Volume 59 - Number 3 - Fall 1993

F. Fertility

Studies that treat quantitative fertility data analytically. References to crude data are coded under S. Official Statistical Publications . Methodological studies specifically concerned with fertility are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary.

F.1. General Fertility

Analytical studies of quantitative birth data and reproduction rates and studies of fertility and its concomitants. Studies of age at marriage, divorce, and factors influencing family size are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

59:30173 Abeysinghe, Tilak. Time cost, relative income and fertility in Canada. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1993. 189-98 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"A regression model which combines both the time cost and relative income hypotheses is estimated using Canadian data. The results indicate that the influence of relative income is greater on completed fertility and the effect of time cost is greater on timing of births. Some policy implications are derived."
Correspondence: T. Abeysinghe, National University of Singapore, Department of Economics and Statistics, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore 0511. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30174 Ahmed, Tauseef. Pattern of demand for children in Pakistan. Pakistan Population Review, Vol. 3, No. 1, Spring 1992. 41-66 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
"High fertility in Pakistan is normally associated with high demand for children....This analysis tests this hypothesis using data from Pakistan Contraceptive Prevalence Survey 1984-85. The demand for children was conceived in a much broader sense by including the wantedness of last birth and the timing of last birth. This analysis showed presence of unwanted pregnancies mostly associated with timing of birth and higher parity. This high degree of unwantdness of pregnancies bears serious implications for Pakistan's family planning programme, especially its service delivery component."
Correspondence: T. Ahmed, National Institute of Population Studies, House No. 8, St. 70, F-8/3, P.O. Box 2197, Islamabad, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30175 Ahn, Namkee; Shariff, Abusaleh. A comparative study of fertility determinants in Togo and Uganda: a hazard model analysis. Economic Growth Center Discussion Paper, No. 665, Aug 1992. 27 pp. Yale University, Economic Growth Center: New Haven, Connecticut. In Eng.
Data from the Demographic and Health Surveys are used to develop a comparative study of fertility in Togo and Uganda.
Correspondence: Yale University, Economic Growth Center, Box 1987, Yale Station, 27 Hillhouse Avenue, New Haven, CT 06520. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

59:30176 Bocquet-Appel, J.-P.; Jakobi, L. A test of a path model of biocultural transmission of fertility. Annals of Human Biology, Vol. 20, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1993. 335-47 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"A model adapted to a general linear model of phenotypic transmission (two components: (1) genetic additive, (2) cultural [age at marriage]) has been used to analyse the familial correlations of fertility (number of children) born before the demographic transition at Arthez d'Asson [France] (Bearn, 1744-1889)....The use of a simple model...leads us to reject family transmission, before the demographic transition, of the number of children along with the age at marriage. A (small) resemblance unique to sibships is seen for these two variables. At Arthez d'Asson before the transition, the fertility and nuptiality of a couple were not influenced by their parents, but by their generation."
Correspondence: J.-P. Bocquet-Appel, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, URA 49, Laboratoire d'Anthropologie, Musee de l'Homme, 17 Place du Trocadero, 75116 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30177 Bouchard, Gerard. Family reproduction in areas of new settlement: a comparative overview of Quebec and France. [La reproduction familiale en terroirs neufs: comparaison sur des donnees quebecoises et francaises.] Annales: Economies, Societes, Civilisations, Vol. 48, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1993. 421-51, 486-7 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper provides a comparative overview of the peasant family reproduction systems in Quebec and in France from the 18th century. Using a 19-variable grid, the author summarizes his past research on the Saguenay region in building a model given as typical of settlement communities. He then proceeds with demonstrating that the basic components of the model showed up in most of the Quebec regions at the time of their formation, in the St. Lawrence valley as well as in the so-called peripheral regions. By contrast, the French countryside looks strikingly diversified and this heterogeneity might well be the major difference between France and Quebec. Such a conclusion, however, must be deferred as long as the effects of land saturation upon family transmission have not been closely examined in Quebec."
Correspondence: G. Bouchard, Universite du Quebec, Centre Interuniversitaire SOREP, Chicoutimi, Quebec G7H 2B1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30178 Bouchard, Gerard; Lalou, Richard. High fertility among couples in Quebec since the seventeenth century, an interpretation. [La surfecondite des couples quebecois depuis le XVIIe siecle, essai de mesure d'interpretation.] Recherches Sociographiques, Vol. 34, No. 1, 1993. 9-44, 199 pp. Quebec, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"On the basis of various comparisons with English-Canadian, American and European data, the authors attempt to verify the hypothesis of exceptionally high birth rates among French-speaking couples in Quebec between the seventeenth century and the mid-twentieth century....The following observations are made: a) Before the last third of the seventeenth century, [fertility] in Quebec was quite high indeed, but could not be considered as exceptional; b) Exceptional [fertility] was seen during the last third of the nineteenth century, when there was a time-lag in the adoption of contraception in comparison with the English-speaking populations of North America; c) Several European populations showed levels equal to or greater than those of the Quebec model. The hypothesis of nationalism as a basis of this phenomenon thus does not appear to be well substantiated."
Correspondence: G. Bouchard, Universite du Quebec, Centre Interuniversitaire de Recherches sur les Populations, 555 Boulevard de l'Universite, Chicoutimi, Quebec G7H 2B1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30179 Brass, W. Analysis of birth histories to measure fertility trends. In: Fertility in China. Proceedings of the International Seminar on China's In-Depth Fertility Survey, Beijing, February 13-17, 1990. 1991. 131-7 pp. International Statistical Institute [ISI]: Voorburg, Netherlands. In Eng.
The author briefly reviews issues in the use of birth history survey data to determine past trends in fertility when such data are accurate and sufficient.
Correspondence: W. Brass, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Center for Population Studies, 99 Gower Street, London WC1E 6AZ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30180 Brass, William; Jolly, Carole L. Population dynamics of Kenya. Population Dynamics of Sub-Saharan Africa, Pub. Order No. B167. ISBN 0-309-04943-1. LC 93-84968. 1993. xiv, 183 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report is one in a series of studies that have been carried out under the auspices of the Panel on Population Dynamics of Sub-Saharan Africa of the National Research Council's Committee on Population....This report, one of...two in-depth country studies, analyzes the population dynamics of Kenya, with particular emphasis on recent fertility change....[It] examines trends in fertility and mortality and their relationship to socioeconomic changes. As part of this examination, the proximate determinants of fertility are analyzed, and multivariate analysis is used to assess the factors associated with contraceptive use. The report does not examine, in any detail, recent migration patterns because of very limited access to data from the 1989 census."
Correspondence: National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue NW, Box 285, Washington, D.C. 20055. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30181 Bryson, Kenneth R. Toward an economic analysis of Chinese fertility. In: Fertility in China. Proceedings of the International Seminar on China's In-Depth Fertility Survey, Beijing, February 13-17, 1990. 1991. 53-63 pp. International Statistical Institute [ISI]: Voorburg, Netherlands. In Eng.
The author applies Gary S. Becker's economic theory of fertility to data from the Chinese In-Depth Fertility Survey of 1985 and 1987. The focus is on implications for the development of policies to further reduce fertility.
Correspondence: K. R. Bryson, International Statistical Institute, Prinses Beatrixlaan 428, P.O. Box 950, 2270 AZ Voorburg, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30182 Choe, Minja Kim; Wu, Jianming. Analysis of trend of first birth and its affecting factors. In: Fertility in China. Proceedings of the International Seminar on China's In-Depth Fertility Survey, Beijing, February 13-17, 1990. 1991. 139-54 pp. International Statistical Institute [ISI]: Voorburg, Netherlands. In Eng.
Using data from the 1987 phase of China's In-Depth Fertility Survey, the authors "estimate the proportion of women giving first birth after their marriage by means of life table methods and observe the situation and trend of first births in Beijing, Liaoning, Shandong, Guangdong, Guizhou and Ganshu...since the 70's when family planning policies began to be practised and since the 80's when overall family planning policies had been carried out. On the basis of the life table, we will demonstrate the effect of the change in age at marriage on the distribution of the interval between first marriage and first birth by analyzing quartiles."
Correspondence: M. K. Choe, East-West Center, East-West Population Institute, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30183 Choe, Minja Kim; Wu, Jianming; Zhang, Ruyue; Guo, Fei. Timing of first birth in six provinces of China: findings from the In-Depth Fertility Survey, Phase II. In: Fertility in China. Proceedings of the International Seminar on China's In-Depth Fertility Survey, Beijing, February 13-17, 1990. 1991. 187-204 pp. International Statistical Institute [ISI]: Voorburg, Netherlands. In Eng.
"In this paper, we examine two components of age at first birth, the age at first marriage and the interval between the first marriage and the age at first birth (the first birth interval)....We use the data from the In-Depth Fertility Survey of China, Phase II (IDFS-II) collected in six provinces of China in 1987."
Correspondence: M. K. Choe, East-West Center, East-West Population Institute, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30184 Cleland, John. Equity, security and fertility: a reaction to Thomas. Population Studies, Vol. 47, No. 2, Jul 1993. 345-59 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper assesses recent arguments [presented in an article by Neil Thomas] that sustained fertility decline cannot occur in circumstances of inequality, insecurity, and injustice. Naturally, these conditions are to be abhorred. However, the empirical record suggests that none of them acts as an absolute barrier to mass adoption of birth control and subsequent fertility decline. Recent trends in Bangladesh illustrate this point most vividly. One of the greatest fallacies of many fertility theories has been the assumption that there is an economic or social imperative in underdeveloped countries for couples to have many children. To the contrary, the historic norm for all societies has been an average of only about two surviving children per woman, implying an adaptation to low, not high, net fertility." A reply by Thomas is also included (pp. 353-9).
For the article by Thomas, published in 1991, see 57:40258.
Correspondence: J. Cleland, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, 99 Gower Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30185 Cleland, John; Shen, Yimin. Later and fewer but no longer: fertility change in Hebei, Shaanxi and Shanghai, 1965 to 1985. In: Fertility in China. Proceedings of the International Seminar on China's In-Depth Fertility Survey, Beijing, February 13-17, 1990. 1991. 273-91 pp. International Statistical Institute [ISI]: Voorburg, Netherlands. In Eng.
"In this paper, changes in fertility are examined for three provinces of China for the twenty year period, 1965 to 1985....The purpose of this paper is to analyze changes in the quantum (or amount) and tempo (or speed) of fertility. Results are presented not only at the province level but for rural-urban and educational sub-groups. The data for the study come from the first phase [conducted in 1985] of [the] In-Depth Fertility Surveys."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30186 Condon, Richard G. Birth seasonality, photoperiod, and social change in the central Canadian Arctic. Human Ecology, Vol. 19, No. 3, Sep 1991. 287-321 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The seasonal distribution of births in a Canadian Inuit community located 300 miles north of the Arctic Circle is analyzed over a period of several decades. A significant shift from pronounced seasonality of births in the 1970s to nonseasonality in the 1980s is noted. Reasons for this change are discussed, including modernization and the decline of traditional life-styles.
Correspondence: R. G. Condon, University of Arkansas, Department of Anthropology, Fayetteville, AR 72701. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:30187 Dalla Zuanna, Gianpiero. Socioeconomic differences in fertility in the districts of the Veneto from the nineteenth to the twentieth centuries: a description and an attempt to interpret the data. [Differenze socio-economiche e fecondita nei distretti del Veneto fra XIX e XX secolo: descrizione e tentativi di interpretazione.] Materiali di Studi e di Ricerche, No. 4, Mar 1993. 36 pp. Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche: Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng.
The relationship between socioeconomic factors and fertility behavior in the Veneto region of Italy is analyzed from 1866 to 1987 at the district level. The author concludes that the fertility transition can best be seen as a process of collaboration, rather than competition, between generations.
Correspondence: Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche, Via Nomentana 41, 00161 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30188 Feeney, Griffith; Wang, Feng. Parity progression and birth intervals in China: the influence of policy in hastening fertility decline. Population and Development Review, Vol. 19, No. 1, Mar 1993. 61-101, 219, 222 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article analyzes parity progression and birth interval statistics in relation to the Chinese government's birth planning policies. The data are from China's 1988 two-per-thousand survey. We present and analyze annual time series of statistics on age at marriage and proportions marrying and on marital fertility at the national level and for women living in cities, towns, and counties. We also analyze similar information for the provinces of Jilin, Shaanxi, Jiangsu, and Guangdong."
Correspondence: G. Feeney, East-West Center, Program on Population, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30189 Frias, Luiz A. de M.; Oliveira, Juarez de C. Fertility levels, trends, and differentials in Brazil since the 1930s. [Neveis, tendencias e diferenciais de fecundidade no Brasil a partir da decada de 30.] Revista Brasileira de Estudos de Populacao, Vol. 8, No. 1-2, Jan-Dec 1991. 72-111 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
Historical fertility estimates for Brazil and its regions are presented for the period 1930-1980 using methodology developed by the authors. "The task of improving the parameters that represent the level and the age pattern of fertility has been basically carried out in two stages: first, an evaluation and the consequent adjustment of information about children that were born and those still living, as declared by the mothers, in the five Demographic Censuses, through which problems in the 1960 Census were detected; second, the recuperation of data on the live-born children, where the authors present a sufficiently additive model to estimate this retrospective information. Some comments are also made, based [on] the results of the National Household Survey (PNAD) of 1984, that highlight a possible underestimation of the general fertility level."
Correspondence: L. A. de M. Frias, Fundacao Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica, Departamento de Populacao, Avenida Franklin Roosevelt 166, 20021 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30190 Friedlander, Dov; Feldmann, Carole. The modern shift to below-replacement fertility: has Israel's population joined the process? Population Studies, Vol. 47, No. 2, Jul 1993. 295-306 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors examine current fertility trends in Israel and compare them with the below-replacement levels found in other developed countries. They find that "the Jewish population of Israel is a modern society....Yet, total fertility in Israel during the 1980s was at least one child higher than in most European countries. It is shown that social heterogeneity makes this an over-simplified comparison. Indeed, it is the high fertility of the orthodox population among the two major ethnic groups, combined with the decline towards below-replacement fertility of the non-orthodox, which produces the high mean fertility of the entire population."
Correspondence: D. Friedlander, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Department of Demography, Jerusalem 91905, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30191 Gao, Er-shen; Gu, Xing-yuan; Chen, Run-tian; Chen, Chang-zhong; Wang, Shu-Lin; Hu, Ying. Analysis of proximate determinants of fertility in Shanghai City, Hebei Province and Shaanxi Province. In: Fertility in China. Proceedings of the International Seminar on China's In-Depth Fertility Survey, Beijing, February 13-17, 1990. 1991. 233-48 pp. International Statistical Institute [ISI]: Voorburg, Netherlands. In Eng.
Data from Phase I of China's In-Depth Fertility Survey are used to estimate proximate determinants of fertility in Hebei and Shaanxi provinces and the city of Shanghai. The authors analyze data from 1984 and estimate Bongaarts's four indexes of fertility: marriage, contraception, induced abortion, and postpartum infecundability. Recommendations for improving the Bongaarts model are also made.
Correspondence: E.-s. Gao, Shanghai Medical University, 138 Yixueyuan Lu, Shanghai 200032, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30192 Goodkind, Daniel. Motivating ethnic fertility values: a regional study of the Dragon Year baby boom among the Chinese in Peninsular Malaysia, 1976 and 1988. Working Papers in Demography, No. 37, 1992. 29 pp. Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
The author uses vital statistics data to examine regional differences in fertility among the Chinese population of Peninsular Malaysia in the Dragon Years of 1976 and 1988, which are considered to be auspicious years in which to give birth.
Correspondence: Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, P.O. Box 4, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30193 Gutmann, Myron P.; Fliess, Kenneth H. The determinants of early fertility decline in Texas. Demography, Vol. 30, No. 3, Aug 1993. 443-57 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study examines the determinants of fertility control in a frontier population [in Texas] made up largely of German-Americans during the years from 1850 to 1910. The analysis employs a complex register of population constructed from census enumerations, civil and ecclesiastical vital registration, and tax assessment rolls. The article begins with a series of bivariate analyses with cohort of mother's birth, religion, ethnicity, and husband's occupation determining marital fertility. The second half of the paper presents a multivariate model of the determinants of fertility using these and other demographic characteristics as independent variables. The conclusions emphasize the importance of the overall trend toward fertility decline in the United States, as well as the role of religion and of occupational differences, in determining changes in fertility behavior in the population of Gillespie County, Texas."
Correspondence: M. P. Gutmann, University of Texas, Population Research Center, Austin, TX 78712-1163. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30194 Harbison, Sarah F.; Robinson, Warren C. Components of the recent fertility decline in Kenya. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 1993-06, Feb 1993. 13 pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"This brief paper examines the components of the fertility decline [in Kenya], and discusses the interaction of supply and demand factors which have led to that decline."
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 22 Burrowes Building, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30195 Hirosima, Kiyosi; Yamamoto, Chizuko. Fertility in Japan: 1991. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 48, No. 4, Jan 1993. 24-30 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
The authors present data for Japan on fertility by nationality, 1955-1991; Japanese nationality and nationality of parents, 1987-1991; births and the birth rate, 1920-1991; total fertility, first marriage, and ever-married rates, 1970-1991; and birth rates by age and sex, 1980-1991.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30196 Inaba, Hisashi. An age-structured two-sex model for human population reproduction by first marriage. Institute of Population Problems Working Paper Series, No. 15, Feb 1993. 22 pp. Institute of Population Problems: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
The author "formulates a two-sex age-structured population model which describes the human population reproduction process by first marriage....Next [he discusses] the well-posedness of the model. Finally, [he examines] conditions under which the homogeneous model has persistent solutions." The relevance of this model to the current situation in Japan is noted.
Correspondence: Institute of Population Problems, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-45, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30197 Islam, M. Nurul; Islam, M. Mazharul. Biological and behavioural determinants of fertility in Bangladesh: 1975-1989. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 8, No. 1, Mar 1993. 3-18 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
Recent levels and trends in fertility in Bangladesh are analyzed using data from the 1975 World Fertility Survey for Bangladesh and the 1989 Bangladesh Fertility Survey. "An attempt [is] made to estimate the fertility-inhibiting effect of the three most important proximate determinants: marriage, contraception and lactational infecundability. The analysis shows that, although the fertility level of Bangladesh is declining, it is still very high (around 5 births per woman)....Our analysis suggests that the fertility-reducing effect of contraception is steadily increasing, whereas the effect of lactational infecundability remains nearly constant."
Correspondence: M. N. Islam, University of Dhaka, Department of Statistics, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30198 Jensen, An-Magritt. Economic change, marriage relations and fertility in a rural area of Kenya. In: Gender and change in developing countries, edited by Kristi A. Stolen and Mariken Vaa. ISBN 82-00-21387-0. 1991. 67-89 pp. Norwegian University Press: Oslo, Norway. In Eng.
This is an analysis of fertility in Bungoma District, a rural area of Kenya located near the Ugandan border, a region of high fertility and low contraceptive practice. Data were collected through interviews of 65 women in 1988. The focus of the analysis is on the linkages between social change and adjustments at the family level, especially on changes in marital patterns and in infant mortality. The author concludes that there have been changes in the perceived value of children, particularly among nuclear families, but that although family planning concepts were known they were not applied, primarily because infant and child mortality levels had not yet been reduced sufficiently for parents to be sure of having living children to support them in old age.
Correspondence: Norwegian University Press, 0608 Oslo 6, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

59:30199 Kaloyanov, Todor. A structural and factor analysis of fertility. [Strukturno-faktoren analiz na plodovitostta na zhenite.] Naselenie, Vol. 9, No. 3-4, 1991. 3-10 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng.
"The article examines the influence of the age at the time of the study on the fertility of women aged between 15 and 49 in their first marriage. The analysis is based on the variation between conditional one-dimensional distributions....On the basis of data from the censuses in Bulgaria of...1965, 1975 and 1985, the author specifies some tendencies in the change of the fertility level, as well as the nature of the relation between the age at the moment of study and fertility. The article also makes an attempt to study the relation between the duration of the marriage and the fertility of women aged between 15 and 49 [who are] in their first marriage."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30200 Katjiuanjo, Puumue; Titus, Stephen; Zauana, Maazuu; Boerma, J. Ties. Namibia Demographic and Health Survey, 1992. May 1993. xx, 221 pp. Ministry of Health and Social Services: Windhoek, Namibia; Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
This is the main report from the 1992 Namibia Demographic and Health Survey, which involved a nationally representative sample of 5,421 women aged 15-49 and 3,562 children under 5 years of age. The report includes chapters on characteristics of households and respondents, fertility, fertility regulation, proximate determinants of fertility, fertility preferences, infant and child mortality, maternal mortality, maternal and child health, maternal and child nutrition, and availability of health services.
Correspondence: Ministry of Health and Social Services, Epidemiology Unit, Harvey Street, Pr. Bag 13198, Windhoek, Namibia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30201 Kobayashi, Kazumasa; Matsukura, Rikiya; Ogawa, Naohiro. Demographic transition in postwar Japan: a time-series analysis. NUPRI Research Paper Series, No. 62, Mar 1993. vi, 26 pp. Nihon University, Population Research Institute: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"This paper examines the pattern of both fertility and mortality change in postwar Japan and attempts to analyze macrolevel time-series data to identify the factors inducing such demographic transformations."
Correspondence: Nihon University, Population Research Institute, 3-2 Misaki-cho, 1-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30202 Li, Zhongyi. Comparative analysis of China's fertility level and factors affecting it. In: Fertility in China. Proceedings of the International Seminar on China's In-Depth Fertility Survey, Beijing, February 13-17, 1990. 1991. 249-61 pp. International Statistical Institute [ISI]: Voorburg, Netherlands. In Eng.
"In this article we analyze the growth trend of China's...fertility level. The analysis is based on China's Phase-I In-Depth Fertility Survey data and the relevant data of the one per thousand fertility survey conducted in 1981. Also,...we analyze both the indirect and direct factors affecting fertility."
Correspondence: Z. Li, Shaanxi Provincial Statistics Research Institute, Shaanxi, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30203 Luc, Nguyen; Thang, Nguyen Minh; Swenson, Ingrid; San, Pham Bich. Selected determinants of fertility in Vietnam: age at marriage, marriage to first birth interval and age at first birth. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 25, No. 3, Jul 1993. 303-10 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Data from the 4,172 women aged 15-49 interviewed in the 1988 Vietnamese Demographic and Health Survey were used to examine age at marriage, marriage to first birth intervals and age at first birth. Differences between urban and rural areas, northern and southern provinces and by education of the women were analysed....Women from rural areas and from the north had significantly shorter marriage to first birth intervals than urban women and those from the south, but there were no significant effects related to education."
Correspondence: N. Luc, National Committee for Population and Family Planning, Hanoi, Viet Nam. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30204 Mishra, Vinod. Contrasting patterns of nuptiality and fertility in SAARC region. In: Population transition in south Asia, edited by Ashish Bose and M. K. Premi. 1992. 97-108 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
This study examines and compares nuptiality patterns and fertility differentials in Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, the Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka, with a focus on Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. "These two countries stand at two extremes of the region regarding both nuptiality and fertility....This study derives its data mainly from World Fertility Survey Reports and other related publications."
Correspondence: V. Mishra, National Institute of Health and Family Welfare, New Mehrauli Road, Munirka, New Delhi 110 067, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30205 Moss, Nancy; Stone, Michael C.; Smith, Jason B. Fertility among Central American refugees and immigrants in Belize. Human Organization, Vol. 52, No. 2, Summer 1993. 186-93 pp. Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. In Eng.
"This study describes how international migration, including refugee status, affects both child spacing and awareness of and interest in family planning. Guatemalan, Salvadoran, and Belizean women with children under six years of age...were interviewed in a survey conducted in 1989 in three settlements in Belize, Central America that have a high proportion of refugees and economic immigrants....[The results suggest that] there was no effect of migration on fertility, but when mother's age, parity, and available acreage were controlled for, refugees wanted twice as many additional children as permanent residents or those without legal residency...."
Correspondence: N. Moss, U.S. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Center for Population Research, Demographic and Behavioral Sciences Branch, Bethesda, MD 20892. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:30206 Murphy, Michael. The contraceptive pill and women's employment as factors in fertility change in Britain 1963-1980: a challenge to the conventional view. Population Studies, Vol. 47, No. 2, Jul 1993. 221-43 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"A proximate determinants approach is taken to the analysis of fertility in Britain during the period around 1960 to 1980. It is concluded that the main determinant of fertility change in the mid-1960s to mid-1970s was the diffusion of the oral contraceptive pill. Evidence is presented that pill use was determined largely by contraceptive considerations, rather than by other remote socio-economic factors. In particular, changes in pill use due to 'pill scares' are shown to be clearly and directly related to subsequent substantial short-term fertility changes in 1971 and around 1978....It is concluded that demographic considerations, such as contraceptive use, are necessary for a proper understanding of post-war fertility trends, and that approaches which ignore them may be potentially misleading."
Correspondence: M. Murphy, London School of Economics, Department of Population Studies, Houghton Street, Aldwych, London WC2A 2AE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30207 Ngallaba, Sylvester; Kapiga, Saidi H.; Ruyobya, Ireneus; Boerma, J. Ties. Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey, 1991/1992. Jun 1993. xviii, 306 pp. Bureau of Statistics, Planning Commission: Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
This report presents the main results from the 1991-1992 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey, involving 8,327 households from which 9,238 women aged 15-49 and 2,114 men were interviewed. The report includes chapters on fertility, fertility regulation, the proximate determinants of fertility, fertility preferences, infant and child mortality, maternal and child health, infant feeding and childhood nutrition, results from the male survey, AIDS knowledge and sexual practices, and the local availability of family planning and health services.
Correspondence: Bureau of Statistics, P.O. Box 796, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30208 Osheba, Ibrahim K. T. Fertility behaviour in rural upper Egypt versus rural lower Egypt. CDC Working Paper, No. 17, May 1990. 41, [4] pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng. with sum. in Ara.
"This study aims at examining the determinants of fertility within rural Upper and rural Lower Egypt as well as determinants of the difference in fertility between rural Upper and rural Lower Egypt."
Correspondence: Cairo Demographic Centre, 2 Lebanon Street, P.O. Box 73, Mohandiseen 12655, Cairo, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30209 Osheba, Ibrahim K. T. Reproductive behaviour in rural upper Egypt (1980-84): is there a change? CDC Working Paper, No. 19, Aug 1990. 37 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng. with sum. in Ara.
Data for this study concern the period 1980-1984 and are primarily from the 1980 Egyptian Fertility Survey and the 1984 Egypt Contraceptive Prevalence Survey.
Correspondence: Cairo Demographic Centre, 2 Lebanon Street, P.O. Box 73, Mohandiseen 12655, Cairo, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30210 Pakistan. Population Census Organisation (Islamabad, Pakistan). Monograph on fertility and mortality. [1990]. x, 116 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
This study is an analysis of fertility and mortality in Pakistan, based on data from a variety of official sources and surveys. It was undertaken in preparation for the 1991 census. "The monograph comprises eight chapters. [The] first two chapters give a brief introduction [to the] demographic, social and economic profile of the country. Fertility [trends, levels and patterns are] discussed in the third chapter. The fourth chapter [sheds] some light on the impact of migration on fertility while the effects of economic activity, and literacy and education on fertility are analysed in the fifth and the sixth chapters respectively. Infant and child mortality [are] discussed in [the] seventh chapter. The last chapter contains a summary of findings and concluding remarks with some suggestions and recommendations."
Correspondence: Population Census Organisation, Government of Pakistan, 69-E Adeel Plaza Blue Area, P.O. Box 1026, Islamabad, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30211 Pandit, Kavita; Bagchi-Sen, Sharmistha. The spatial dynamics of U.S. fertility, 1970-1990. Growth and Change, Vol. 24, No. 2, Spring 1993. 229-46 pp. Lexington, Kentucky. In Eng.
"The fertility downturn in the U.S. since the baby boom has been accompanied by a growing divergence in regional fertility rates. This paper examines the spatial implications of recent fertility trends. Two interrelated questions are posed. First, how and why have the time trends in fertility varied spatially? Second, how have the regional patterns of fertility changed over time? These questions are investigated using a continuous spatio-temporal model of U.S. fertility built using the Dual Expansion Method. Results indicate that the pace of fertility decline has been the most rapid in the Northeast and the slowest in the West. Further, the traditional North-South distinctions in fertility rates are being replaced by East-West patterns. These changes tentatively suggest that regional ethnic composition is becoming an increasingly important factor in accounting for the spatial variation of U.S. fertility."
Correspondence: K. Pandit, University of Georgia, Department of Geography, Athens, GA 30602. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

59:30212 Pavlik, Zdenek. Reproductive behavior after the demographic transition. [Reproduktivnoto povedenie sled demografskata revolyutsiya.] Naselenie, Vol. 9, No. 1, 1991. 18-24 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng.
"The article analyses [Bulgaria's] demographic revolution as a relatively independent process, yet at the same time as part and parcel of the global revolution....The author considers the conditions influencing [reproductive] behaviour prior to the demographic revolution..., pointing out...the importance of social factors....It is emphasised that the completion of the demographic revolution in the demographically advanced countries practically solves the problem of the population's size and growth...and paves the road for [improvements in health, education, qualifications, and cultural and living standards]."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30213 Qiao, Xiaochun; Chen, Wei. Impact of changes in marriage pattern on fertility in China. In: Fertility in China. Proceedings of the International Seminar on China's In-Depth Fertility Survey, Beijing, February 13-17, 1990. 1991. 155-66 pp. International Statistical Institute [ISI]: Voorburg, Netherlands. In Eng.
Using data from the 1987 round of China's In-Depth Fertility Survey, the authors "make a systematic analysis of women's marriage and fertility, and the impact of marriage on fertility in particular. Also, the relations between marriage and fertility, changes in fertility caused by marriage as well as differences among provinces are described. The study involves five provinces and one municipality, namely, Beijing, Liaoning, Shandong, Guangdong, Guizhou, and Gansu."
Correspondence: X. Qiao, People's University of China, Institute of Population Research, 39 Haidian Road, Haidian District, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30214 Rallu, Jean-Louis; Toulemon, Laurent. Period fertility indices. Part 2--application to France, 1946-1989. [Les mesures de la fecondite transversale. II--application a la France de 1946 a 1989.] Population, Vol. 48, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1993. 369-442 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The authors apply various types of indexes to the measurement of fertility in France. Variables considered include maternal age, parity, birth intervals, and maternal age distribution. Commentaries by various authors are included (pp. 405-42).
For Part 1 of this article, also published in 1993, see 59:20259.
Correspondence: J.-L. Rallu, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30215 Ram, Bali; Rahim, Abdur. Enduring effects of women's early employment experiences on child-spacing: the Canadian evidence. Population Studies, Vol. 47, No. 2, Jul 1993. 307-17 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This study examines the effects of early work experiences on child-spacing among Canadian women, with data from the 1984 Family History Survey conducted by Statistics Canada. The analyses, based on life-table and proportional hazards models, show that longer and less interrupted early work experiences are associated with longer birth intervals, and that these effects tend to persist throughout the childbearing years. The study further shows that these effects are greater on the third birth interval than on the second, and that they are more pronounced among highly educated than among less educated women."
Correspondence: B. Ram, Statistics Canada, Demography Division, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30216 Rychtarikova, Jitka. New reproductive behavior: the cases of France and the Czech Republic. [Le nouveau comportement procreateur, le cas de la France et de la Republique Tcheque.] Acta Demographica, No. 10, Nov 1992. 79-105 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Fre.
A comparison of fertility trends in France (1960-1985) and the Czech Republic (1960-1983) is presented. The author concludes that differences between the two countries are primarily due to changes that have occurred in family structures in France.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30217 Sander, William. The effect of women's schooling on fertility. Economics Letters, Vol. 40, No. 2, Oct 1992. 229-33 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This study investigates the effect of women's schooling on fertility in the United States. Particular attention is given to the issue of whether women's schooling can be legitimately treated as an exogenous determinant of fertility."
Correspondence: W. Sander, DePaul University, Department of Economics, 25 East Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, IL 60604. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

59:30218 Sardon, Jean-Paul. Generation replacement in Europe since 1900. Population. English Selection, Vol. 3, 1991. 15-32 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
The author examines population dynamics in Western Europe during the twentieth century, with a focus on changes in generations' ability to reproduce themselves. He applies "the concept of 'generation replacement', based on 'net' fertility, [taking] into account the mortality rates to which a generation of mothers is subjected up to the end of reproductive life. The conditions in which replacement occurs are measured by the reproduction rate, or replacement rate, which expresses the number of daughters by which each of the women born [in] a given year will, on average, be succeeded. Replacement is ensured when the rate is higher than one. To reach this level, the generation's fertility must be all the higher as mortality conditions are unfavourable."
This is a translation of the article published in 1990 in French and cited in 57:20260.
Correspondence: J.-P. Sardon, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30219 Sathar, Zeba A. Child survival and changing fertility patterns in Pakistan. Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 31, No. 4, Pt. 2, Winter 1992. 699-713 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
"In this paper we are speculating, based on available evidence of current trends in Pakistan, (a) whether existing fertility patterns can be linked with the lack of changes in child mortality and (b) whether future changes in fertility or those changes already under way are likely to influence child survival probabilities favourably? On the basis of the available evidence we also propose some policy suggestions." A comment by Khalil A. Siddiqui is included (pp. 712-3).
Correspondence: Z. A. Sathar, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, P.O. Box 1091, Islamabad, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30220 Shi, Xilai; Geng, Zhi. Statistical analysis of China fertility survey by AIC and loglinear models. In: Fertility in China. Proceedings of the International Seminar on China's In-Depth Fertility Survey, Beijing, February 13-17, 1990. 1991. 103-13 pp. International Statistical Institute [ISI]: Voorburg, Netherlands. In Eng.
The authors analyze the factors affecting rates of population growth, reproduction, and contraceptive practice in China using Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) and log-linear models applied to data collected in the In-Depth Fertility Survey in 1985 and 1987.
Correspondence: X. Shi, People's University of China, Department of Sociology, 39 Haidian Road, Haidian District, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30221 Singh, K. K.; Suchindran, C. M.; Singh, Vipin; Ramakumar, R. Age at return marriage and timing of first birth in India's Uttar Pradesh and Kerala states. Social Biology, Vol. 39, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1992. 292-8 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"The study investigates the relationship between age at marriage and the length of first birth interval in two states of India: Uttar Pradesh and Kerala. Life tables of first-birth intervals and median first-birth intervals are computed for several subgroups of the study population. Multivariate hazards modelling technique is used to study the net effect of age at marriage, controlling for a multiple of socioeconomic factors. The result shows that the average first-birth interval varies by age at marriage and is much longer in Uttar Pradesh than in Kerala."
Correspondence: K. K. Singh, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, Chapel Hill, NC 27516. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30222 Todorovic, Gordana. Reproduction and fertility in Serbia--Part 2. [Reprodukcija i plodnost stanovnistva Srbije--II deo.] Stanovnistvo, Vol. 24, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1991. 7-44 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
The author examines and compares fertility levels among different female cohorts in Serbia. Consideration is given to the use of abortion to control fertility and to attitudes toward desired family size.
For a related study, published in 1990-1991, see 58:40311.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30223 Trovato, Frank; Odynak, Dave. The seasonality of births in Canada and the provinces, 1881-1989: theory and analysis. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 20, No. 1, 1993. 1-41 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Seasonality of births has been observed in virtually all historical and contemporary populations. In general, two distinct patterns have been identified in modern populations: (1) the American pattern, characterized by a trough in April-May, and a peak in September; (2) the European pattern, with an excess of births during spring and summer, and a secondary peak in September....We analyze Census and Vital Statistics data for Canada and the provinces for 1881 and from 1926-1989, with a time-varying covariate regression model to address four questions: (a) what is the Canadian pattern of seasonality in births; (b) how has it changed over time; (c) how does it compare to the American pattern; and (d) how can the Canadian seasonal distribution of births be explained. Our results indicate that the Canadian pattern closely approximates the European model, but only since the early part of this century. Prior to 1926, the monthly distribution of births in Canada as a whole was actually closer to the contemporary American distribution."
Correspondence: F. Trovato, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30224 Vosti, Stephen A.; Lipton, Michael. Population change in the wake of agricultural improvement: lessons for Pakistan. Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 31, No. 4, Pt. 2, Winter 1992. 715-28 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
"This paper examines the impact of several types of modern agricultural technologies [developed] since the early 1960s on fertility-based demographic transitions between 1971 and 1981 at the District level in rural India. We begin with an estimation of total fertility rates in Section II, followed by a brief District-level characterisation of agriculture in Section III. Section IV presents the results of empirical estimation." A comment by Moazan Mahmood, concerning Vosti and Lipton's findings for Pakistan, is included (pp. 727-8).
Correspondence: S. A. Vosti, International Food Policy Research Institute, 1776 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30225 Walker, James R. The effect of public policies on recent Swedish fertility behavior. Hoover Institution Working Papers in Economics, No. E-92-20, Aug 1992. 31, [4] pp. Stanford University, Hoover Institution, Domestic Studies Program: Stanford, California. In Eng.
The author uses a neoclassical economic framework to develop the price of fertility. He then analyzes the effect of Sweden's economic trends and social policies on the birth rate.
Correspondence: Stanford University, Hoover Institution, Domestic Studies Program, Stanford, CA 94305. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

59:30226 Wang, Temu. Alternative population policies in Taiwan, after below-replacement fertility. Journal of Population Studies, No. 15, Dec 1992. 1-15 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Chi. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in fertility in Taiwan since the 1980s are discussed and projections to the year 2080 are made. The author notes that fertility has been below replacement level since the beginning of the 1980s and assesses the effects of demographic aging on the projected dependency burden. Suggestions for a population policy that would encourage family formation are made.
Correspondence: T. Wang, National Chung-cheng University, Department of Social Welfare, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30227 Wang, Yanzu. Birth peak and the fertility level of Chinese women--an analysis of the In-Depth Fertility Sampling Survey. In: Fertility in China. Proceedings of the International Seminar on China's In-Depth Fertility Survey, Beijing, February 13-17, 1990. 1991. 263-72 pp. International Statistical Institute [ISI]: Voorburg, Netherlands. In Eng.
The author analyzes fertility levels in China using data for total parity progressive birth rates from the 1985 and 1987 phases of the In-Depth Fertility Survey.
Correspondence: Y. Wang, Chinese State Planning Commission, Institute of Economics, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30228 Zakharova, Olga. Birth rate evolution in the Soviet Union and explanatory concepts. [Evolyutsiya na razhdaemostta v SSSR i kontseptsii za neinoto obyasnenie.] Naselenie, Vol. 9, No. 3-4, 1991. 22-30 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng.
The author describes recent declines in the birth rate in the former Soviet Union. She considers contributory factors such as residence characteristics, birth control and abortion, child mortality, and female labor force participation.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30229 Zha, Ruichuan. Some analyses of the age at first marriage and fertility level of women in five provinces and one municipality. In: Fertility in China. Proceedings of the International Seminar on China's In-Depth Fertility Survey, Beijing, February 13-17, 1990. 1991. 499-528 pp. International Statistical Institute [ISI]: Voorburg, Netherlands. In Eng.
Trends in fertility and marriage age in China are analyzed and compared for five provinces and one municipality. Data are from the 1985 phase of the In-Depth Fertility Survey.
Correspondence: R. Zha, People's University of China, Institute of Population Research, 39 Haidian Road, Haidian District, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30230 Zhao, Xuan. A quality assessment on the fertility rate estimated with China's In-Depth Fertility Survey. In: Fertility in China. Proceedings of the International Seminar on China's In-Depth Fertility Survey, Beijing, February 13-17, 1990. 1991. 31-6 pp. International Statistical Institute [ISI]: Voorburg, Netherlands. In Eng.
The quality of data from China's In-Depth Fertility Survey is assessed by comparing it with results from a 1988 fertility and contraceptive survey and the 1982 census. The author concludes that "the TFR [total fertility rate] for 1981 and 1983 are excellent, for 1980, 1985 and 1986 are very good, for 1984 good. The quality of the data for the first four years is better than that for the last three years, [but] the underlying reasons remain to be analyzed."
Correspondence: X. Zhao, State Family Planning Commission, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.2. Differential Fertility

Studies on differences in fertility patterns and levels in subgroups of a population. Also included are studies on age-specific fertility, such as teenage pregnancy.

59:30231 Bachrach, Christine A.; Carver, Karen. Outcomes of early childbearing: an appraisal of recent evidence. [1992?]. 32 pp. U.S. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development [NICHD]: Bethesda, Maryland. In Eng.
This is a summary of a conference on the outcomes of early childbearing in the United States, which was convened by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development in May 1992. The purpose of the conference "was to review recent studies on the effects of maternal age and the factors that mediate and condition those effects...[with a focus on the] association between the timing of the first birth and such economic and social factors as education, earnings, marriage and marital stability, and poverty....This summary provides an overview of the papers presented in the conference and the discussion that followed."
Correspondence: U.S. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Center for Population Research, Demographic and Behavioral Sciences Branch, Bethesda, MD 20892. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30232 Bentley, Gillian R.; Goldberg, Tony; Jasienska, Grazyna. The fertility of agricultural and non-agricultural traditional societies. Population Studies, Vol. 47, No. 2, Jul 1993. 269-81 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"A comparison of demographic data from a sample of traditional, natural-fertility societies demonstrates that the mean total fertility of populations which practise intensive agriculture is significantly higher than that of foragers and horticulturalists. These findings support the association that demographers and economists have long maintained between the intensification of subsistence technology and increases in human fertility. This higher fertility probably results from changes in nutritional status, marriage patterns, and breastfeeding practices that frequently accompany subsistence intensification."
Correspondence: G. R. Bentley, Northwestern University, Department of Anthropology, Evanston, IL 60208. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30233 Bledsoe, Caroline H.; Cohen, Barney. Social dynamics of adolescent fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa. Population Dynamics of Sub-Saharan Africa, Pub. Order No. B147. ISBN 0-309-04897-4. LC 93-84260. 1993. xv, 208 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report is one in a series of studies that have been carried out under the auspices of the Panel on the Population Dynamics of Sub-Saharan Africa of the National Research Council's Committee on Population....This report, one of...four cross-national studies, is concerned with the social dynamics of adolescent fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa. It uses data from recent national surveys, conducted under the auspices of the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), to examine, among other things, contemporary trends in marriage, sexuality, contraceptive use, and fertility. It describes in some depth the changing social context within which adolescents are having children in Sub-Saharan Africa, and the effects of these changing circumstances on the benefits and risks of early childbearing. The report draws extensively on ethnographic and historical literature to demonstrate the enormous heterogeneity in economic and social regimes within Sub-Saharan Africa."
Correspondence: National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue NW, Box 285, Washington, D.C. 20055. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30234 Grogger, Jeff; Bronars, Stephen. The socioeconomic consequences of teenage childbearing: findings from a natural experiment. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 25, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1993. 156-61, 174 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A study based on [U.S.] census data from 1970 and 1980 examines the socioeconomic effects of unplanned teenage childbearing by comparing teenage mothers whose first birth was to twins with those whose first birth was to a single infant. Among black women, an unplanned teenage birth--represented by the secondborn twin--results in significantly lower rates of high school graduation and labor-force participation and significantly higher rates of poverty and welfare recipiency....Like black women, white women who have an unplanned teenage birth have significantly higher rates of poverty and welfare recipiency; they also have significantly lower family earnings and household income....The data...used were drawn from the 1-in-100 State, County-Group, and Neighborhood Characteristics samples from the 5% Questionnaire of the 1970 census, and from the A and B samples of the 1980 census."
Correspondence: J. Grogger, University of California, Department of Economics, Santa Barbara, CA 93106. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30235 Henshaw, Stanley K. Teenage abortion, birth and pregnancy statistics by state, 1988. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 25, No. 3, May-Jun 1993. 122-6 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This research note provides the estimated total number of pregnancies among [U.S.] women younger than 20 and estimated pregnancy, birth and abortion rates by state of residence for 1988, the most recent year for which data are available."
Correspondence: S. K. Henshaw, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 111 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30236 Kalule-Sabiti, I. The effect of nuptiality status variables on fertility: the Kenyan experience. South African Journal of Sociology/Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Sosiologie, Vol. 23, No. 1, Feb 1992. 12-9 pp. Pretoria, South Africa. In Eng. with sum. in Afr.
"This paper examines the relationship between fertility and nuptiality in Kenya using data from the Kenya Fertility Survey 1977/78. The results show that completed fertility (the cumulative fertility at the end of the reproductive period 15-49) decreases with the rise in age at first marriage. Type of union is also found to affect marital stability, frequency of marriage and consequently completed fertility. Regardless of type of union, women whose first union is still continuing have higher fertility than those women whose first union was dissolved and who married once or several times after. Highest fertility is experienced by women married only once and...in monogamous unions. The results also show that polygamously married older women among the rural populations experience higher fertility than their counterparts in the urban areas regardless of age."
Correspondence: I. Kalule-Sabiti, Institute of Development Research, Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho, Bophuthatswana, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:30237 Lawson, Annette; Rhode, Deborah L. The politics of pregnancy: adolescent sexuality and public policy. ISBN 0-300-05717-2. LC 92-38539. 1993. [xi], 348 pp. Yale University Press: New Haven, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
This is a collection of papers from various disciplines on aspects of teenage pregnancy; it is the product of a conference sponsored by the Institute for Research on Women and Gender held at Stanford University in April 1989. The geographical focus of the papers is on both the United Kingdom and the United States. In Part 1, the authors examine the cultural context of teenage pregnancy in the two countries. Part 2 looks at the choices available to pregnant adolescents. Part 3 examines the situation concerning adolescent fathers. The concluding Part 4 considers social policy implications.
Correspondence: Yale University Press, 302 Temple Street, New Haven, CT 06520. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30238 Lee, See Baick; Yoon, Bong Ja. An estimate of fertility differences by region: with application of indirect method. Journal of Population, Health and Social Welfare, Vol. 12, No. 1, Jul 1992. 108-18 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Kor. with sum. in Eng.
"A major purpose of the present study is to measure fertility differences by region in [South] Korea. The crude birth rate and the total fertility rate are estimated at city and provincial levels using national vital registration data over the period from 1970 to 1990. As [existing] age specific birth rates for regional population are defective, the crude birth rate and the total fertility rate are calculated indirectly....The total fertility rate dropped off sharply after the 1982-1984 period, although the two large cities [Seoul and Pusan] have remained consistently at a lower level since the 1970-1972 period."
Correspondence: S. B. Lee, Seoul National University, School of Public Health, Sinlim-dong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30239 Marr, William L. Micro and macro land availability as a determinant of human fertility in rural Canada West, 1851. Social Science History, Vol. 16, No. 4, Winter 1992. 583-90 pp. Durham, North Carolina. In Eng.
A large sample of data on farm households from the 1851-1852 census of Canada West (now Ontario) is used to compare fertility between long-settled areas and frontier settlements. "In the final analysis, fertility differences were influenced by land availability at the farm level, but the location of the farm with respect to the extent of agricultural development did not affect fertility when some other pertinent factors are held constant (age, birthplace, and religion of the household's head)."
Correspondence: W. L. Marr, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3C5, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:30240 Meekers, Dominique. Education and adolescent fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 1993-05, Feb 1993. [iii], 87 pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to review and clarify the available evidence on the relationship between education and adolescent fertility in sub-Saharan Africa."
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 22 Burrowes Building, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30241 Newcomer, Susan; Baldwin, Wendy. Demographics of adolescent sexual behavior, contraception, pregnancy, and STDs. Journal of School Health, Vol. 62, No. 7, Sep 1992. 265-70 pp. Kent, Ohio. In Eng.
"The demographics of fertility-related behavior of youth ages 10-18 are reviewed. Data were collected from U.S. vital statistics, and birth rates, contraceptive use, sexual behavior, number and types of sexual partners, patterns of sexual initiation and sexual intercourse, and sexually transmitted diseases were examined. Despite data limitations, the demographic profile of adolescent sexual intercourse is striking. Age clearly is the single most important predictor of sexual debut."
Correspondence: S. Newcomer, U.S. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Demographic and Behavioral Sciences Branch, Bethesda, MD 20892. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30242 Ofosu, Yaw. Labour and population. Socio-economic change and evolution of cultural models of reproduction in Ghana: implications for population policy. World Employment Programme Research Working Paper, No. 184, ISBN 92-2-108760-3. Dec 1992. vi, 35 pp. International Labour Office [ILO]: Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
Data from the Ghana Fertility Survey of 1979-1980 and the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey of 1988 are used to examine fertility differentials among various ethnic, socioeconomic, and cultural groups in Ghana. The relationship between modernization and more effective family planning practice is emphasized.
Correspondence: International Labour Office, 4 route des Morillons, 1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30243 Powers, Daniel A. Alternative models of the effects of family structure on early family formation. Social Science Research, Vol. 22, No. 3, Sep 1993. 283-99 pp. Orlando, Florida. In Eng.
"Data from the 1979-1985 waves of the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Survey of Youth are used to examine the effect of residing in a nonintact family during adolescence on the probability of experiencing a teen birth and on the timing of first premarital births....The results confirm previous research findings that, after controlling for various socio-demographic factors, living in a nonintact family at age 14 increases the likelihood of becoming a teen parent and lowers the expected age of experiencing an out-of-wedlock birth."
Correspondence: D. A. Powers, University of Texas, Department of Sociology, Austin, TX 78712. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:30244 Tribalat, Michele. Chronicle of immigration: special topic. Population. English Selection, Vol. 3, 1991. 201-14 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
The author critically assesses data from the 1982 Family Survey, which examined fertility levels and trends among immigrants to France. "For lack of more accurate data, the total fertility rates of foreign nationals have been taken to reflect changes over time, and...assumptions on the convergence of their fertility behaviour to that of French nationals have been made. The evident deficiencies of such methods prompted us to undertake an in-depth analysis of the results of the 1982 Family Survey conducted by INSEE....The survey population...was exclusively female and information collected was largely individual. 23,000 women born outside France were interviewed...."
This is a translation of part of the article published in French in 1990 and cited in 56:40454.
Correspondence: M. Tribalat, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30245 United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] (Atlanta, Georgia). Childbearing patterns among selected racial/ethnic minority groups--United States, 1990. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 42, No. 20, May 28, 1993. 398-403 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
"To characterize childbearing variations among American Indians/Alaskan Natives, Asians/Pacific Islanders, and Hispanic ethnic groups...data from U.S. birth certificates for 1990 [are analyzed]. This report compares patterns among these groups and relates them to selected birth outcomes; in addition, this report presents birth rates for subgroups of Asians/Pacific Islanders for the first time."
Correspondence: U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology

Studies on infertility, as well as studies of spontaneous abortion, prematurity, and other relevant pathologies of pregnancy.

59:30246 Brewis, Alexandra A. Age and infertility in a Micronesian atoll population. Human Biology, Vol. 65, No. 4, Aug 1993. 593-609 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
"The relationship between female age and infertility is examined using a single-island Micronesian population case. Demographic data, derived primarily from reproductive history interviews, show that a significant age-associated decline in marital reproductive performance is absent before women reach their late thirties in this population but a substantial decline is present once women reach their forties. Ethnographic data support the demographic inference that couples are maintaining relatively high levels of conjugal coital activity with both advancing female age and increasing marital duration. Thus coital activity levels appear to be an important factor in the maintenance of fertility in this group before the mid-thirties but decreases in fecundability after this age are due primarily to reductions in fecundity, not to declines in coital activity." Data are for Butaritari Atoll, Kiribati.
Correspondence: A. A. Brewis, University of Auckland, Department of Anthropology, Private Bag 92019, Auckland, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30247 Gloria-Bottini, Fulvia; Lucarini, Nazzareno; Scalamandre, Antonio; Borgiani, Paola; Amante, Ada; Bottini, Egidio. Phosphoglucomutase genetic polymorphism and human fertility. Social Biology, Vol. 39, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1992. 246-56 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"We studied the phosphoglucomutase phenotype in relation to fertility parameters in a consecutive series of 204 women who had delivered a normal live-born child in Rome [Italy]. A highly significant association was found between age of the women and phosphoglucomutase phenotype, suggesting a reduced rate of reproduction among women of phosphoglucomutase Type 1....Considered altogether, the data suggest that phosphoglucomutase may have an important role in zygote development and survival through the whole span of intrauterine life."
Correspondence: F. Gloria-Bottini, Second University of Rome School of Medicine, Division of Biometry and Human Development, Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30248 Kallan, Jeffrey E. Effects of interpregnancy intervals on preterm birth, intrauterine growth retardation, and fetal loss. Social Biology, Vol. 39, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1992. 231-45 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"This study examines the magnitude and shape of the interpregnancy interval (IPI) effect on three pregnancy outcomes: preterm low birthweight (PRETERM-LBW), intrauterine growth-retardation low birthweight (IUGR-LBW), and fetal loss (LOSS). A multinomial logistic regression model is estimated, based on data from the 1988 [U.S.] National Survey of Family Growth which contains pregnancy histories. The results indicate that both short and long intervals raise the risk of IUGR-LBW and LOSS, net of sociodemographic and behavioral variables, but IPI effects on PRETERM-LBW are not clear."
Correspondence: J. E. Kallan, National Research Council, Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel, Washington, D.C. 20418. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30249 Wagner, Marsden G.; Stephenson, Patricia A. Infertility in industrialized countries: prevalence and prevention. Sozial- und Praventivmedizin/Medecine Sociale et Preventive, Vol. 37, No. 5, 1992. 213-7 pp. Basel, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"We discuss the prevalence and aetiology of infertility and the relevance of this information for national infertility services and prevention programmes. The prevalence of infertility in industrialized countries has been said to be as high as 10-20%....However, population prevalence surveys indicate that far fewer couples of reproductive age are actually infertile....Other studies show that nearly a third of couples have difficulty conceiving at some point during their reproductive lives but few actually remain childless. A significant proportion of infertility could be prevented through more aggressive application of standard public health measures."
Correspondence: P. A. Stephenson, Centre for Public Health Research, 651 82 Karlstad, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4. Actions and Activities Directly Affecting Fertility

Studies concerning activities, including family planning programs, that are primarily designed to influence fertility.

F.4.1. General Fertility Control and Contraception

General aspects of fertility control, primarily those concerned with family planning and family planning programs.

59:30250 Ahmed, Tauseef; Ali, Syed M. Alternate scenarios for population control in Pakistan: the issue of contraceptive method mix. Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 31, No. 4, Pt. 2, Winter 1992. 1,281-92 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
The authors review Pakistan's population program, with a focus on the ideal mix of contraceptive methods needed to slow population growth. "Our objective in this exercise is to estimate the extent of services required to achieve a certain level of the Contraceptive Prevalence Rate (CPR) necessary to bring fertility down to a level desired by women." Comparison is made between single- and multiple-method approaches.
Correspondence: T. Ahmed, National Institute of Population Studies, House No. 8, St. 70, F-813, P.O. Box 2197, Islamabad, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30251 Angle, Marcia A.; Brown, Laura A.; Buekens, Pierre. IUD protocols for international training. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 24, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1993. 125-31 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors review current IUD-provision protocols. They find that "for developing countries, where maternal mortality rates are as much as two magnitudes greater than those in industrialized countries, at least eight of the listed IUD contraindications may be inappropriate...." It is concluded that "donor organizations and technical assistance agencies must work together to offer developing countries a consistent set of IUD service guidelines that reflect not only current epidemiologic insight, but also respect for individual women's choices."
Correspondence: M. A. Angle, University of North Carolina, School of Medicine, Program for International Training in Health, 208 North Columbia Street, CB 8100, Chapel Hill, NC 27514. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30252 Balasubramanian, K. Emergence of fertility differentials as evidence of fertility decline in India. Artha Vijnana, Vol. 34, No. 2, Jun 1992. 182-99 pp. Pune, India. In Eng.
"A review of major studies on fertility concludes that it is only from the late 1960s that movement from the stage of uncontrolled fertility to the stage of controlled fertility leading to the emergence of socio-economic differentials in fertility seems to have really gotten underway in India. This process appears to have been accelerated during the 1970s and 1980s."
Correspondence: K. Balasubramanian, Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics, Pune 411 004, India. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

59:30253 Cayemittes, Michel; Augustin, Antoine; Rival, Antonio; Friedman, Jay S.; Stupp, Paul W.; Goldberg, Howard I. 1989 Haiti National Contraceptive Prevalence Survey: final English language report. Jun 1991. 45, [88] pp. Child Health Institute: Port-au-Prince, Haiti; U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]: Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
This is the final English-language report on the 1989 Haiti National Contraceptive Prevalence Survey, a nationwide population-based household survey. The sample consisted of 4,650 households, and interviews were conducted with 1,842 males and 1,996 females. Chapters are included on survey methodology and organization; characteristics of the survey population; maternal and child health care, fertility intentions, and planning status of last live birth; contraception; risk of unplanned pregnancy; availability of services; attitudes toward family planning; sexual behavior and contraceptive use among young adults; and knowledge of AIDS. The report is also available in French.
Correspondence: U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Reproductive Health, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30254 Chung, Kyung Kyoon; Cho, Nam-Hoon. Interaction between clients and grass-root family planning workers in Korea: implications for program performance. Journal of Population, Health and Social Welfare, Vol. 12, No. 1, Jul 1992. 176-93 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng. with sum. in Kor.
"The main purpose of this study is to assess the effects of the interaction patterns between family planning workers and potential clients [in South Korea] upon acceptance of family planning....1,383 married eligible women, and 66 family planning workers...were interviewed....Variables appearing to explain the non-adoption of family planning at a highly significant level were: 1) time and distance to service institutions, 2) friendliness of service institutions, 3) frequency of meetings with a family planning worker, 4) support of friends, 5) visits to friends, 6) wife's occupation, 7) number of living sons, 8) number of living daughters, and 9) friendliness of family planning workers."
Correspondence: K. K. Chung, Seoul National University, School of Public Health, Sinlim-dong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30255 Forrest, Jacqueline D.; Fordyce, Richard R. Women's contraceptive attitudes and use in 1992. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 25, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1993. 175-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors investigate contraceptive attitudes and use among U.S. women, using data from the 1992 Ortho Birth Control Study and comparing the results with data from the 1987 Ortho study. "The proportion of unmarried women who had had intercourse increased from 76% in 1987 to 86% in 1992. As a result, proportions of women at risk of unintended pregnancy rose from 72% to 77%. Contraceptive use also rose, from 92% to 94%. The most commonly used method is the pill (39%), followed by the condom (25%), female sterilization (19%) and vasectomy (12%). Married women exposed to the risk of unintended pregnancy are more likely to use sterilization (48%), while unmarried women are more likely to use the pill (52%) and the condom (33%). Pill use has increased since 1987, especially among married women, and condom use has increased among all women. Among unmarried women at risk of unintended pregnancy, condom use rose from 18% in 1987 to 33% in 1992. Among condom users, 40% of unmarried users and 13% of married users also use another method."
Correspondence: J. D. Forrest, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 111 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30256 Goldman, Noreen. Collection of survey data on contraception: an experimental study. In: Fertility in China. Proceedings of the International Seminar on China's In-Depth Fertility Survey, Beijing, February 13-17, 1990. 1991. 37-51 pp. International Statistical Institute [ISI]: Voorburg, Netherlands. In Eng.
The author describes an experiment conducted as part of the Demographic and Health Surveys project in which two alternative questionnaires were employed to identify how approaches to measurement affect data reliability and usefulness. The focus here is on how differences between the two questionnaires affected information on contraceptive use and discontinuation. The surveys were carried out in the Dominican Republic and Peru in 1986.
Correspondence: N. Goldman, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30257 Hashmi, Sultan S.; Ahmed, Tauseef. Shy/silent contraceptive users: further evidence. Pakistan Population Review, Vol. 3, No. 1, Spring 1992. 19-40 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
"On the basis of 1984/1985 Pakistan Contraceptive Prevalence Survey, it was deduced...that there were 5.9 percent of currently married women 15-49 years of age who were shy/silent contraceptive users. The analysis of 1990/1991 Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey data provide a corresponding estimate of 11.9 percent, in spite of further refinement of the procedure used for the determination of the shy/silent users who were defined as currently married women [who] had no birth during the last five or more years preceding the survey, were not sterile or menopaused, were reportedly not using [a] contraceptive method, had at least produced one live birth since marriage, were less than 45 years of age and their ability to conceive had not been impaired. The analysis shows that due to the impact of shy/silent users not counted as users and other reasons, the contraceptive prevalence is far more under reported than the level of fertility."
Correspondence: S. S. Hashmi, National Institute of Population Studies, House No. 8, St. 70, F-8/3, P.O. Box 2197, Islamabad, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30258 Hieu, Do Trong; Tan, Tran Thi; Tan, Do Ngoc; Nguyet, Pham Thi; Than, Pham; Vinh, Dao Quang. 31,781 cases of non-surgical female sterilisation with quinacrine pellets in Vietnam. Lancet, Vol. 342, No. 8865, Jul 24, 1993. 213-7 pp. Baltimore, Maryland/London, England. In Eng.
The authors present the results of a field trial of the quinacrine-pellet method of nonsurgical sterilization carried out from 1989 to 1992 in Viet Nam. The results indicate that this method is an economical way both to provide effective contraception in a developing country and to reduce maternal mortality significantly.
Correspondence: D. T. Hieu, Ministry of Health, Maternal and Child Health/Family Planning Department, 138A Giangvo, Hanoi, Viet Nam. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

59:30259 Hubacher, David; Potter, Linda. Adherence to oral contraceptive regimens in four countries. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 19, No. 2, Jun 1993. 49-53 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Results from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in Botswana, Egypt, Indonesia and Zimbabwe between 1987 and 1989 show that many women are not taking oral contraceptives properly or adequately for full protection. Depending on the country and the particular type of pill-taking error, the prevalence of incorrect use among current users ranges from 5% to 89%. However, relationships between pill-taking errors and social and demographic variables differ across countries: Incorrect use is most common in Egypt, for instance, and errors there are concentrated among poorly educated and illiterate women, while in Botswana, better educated and literate women are more likely to make errors in pill-taking, as are younger and lower parity women. In Zimbabwe and Indonesia, such errors are not concentrated in any particular social or demographic groups."
Correspondence: D. Hubacher, Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30260 Jaspard, Maryse. The control of reproduction: contraception and abortion in France and Czechoslovakia. [La maitrise de la procreation: contraception et avortement en France et en Tchecoslovaquie.] Acta Demographica, No. 10, Nov 1992. 41-78 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Fre.
This is a comparative analysis of fertility control in France and Czechoslovakia. The author describes differences in the contraceptive methods used and in abortion trends in the two countries.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30261 Jiang, Gu; Campbell, Michael J. Determinants of contraceptive method choice after first delivery, before first abortion, and after first abortion in east China. Contraception, Vol. 47, No. 6, Jun 1993. 539-57 pp. Stoneham, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"A 10% sample of the data from East China from the two-per-thousand fertility and contraception survey of the Chinese State Family Planning Committee was analysed to study determinants of contraceptive choice in three situations: after first surviving delivery; before first abortion after first surviving delivery; and after first abortion. A total of 2,880 women were included. For the first method choice after first delivery, the most popular method is the IUD, although there are urban/rural differences. Better educated women in urban areas prefer the condom and IUD to the pill, whereas better educated women in rural areas prefer the pill. Younger women prefer the IUD and the pill. For last method choice before first abortion, women who had no sons had apparently high failure rates on the pill."
Correspondence: G. Jiang, Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research, Shanghai 200032, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30262 Jiles Moreno, Ximena; Rojas Mira, Claudia. From honey to implants: a history of the politics of fertility regulation in Chile. [De la miel a los implantes: historia de las politicas de regulacion de la fecundidad en Chile.] 1992. 211 pp. Corporacion de Salud y Politicas Sociales [CORSAPS]: Santiago, Chile. In Spa.
The authors trace the history of political aspects of fertility regulation in Chile, with a focus on feminist and human rights issues. Following an introductory section on ideological concepts, sections are included on the history of contraception in a worldwide context; the movement in Chile to free women from obligatory motherhood; and the politics of fertility regulation under the leadership of the Christian Democratic Party (1964-1970), the Popular Unity Party (1970-1973), and Pinochet's military regime.
Correspondence: Corporacion de Salud y Politicas Sociales, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30263 Kim, Seung Kwon. A study of contraceptive-failure pregnancy and induced abortion in Korea. Journal of Population, Health and Social Welfare, Vol. 12, No. 1, Jul 1992. 119-44 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Kor. with sum. in Eng.
The author reviews South Korea's family planning program since its inception in 1962. The focus is on pregnancy due to contraceptive failure and the use of induced abortion as a remedy. It is found that "according to a logistic regression analysis, major factors which affect the outcome of pregnancy due to contraceptive failure were residence area, number of boys, educational level, duration of marriage, women's age and number of children."
Correspondence: S. K. Kim, Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs, San 42-14, Bulgwang-dong, Eunpyung-ku, Seoul 122-040, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30264 Kost, Kathryn. The dynamics of contraceptive use in Peru. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 24, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1993. 109-19 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In 1986, the Demographic and Health Surveys project administered the first six-year calendar history of events that included women's contraceptive use and their reasons for discontinuation in experimental surveys in Peru and the Dominican Republic. In this report the experimental survey from Peru is examined to demonstrate how the calendar data can be used to calculate multiple increment-decrement life table rates of contraceptive discontinuation--including contraceptive failure, method switching, and abandonment of use--and of resumption of method use following discontinuation."
Correspondence: K. Kost, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 111 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30265 Merrick, Thomas W. Strategic planning for the expansion of family planning. Policy Paper Series, No. 2, Feb 1993. 24 pp. Options for Population Policy: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author outlines an approach to strategic planning at the sector level designed to expand family planning services in developing countries.
Correspondence: Options for Population Policy, 1050 17th Street NW, Suite 1000, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30266 Moreno, Lorenzo. Differences by residence and education in contraceptive failure rates in developing countries. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 19, No. 2, Jun 1993. 54-60, 71 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"A study based on Demographic and Health Survey data from 15 countries in Latin America, Asia and North Africa shows that the contraceptive method selected, the duration of use and the age of the woman are important determinants of the probability of failure in the first year. In addition, women who want to postpone their next birth seem to have higher failure rates than women who wish to limit their family size. The study found little evidence that rural women use contraceptives less effectively than do urban women or that user effectiveness rises with level of education."
Correspondence: L. Moreno, Mathematica Policy Research, P.O. Box 2393, Princeton, NJ 08543-2393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30267 National Research Council. Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Committee on Population. Panel on the Population Dynamics of Sub-Saharan Africa. Working Group on Factors Affecting Contraceptive Use (Washington, D.C.). Factors affecting contraceptive use in Sub-Saharan Africa. Population Dynamics of Sub-Saharan Africa, Pub. Order No. B168. ISBN 0-309-04944-X. LC 93-85134. 1993. xv, 252 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report is one in a series of studies that have been carried out under the auspices of the Panel on the Population Dynamics of Sub-Saharan Africa of the National Research Council's Committee on Population....This report, one of...four cross-national studies, analyzes the factors affecting contraceptive use....[It] examines the literature on the socioeconomic, social organizational, and family planning program factors that are related to contraceptive use. Multivariate analysis is employed to assess the relative importance of those factors that can be measured and for which data are available from surveys....The relative importance of contraceptive use versus postpartum practices in inhibiting fertility in Africa is assessed."
Correspondence: National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue NW, Box 285, Washington, D.C. 20055. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30268 Oddens, B. J. Evaluation of the effect of contraceptive prices on demand in eight Western European countries. Advances in Contraception, Vol. 9, No. 1, Mar 1993. 1-11 pp. Boston, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"In this...project annual expenditure and costs in the first year of use were calculated, taking into account existing reimbursement levels, for oral contraceptives, intrauterine devices, condoms, and sterilization in eight Western European countries: Italy, France, United Kingdom, Spain, West Germany, Austria, Sweden and Denmark....The variation in expenditure was largely explained by the extent to which contraception costs are reimbursed in the respective countries. Correlation of the calculated expenditure on a method and its use did not show any statistically significant trend. This suggests that the wide differences in the choice of contraceptive methods between countries are not related to differences in national reimbursement schemes and resulting costs to users, and that other factors must be involved."
Correspondence: B. J. Oddens, International Health Foundation, Avenue Don Bosco 8, 1150 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30269 Ordonez Sotomayor, Jose; Stupp, Paul W.; Monteith, Richard S. Female sterilization in Ecuador: characteristics and impact on fertility, 1979-1989. [La esterilizacion femenina en el Ecuador: caracteristicas e impacto en la fecundidad, 1979-1989.] Aug 1992. 48 pp. Centro de Estudios de Poblacion y Paternidad Responsable [CEPAR]: Quito, Ecuador. In Spa.
Levels and trends in female sterilization in Ecuador are examined for the period 1979-1989. The focus is on acceptor characteristics and the overall impact on the fertility decline. Data are from fertility surveys conducted in 1979 and 1989.
Correspondence: J. Ordonez Sotomayor, Centro de Estudios de Poblacion y Paternidad Responsable, Montes 423 y Daniel Hidalgo, Casilla 17-01-2327, Quito, Ecuador. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30270 Pleck, Joseph H.; Sonenstein, Freya L.; Ku, Leighton. Changes in adolescent males' use of and attitudes toward condoms, 1988-1991. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 25, No. 3, May-Jun 1993. 106-10, 117 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Data from more than 1,000 sexually active young males interviewed in 1988 for the [U.S.] National Survey of Adolescent Males at ages 15-19 and reinterviewed in 1990-1991 at ages 17-22 show that as the respondents grew older, their condom use declined. Although respondents' attitudes about the effects of condoms on pregnancy risk, partner appreciation, sexual pleasure and embarrassment became more favorable toward condom use over time, their degree of worry about AIDS and their perceived likelihood of getting AIDS declined....Change in condom use was also affected by change in perceived reduction in sexual pleasure and by female partner's appreciation of condom use."
Correspondence: J. H. Pleck, Wellesley College, Center for Research on Women, Wellesley, MA 02181. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30271 Prakasam, C. P.; Murthy, P. K. Couple's literacy level and acceptance of family planning methods: Lorenz curve analysis. Journal of Institute of Economic Research, Vol. 27, No. 1, Jan 1992. 1-11 pp. Dharwad, India. In Eng.
"An attempt has been made in this paper to find out the influence of husband and wife literacy levels on acceptance of family planning methods in Indian States. To achieve the above objective, data regarding the acceptance of family planning by level of literacy of husband and wife have been collected from the [1990] Family Welfare Yearbook...and the [1989] report brought out by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare....It is evident that the level of literacy of the women is a key factor for the acceptance of male or female methods of family planning."
Correspondence: C. P. Prakasam, International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Bombay 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30272 Puffer, Ruth R. Family planning issues relating to maternal and infant mortality in the United States. Bulletin of the Pan American Health Organization, Vol. 27, No. 2, 1993. 120-34 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This article provides a brief summary of the situation in the United States with regard to maternal mortality, abortion, and infant mortality. It then considers preventive actions available for reducing maternal and infant mortality and examines the prospects for reducing the frequency of abortions through family planning." Comparisons made with Sweden show that "the rates of unplanned pregnancy, abortion, and infant mortality were all much higher in the United States than in Sweden. The differences are attributed to better contraceptive services, which were made available free or very inexpensively in Sweden. Also, the frequency of low weight births was much lower in Sweden."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30273 Rajaretnam, T.; Deshpande, R. V. Popularizing spacing methods of family planning in rural areas: the perception of programme personnel and the community in Karnataka. Journal of Institute of Economic Research, Vol. 27, No. 1, Jan 1992. 25-34 pp. Dharwad, India. In Eng.
"In this study an attempt has been made to identify the possible factors inhibiting the use of spacing methods through a field investigation in the rural areas of northern Karnataka [India] by interviewing both programme personnel and the community (leaders and couples). This paper presents the salient findings and policy implications of the study....The specific objectives of the study were: (i) to assess the perception and experiences of the programme personnel, from district level to grassroots level, about popularizing spacing methods of family planning in the rural areas; (ii) to understand the community leaders' knowledge about spacing methods and their perception regarding couples accepting them; and (iii) to study the knowledge, attitude and practice of different family planning methods by couples...in the villages."
Correspondence: T. Rajaretnam, Population Research Centre, Dharwad 580 004, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30274 Ringheim, Karin. Factors that determine prevalence of use of contraceptive methods for men. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 24, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1993. 87-99 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The 20-year history of social science research on male contraceptive methods is examined here in terms of the human and method factors related to the acceptability of hypothetical methods and the prevalence of use of existing methods. New male methods, particularly if reversible, may alter men's willingness to accept or share responsibility for the control of fertility. Research opportunities in the areas of gender, decisionmaking, communication, health education, and service delivery will be enhanced when methods for women and men are comparable."
Correspondence: K. Ringheim, World Health Organization, Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction, CH-1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30275 Roizen, Judith; Gyaneshwar, Rajat; Roizen, Zoe. Where is the planning in family planning? Fiji after three decades of family planning programmes. Demographic Report, No. 3, 1992. 60 pp. University of the South Pacific, Population Studies Programme: Suva, Fiji. In Eng.
"The present report...is based on an analysis of data on knowledge, and practice of family planning in Fiji. This data was collected in a survey...in 1987 and the findings are compared with those of the Fiji Fertility Survey in 1974 as well as the Annual Reports of the Ministry of Health between 1974 and 1988....It has become increasingly clear from analysis based on census and other data that the fertility transition in Fiji has not been a very gradual process and that there are very significant differences in the level, pattern and trend of fertility of the main ethnic components of the population, the Fijians and the Indians. Moreover, the precise role of a large variety of determinants of fertility, but particularly that of family planning on fertility change in Fiji is largely unknown. This report sheds some additional light on changes in knowledge and practice of family planning since the Family Planning Programme started in the 1960's."
Correspondence: University of the South Pacific, Population Studies Programme, POB 1168, Suva, Fiji. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30276 Rwanda. Office National de la Population (Kigali, Rwanda). A study on traditional contraception in Rwanda. [Etude sur la contraception traditionnelle au Rwanda.] Aug 1991. 62 pp. Kigali, Rwanda. In Fre.
This is a study on the knowledge, attitude, and practice of contraception in a traditional society in Rwanda, based on anthropological data gathered during 1984-1985. The emphasis is on traditional methods of fertility control and their contemporary relevance. The results indicate that although methods of controlling fertility are known and practiced in Rwanda, they are appropriate only for the pro-natalist conditions that existed in the past. Current problems caused by rapid population growth require the introduction and development of modern contraceptive methods that are more effective and easier to use than traditional ones.
Correspondence: Office National de la Population, B.P. 914, Kigali, Rwanda. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30277 Samuels, Sarah E.; Smith, Mark D. Dimensions of new contraceptives. Norplant and poor women. ISBN 0-944525-11-3. 1992. xv, 123 pp. Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation: Menlo Park, California. In Eng.
This publication is the product of a two-day forum on Norplant and low-income women, held in November 1991. "The six papers collected in this book address what forum participants considered [to be] the most critical issues surrounding long-acting contraceptives: the impact of this form of birth control on the health of poor women, the threat of coercion, the great need to evaluate societal and medical effects of long-term contraceptives, and the ways in which this new contraceptive fits into the development of other new devices." The geographical focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2400 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30278 Severy, Lawrence J.; Thapa, Shyam; Askew, Ian; Glor, Jeffrey E. Menstrual experiences and beliefs: a multicountry study of relationships with fertility and fertility regulating methods. Women and Health, Vol. 20, No. 2, 1993. 1-20 pp. Binghamton, New York. In Eng.
The authors investigate women's experiences and beliefs about menstruation, with a focus on how such information can be used in the development of fertility regulating methods and family planning program educational activities. The relationship between women's perceptions and factors such as choice of contraceptive method and number of prior pregnancies is discussed. Data are from a WHO study conducted in ten countries from 1973 to 1980.
Correspondence: L. J. Severy, University of Florida, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, 353 Little Hall, Gainesville, FL 32611. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30279 Shah, Iqbal H.; Qiu, Shu-hua; Liu, Yun-rong; Zhang, Li-ying. Dynamics of contraceptive use in rural Jiangsu, China. In: Fertility in China. Proceedings of the International Seminar on China's In-Depth Fertility Survey, Beijing, February 13-17, 1990. 1991. 327-47 pp. International Statistical Institute [ISI]: Voorburg, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Using data from a representative sample of ever-married women living in rural areas of Jiangsu Province [China] in 1986, this paper investigates the patterns and dynamics of contraceptive use among currently married women. The prevalence of contraceptive use in rural Jiangsu was 93% among these women. IUD and tubal ligation were the two most widely used methods; by 44% and 34% respectively, of all users."
Correspondence: I. H. Shah, World Health Organization, Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction, CH-1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30280 Srikantan, K. Sivaswamy; Mulay, Sanjeevanee; Radkar, Anjali. Correlates of family planning acceptance: a multivariate analysis. Artha Vijnana, Vol. 34, No. 2, Jun 1992. 163-81 pp. Pune, India. In Eng.
A multivariate generalized linear model is developed to analyze the correlates of family planning acceptance in India using data from the 1980 National Fertility and Mortality Survey, undertaken in Maharashtra. "Variables such as caste, education, number of living sons, [and] number of living children have been included in the analysis. The application of the model revealed that the existing number of children/son has a closer association with acceptance of contraception rather than the education or caste variables."
Correspondence: K. S. Srikantan, 390 19th Main Road, First Block, Rajaji Nagar, Bangalore 560 010, India. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

59:30281 Taha, Taha El Tahir. Family planning practice in Central Sudan. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 37, No. 5, Sep 1993. 685-9 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Community and hospital based studies were conducted to assess the major factors related to the practice of family planning during 1989 and 1990 in Central Sudan. The mothers of 1,592 births in the community and 1,357 births in the hospital were interviewed by trained study workers. Prevalence of contraceptive use prior to current pregnancy was 13.0% and knowledge of a family planning method was 43.0% among hospital women and 51.0% among community women. The major predictors of use of a family planning method were parity, socioeconomic status, knowledge of source of service and maternal age. The average completed family size was 7.7 children and with the exception of a lengthy breast feeding duration, the factors examined favored a high fertility."
Correspondence: T. E. T. Taha, Johns Hopkins University/MOH Research Project, P.O. Box 1131, Blantyre, Malawi. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:30282 Tanfer, Koray; Hyle, Patricia D. Determinants and effects of waiting time to coitus. Social Biology, Vol. 39, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1992. 183-202 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"This study provides a formal test of the hypothesis that an increase in the courtship period (i.e., waiting time to intercourse) increases the likelihood that a couple will discuss contraception and use it at first intercourse. The data analyzed are from personal interviews with 1,314 women aged 20-29 in the 1983 National Survey of Unmarried Women. The results are mixed about the effect of waiting time on contraceptive behavior, providing weak support for the hypothesis, but also elucidating individual and relative characteristics of the couples, such as age and education of the respective partners, that affected contraceptive behavior at first intercourse."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1991 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: K. Tanfer, Battelle Health and Population Research Center, 4000 N.E. 41st Street, Seattle, WA 98105. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30283 Trussell, James; Stewart, Felicia; Potts, Malcolm; Guest, Felicia; Ellertson, Charlotte. Should oral contraceptives be available without prescription? American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 83, No. 8, Aug 1993. 1,094-9 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"In this paper, it is argued that oral contraceptives should be available without prescription....After a review and evaluation of the reasons for strict medical control of oral contraceptives in the United States, safety concerns anticipated in response to the proposal discussed here are addressed. Also, concerns that prescription status is necessary for efficacious use are evaluated. It is concluded that neither safety nor efficacy considerations justify prescription status for oral contraceptives....Several alternatives to providing oral contraceptives by prescription with current package design and labeling and selling them over the counter are suggested; the proposals discussed would make these safe and effective contraceptives easier to obtain and to use."
Correspondence: J. Trussell, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

59:30284 Ulrich, Ralf. Unmet need for family planning in developing countries. [Ungedeckter Bedarf an Familienplanungsleistungen in Entwicklungslandern.] In: Vortrage auf den Tagungen des Arbeitskreises "Demographie der Entwicklungslander" der Deutschen Gesellschaft fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft in Kiedrich und in Bielefeld. 1992. 37-57 pp. Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung: Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger.
The author examines unmet need for family planning in developing countries. Theoretical aspects of the relationship between the desire for children and fertility decline are first reviewed. Various concepts of unmet need are then discussed, and their methodological implications and limits are considered. Data from the Demographic and Health Surveys for Ghana, Kenya, Thailand, and Trinidad and Tobago are assessed.
Correspondence: R. Ulrich, Universitat-GH Paderborn, FB 5, Warburger Strasse 100, 4790 Paderborn, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30285 Vaughan, Barbara; Chen, Runtian; Jia, Tongjing. Current contraceptive status of Chinese women--characteristics and determinants. In: Fertility in China. Proceedings of the International Seminar on China's In-Depth Fertility Survey, Beijing, February 13-17, 1990. 1991. 301-14 pp. International Statistical Institute [ISI]: Voorburg, Netherlands. In Eng.
Levels and trends in contraceptive use among women in China are examined using data from the 1985 and 1987 phases of the In-Depth Fertility Survey. Three models are constructed. The independent variables considered include "age, duration of marriage, co-residence with husband's parents, educational level, children ever born and their sex, fertility preference as well as signing of the one child certificate."
Correspondence: B. Vaughan, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30286 Verkuyl, Douwe A. A. Two world religions and family planning. Lancet, Vol. 342, No. 8869, Aug 21, 1993. 473-5 pp. Baltimore, Maryland/London, England. In Eng.
The author examines the impact of the religious teachings of the Roman Catholic Church and Islam on the well-being of people in developing countries. It is noted that the church provides health care in many parts of the world, and that its "powerful position prevents effective access to reliable contraception....The policies of the [Catholic] and Islamic leaders cause most suffering where people are poorest. The anti-contraceptive propaganda highlights the side-effects, although these are infinitesimal compared with the risks of pregnancy." Activities being undertaken by gynecologists and midwives from the third world to change the positions of religious authorities are described.
Correspondence: D. A. A. Verkuyl, United Bulawayo Hospitals, P.O. Box 958, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

59:30287 Wilkinson, Marilyn I.; Njogu, Wamucii; Abderrahim, Noureddine. The availability of family planning and maternal and child health services. DHS Comparative Studies, No. 7, Jun 1993. vi, 67 pp. Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
This report presents information on the availability of family planning and maternal and child health services in 11 countries that participated in the first round of the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) Program. "Section two of this report describes the DHS service availability questionnaire, examines variations in the way the questionnaire was implemented in different countries, and discusses problems regarding the service availability data. Section three presents community-level service availability information. Sections four and five examine the availability of family planning and health services." The countries concerned are Burundi, Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Guatemala, Thailand, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, and Zimbabwe.
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 8850 Stanford Boulevard, Suite 4000, Columbia, MD 21045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30288 Zaki, Khalida P.; Johnson, Nan E. The rural-urban difference in contraceptive use in Pakistan: the effects of women's literacy and desired fertility. Working Papers on Women in International Development, No. 232, Jul 1992. 16 pp. Michigan State University, Women and International Development Program: East Lansing, Michigan. In Eng.
Data for this study are from the 1984-1985 Pakistan Contraceptive Prevalence Survey.
Correspondence: Michigan State University, Women and International Development Program, 202 International Center, East Lansing, MI 48824-1035. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.2. Clinical Aspects & Use-Effectiveness Studies

Selected studies on the medical aspects of fertility control methods, including studies on side effects and use-effectiveness.

59:30289 Grimes, David A.; Mishell, Daniel R.; Speroff, Leon. Contraceptive choices for women with medical problems. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol. 168, No. 6, Pt. 2, Jun 1993. 1,979-2,048 pp. Mosby: St. Louis, Missouri. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of a symposium held at Rancho Mirage, California, May 7-10, 1992, on contraception for women with medical problems including "diabetes, epilepsy, hypertension, migraine headaches, hypercholesterolemia, leiomyomata uteri, and psychiatric disorders. Special considerations in contraception selection for these women include the potential effect of their condition on pregnancy (and vice versa), the potential impact of a contraceptive method on their condition, and the potential pharmacologic interactions of medications and contraceptive agents." The geographical focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: Mosby, 11830 Westline Industrial Drive, St. Louis, MO 63146-3318. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30290 Kaufman, Joan. The cost of IUD failure in China. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 24, No. 3, May-Jun 1993. 194-6 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"During several recent trips to China between May 1990 and October 1991, I discussed with Chinese family planning officials some recently identified, serious problems with the use of IUDs in China. This commentary describes those problems." The focus is on the cost of IUD failure in terms of both abortions performed and women's health.
Correspondence: J. Kaufman, Abt Associates, 55 Wheeler Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30291 Trussell, James; Strickler, Jennifer; Vaughan, Barbara. Contraceptive efficacy of the diaphragm, the sponge and the cervical cap. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 25, No. 3, May-Jun 1993. 100-5, 135 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A reanalysis of data from two [U.S.] clinical studies--in which 1,439 women were randomly assigned to use either contraceptive sponge or the diaphragm and 1,394 women were randomly assigned to use either the cervical cap or the diaphragm--found first-year probabilities of failure during typical use of 17% for the sponge, 18% for the cervical cap and 13-17% for the diaphragm. The first-year probabilities of failure during perfect use are 11-12% for the sponge, 10-13% for the cervical cap and 4-8% for the diaphragm. The probability of failure during perfect use is significantly higher among women who have given birth than among those who have not for users of the sponge (19-21% vs. 9-10%) and users of the cervical cap (26-27% vs. 8-10%), but not for users of the diaphragm." The studies were conducted during the 1980s.
Correspondence: J. Trussell, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.3. Evaluation of Programs

Studies evaluating either the demographic impact or other criteria of effectiveness of family planning programs.

59:30292 Cho, Nam Hoon; Hong, Moon Sik; Seo, Moon Hee. Analysis of factors contributing to fertility decline in Korea. Journal of Population, Health and Social Welfare, Vol. 12, No. 1, Jul 1992. 208-27 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng. with sum. in Kor.
"The main purpose of this study is...to identify the structural and causal factors that contributed to the fall in fertility [in South Korea] over the last three decades, in an effort to formulate future population policy directions and strategies. The two methods used for the study were: the standardization approach to examine the structural factors on fertility decline, and the Bongaarts model to measure the effects of the proximate variables in fertility decline."
Correspondence: N. H. Cho, Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs, San 42-14, Bulgwang-dong, Eunpyung-ku, Seoul 122-040, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30293 Goodkind, Daniel. Estimates of averted Chinese births, 1971-1990: comparisons of fertility decline, family planning policy, and development in six Confucian societies. Working Papers in Demography, No. 38, 1992. 20 pp. Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
The author attempts to estimate the number of births averted due to antinatalist policies in China over the past two decades by examining fertility in other countries with large Chinese populations where there are no such policies. He concludes that "the most likely number of policy-averted births in China between 1971 and 1990 was about 110 million, an estimate lying within an informal 'confidence interval' of 45 million."
Correspondence: Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, P.O. Box 4, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30294 Huntington, Dale; Schuler, Sidney R. The simulated client method: evaluating client-provider interactions in family planning clinics. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 24, No. 3, May-Jun 1993. 187-93 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors review the simulated client method, which "essentially consists of sending women to a family planning service provider to request information, and interviewing them after the encounter....[The paper] begins with a brief background section that highlights the importance of studying provider-client/patient interactions and presents a theoretical framework for interpreting them. That is followed by a description of the method, based on the authors' experiences with it in a variety of settings. Different versions of the simulated client method are then suggested, and ethical considerations are discussed."
Correspondence: D. Huntington, Population Council, Dakar, Senegal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30295 Mulay, Sanjeevanee; Balasubramanian, K. The performance of non-governmental organizations in family planning and MCH in Maharashtra State. Artha Vijnana, Vol. 34, No. 2, Jun 1992. 209-31 pp. Pune, India. In Eng.
"This paper presents the findings of an evaluation study of three projects on family planning and health undertaken by three non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in Maharashtra State....[It] identifies various factors which determine the performance of a particular NGO and highlights how voluntary organizations, in general, can play a useful role for the promotion of family welfare and maternal and child health programmes in India."
Correspondence: S. Mulay, Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics, Pune 411 004, India. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

59:30296 Vaughan, Barbara; Fei, Shihong. Evaluation of contraception effectiveness of Chinese women. In: Fertility in China. Proceedings of the International Seminar on China's In-Depth Fertility Survey, Beijing, February 13-17, 1990. 1991. 293-300 pp. International Statistical Institute [ISI]: Voorburg, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Using data from the second phase [conducted in China in 1987] of the In-Depth Fertility Survey, this article analyzes and evaluates the effectiveness of contraceptive use of Chinese women in order to provide a reliable basis for carrying out the family planning program in future."
Correspondence: B. Vaughan, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.4. Attitudes Toward Fertility & Fertility Control

Studies concerned with the interrelations between fertility control and attitudinal variables, including studies on wanted and unwanted pregnancy and children, motivation for parenthood, sex preference, and voluntary childlessness. Studies on knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of family planning and attitudes toward family size are classified under this heading.

59:30297 Chen, Ping. Micro simulation study of procreation demand and its influence on fertility. In: Fertility in China. Proceedings of the International Seminar on China's In-Depth Fertility Survey, Beijing, February 13-17, 1990. 1991. 65-72 pp. International Statistical Institute [ISI]: Voorburg, Netherlands. In Eng.
Data from the China In-Depth Fertility Survey of 1985 and 1987 are used to analyze attitudinal effects on fertility using a micro-simulation computer model. The results indicate that fertility is under control in urban Shanghai but that in the rural areas of Shaanxi and Hebei provinces, actual fertility is above desired fertility. The author notes that if sex preferences in these provinces were to be satisfied, fertility would increase.
Correspondence: P. Chen, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Population Research Institute, 5 Jianguomen Nei Da Jie 5 Hao, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30298 De Silva, W. Indralal. Influence of son preference on the contraceptive use and fertility of Sri Lankan women. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 25, No. 3, Jul 1993. 319-31 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The effect of moderate son preference on family size is analyzed using data from the 1982 Sri Lanka Contraceptive Prevalence Survey whose respondents were followed-up in the 1985 Sri Lanka Contraceptive Survey. Reported reproductive intentions on desire for additional children were not always reflected in overall contraceptive use. Complicating factors were the use of modern and traditional methods and the role of induced abortion....This analysis suggests that son preference finds expression more through reproductive intentions than through actual fertility behaviour in the follow-up period."
Correspondence: W. I. De Silva, University of Colombo, Demographic Training and Research Unit, Colombo, Sri Lanka. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30299 Ezeh, Alex C. The influence of spouses over each other's contraceptive attitudes in Ghana. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 24, No. 3, May-Jun 1993. 163-74 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"To what extent do spouses influence each other's reproductive goals? This question was investigated in Ghana with particular reference to family planning attitudes. Two mechanisms were identified as plausible explanations for why an individual's characteristics may affect a partner's beliefs and behavior. Quantitative evidence from the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey and qualitative information from focus-group research in Ghana were used in the analysis. Results from both data sources show that spousal influence, rather than being mutual or reciprocal, is an exclusive right exercised only by the husband. The study attributed the limited impact of family planning programs in Ghana and most of sub-Saharan Africa to the continued neglect of men as equal targets of such programs."
Correspondence: A. C. Ezeh, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30300 Forrest, Katherine A.; Austin, David M.; Valdes, M. Isabel; Fuentes, Efrain G.; Wilson, Sandra R. Exploring norms and beliefs related to AIDS prevention among California Hispanic men. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 25, No. 3, May-Jun 1993. 111-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A focus-group study gathered qualitative information from Hispanic males in California regarding ethnic factors that might enhance or interfere with AIDS prevention efforts. A predominantly working-class convenience sample of 75 men aged 18-40 participated in seven groups....Three groups were composed of single men, three of married men and one was composed of homosexual and bisexual men....Evaluation of the discussions indicates that while AIDS awareness is high among this population, condom use is sporadic....Although many participants thought HIV could be transmitted through casual contact, the homosexual and bisexual men were more likely to acknowledge that they were at some risk of infection; most of the heterosexual men did not perceive themselves as being at risk, even those who engaged in sex with prostitutes or women they met at bars. The participants had ambivalent attitudes toward women who suggested condom use and were often reluctant to initiate condom use themselves."
Correspondence: K. A. Forrest, American Institutes for Research, Institute for Health Care Research, Palo Alto, CA. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30301 Islam, M. Nurul; Rahman, M. Mujibur. Client satisfaction with sterilization procedure in Bangladesh. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 8, No. 1, Mar 1993. 39-52 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This study examines the level of satisfaction of sterilized clients and identifies the causes of dissatisfaction. About 90 per cent of the vasectomy clients and 95 per cent of the tubectomy clients were found to be satisfied with their decision to undergo sterilization. Only a small minority regretted their decision. The major factors behind the recent decline in sterilization acceptance include the programmatic shift in service delivery, a deficiency in the supply of services, strengthening of the community-based service-delivery system and the elimination of referral fees, among others."
Correspondence: M. N. Islam, University of Dhaka, Department of Statistics, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30302 Khan, M. Mahmud; Magnani, Robert J.; Mock, Nancy B.; Saadat, Yusuf S. Costs of rearing children in agricultural economies: an alternative estimation approach and findings from rural Bangladesh. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 8, No. 1, Mar 1993. 19-38 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This study proposes an alternative method of estimating time costs in traditional agricultural economies. The empirical results indicate higher child costs in absolute terms for landless farm and rich households compared with middle-income households. As a proportion of total household income, however, total child care costs are approximately five times greater for landless farm households than for the most affluent group. Further, both the relative and absolute levels of child costs for all household categories are much lower than is observed in more developed economies. The article concludes that the low cost of child-rearing contributes to continued high fertility levels in low-income countries such as Bangladesh."
Correspondence: M. M. Khan, Tulane University, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Department of Health Systems Management, International Health Academic Program, New Orleans, LA 70118. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30303 Njie, Sering F.; Askew, Ian; Tall, Aboubacry; Tapsoba, Placide. The Gambia: influence of religious leaders on contraceptive acceptance. Jan 1993. 11 pp. Save the Children: Banjul, Gambia; Population Council, Africa Operations Research and Technical Assistance Project: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study reports on a project that sought to gain the support of village-level religious leaders (imams) in actively promoting better maternal and child health practices, including birth spacing, among Muslim women in the North Bank region of Gambia."
Correspondence: Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30304 Rahman, Mizanur; DaVanzo, Julie. Gender preference and birth spacing in Matlab, Bangladesh. Demography, Vol. 30, No. 3, Aug 1993. 315-32 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"We examine and compare gender-preference effects on fertility in two otherwise comparable populations in Bangladesh that differ markedly in their access to and use of contraception. We expect, and find, stronger effects of gender preference in the population that has more access to contraception and higher levels of contraceptive use. Thus gender preference may emerge as a significant barrier to further national family planning efforts in Bangladesh. We find that if a woman has a least one daughter, the risk of a subsequent birth is related negatively to the number of sons. Women with no daughters also experience a higher risk of having a subsequent birth; this finding suggests that there is also some preference for daughters. Son preference is strong in both the early and later stages of family formation, but women also want to have at least one daughter after having several sons."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1991 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: M. Rahman, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, GPO Box 128, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30305 Renne, Elisha P. Condom use and the popular press in Nigeria. Health Transition Review, Vol. 3, No. 1, Apr 1993. 41-56 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper examines attitudes toward condoms and their portrayal in the popular press in the Yoruba-speaking area of southwestern Nigeria. Through these everyday exposures, as well as through informal discussion, not only is information about condoms relayed, but their use is made more culturally acceptable. References to condoms in the popular press contribute to the information of a popular consciousness which, along with factors of availability and education, support increased condom use in southwestern Nigeria...."
Correspondence: E. P. Renne, Australian National University, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Health Transition Centre, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30306 Sayed, Hussein A.-A.; El-Zanaty, Fatma H.; Cross, Anne R. Egypt Male Survey, 1991. Dec 1992. xv, 113, [9] pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt; Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng. with sum. in Ara.
Results are presented from a 1991 Egyptian survey on men's knowledge, attitudes, and practice of family planning. The emphasis is on men's role in initiating contraceptive usage and ensuring its continuation in a region of conservative attitudes toward such matters. The survey was conducted in rural Upper Egypt, with a sample included of Cairo men for comparative purposes. The results confirm the key role that husbands play in a couple's decision to practice family planning in Egypt. They also indicate that although attitudes and behavior are more conservative in Upper Egypt than in Cairo, there have been significant changes in contraceptive knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among men since 1980. The survey results "on fertility and family planning attitudes suggest that the basis for a continuing reproductive revolution exists among husbands as well as wives in all areas in Egypt, including rural Upper Egypt, which has changed more slowly than other areas in Egypt."
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 8850 Stanford Boulevard, Suite 4000, Columbia, MD 21045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30307 Skretowicz, Biruta. Determining fertility behavior using path analysis. [Determinanty dzietnosci dotychczasowej w swietle analizy sciezki.] Wiadomosci Statystyczne, Vol. 38, No. 4, 1993. 4-10 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng.
In order to examine factors influencing the perception of ideal family size in Poland, "the present paper discusses path models, which explain a central reproductive behaviour category i.e. the actual number of children....[The author finds that] the image of the ideal family size directly influences the existing number of children. Path coefficients show that the increase of the ideal number of children by one standard deviation is associated with the increase of actual family size by approximately one third standard deviation of this explanatory variable." Other variables considered include parental influence, rural or urban residence, educational status, age at marriage, religion, and quality of life.
Correspondence: B. Skretowicz, Instytut Medycyny Wsi im Witolda Chodzki, ul. Jaczew skiego 2, 20-950 Lublin, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30308 Xu, Gang; Yu, Jingwei. An analysis of fertility preferences of Chinese women. In: Fertility in China. Proceedings of the International Seminar on China's In-Depth Fertility Survey, Beijing, February 13-17, 1990. 1991. 177-86 pp. International Statistical Institute [ISI]: Voorburg, Netherlands. In Eng.
Fertility preferences among women in China are analyzed using data from both rounds of the In-Depth Fertility Survey of 1985 and 1987. Consideration is given to fertility levels and rates, sex preference, desired family size and the effect of the one-child policy, and urban and rural differentials.
Correspondence: G. Xu, State Statistical Bureau, Department of Population Statistics, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.5. Induced Abortion

Studies on induced abortion, including those on attitudes, with the exception of studies primarily concerned with government regulation of abortion, which are coded under M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility . Studies of spontaneous abortion appear under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology .

59:30309 Avdeev, Aleksandar. Providing alternatives to induced abortion in the Soviet Union. [Osnovni zadachi na profilaktikata na izkustveniya abort v SSSR.] Naselenie, Vol. 9, No. 3-4, 1991. 31-7 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng.
The author examines levels and trends in induced abortion in the former Soviet Union. The focus is on the dissemination of contraceptive methods as a preventive measure.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30310 Cai, Wen-mei; Zhou, Xiou-Zheng; Li, Qiang. An analysis of social factors affecting abortion in China. In: Fertility in China. Proceedings of the International Seminar on China's In-Depth Fertility Survey, Beijing, February 13-17, 1990. 1991. 315-25 pp. International Statistical Institute [ISI]: Voorburg, Netherlands. In Eng.
Data from the In-Depth Fertility Survey conducted in China in 1985 and 1987 are used to analyze social factors affecting abortion rates. The focus is on rural-urban differentials.
Correspondence: W.-m. Cai, Peking University, Institute of Population Research, Hai Dian, Beijing 100871, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30311 Cook, Elizabeth A.; Jelen, Ted G.; Wilcox, Clyde. Measuring public attitudes on abortion: methodological and substantive considerations. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 25, No. 3, May-Jun 1993. 118-21, 145 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Data from a 1989 CBS News/New York Times survey are used to examine the effect that the framing of questions on abortion has on estimates of what proportions of the [U.S.] population support various legal positions. The nationwide data and results from six state polls show that general questions with only two or three options overestimate the proportions of respondents who either favor a ban on all abortion or who would allow abortion under all circumstances. Questions that pose specific circumstances result in movement of respondents out of extreme categories and into more moderate ones. Even respondents who indicate they would favor abortion in all specific circumstances and those who favor abortion in none are likely to moderate their views when asked if they support restrictions that have been proposed in a number of states."
Correspondence: E. A. Cook, American University, 4400 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20016. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30312 Donnay, France; Bregentzer, Angelique; Leemans, Patsy; Verougstraete, Anne; Vekemans, Marcel. Safe abortions in an illegal context: perceptions from service providers in Belgium. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 24, No. 3, May-Jun 1993. 150-62 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study is a qualitative analysis of perceptions among providers of safe abortion in Belgium before and after it was made legal there [in April 1990]. The providers' personal, psychological, and ethical reactions to abortion are investigated, as well as their opinions on how their activities should be organized in order to minimize problems. Standardized questionnaires with closed and open questions were used; 143 questionnaires were completed. Emotional reactions were reported as being the most difficult aspects of practicing abortion."
Correspondence: F. Donnay, Centre Hospitalier Cesar de Paepe, 11 rue des Alexiens, Brussels 1000, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30313 Henshaw, Stanley K.; Van Vort, Jennifer. Abortion factbook, 1992 edition: readings, trends, and state and local data to 1988. ISBN 0-939253-07-0. LC 87-73492. 1992. 212 pp. Alan Guttmacher Institute: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This book brings together in one volume readings on abortion published in Family Planning Perspectives between 1988 and early 1992, an Alan Guttmacher Institute (AGI) fact-sheet on abortion, a description of the methodology used in the fielding and analysis of the 1987-1988 AGI Abortion Provider Survey and detailed abortion statistics, some going back to 1973 and all updated to 1987-1988. This volume is the eighth in a series, the most recent of which was published in 1988 and covered 1984-1985." The primary geographical focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: Alan Guttmacher Institute, 111 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30314 Huntington, Dale; Mensch, Barbara; Toubia, Nahid. A new approach to eliciting information about induced abortion. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 24, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1993. 120-4 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article presents results of an experiment to collect data on induced abortion in Cote d'Ivoire [Ivory Coast] within the context of a family planning operations research study. First, questions were employed to broach the topic of unwanted pregnancy in a value-free manner, and then the potential for a variety of actions, including abortion, was acknowledged. The results indicate that approximately 25 percent of all women attending a family planning clinic on the day of the survey had had an induced abortion. The use of improved abortion-related questions shows promise for providing more complete measurement of a neglected dimension of women's reproductive health."
Correspondence: N. Toubia, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30315 International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF] (London, England). Unsafe abortion: dialogue, overview, responses, action. Planned Parenthood Challenges, No. 1993/1, 1993. [49] pp. London, England. In Eng.
This is the first in a planned series that "aims to be a catalyst for action...to raise awareness and stimulate discussion on how the challenges of the 1990s can be met." This report concerns unsafe abortion around the world. It includes brief contributions from many authors, which suggest that women who need abortions will have them, even if the procedure is illegal or unsafe. The report also provides evidence to show that "it is a fallacy to suggest that women will use abortion as a family planning method if safe abortion services are offered to them: they will only do so if they have no alternative."
Correspondence: International Planned Parenthood Federation, Regent's College, Inner Circle, Regent's Park, London NW1 4NS, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30316 Marsiglio, William; Shehan, Constance L. Adolescent males' abortion attitudes: data from a national survey. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 25, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1993. 162-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article uses data from the 1988 [U.S.] National Survey of Adolescent Males (NSAM) to assess adolescent males' degree of approval of abortion in a number of pregnancy-related scenarios, as well as the likelihood that they will recommend abortion to resolve a pregnancy when an unmarried male 'likes but does not love' his partner." It is found that "roughly 13% of a nationally representative sample of 1,880 15-19-year-old males approve of abortion in each of eight circumstances presented to them, while about 4% disapprove in every instance. The proportions agreeing that abortion is acceptable range as high as 85-90% if the pregnancy endangers the woman's health or results from rape. Any type of religious affiliation, especially religious fundamentalism, is related to weaker support for abortion; an even stronger correlate of abortion attitudes is the importance of religion to the respondent."
Correspondence: W. Marsiglio, University of Florida, Department of Sociology, 3219 Turlington Hall, Gainesville, FL 32611. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30317 McLaren, Angus. Illegal operations: women, doctors, and abortion, 1886-1939. Journal of Social History, Vol. 26, No. 4, Summer 1993. 797-816 pp. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"The main purpose of this paper is to use legal sources to explore the decision to abort in the last decades of the nineteenth and the early decades of the twentieth century, an era in which the state and the professions took an unprecedented interest in the fertility control decisions of ordinary women and men. As the pressures to limit fertility increased and recourse to abortion rose, the criminal nature of the act necessarily tainted the relationships of women, men, doctors, and magistrates....A subsidiary preoccupation of this paper is to investigate the law-induced biases inherent in the sources which the historian of abortion necessarily employs--the court records. The study exploits...information generated by inquests and trials concerning one hundred British Columbian women who, between 1886 and 1939, attempted to induced a miscarriage."
Correspondence: A. McLaren, University of Victoria, Department of History, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 3P4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SH).

59:30318 Mensch, Elizabeth; Freeman, Alan. The politics of virtue: is abortion debatable? ISBN 0-8223-1331-6. LC 92-41302. 1993. x, 268 pp. Duke University Press: Durham, North Carolina/London, England. In Eng.
The authors attempt an approach to the issue of abortion in the United States that is based on theological sources. They first examine the abortion controversy from a historical context, in which there was a moral consensus on such issues as the evil of Nazism and the virtue of the civil rights movement. They then explore two moral traditions that affect attitudes toward abortion, the natural law tradition and the Protestant ethical tradition, and discuss the changing debate over abortion since the 1960s in light of this ethical background. They describe how a secular approach to abortion was successful in achieving the legalization of abortion under the rubric of privacy. A final chapter looks at the prospects for compromise between supporters and opponents of legal abortion.
Correspondence: Duke University Press, Durham, NC 27706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30319 Pongracz, Marietta. The issue of induced abortions in Hungary, 1991. Materialien zur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, No. 75, 1992. 113-41 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Eng.
Results of a public opinion survey on abortion, conducted in Hungary in 1990, are presented. Some comparisons with other countries in terms of legislation regulating the procedure are included.
Correspondence: M. Pongracz, Demographic Research Institute, Posta fio'k 78, 1364 Budapest, Hungary. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30320 Rothstein, Donna S. An economic approach to abortion demand. American Economist, Vol. 36, No. 1, Spring 1992. 53-64 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper uses econometric multiple regression techniques in order to analyze the socioeconomic factors affecting the demand for abortion for the year 1985. A cross-section of the 50 [U.S.] states and Washington D.C. is examined and a household choice theoretical framework is utilized. The results suggest that average price of abortion, disposable personal per capita income, percentage of single women, whether abortions are state funded, unemployment rate, divorce rate, and if the state is located in the far West, are statistically significant factors in the determination of the demand for abortion."
Correspondence: D. S. Rothstein, Cornell University, New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Ithaca, NY 14853. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

59:30321 Tribe, Laurence H. Abortion: the clash of absolutes. ISBN 0-393-30956-8. LC 90-32205. 1992. xvi, 318 pp. W. W. Norton: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
This book is about abortion law in the United States. It "will explore the legal framework in which the constitutional question of abortion rights must be decided. It will trace the development of the constitutional law of privacy from the Supreme Court's decisions of the 1920s about child rearing through its abortion jurisprudence of the 1970s and 1980s. It will also look at the implications of various competing constitutional theories for the abortion question and how judicial responses to abortion affect the fabric of other key constitutional rights...."
Correspondence: W. W. Norton, 500 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10110. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility

Studies on lactation, nutrition, fecundability, sex behavior, menarche and menopause, and other biological factors or social customs as they affect fertility directly. Factors affecting contraceptive practice and factors affecting fertility indirectly are not included here.

59:30322 Dankert, Gabriele; Page, Hilary; Qian, Zhenchao; Yang, Rizhang. Infant-feeding practices in Hebei, Shaanxi and Shanghai: is breastfeeding declining or is it increasing? In: Fertility in China. Proceedings of the International Seminar on China's In-Depth Fertility Survey, Beijing, February 13-17, 1990. 1991. 365-403 pp. International Statistical Institute [ISI]: Voorburg, Netherlands. In Eng.
The authors analyze 1985 "data...from the first phase of [China's] In-Depth Fertility Survey [and find that]...significant declines in the incidence and duration of breastfeeding have been occurring only in highly urbanized areas." Data concern Hebei and Shaanxi provinces and the city of Shanghai.
Correspondence: G. Dankert, International Statistical Institute, 428 Prinses Beatrixlaan, 2270 AZ Voorburg, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30323 Edwards, John N.; Fuller, Theodore D.; Sermsri, Santhat; Vorakitphokatorn, Sairudee. Household crowding and reproductive behavior. Social Biology, Vol. 39, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1992. 212-30 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"In this paper, we examine the effect of household crowding on marital sexual relations, on desire for additional children, and on fetal and child loss in Bangkok, Thailand, a city with a much wider range of household crowding than is typically found in North America. In spite of the wider range, and higher mean level of crowding, we find that both the objective and subjective dimensions of crowding have only modest selective effects on sexual and reproductive behavior."
Correspondence: J. N. Edwards, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Department of Sociology, Blacksburg, VA 24061. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30324 Laukaran, Virginia H.; Labbok, Miriam H.; Millman, Sara; Kennedy, Kathy I.; Visness, Cynthia M.; Bathija, Heli; Williamson, Nancy E.; Bracher, Michael. Forum: breastfeeding and post-partum contraception. Health Transition Review, Vol. 3, No. 1, Apr 1993. 97-115 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
This contribution consists of three commentaries on an article by Michael Bracher entitled "Breastfeeding, lactational infecundity, contraception and the spacing of births: implications of the Bellagio Consensus Statement". A reply by Bracher is included (pp. 109-13).
For the article by Bracher, published in 1992, see 58:30346.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30325 Marin, Barbara V. O.; Gomez, Cynthia A.; Hearst, Norman. Multiple heterosexual partners and condom use among Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 25, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1993. 170-4 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study was designed to assess the prevalence of multiple partners and of condom use with primary and secondary partners among Hispanics, compared with non-Hispanic whites, and to determine if the sexual behavior of Hispanics in the Northeast differs from that of those in the Southwest." Using data from "a telephone survey of 1,592 Hispanic and 629 non-Hispanic white men and women aged 18-49, randomly selected from nine states in the northeastern and southwestern United States, [the authors] found that married Hispanic men are more likely to have had two or more heterosexual partners in the previous 12 months than are married non-Hispanic men (18% and 9% respectively). A large proportion of unmarried men (60% of Hispanics and 54% of non-Hispanic whites) report having had more than one partner in the past 12 months."
Correspondence: B. V. O. Marin, University of California, Center for AIDS Prevention Studies, San Francisco, CA 94110. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30326 Perez Escamilla, Rafael; Dewey, Kathryn G. The epidemiology of breast-feeding in rural and urban areas of Mexico. [Epidemiologia de la lactancia materna en zonas rurales y urbanas de Mexico.] Boletin de la Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana, Vol. 114, No. 5, May 1993. 399-406 pp. Washington, D.C. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"The present article summarizes published and unpublished data on breast-feeding in Mexico collected between 1958 and 1987. These data suggest that rates of initiation of breast-feeding in Mexico (78-83%) are among the lowest found in developing countries, that the median duration of breast-feeding in 1987 was virtually the same as it was in 1976, and that about half of all Mexican infants are not breast-fed beyond six months of age. The finding that the duration of breast-feeding was shortest in urban areas has important policy implications, since 72% of the population lives in urban zones."
Correspondence: R. Perez Escamilla, University of California, Department of Nutrition, Davis, CA 95616. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30327 Popkin, Barry M.; Guilkey, David K.; Akin, John S.; Adair, Linda S.; Udry, J. Richard; Flieger, Wilhelm. Nutrition, lactation, and birth spacing in Filipino women. Demography, Vol. 30, No. 3, Aug 1993. 333-52 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey is used to examine the roles of women's nutrition and infant feeding in determining time from birth to menses and time from menses to conception. The analysis sample includes 2,648 Filipino women followed for 24 months postpartum. Recently devised statistical estimation techniques to control for unobserved heterogeneity and endogeneity are employed in estimating a two-state hazard model. Low body mass index and lower dietary fat intake are associated with increased duration of postpartum amenorrhea. Contraceptive use, high dietary fat consumption, higher parity, and absence of spouse predict a longer waiting time to conception once menses have returned. Simulation of the hazard model is used to examine the effects of the key nutrition and lactation factors."
Correspondence: B. M. Popkin, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, 123 West Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30328 Smith, Tom W. Discrepancies between men and women in reporting number of sexual partners: a summary from four countries. Social Biology, Vol. 39, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1992. 203-11 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"Men and women in national surveys from four countries, the United States, Canada, Great Britain, and Norway, give mutually inconsistent reports of numbers of opposite-gender sexual partners. In all cases the number of female partners reported by men exceeds the number of male partners reported by women. Gender difference in reporting bias seems to be the most plausible explanation for the discrepancies."
Correspondence: T. W. Smith, University of Chicago, National Opinion Research Center, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30329 Swenson, I. E.; Thang, N. M.; Tieu, P. X. Individual and community characteristics influencing breastfeeding duration in Vietnam. Annals of Human Biology, Vol. 20, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1993. 325-34 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"This analysis of selected community and maternal characteristics influencing duration of breastfeeding in Vietnam utilized data from the 1988 Demographic and Health Survey and 1990 Accessibility of Contraceptives Survey available for the 4,434 children born to 2,769 women having their last birth between 1983-88....Breastfeeding duration was longer among the more highly educated women and among those women living in provinces with higher infant mortality. However, there were no significant differences in the duration of breastfeeding with variations among certain development characteristics of the village....There were no significant variations in the duration of breastfeeding by age of the mother, birth order or gender of the child. Although there were significant variations in duration of breastfeeding by some maternal and community characteristics, between 80-90 per cent of all women breastfeed for at least the first year of the child's life."
Correspondence: I. E. Swenson, University of North Carolina, School of Nursing, CB #7460, 447 Carrington Hall, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7460. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30330 Tu, Ping. Breast-feeding patterns and correlates in Shaanxi. In: Fertility in China. Proceedings of the International Seminar on China's In-Depth Fertility Survey, Beijing, February 13-17, 1990. 1991. 349-63 pp. International Statistical Institute [ISI]: Voorburg, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to present a detailed analysis of the current breast-feeding patterns and correlates in Shaanxi Province, a less developed inland province of China...using...1985 In-Depth Fertility Survey (Phase I) data....It also examines the change in breast-feeding practice after the introduction of the One-Child Policy...."
Correspondence: P. Tu, Peking University, Institute of Population Research, Hai Dian, Beijing 100871, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30331 VanLandingham, Mark J.; Suprasert, Somboon; Sittitrai, Werasit; Vaddhanaphuti, Chayan; Grandjean, Nancy. Sexual activity among never-married men in northern Thailand. Demography, Vol. 30, No. 3, Aug 1993. 297-313 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"We use data collected in 1991 to investigate sexual activity among never-married men in Thailand, with a focus on age at first intercourse, characteristics of sexual partners, and conditions under which men visit prostitutes. We sampled men from a broad spectrum of northern Thai society, including university undergraduates, soldiers, and semiskilled/unskilled workers. We found that except for the students, the majority of each subsample is sexually experienced; prostitutes are the most common type of sexual partner for all groups. Alcohol consumption is associated with several measures of sexual activity. Condom use with prostitutes varies among the subsamples. Among men who have both prostitute and nonprostitute partners, the majority of those who do not use condoms with prostitutes also do not use condoms with their nonprostitute partners. We consider the implications of these results for the AIDS epidemic in Thailand."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1992 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: M. J. VanLandingham, University of Washington, Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology, Department of Sociology, DK-40, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30332 Weis, Peter. The contraceptive potential of breastfeeding in Bangladesh. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 24, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1993. 100-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A consensus statement issued...at the Bellagio conference in 1988 recommended that women begin practicing contraception six months after childbirth or when their menstrual cycle resumes, whichever occurs first. The question to be resolved is whether this approach, known as the Bellagio mixed-t strategy, should be adjusted to local patterns of lactational amenorrhea. Data from interviews with 4,580 Bangladeshi women with a currently open birth interval were analyzed with respect to the women's current status of breastfeeding, amenorrhea, contraception, and pregnancy. Pregnancies among breastfeeding, amenorrheic women occurred only beyond 12 months postpartum, while some menstruating women were observed to be pregnant from three months postpartum onward. The results of this study give evidence that the Bellagio recommendation can be best applied with country-specific adjustments. Bangladesh, for example, could safely adopt a strategy with a 12-months' cutoff point."
Correspondence: P. Weis, Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit, Health, Population and Nutrition Division, P.O. Box 5180, D-6236 Eschborn, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.6. Fertility Outside Marriage

Studies on nonmarital fertility, including illegitimacy. Studies of common-law marriage and other forms of cohabitation or voluntary single parenthood are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

59:30333 An, Chong-Bum; Haveman, Robert; Wolfe, Barbara. Teen out-of-wedlock births and welfare receipt: the role of childhood events and economic circumstances. Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 75, No. 2, May 1993. 195-208 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Using 20 years of longitudinal data on nearly 900 girls aged 0 to 6 in 1968 (19 to 25 in 1987) from the University of Michigan's Panel Study of Income Dynamics, the authors measure the influence of family background, individual characteristics, economic resources (or the lack thereof), and the experience of particular disruptive family events on the probability that a teenager will give birth out of wedlock and subsequently apply for and receive welfare....Among the many findings of the investigators is that teenage daughters whose mothers have more education are less likely to give birth out of wedlock, that teens whose mothers received welfare are more likely to give birth out of wedlock and receive welfare themselves, and that teens who grew up in a home experiencing stressful events (e.g., parental separation, geographic moves) are more likely to give birth out of wedlock."
Correspondence: C.-B. An, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

59:30334 Belcheva, Mariya. Statistics on out-of-wedlock births in Bulgaria. [Izvanbrachnite razhdaniya u nas v ogledaloto na statistikata.] Naselenie, Vol. 9, No. 3-4, 1991. 11-21 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng.
The influence of maternal characteristics on extramarital fertility in Bulgaria is examined. "The analysis makes use of three basic indices: coefficient of out-of-wedlock births, structure of such births and coefficient of extramarital birth-rate. The author studies the impact on the level and intensity of out-of-wedlock births by the mother's age, education, economic activity, social group and place of residence, as well as the child's [place in the birth order]."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30335 Solinger, Rickie. Wake up little Susie: single pregnancy and race before Roe v. Wade. ISBN 0-415-90448-X. LC 91-25068. 1992. xi, 324 pp. Routledge: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
The author explores the public meaning of out-of-wedlock pregnancy in the United States from 1940 to 1965, with a focus on changing social perceptions during that period and on the different experiences of black and white women. She "aims to present and analyze the thoroughly race-specific public policies, professional practices, community attitudes, and family and individual responses to single pregnancy that prevailed in postwar America....This study aims to argue most forcefully--both implicitly and explicitly--that politicians and others in the United States have been using women's bodies and their reproductive capacity for a long time to promote political agendas hostile to female autonomy and racial equality."
Correspondence: Routledge, 29 West 35th Street, New York, NY 10001. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).


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