, to study the historical changes in the pattern of first marriage of women, and to explore the influence of urban-rural residence and educational level to the age at first marriage as well as the relationship between the age at first marriage and...fertility." Data are from the 1985 phase of the In-Depth Fertility Survey.
Correspondence: W. Zhang, State Statistical Bureau, Department of Population Statistics, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

G.2. Family and Household

Studies of household structure and of family composition and size and the factors influencing them. Includes the full range of family concepts from the one-parent to the extended family and includes studies on the life course of the family. Studies on attitudes toward family size are coded under F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control .

59:30375 Blossfeld, Hans-Peter; Manting, Dorien; Rohwer, Gotz. Patterns of change in family formation in the Federal Republic of Germany and the Netherlands: some consequences for solidarity between generations. PDOD Paper, No. 18, Jun 1993. 19, [10] pp. Universiteit van Amsterdam, Postdoctorale Onderzoekersopleiding Demografie [PDOD]: Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
The authors examine the implications of changes in family formation for intergenerational solidarity, particularly for the relationship between aging parents and their adult children. "First, we will discuss the importance of changes at entry into marriage and motherhood, and evaluate consequences of the increasing number of childless women for intergenerational relationships in old age; second, we will address the significance and impact of declining family size; and third, we will assess the rise of consensual unions among the younger generation and its effects. In the latter step we will conduct a detailed empirical analysis drawing on recent data from the Federal Republic of Germany and the Netherlands."
Correspondence: Universiteit van Amsterdam, Postdoctorale Onderzoekersopleiding Demografie, Planologisch en Demografisch Instituut, Nieuwe Prinsengracht 130, 1018 VZ Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30376 Bretz, Manfred. Changes in size and structure of households--an analysis of the past 150 years. Materialien zur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, No. 75, 1992. 221-40 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Eng.
The author examines changes in household size and structure in Germany from 1840 to the present. Data are from official sources.
Correspondence: M. Bretz, Statistisches Bundesamt, Postfach 5528, 6200 Wiesbaden, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30377 Burkart, Gunter. On the way to a fully mobile society of singles? Commentary on the article by Schofer, Bender, and Utz. [Auf dem Weg zur vollmobilen Single-Gesselschaft? Kommentar zum Artikel von Schofer/Bender/Utz.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 18, No. 3, 1992. 355-64 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger.
The author comments on an article by Bernd Schofer, Harald Bender, and Richard Utz on single-person households, individuality, and life-style in West Germany. A reply by Schofer et al. is included (pp. 361-4).
For the article by Schofer et al., published in 1991, see 58:30428.
Correspondence: G. Burkart, Freie Universitat Berlin, Institut fur Soziologie, FB Philosophie und Sozialwissenschaften 1, Hittorfstrasse 16, 1000 Berlin 33, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30378 Crommentuijn, Leon. Analysis and modelling of a regional household projection: the use of a log-linear method with rates. In: Quantitative geographical methods, applied in demography and urban planning research, edited by W. F. Sleegers and A. L. J. Goethals. 1993. 53-68 pp. Netherlands Universities Institute for Coordination of Research in Social Sciences [SISWO]: Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
This paper "aims to develop a household projection model based on the results of the analysis of regional differences [in the Netherlands] in household evolution, and based on the analysis of the interaction between interregional migration and household evolution....In this contribution some general features of the log-rate model will be discussed. Furthermore, the process of leaving the parental home is described using this method."
Correspondence: L. Crommentuijn, University of Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 8, POB 80125, 3508 TC Utrecht, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30379 Davies, Suzanne. Event-history analysis in spatial demography: models of competing risks. In: Quantitative geographical methods, applied in demography and urban planning research, edited by W. F. Sleegers and A. L. J. Goethals. 1993. 17-52 pp. Netherlands Universities Institute for Coordination of Research in Social Sciences [SISWO]: Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The research presented in this chapter...describes the results of a dynamic statistical model of household transitions which explores the effects of time-varying covariates and duration dependence on a collection of household-type spells from the Michigan Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID). Using models of competing risks, the fluidity of [U.S.] household composition and the transient nature of certain living arrangements becomes evident. The study highlights the normative preferences for particular living arrangements and residential life styles over the life course. The results indicate the complexity of the link between the household careers and the housing careers of individuals over the life course."
Correspondence: S. Davies, Netherlands Central Bureau of Statistics, P.O. Box 959, 2270 AZ Voorburg, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30380 Douglass, William A. The famille souche and its interpreters. Continuity and Change, Vol. 8, No. 1, May 1993. 87-102 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"This article examines the differing approaches of French and Spanish investigators to the study of the Pyrenean stem family household. In the French view it is either a bastion of social stability and harmony...or a pernicious, inegalitarian institution in which some members exploit others....In the Spanish view the stem family household is a model of agrarian economic rationality...and a refuge of cultural distinctiveness....These differing approaches to and interpretations of the same social institution are analyzed as functions of Spanish and French history as well as the distinctive historiographic traditions of the two nations."
Correspondence: W. A. Douglass, University of Nevada, Basque Studies Program, Reno, NV 89557. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30381 Fauve-Chamoux, Antoinette. Household forms and living standards in preindustrial France: from models to realities. Journal of Family History, Vol. 18, No. 2, 1993. 135-56 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"The question I would like to raise in this essay is whether the French data available to historians through family reconstitution--especially data on peasants and urban workers since the seventeenth century--can be used to verify Rowntree's and Chayanov's models about recurrent poverty during the life course of proletarian families. In other words, can Rowntree's notion of a 'primary poverty line' be used to understand a population of the preindustrial urban poor in Europe, as Chayanov's ideas often are?...[The author concludes that] Rowntree's model did not work at all in the case of our [study of] proletarian families in the large French city of Rheims (which had some 30,000 inhabitants) before the French Revolution....Rowntree's conception of an oscillation of poor families above and below a poverty line, in the final analysis, seems to concern more a newly industrialized population than a preindustrial one." Benjamin S. Rowntree's poverty line model first appeared in "Poverty: A Study of Town Life," New York, New York/London, England, Macmillan, 1901.
Correspondence: A. Fauve-Chamoux, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, 44 rue de la Tour, 75116 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30382 Germany. Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung (Wiesbaden, Germany). Changing families in changing societies. Proceedings of the international conference in Brussels, 8-10 February 1992. Materialien zur Bevolkerungswissenschaft: Sonderheft, No. 21, 1993. 172 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of an interdisciplinary conference held in Belgium in February 1992 on changing families in changing societies. The 16 contributions examine evolving family structures in Europe, Africa, and Latin America; the changing role of men and women in the family; and policies concerning the family.
Correspondence: Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung, Gustav-Stresemann-Ring 6, Postfach 5528, 6200 Wiesbaden, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30383 Gunnlaugsson, Gisli A. Living arrangements of the elderly in a changing society: the case of Iceland, 1880-1930. Continuity and Change, Vol. 8, No. 1, May 1993. 103-25 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"This article examines how urbanization and the introduction of welfare legislation affected the household position of the elderly in Iceland during the period 1880-1930. Using a life-course perspective it is shown that urbanization created a new form of kinship network during the period. This enabled the elderly to rely on the assistance of offspring although increasingly heading households of their own. In the countryside the growth of owner-occupancy, and a decline in the institution of service, led to a higher age at leaving home and better possibilities for the elderly to continue running a farm at an advanced age with the assistance of grown-up offspring."
Correspondence: G. A. Gunnlaugsson, University of Iceland, Institute of History, Sudurgata, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30384 Hoem, Britta. Recent changes in family formation in Sweden. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 71, ISBN 91-7820-062-8. Dec 1992. 41 pp. Stockholm University, Demography Unit: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
The author questions the hypothesis that postponement of childbearing in Sweden is primarily due to labor market changes consequent on improvements in educational achievement, and suggests that changes in attitude toward the appropriate timing of children over the life course may be significant.
Correspondence: Stockholms Universitet, Demografiska Avdelningen, S-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30385 Hu, Ying. A preliminary investigation of the family life cycle model of Hebei, Shaanxi and Shanghai--the application of a multistate analysis method. In: Fertility in China. Proceedings of the International Seminar on China's In-Depth Fertility Survey, Beijing, February 13-17, 1990. 1991. 487-90 pp. International Statistical Institute [ISI]: Voorburg, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Using data from the In-Depth Fertility Survey for Hebei, Shaanxi and Shanghai in...China in 1985, we have investigated the family life process of women aged 40-49 years old. Special attention was paid to the analysis of the distribution of the age of first marriage and the age of child-bearing as well as [to] an analysis of the features of the family life cycle...by applying a multistate analysis method."
Correspondence: Y. Hu, State Statistical Bureau, Department of Population Statistics, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30386 Ikenoue, Masako; Shimizu, Hiroaki. Changes in household structure: a comparative study of Izumo and Iwami in Shimane prefecture. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 48, No. 1, Apr 1992. 49-57 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
This is a comparative analysis of changes in household structure in two districts of Japan's Shimane prefecture over the past 30 years.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30387 Kuijsten, Anton. Family structure and family policy. PDOD Paper, No. 17, Jun 1993. v, 51 pp. Universiteit van Amsterdam, Postdoctorale Onderzoekersopleiding Demografie [PDOD]: Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
This paper includes the "texts of the presentations of Anne Helene Gauthier on Families and welfare benefits: the measured and unmeasured effects and of Hans-Joachin Schulze on Family policy and the autonomy of the family: hypotheses and design of an empirical project at a Seminar of the Netherlands Graduate School of Research in Demography (PDOD), Amsterdam, April 1, 1993." The geographical focus of each paper is on developed countries.
Correspondence: Universiteit van Amsterdam, Postdoctorale Onderzoekersopleiding Demografie, Planologisch en Demografisch Instituut, Nieuwe Prinsengracht 130, 1018 VZ Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30388 Lugaila, Terry. Households, families, and children: a 30-year perspective. Current Population Reports, Series P-23: Population Characteristics, No. 181, Nov 1992. 60 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This chartbook presents a series of graphs intended to illustrate important trends of the past several decades that have influenced household and family circumstances and the living arrangements of all persons [in the United States], with a special emphasis on children. The charts are presented in four sections. The first section shows basic demographic trends. The second section focuses on household and family composition. The social and economic circumstances of families are featured in the third section. The final section concentrates on children and their families." The charts were compiled from various census publications.
Correspondence: U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D.C. 20402. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30389 Mikelarena Pena, Fernando. Family structure in traditional Spain: geography and analysis based on the 1860 census. [Las estructuras familiares en la Espana tradicional: geografia y analisis a partir del censo de 1860.] Boletin de la Asociacion de Demografia Historica, Vol. 10, No. 3, 1992. 15-61 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
The author examines traditional rural family structure in Spain using data from the 1860 census. Comparisons are made among regions.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30390 Milusheva, Ruzhka. Living and cultural conditions of Bulgarian families. [Zhilistni i kulturno-bitovi usloviya na semeistvata v Balgariya.] Naselenie, Vol. 9, No. 3-4, 1991. 38-50 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng.
"The article [analyzes] the ratio between the quantitative and qualitative indices of dwellings and the socio-demographic characteristics of their inhabitants; determines the dwellings' density of population, their material condition, as well as the living standard of Bulgarian families. Some major conclusions about the housing shortage in Bulgaria are made, in addition to pointing out some ways of solving this problem."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30391 Peters, Evelyn. The household structure of Status Indians in Regina and Saskatoon, 1982. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 20, No. 1, 1993. 107-25 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper [examines]...patterns of co-residence and financial support among Canadian Indians living in the cities of Regina and Saskatoon, Saskatchewan in 1982. The first section situates urban Indians by describing their socio-economic status and household structure compared to the total population of Regina and Saskatoon. Secondly, additional persons in Indian family households are described in terms of demographic and labour force characteristics, relationship to other household members, and evidence of need for assistance with accommodation. Finally, the conclusion focussed on which households are more or less likely to house additional persons."
Correspondence: E. Peters, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30392 Rawlings, Steve W. Household and family characteristics: March 1992. Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, No. 467, Apr 1993. xvii, 175, [26] pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This annual report contains detailed demographic data for the [United States] on households and families for March 1992 and offers a look at how the composition and characteristics of households and families have changed compared with those of a decade or two ago. The current estimates are based on data from the Annual Demographic Supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS)." Data are presented by family or household type, age, rural or urban residence, race, Hispanic origin, and marital status.
Correspondence: U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D.C. 20402. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30393 Silverstein, Merril; Litwak, Eugene. A task-specific typology of intergenerational family structure in later life. PSTC Reprint Series, No. 93-04, Jul 1993. [7] pp. Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center [PSTC]: Providence, Rhode Island. In Eng.
"We tested a typology of intergenerational social support structure with data from 910 dyads of older adults and their primary child helpers....The typology was developed and tested using data collected from a random sample of 1,422 community residents 65 years and older living in ten New York City metropolitan area counties and two metropolitan south Florida counties in 1978...."
This article is reprinted from The Gerontologist, (Washington, D.C.), Vol. 33 No. 2, 1993, pp. 258-64.
Correspondence: Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30394 Spicer, Keith; Diamond, Ian; Ni Bhrolchain, Maire. Simulating the effect of demographic events on the household composition. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 9, No. 2, Nov 1992. 178-84 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"The aim of this paper is to measure the effects on household composition of changes in demographic events, e.g. mortality, fertility, marriage, divorce. British household data are taken from the General Household Survey and aged by simulation to 2001 using a 'Most Likely' model. Subsequently different assumptions of each demographic event are taken from 1991 so that the effects of perturbations within each event can be studied. Special features of the simulation model are the differentiations between cohabitation and marriage and separation and divorce, and the detailed breakdowns of household types such as lone parents into single and previously married women and men with children aged 0-4, 5-15 and 16 and over."
Correspondence: K. Spicer, University of Southampton, Department of Social Statistics, Southampton S09 5NH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30395 Stzheletski, Zbignev. The life cycle of the family and migration in Poland. [Zhizneniyat tsikal na semeistvoto i migratsiyata na naselenieto v Polsha.] Naselenie, Vol. 9, No. 3-4, 1991. 51-60 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng.
The author examines migration as part of the family life cycle in Poland, with a focus on the impact of marriage on migratory patterns. Comparisons with the WHO model of the life cycle for the nuclear family are made.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30396 Texmon, Inger. Leaving the parental home. [Flytting fra foreldrehjemmet.] Working Papers from Department for Statistics on Individuals and Households: Population and Living Conditions, Vol. 4, 1992. 233-59 pp. Oslo-Kongsvinger, Norway. In Nor.
Patterns in leaving the parental home in Norway are examined and compared for cohorts of men born in 1945 and 1960 and cohorts of women born in 1945, 1950, 1955, 1960, 1965, and 1968. Consideration is given to religious activity, age at first intercourse, geographic factors, socioeconomic and educational status, and age at leaving the parental home.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30397 Todorova, Maria N. Balkan family structure and the European pattern: demographic developments in Ottoman Bulgaria. ISBN 1-879383-08-X. LC 92-23432. 1992. xii, 251 pp. American University Press: Washington, D.C. Distributed by University Publishing Associates, 4720 Boston Way, Lanham, MD 20706. In Eng.
The author reassesses the traditional stereotype of the place of the Balkans in the nineteenth-century European family model by providing a synthesis of existing sources and research. She discusses population structure, marriage patterns, fertility, mortality, family and household size and structure, and the problem of the south Slav zadruga, or extended family. Data concern Bulgaria and are primarily from Ottoman registers, church records, and other archival sources.
Correspondence: American University Press, 4400 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Anderson Lower Level, Washington, D.C. 20016. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30398 Voit, Hermann. Households and families: results of the April 1991 microcensus. [Haushalte und Familien: Ergebnisse des Mikrozensus, April 1991.] Wirtschaft und Statistik, No. 3, 1993. 191-9 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger.
Household and family data from the April 1991 microcensus of Germany are presented. Since this was the first microcensus to include the former East Germany, the emphasis is on comparisons between eastern and western parts of the country. Topics covered include one-person households, two-generation households, nonmarital cohabitation, one-parent families, age of parents, family size, and labor force participation of married couples.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

59:30399 Yamamoto, Chizuko. Mean length of waiting for, sojourning at, and retiring from the household headship: Yamagata-ken and Kagoshima-ken, 1965-1985. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 48, No. 4, Jan 1993. 51-61 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Changes in household headship in two regions of Japan over the period 1965-1985 are analyzed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30400 Zeng, Yi. A comparative study on changes in family in Chinese countryside and cities. In: Fertility in China. Proceedings of the International Seminar on China's In-Depth Fertility Survey, Beijing, February 13-17, 1990. 1991. 467-86 pp. International Statistical Institute [ISI]: Voorburg, Netherlands. In Eng.
The author presents "data on demographic characteristics and family structure in rural and urban areas of China. After a brief discussion on the new 1986 data used in this study, the simulation results and their policy implications will be presented and discussed in detail."
Correspondence: Y. Zeng, Peking University, Institute of Population Research, Hai Dian, Beijing 100871, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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