Volume 59 - Number 2 - Summer 1993

F. Fertility

Studies that treat quantitative fertility data analytically. References to crude data are coded under S. Official Statistical Publications . Methodological studies specifically concerned with fertility are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary.

F.1. General Fertility

Analytical studies of quantitative birth data and reproduction rates and studies of fertility and its concomitants. Studies of age at marriage, divorce, and factors influencing family size are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

59:20200 Ananta, Aris; Lim, Tjen-Sien; Molyneaux, John W.; Kantner, Andrew. Fertility determinants in Indonesia: a sequential analysis of the proximate determinants. Majalah Demografi Indonesia/Indonesian Journal of Demography, No. 37, Jun 1992. 1-26 pp. Jakarta, Indonesia. In Eng. with sum. in Ind.
The authors examine proximate determinants of fertility in Indonesia in light of the fertility decline of the past 25 years. "The sample is...limited to continuously married women who had at least one birth during the period 1982 to 1987. The socioeconomic variables included are husband's education, wife's education, husband's occupation, religion, urban/rural status, and region of residence."
Correspondence: A. Ananta, University of Indonesia, Demographic Institute, Faculty of Economics, Salemba Rya 4, Jakarta, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20201 Anichkin, A. B.; Vishnevskii, A. G. Three types of birthrates in the USSR: stages of demographic transition. Matekon, Vol. 28, No. 4, Summer 1992. 61-74 pp. Armonk, New York. In Eng.
"Regional differences in birthrate indicators, which are primarily associated with different stages of the demographic transition, are examined in three typical USSR republics: post-transitional (Estonia), transitional (Azerbaijan), and pre-transitional (Tajikistan). Demographic transition theory in the explanation and forecasting of birthrate trends is discussed. It is concluded that the experience of the USSR supports the universal nature of this theory."
This is a translation of the Russian article in Ekonomika i Matematicheskie Metody (Moscow, USSR), Vol. 27, No. 4, 1991, pp. 621-31.
Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

59:20202 Bahr, Jurgen; Gans, Paul. The geographical approach to fertility. Kieler Geographische Schriften, No. 78, ISBN 3-923887-20-5. 1991. xi, 444 pp. Universitat Kiel, Geographisches Institut: Kiel, Germany. In Eng.
"The present volume contains the [34] papers presented at the symposium on 'The Geographical Approach to Fertility' that was held at Kiel [Germany] from 5-9 September 1989 and that was organized in co-operation with the Commission on Population Geography of the International Geographical Union." The papers are by various authors and concern the methodology of the geographical approach to fertility studies as well as various aspects of regional differentials in selected countries worldwide.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Universitat Kiel, Geographisches Institut, Olshausenstrasse 40, 2300 Kiel, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

59:20203 Basu, Alaka M. Cultural influences on the timing of first births in India: large differences that add up to little difference. Population Studies, Vol. 47, No. 1, Mar 1993. 85-95 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this paper I examine the Indian evidence relating to cultural influences on the length of the first birth interval, and conclude that differences in exposure to intercourse within the first years of marriage can lead to significant regional differences in this variable....The primary data used here come from an urban study in a multi-cultural slum in Delhi. Two groups of first-generation migrants were selected....Two methods are used: first, standard socio-economic explanations for regional differences in the first birth interval are systematically shown to be insufficient as explanations. Then, we attempt to link them to more cultural factors. The stress is on one cultural factor centered around the status of women--regional differences in marriage and kinship systems."
Correspondence: A. M. Basu, University Enclave, Institute of Economic Growth, Delhi 110 007, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20204 Bidou, Jean E. Fertility and demographic pressure in Burundi. In: The geographical approach to fertility, edited by Jurgen Bahr and Paul Gans. 1991. 339-54 pp. Universitat Kiel, Geographisches Institut: Kiel, Germany. In Eng.
Socioeconomic determinants of fertility in Burundi are examined using data for the period from the 1950s to 1987, with some earlier data used for comparative purposes. Consideration is given to population density, the rise in fertility since 1914, regional differentials, and the impacts of poverty, land scarcity, and malnutrition on birth spacing. The effects of dowry costs and low rates of land ownership on marriage age are also described.
Correspondence: J. E. Bidou, Mission Francaise de Cooperation, BP 1190 Bujumbura, Burundi. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

59:20205 Blackburn, McKinley L.; Bloom, David E.; Neumark, David. Fertility timing, wages, and human capital. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 6, No. 1, 1993. 1-30 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"Women who have first births relatively late in life earn higher wages. This paper offers an explanation of this fact based on a simple life-cycle model of human capital investment and timing of first birth. The model yields conditions (that are plausibly satisfied) under which late childbearers will tend to invest more heavily in human capital than early childbearers. The empirical analysis finds results consistent with the higher wages of late childbearers arising primarily through greater measurable human capital investment." The geographical focus is on the United States.
This paper was originally presented at the 1989 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: M. L. Blackburn, University of South Carolina, Department of Economics, Columbia, SC 29208. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20206 Bongaarts, John. The relative contributions of biological and behavioural factors in determining natural fertility: a demographer's perspective. In: Biomedical and demographic determinants of reproduction, edited by Ronald Gray, Henri Leridon, and Alfred Spira. 1993. 9-18 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper will examine [the role of behavior] by discussing the relative contributions of biological and behavioural factors affecting natural fertility. More specifically, it will apply a simple reproductive model to quantify the relative effects of biological and behavioural determinants of levels and differentials in natural fertility." Data from developing countries are used to illustrate the model.
Correspondence: J. Bongaarts, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20207 Brunborg, Helge. A brief comparison of recent estimates of the total fertility rate for Botswana. Botswana Notes and Records, Vol. 22, 1990. 91-8 pp. Gaborone, Botswana. In Eng.
"The purpose of this short paper is to look critically at the available estimates of...fertility, and to see if we can draw any conclusions about the development of fertility in Botswana....This paper shows that there is a lot of uncertainty about the available estimates of fertility, and that slight changes in the method that is applied can yield fairly different estimates. The results indicate that the official estimates for 1971 and 1981 are not fully comparable." Data are from the 1971 and 1981 censuses and the Family Health Survey of 1984.
Correspondence: H. Brunborg, Central Bureau of Statistics, P.B. 8131 DEP, Oslo 1, Norway. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

59:20208 Brunetta, Giovanna; Rotondi, Graziano. Urban and rural fertility in Italy: regional and temporal changes. In: The geographical approach to fertility, edited by Jurgen Bahr and Paul Gans. 1991. 203-17 pp. Universitat Kiel, Geographisches Institut: Kiel, Germany. In Eng.
"This research aims at comparative analysis of behavior towards procreation on the part of the urban and rural populations in Italy, in the light not only of the great transformations which occurred in its urban and rural areas after the Second World War but also of the territorial differences which still characterize it...." An association between low fertility and urbanization is confirmed.
Correspondence: G. Brunetta, Dipartimento di Geografia, via Del Santo 26, 35123 Padua, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

59:20209 Carlson, Elwood. Inverted Easterlin fertility cycles and Kornai's "soft" budget constraint. Population and Development Review, Vol. 18, No. 4, Dec 1992. 669-88, 787, 789 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Richard Easterlin's baseline model of self-reinforcing fertility cycles applies to systems with open, competitive labor markets and an insignificant volume of international migration. This analysis examines what happens in circumstances where such a labor market is replaced by a centrally planned economy and state guarantees of full employment. The conclusion, foreshadowed by the theoretical writings of Janos Kornai, appears to be that fertility varies directly with parents' cohort size, and relationship just the inverse of the more familiar pattern observed in some Western societies." Data for several Eastern European countries are used to illustrate the analysis.
Correspondence: E. Carlson, University of South Carolina, Department of Sociology, Columbia, SC 29208. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20210 Chojnacka, Helena. Economic factors of high fertility in traditional households. Working Papers on Women in International Development, No. 220, Apr 1991. 18 pp. Michigan State University, Women and International Development Program: East Lansing, Michigan. In Eng.
This study uses data for Nigeria collected in a survey in 1978.
Correspondence: Michigan State University, Women and International Development Program, 202 International Center, East Lansing, MI 48824-1035. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20211 Clay, Daniel C.; Vander Haar, Jane E. Patterns of intergenerational support and childbearing in the third world. Population Studies, Vol. 47, No. 1, Mar 1993. 67-83 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Three prominent themes in fertility research--the old-age security hypothesis, the social-mobility hypothesis, and wealth-flows theory are based on the notion that parents in Third-World settings often maintain a high level of childbearing in order to improve their own social and economic well-being. Using data from 1,019 farm households in Rwanda, we provide an empirical test of this 'anthropological assumption' as it pertains to the contributions that departed children make to their parental households. Analysis confirms that children are, in fact, of considerable economic value for their parents, but also shows that such intergenerational support is conditioned by other variables, such as the number of children still living within the household, the distance between households, and individual characteristics of parents and their children."
Correspondence: D. C. Clay, Michigan State University, Department of Sociology, East Lansing, MI 48824. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20212 Compton, Paul A. Is fertility in Western industrial countries amenable to geographical study? In: The geographical approach to fertility, edited by Jurgen Bahr and Paul Gans. 1991. 73-93 pp. Universitat Kiel, Geographisches Institut: Kiel, Germany. In Eng.
The author critically analyzes whether "a geographical perspective adds significantly to our understanding of contemporary fertility processes in western industrial societies....The main focus of the paper...is on the various ways in which geographers have approached the study of fertility, i.e. describing and explaining patterns as an end in itself, drawing behavioral inferences from ecological analysis, and analyzing the fertility component of spatial population change. The discussion is illustrated with material drawn from Northern Ireland, England and Wales and Hungary. The conclusions are generally negative...."
Correspondence: P. A. Compton, Queen's University, Department of Geography, Belfast BT7 1NN, Northern Ireland. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

59:20213 Creton, Dominique. Changes in fertility in the Republic of Ireland: diffusion of illegitimacy. In: The geographical approach to fertility, edited by Jurgen Bahr and Paul Gans. 1991. 95-107 pp. Universitat Kiel, Geographisches Institut: Kiel, Germany. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to assess the state of fertility in the Republic of Ireland in the 1980s and to review the recent trends through various fertility and nuptiality indicators. Particular attention will be paid to illegitimacy and to some specific behavioral patterns such as teenage pregnancies and cohabitation in order to highlight directions for further research. Data from official publications (Census and Vital Statistics Reports) were completed by the findings of a survey of 89% of the women who gave birth to an illegitimate child in 1983...."
Correspondence: D. Creton, Universite des Sciences et Techniques de Lille-Flandres-Artois, U.F.R. de Geographie et d'Amenagement, Laboratoire de Geographie Humaine, 59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

59:20214 Dahl-Jorgensen, Carla. Fertility behavior in a peasant society of northern Shawa, Ethiopia. Working Papers on Ethiopian Development, No. 6, ISBN 82-90817-05-3. Aug 1991. 64 pp. University of Trondheim, Ethiopia Research Programme: Dragvoll, Norway. In Eng.
"This...study focuses on the peasants' fertility behavior in the light of the problems they face with sporadic food scarcity." Data are from a survey conducted in 1989 among 1,700 adults.
Correspondence: University of Trondheim, College of Arts and Science, Ethiopia Research Programme, N-7055 Dragvoll, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20215 Dalko, Viktoria. Endogenous fertility and human capital investment. Pub. Order No. DA9235128. 1992. 186 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study involves modeling the relationships among fertility, infant mortality, and parental investment in health care and education in developing countries. It was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Pennsylvania.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 53(7).

59:20216 Danziger, Leif; Neuman, Shoshana. Equality and fertility in the kibbutz. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 6, No. 1, 1993. 57-66 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
The authors examine the impact of the social organization of the kibbutz on fertility. "In this paper we present a theoretical model that focuses on the differences in fertility between the city and the kibbutz, and use cross-sectional regressions to test the above hypotheses empirically. The individual data are from the latest (1983) Census of Population and Housing in Israel." They find that "a parent's predicted wage....has a smaller positive effect on fertility in the city than in the kibbutz, and that a parent's education has a negative effect on fertility in the city and either a smaller negative effect or no effect in the kibbutz."
Correspondence: L. Danziger, York University, Department of Economics, Toronto, Ontario M3J 1P3, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20217 Deang, Lionel P. Living arrangements of mothers following childbirth: do they affect subsequent fertility? Pub. Order No. DA9234953. 1992. 215 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study concerns the Philippines and was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 53(7).

59:20218 Desai, Jaikishan. Birth interval analysis: results from a parametric proportional hazard model. Carolina Population Center Paper, No. 89-7, Oct 1989. 32, [7] pp. University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center: Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
This paper is concerned with the determinants of birth intervals in Mexico and how those determinants have changed over time. Data are from the 1982 National Demographic Survey.
Correspondence: University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square, 143 West Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20219 Dorbritz, Jurgen. Nuptiality, fertility, and family life in social transformation--a new demographic regime in East Germany? [Nuptialitat, Fertilitat und familiale Lebensformen in der sozialen Transformation--Ubergang zu einer neuen Bevolkerungsweise in Ostdeutschland?] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 18, No. 2, 1992. 167-96 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The social and political factors affecting fertility and other population dynamics in the former East Germany over the past 40 years are examined. Consideration is given to nuptiality, fertility, divorce, marriage age, age-specific fertility, and remarriage. Special attention is paid to the impact of socialism on these trends.
Correspondence: J. Dorbritz, Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung, Gustav-Stresemann-Ring 6, Postfach 55 28, 6200 Wiesbaden, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20220 El-Khorazaty, M. Nabil. Estimation of fertility-inhibiting indices using vital registration data. Genus, Vol. 48, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1992. 69-88 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"The present paper...discusses the correspondence between Bongaarts-type indices of marriage, contraception, and infecundability, and the childbearing indices for ages at first and last birth and reproductive life span....This correspondence allows the estimation of fertility-inhibiting indices as functions of the childbearing indices, and thus can be used to obtain approximations to fertility-inhibiting indices during inter-survey years, or whenever only macro-level data are available from vital registration systems, thereby allowing continuous monitoring of determinants of fertility on an annual basis." Data for Cuba, Kuwait, and Romania are used to illustrate the methodology.
Correspondence: M. N. El-Khorazaty, Council of Ministers, Central Statistical Organization, Bahrain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20221 El-Shalakani, M. H.; Suchindran, C. M. Estimation of fecundity and secondary sterility from survey data on birth intervals in Egypt. Human Biology, Vol. 65, No. 1, Feb 1993. 59-70 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
"Data on the last closed and open birth intervals have been used to ascertain the current potential of childbearing for women in terms of estimating fecundity and secondary sterility by age, residence, and educational subgroup. Under the assumption that after a specific period from the last birth a certain proportion of women become secondarily sterile, we propose and apply an inflated model of open birth interval to obtain the proportion of women who are secondarily sterile. The data used for the analysis are extracted from the Egyptian Fertility Survey conducted in 1980."
Correspondence: M. H. El-Shalakani, University of North Carolina, Department of Biostatistics, Chapel Hill, NC 27514. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20222 Friedlander, Dov; Pollak, Moshe; Schellekens, Jona. A method of estimating the time of marital fertility decline and associated parameters. Mathematical Population Studies, Vol. 4, No. 1, 1993. 37-49 pp. Reading, England. In Eng.
"This paper presents a new method for estimating the time of the onset of marital fertility decline. The proposed method produces a maximum likelihood least squares estimate for the point of change in a sequence of marital fertility indexes. It is suggested that the proposed method has certain advantages over previous attempts to estimate the time of the onset of marital fertility decline." The geographical focus is on Europe.
Correspondence: D. Friedlander, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Department of Social Sciences, Mount Scopus, Jerusalem 91905, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20223 Frost, Jennifer J. Kinship and fertility in Kerala. Pub. Order No. DA9301952. 1992. 472 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study concerns the Indian state of Kerala and was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of California at Los Angeles. Data are from the 1980 Kerala Fertility Survey.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 53(8).

59:20224 Gaisie, Kwesi; Cross, Anne R.; Nsemukila, Geoffrey. Zambia Demographic and Health Survey, 1992. Mar 1993. xviii, 201 pp. University of Zambia: Lusaka, Zambia; Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
Results from the 1992 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey, which included over 6,000 households and 7,000 women of reproductive age, are presented. The report includes chapters on fertility, fertility regulation, other proximate determinants of fertility, fertility preferences, infant and child nutrition, and knowledge about AIDS. The results indicate that fertility is declining but remains high, contraceptive knowledge is nearly universal but use is low, desired family size is below actual family size, and child mortality is apparently increasing.
Correspondence: University of Zambia, School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Department of Social Development Studies, P.O. Box 32379, Lusaka, Zambia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20225 Golden, Meredith L.; Millman, Sara R. Models of fecundability. In: Biomedical and demographic determinants of reproduction, edited by Ronald Gray, Henri Leridon, and Alfred Spira. 1993. 183-208 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors "provide a summary of fecundability models based on waiting times to conception or the timing and frequency of intercourse during the cycle. [They find that] modelling has become more complex mathematically, but future progress is largely dependent on a better estimation of the biological variables and their distribution in populations."
Correspondence: M. L. Golden, University of North Carolina, Department of Geography, Chapel Hill, NC 27599. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20226 Goodkind, Daniel M. Creating new traditions in modern Chinese societies: aiming for birth in the Year of the Dragon. Pub. Order No. DA9235143. 1992. 270 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study concerns efforts in Chinese communities in Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia, Hong Kong, and other parts of Asia to use the lunar zodiacal calendar to time births so that they occur in auspicious months. It was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Pennsylvania.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 53(7).

59:20227 Goodkind, Daniel M. New zodiacal influences on Chinese family formation: Taiwan, 1976. Demography, Vol. 30, No. 2, May 1993. 127-42 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Although Chinese folklore holds that the Dragon Year is an auspicious time to have a birth, notable increases in Chinese fertility in Dragon Years did not occur before 1976. Demographic explanations for the belated occurrence of this phenomenon rely on the notion of natural fertility: that is, couples' lack of modern contraception had kept such decisions outside the realm of choice. The decomposition performed in this article, however, shows that the bulk of the 1976 Dragon Year baby boom on Taiwan was due to strategies that had always been available: marriage timing, abortion, and coital behavior. The natural fertility paradigm thus is insufficient in explaining the motivation for this behavior and should be complemented by institutional approaches."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1992 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: D. M. Goodkind, National Center for Social Sciences, Institute of Sociology, 24 Tran Xuan Soan, Hanoi, Viet Nam. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20228 Gray, Ronald; Leridon, Henri; Spira, Alfred. Biomedical and demographic determinants of reproduction. International Studies in Demography, ISBN 0-19-828371-7. LC 92-11491. 1993. xxii, 482 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
This volume contains papers presented at the "Seminar on the Demographic and Biomedical Determinants of Human Reproduction, held in January 1988 at the Johns Hopkins University, [Baltimore, Maryland]....The objective of the seminar was an interdisciplinary exchange: contributors both examined the complementarity between population-based demographic and epidemiological studies and provided information on biological mechanisms derived from clinical or endocrinological investigations." Sections concern demographic, behavioral, and biomedical determinants of reproduction; fecundability; infertility and assisted conception; causes and frequency of fetal loss; and postpartum infecundability and the role of lactation. The geographical scope is worldwide.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, Walton Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20229 Gribble, James N. Birth intervals, gestational age, and low birth weight: are the relationships confounded? Population Studies, Vol. 47, No. 1, Mar 1993. 133-46 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Using data from 2,234 post partum women in two hospitals belonging to the Mexican Social Security Institute, this study examines the relationship between birth intervals and low birth weight. The analysis controls for a number of potentially confounding factors, including mother's age and physical characteristics, outcome of previous pregnancy, and gestational age. The results indicate that although gestational age is a significant predictor, it has very little effect on the relationship between birth intervals and low birth weight."
Correspondence: J. N. Gribble, National Research Council, Committee on Population, 2101 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20418. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20230 Guinnane, Timothy W.; Okun, Barbara S.; Trussell, James. What do we know about the timing of fertility transitions in Europe? OPR Working Paper, No. 92-11, Dec 1992. 26, [3] pp. Princeton University, Office of Population Research [OPR]: Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
"We demonstrate that the demographic methods used to date the fertility transition in Europe may fail to detect the initial stages of a fertility transition and therefore should not be used as the basis for strong statements about the timing of transitions."
Correspondence: Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20231 Hern, Warren M. Family planning, Amazon style. Natural History, Vol. 101, No. 12, Dec 1992. 30-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author examines the impact of high fertility among the Shipibo Indians of Amazonian Peru. He finds that "the Shipibo's own high fertility, uncontrolled by any effective means, is compounding the problem of the population pressure created by an influx of outsiders, who are moving into Shipibo territory and destroying the natural resources." The loss of traditional contraceptive knowledge and the shift away from polygynous unions brought about by modernization are examined. "In villages where polygyny was more common, the average intervals between births were longer and community fertility rates were lower." The need for modern contraceptive and health services as cultural change continues is stressed.
Correspondence: W. M. Hern, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20232 Higueras-Arnal, Antonio. Fertility and social change in Spain (1975-1987). In: The geographical approach to fertility, edited by Jurgen Bahr and Paul Gans. 1991. 121-8 pp. Universitat Kiel, Geographisches Institut: Kiel, Germany. In Eng.
The author examines Spain's fertility decline over the period 1975-1987. Consideration is given to the effect of migration on social change, and of that change on fertility. "To summarize, it must be emphasized that the fall in natality and fertility in Spain between 1977 and 1987 is a result of the change in the attitudes of the younger generations towards child-bearing, and that this change has been indirectly encouraged by the state in the context of its overall process of modernizing the country."
Correspondence: A. Higueras-Arnal, Universidad de Zaragoza, Facultad de Filosofia y Letras, Departamento de Geografia y Ordenacion del Territorio, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

59:20233 Hoem, Britta. The compatibility of employment and childbearing in contemporary Sweden. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 59E, ISBN 91-7820-060-1. Sep 1992. 37 pp. Stockholm University, Demography Unit: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
The author explores the effects of maternal employment and educational status on fertility using data from a 1981 fertility survey. Special focus is given to the decision to have a third birth.
Correspondence: Stockholm University, Demography Unit, S-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20234 Horn af Rantzien, Mia. Endogenous fertility and old-age security. Economic Research Institute Report, ISBN 91-7258-322-3. Dec 1990. 39 pp. Stockholm School of Economics, Economic Research Institute: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
The author studies "consequences of the old-age security motive for having children in a rural economy." Data are for selected developed and developing countries.
Correspondence: Stockholm School of Economics, Economic Research Institute, Box 6501, S-11383 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20235 Huggins, George R. Fertility following contraceptive use. In: Biomedical and demographic determinants of reproduction, edited by Ronald Gray, Henri Leridon, and Alfred Spira. 1993. 157-69 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The effect of contraceptive use on subsequent fertility and pregnancy outcome is reviewed....Extensive studies suggest only slight delays in the return of fertility following oral contraceptive use, a slight risk of infection and impaired fertility following first trimester therapeutic abortion, and an increased risk of tubal infertility among IUD users, primarily in women with multiple sexual partners."
Correspondence: G. R. Huggins, Francis Scott Key Medical Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 4940 Eastern Avenue, Baltimore, MD 21224. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20236 Hyatt, D. E.; Milne, W. J. Determinants of fertility in urban and rural Kenya: estimates and a simulation of the impact of education policy. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 25, No. 3, Mar 1993. 371-82 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this paper, the determinants of fertility in urban and rural areas of Kenya are examined through estimation of a probit model which includes variables in three categories: economic, biological, and social or cultural. Also simulated is the effect of increasing the levels of female education on the total fertility rate and the total number of births. Results show that improvements in female education can result in a substantial decrease in the number of births in Kenya, thereby suggesting that formulation of government policy in this area is desirable."
Correspondence: D. E. Hyatt, University of Wisconsin, Department of Economics, Milwaukee, WI 53201. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

59:20237 Jenkins, Carol. Fertility and infertility in Papua New Guinea. American Journal of Human Biology, Vol. 5, No. 1, 1993. 75-83 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Fertility levels in selected populations of coastal and highland Madang Province of Papua New Guinea are analyzed from reproductive history data. Changing levels of fertility between 1964 and 1984 are examined using reconstructed censuses. Age-specific infertility rates are calculated and evaluated with available data on rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and contraceptive usage. These suggest that STD-associated infertility may be a major factor underlying levels of fertility lower than expected."
Correspondence: C. Jenkins, Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research, P.O. Box 60, Goroka, Papua New Guinea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20238 Kayastha, S. L. Some aspects of fertility in India. In: The geographical approach to fertility, edited by Jurgen Bahr and Paul Gans. 1991. 369-77 pp. Universitat Kiel, Geographisches Institut: Kiel, Germany. In Eng.
Fertility trends and determinants in India are examined at the national and regional levels. Consideration is given to marriage age, induced abortion, postpartum infecundity, socioeconomic factors, and family planning programs. Data cover the period 1901-1986.
Correspondence: S. L. Kayastha, Banaras Hindu University, Nandnagar Colony, Akhnoor Hut, Varanasi 221 005, India. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

59:20239 Korcelli, Piotr. Interregional population change in Poland: fertility patterns. In: The geographical approach to fertility, edited by Jurgen Bahr and Paul Gans. 1991. 257-66 pp. Universitat Kiel, Geographisches Institut: Kiel, Germany. In Eng.
"It is generally assumed that interregional, as well as rural-urban differences in fertility level, tend to decrease gradually during the late stages of the demographic transition. The present paper aims to test the above rule using a set of data for Poland, extending over the period of 1960-1987. The measures applied include the crude total as well as age-specific fertility rates, and the gross reproduction rate....An analysis of interregional fertility patterns will be preceded by a discussion on the evolution of the respective patterns as observed at the national level."
Correspondence: P. Korcelli, Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization, Krakowskie Przedmiescie 30, 00-927 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

59:20240 Kouaouci, Ali. The role of some social and cultural factors in the decline of fertility in Algeria. Population Studies Center Research Report, No. 92-262, Sep 1992. 56 pp. University of Michigan, Population Studies Center: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study uses data from a 1970 national demographic survey (ESNP) and a 1986 survey (ENAF) to analyze factors affecting the decline in fertility that occurred during that period.
Correspondence: University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20241 Lam, David; Sedlacek, Guilherme; Duryea, Suzanne. Increases in women's education and fertility decline in Brazil. Population Studies Center Research Report, No. 92-255, Sep 1992. 26 pp. University of Michigan, Population Studies Center: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This paper analyzes the role of increased schooling, especially for women, in the onset and subsequent pace of Brazil's rapid fertility decline...using the retrospective fertility histories in Brazil's 1984 PNAD...."
Correspondence: University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20242 Lu, Cheng. Temporal changes and regional differences of fertility in China. In: The geographical approach to fertility, edited by Jurgen Bahr and Paul Gans. 1991. 415-21 pp. Universitat Kiel, Geographisches Institut: Kiel, Germany. In Eng.
Fertility trends and regional differentials in China over the past 40 years are examined and compared. Tabular data are presented on birth and death rates and natural increase. The primary focus is on the 1980s.
Correspondence: C. Lu, East China Normal University, Department of Geography, 3663 North Zhonshan Road, Shanghai, China. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

59:20243 Madrigal, L. Lack of birth seasonality in a nineteenth-century agricultural population: Escazu, Costa Rica. Human Biology, Vol. 65, No. 2, Apr 1993. 255-71 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
The author reports "the results of a historical demographic study that investigates whether Escazu, a nineteenth-century population from Costa Rica, experienced birth seasonality. The data set consists of certificates of baptisms from 1851 to 1901 collected at the Parish of San Miguel de Escazu, Costa Rica....The autocorrelation analysis of the baptism data fails to demonstrate any cyclical pattern of births in Escazu. Moreover, there is no indication that temperature or rainfall influences the frequency of births. This lack of seasonality is unexpected in an agrarian population such as Escazu. The results of this analysis indicate that human fertility cycles might not be as prevalent as previously thought."
Correspondence: L. Madrigal, University of South Florida, Department of Anthropology, Tampa, FL 33620. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20244 Mammey, Ulrich. The decline of fertility in selected European countries. In: The geographical approach to fertility, edited by Jurgen Bahr and Paul Gans. 1991. 61-71 pp. Universitat Kiel, Geographisches Institut: Kiel, Germany. In Eng.
The author reviews recent demographic trends in Europe, beginning with the speeding up of the process of fertility decline in the 1970s. "A review of the most important features of the historical trend of fertility [decline], of the recent situation, and of the results of the U.N. projections for some selected European countries [is] presented."
Correspondence: U. Mammey, Federal Institute for Population Research, P.O.B. 5528, W-6200 Wiesbaden 1, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

59:20245 Martinelle, Sten. Fertility in a life perspective. [Fruktsamhet ur livsperspektiv.] Demografiska Rapporter 1992, No. 1, ISBN 91-618-0515-7. LC 92-166999. 1992. 73 pp. Statistiska Centralbyran: Stockholm, Sweden. In Swe. with sum. in Eng.
This is an analysis of cohort fertility based on official data from Sweden on women born between 1930 and 1969. "The presentation contains a number of measures of fertility by age and parity for each single-year cohort studied." Changes in factors affecting fertility are analyzed, including female educational status and labor force participation.
Correspondence: Statistiska Centralbyran, Karlavagen 100, 115 81 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

59:20246 Meir, Avinoam; Ben-David, Yosef. A methodology of analyzing fertility transition among sedentarizing pastoral nomads. In: The geographical approach to fertility, edited by Jurgen Bahr and Paul Gans. 1991. 17-27 pp. Universitat Kiel, Geographisches Institut: Kiel, Germany. In Eng.
The authors use the example of the Negev Bedouin in Israel to outline a methodology for the study of fertility transition among sedentarizing pastoral nomads. "The central idea is that, given lack of historical data, it is possible to substitute development phases along the nomadism-sedentarism continuum (that is, space) for time, and [draw] fertility transition conclusions from comparison of phases."
Correspondence: A. Meir, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Department of Geography, P.O.B. 653, Beer Sheva 84105, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

59:20247 Mishra, Udaya S. On some analytical models for the study of open birth interval and open status of women. 1990. v, 157 pp. International Institute for Population Sciences: Bombay, India. In Eng.
Some applications are made to data for India. This study was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the International Institute for Population Sciences, Bombay, India.
Correspondence: International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Bombay 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20248 Mobius, Dina. Recent developments of fertility in selected larger cities of the GDR. In: The geographical approach to fertility, edited by Jurgen Bahr and Paul Gans. 1991. 249-55 pp. Universitat Kiel, Geographisches Institut: Kiel, Germany. In Eng.
Fertility trends in the former German Democratic Republic for the period 1970-1986 are reviewed. A comparison of fertility patterns among the larger cities is made.
Correspondence: D. Mobius, Humboldt-Universitat, Sektion Geographie, Universitatsstrasse 3b, O-1080 Berlin, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

59:20249 Morgan, S. Philip; Chen, Renbao. Predicting childlessness for recent cohorts of American women. International Journal of Forecasting, Special Issue, Vol. 8, No. 3, Nov 1992. 477-93 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
Fertility predictions for cohorts of childless U.S. women are made. "We examine three projection strategies: one using women's stated fertility expectations, a second relying on the patterns of previous cohorts, and a third which posits that current rates will persist into the future. The predictive validity of these different projection strategies are tested with data for the 1980-87 period. We show that the projection based on current period rates performs well. Further, we argue that it better captures the first birth process than other models. We forecast levels of 20% childless for cohorts of white women born in the early 1960s...; levels of 4% are forecast for nonwhite women."
Correspondence: S. P. Morgan, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20250 Mueller, Ulrich. Birth control as a social dilemma. In: Economic evolution and demographic change: formal models in social sciences, edited by G. Haag, U. Mueller, and K. G. Troitzsch. 1992. 257-82 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
The author examines the relationship between fecundity and long-term reproductive success over generations using data from two samples of U.S. military men born between 1913 and 1937. The analysis shows that "there is a positive correlation between number of children, and number of grand-children, but with a decreasing increment....[and a] strong positive relation between family size in the first generation and longterm reproductive success, measured in relative numbers of descendants as well as probability of lineage survival. Coming from a higher social class, and an above average education both have a strong positive effect on fitness, because of lower levels of childlessness as well as of fecundity fluctuations in general....[The findings also] imply that...maximal fecundity also ensures maximal longterm reproductive success, even if marginal value of offspring is decreasing."
Correspondence: U. Mueller, Zentrum fur Umfragen, Methoden, und Analysen, B21, W-6800 Mannheim, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

59:20251 Mukherjee, S.; Singh, K. K.; Suchindran, C. M.; Bhattacharya, B. N. A probability distribution for last closed birth interval. Demography India, Vol. 20, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1991. 259-72 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"We develop a model to analyse the last closed birth interval with the goal of estimating biological parameters of human fertility....The model is not parity dependent. This feature makes it simple to apply and avoid the problems of errors in parity data. The model is also applicable in situations where abstinence following childbirth and taboos relating to coital frequency during the early part of [the] interval are widespread. The model is illustrated with the data collected from two Indian fertility surveys."
Correspondence: S. Mukherjee, Indian Statistical Institute, Population Studies Unit, 203 Barrackpore Trunk Road, Calcutta 700 035, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20252 Ni Bhrolchain, Maire. Period paramount? A critique of the cohort approach to fertility. Population and Development Review, Vol. 18, No. 4, Dec 1992. 599-629, 786-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The author examines the case for the cohort approach to fertility....The article looks to the historical roots of conventional thinking on the subject and identifies the elements of the demographic case for the cohort approach. These are examined individually and found either not to be valid arguments or not to require a cohort perspective. Some of the problems associated with the period fertility approach arise from mistaken measurement of period phenomena and the misconceived evaluation of period parameters relative to their cohort counterparts. An alternative approach to measuring period fertility phenomena is considered....[She concludes that] on demographic and statistical grounds the period perspective is considered superior for the description and analysis of fertility."
Correspondence: M. Ni Bhrolchain, University of Southampton, Department of Population Studies, Southampton S09 5NH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20253 Noin, Daniel. The fertility transition and its diffusion in the world. In: The geographical approach to fertility, edited by Jurgen Bahr and Paul Gans. 1991. 41-59 pp. Universitat Kiel, Geographisches Institut: Kiel, Germany. In Eng.
The author explores the history of the demographic transition and concludes that it began in France toward the middle of the nineteenth century, then spread throughout Europe and other developed countries, and since the 1960s has affected many other parts of the world. Attention is drawn to fertility decline as a cultural phenomenon and to the geographical pattern of change in several countries.
Correspondence: D. Noin, Universite de Paris I, 191 rue Saint Jacques, 75005 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

59:20254 Oheneba-Sakyi, Yaw; Heaton, Tim B. Effects of socio-demographic variables on birth intervals in Ghana. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 24, No. 1, Spring 1993. 113-35 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng.
"The purpose of the present study is to examine birth interval behavior in Ghana to find out whether marital fertility is being controlled by lengthening intervals between births. The variables [examined]...are birth cohort, age at first marriage, infant mortality, formal education, occupation, religion, ethnicity, marriage type, level of urbanization, and place of residence....The data for this study are from the Ghana Fertility Survey (GFS) of 1979-80...[and] includes 4,943 cases of ever-married women only."
Correspondence: Y. Oheneba-Sakyi, State University of New York, Potsdam College, Department of Sociology, Potsdam, NY 13676-2294. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:20255 Okun, Barbara S. How much can indirect estimation techniques tell us about marital fertility control? Pub. Order No. DA9302057. 1992. 217 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This critique of two indirect techniques for estimating fertility, the Coale-Trussell (M and m) method and Cohort Parity Analysis (CPA), was developed as a doctoral dissertation at Princeton University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR). Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 53(9).

59:20256 Ordonez Sotomayor, Jose; Olmedo Toledo, Caton. The fertility transition in Ecuador. [Transicion de la fecundidad en el Ecuador.] Aug 1991. 97 pp. Centro de Estudios de Poblacion y Paternidad Responsable [CEPAR]: Quito, Ecuador. In Spa.
This is an analysis of the recent fertility decline in Ecuador. The first chapter looks at population trends in general. Next, fertility levels and differentials are analyzed, with consideration given to age factors, educational status, and regional differences. A final chapter examines family planning and the extent of contraceptive practice in the country. Data are primarily taken from official sources.
Correspondence: Centro de Estudios de Poblacion y Paternidad Responsable, Montes 423 y Daniel Hidalgo, Quito, Ecuador. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20257 Otani, Kenji. Cohort fertility and the Cigno model. Kansai Daigaku Keizai Ronshu, Vol. 42, No. 6, 1993. 165-201 pp. Osaka, Japan. In Jpn.
The author examines determinants of completed fertility, intended fertility, and child-accumulation tempo in Japan by applying the Cigno model. Independent variables such as wife's family size are used to investigate the validity of the inclusive fitness hypothesis and the only-child reaction hypothesis concerning the relation between fertility and family size. Consideration is given to the impact of parental educational status, wives' employment, coresidence with the couple's parents, and desired family size. Data concern the 1960s. An English abstract is available from the author on request.
Correspondence: K. Otani, Kansai University, Department of Economics, 3-3-35 Yamate-cho, Suita-shi, Osaka 564, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20258 Rahim, A.; Ram, B. Emerging patterns of child-spacing in Canada. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 25, No. 2, Apr 1993. 155-67 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This study used data from the 1984 Family History Survey conducted by Statistics Canada to examine recent trends and patterns of child-spacing among currently married women. Life table and proportional hazards estimates show that Canadian women, particularly those in younger age groups with higher education and longer work experience, start having children late, but have subsequent children rather quickly. This suggests that such women tend to complete childbearing within a compressed time period."
Correspondence: A. Rahim, Statistics Canada, Demography Division, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20259 Rallu, Jean-Louis; Toulemon, Laurent. Period fertility indices. Part 1. The construction of different indices. [Les mesures de la fecondite transversale. I. Construction des differents indices.] Population, Vol. 48, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1993. 7-26 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The authors review and assess types of indexes for measuring period fertility. Consideration is given to the number of variables utilized in such calculations and the variables used most often, including parity, maternal age, and age of the last-born child. The geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: J.-L. Rallu, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20260 Rallu, Jean-Louis. Recent trends in the birth rate in Mauritius. [Tendances recentes de la fecondite a l'ile Maurice.] Population, Vol. 48, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1993. 184-90 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
Fertility trends since 1980 on the island of Mauritius are briefly discussed.
Correspondence: J.-L. Rallu, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20261 Ram, Malathi. The importance of surviving sons in India: an analysis of the risk-fertility relationship. Pub. Order No. DA9236029. 1992. 205 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Cornell University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 53(7).

59:20262 Raut, Lakshmi; Srinivasan, T. N. Endogenous fertility, technical change and growth in a model of overlapping generations. Economic Growth Center Discussion Paper, No. 628, Feb 1991. 33 pp. Yale University, Economic Growth Center: New Haven, Connecticut. In Eng.
The authors develop a model of the relationship between individual reproduction and capital accumulation on the one hand and long-term economic development on the other in which fertility and savings are endogenous.
Correspondence: Yale University, Economic Growth Center, Box 1987, Yale Station, New Haven, CT 06520. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20263 Rele, Jawahar R. Fertility levels and trends in south Asia: an assessment and prospects. Genus, Vol. 48, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1992. 133-54 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"This paper presents a fertility analysis for...Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka....[It is found that] the fertility decline has been greatest in Sri Lanka, moderate in India, marginal in Bangladesh and Nepal, and negligible or uncertain in Pakistan. The analysis also assesses differentials in total fertility and total marital fertility in relation to three prominent socioeconomic variables: place of current residence (urban versus rural), wife's education, and wife's work status....All five countries showed dramatic improvements in their rates of contraceptive acceptance during the early 1980s, which may assist their future course of fertility decline."
Correspondence: J. R. Rele, East-West Population Institute, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20264 Robey, Bryant; Rutstein, Shea O.; Morris, Leo; Blackburn, Richard. The reproductive revolution: new survey findings. Population Reports, Series M: Special Topics, No. 11, Dec 1992. 43 pp. Johns Hopkins University, Center for Communication Programs, Population Information Program [PIP]: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
Data from the Demographic and Health Surveys and the Family Planning Surveys are used to review fertility trends in developing countries since the 1960s. Consideration is given to fertility patterns and preference; contraceptive use, knowledge, and availability; estimates of unmet needs for family planning services; trends in marriage age; infant and child mortality; and antenatal and child health care. Future fertility patterns are also projected. An appendix provides information on the status of the surveys in each participating country as of December 1992.
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins University, Center for Communication Programs, Population Information Program, 527 St. Paul Place, Baltimore, MD 21202. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20265 Rosero-Bixby, Luis; Casterline, John B. Modelling diffusion effects in fertility transition. Population Studies, Vol. 47, No. 1, Mar 1993. 147-67 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this article we use a simple mathematical model to study the implications for fertility transition of the diffusion of birth-control practices through social interaction....A direct implication of the model, clearly illustrated by...simulations, is that reduction in birth-control costs can stimulate greater demand for birth control. The simulations also illustrate the effects of geographical and social distances on fertility differentials, the pace of fertility transition, and the timing of the onset of transition. The strength of social-interaction diffusion is heavily conditioned by two sets of factors, which thus assume great significance as determinants of the course of fertility transition: the development of communication and transport networks, and the patterns of customary social interaction permitted by the social structure." Data for selected Latin American countries are used to illustrate the model.
Correspondence: L. Rosero-Bixby, Universidad de Costa Rica, Instituto de Investigaciones en Salud, San Jose, Costa Rica. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20266 Rouyer, Alwyn R. The effects of political structure on fertility in poor countries. Scandinavian Journal of Development Alternatives, Vol. 8, No. 3, Sep 1989. 19-36 pp. Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"In this article I examine the effects of state autonomy, regime type, and the capacity of governments on the formulation and implementation of social development and family planning policies which in turn affect patterns of fertility behavior in poor third world countries." The author concludes that the state has to become actively involved if the rate of population growth is to be brought under control.
Correspondence: A. R. Rouyer, University of Idaho, Department of Political Science, Moscow, ID 83843. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

59:20267 Rutenberg, Naomi; Diamond, Ian. Fertility in Botswana: the recent decline and future prospects. Demography, Vol. 30, No. 2, May 1993. 143-57 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Recent estimates of fertility in Botswana suggest a rapid decline of more than two births per woman between 1981 and 1988. This paper proposes that the baseline fertility was overestimated but that nonetheless fertility declined by about one birth per woman during the 1980s. The decline in fertility was linked to a deterioration in social and economic conditions caused by a major drought in the early 1980s and to the increased availability of family planning services in the same period. Fertility apparently began to rebound in the late 1980s in response to improved conditions, which came about as a result of a successful drought relief program. Future declines in fertility depend on the continued success of the family planning program, particularly in rural areas." Data are from the 1981 census and from demographic surveys conducted in 1984 and 1988.
Correspondence: N. Rutenberg, Futures Group, 1050 17th Street NW, Suite 1000, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20268 Saleheen, Mesbah-us; Sharif, A. H. M.; Huq, S. M. Monzurul. Fertility patterns and socio-economic development in Bangladesh. In: The geographical approach to fertility, edited by Jurgen Bahr and Paul Gans. 1991. 403-13 pp. Universitat Kiel, Geographisches Institut: Kiel, Germany. In Eng.
The effect of socioeconomic development on fertility levels in Bangladesh for the period 1911-1987 is discussed. Topics covered include crude birth rates, marital status, marriage age by sex, per capita income, availability of health facilities, and regional fertility differentials.
Correspondence: M.-u. Saleheen, Jahangirnagar University, Department of Geography, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

59:20269 Schellekens, Jona. Wages, secondary workers, and fertility: a working-class perspective of the fertility transition in England and Wales. Journal of Family History, Vol. 18, No. 1, 1993. 1-17 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"The focus of the analysis in this study is on the economic benefits parents derive from their children and the impact of these on fertility transitions. Particular attention is given to the working class in Victorian England and Wales. The life-cycle drop-off in adult productivity among this class created a need for additional income at later stages of the family life-cycle. This income was mostly generated by children and adolescents. Hence, it is suggested, that not until the substantial rise in real wages during the last quarter of the nineteenth century could fertility among the working class in England and Wales have started its decline. This hypothesis is shown to be consistent with data on occupation-specific fertility levels taken from the 1911 Fertility Census."
Correspondence: J. Schellekens, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Department of Demography, Mount Scopus, Jerusalem, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20270 Schultz, T. Paul. The relationship between local family planning expenditures and fertility in Thailand, 1976-1981. Economic Growth Center Discussion Paper, No. 662, Apr 1992. 42 pp. Yale University, Economic Growth Center: New Haven, Connecticut. In Eng.
"This paper assesses the effectiveness of government subsidies to public and private family planning delivery systems...before 1980."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1989 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Yale University, Economic Growth Center, Box 1987, Yale Station, 27 Hillhouse Avenue, New Haven, CT 06520. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20271 Shapiro, David; Tambashe, Oleko. Fertility and the status of women in Kinshasa. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 1992-24, Dec 1992. 32, [11] pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
The focus of this paper "is on differentials in fertility...by educational attainment and employment status, and how these differentials are related to women's status. The principal data source...is a household survey of reproductive-age women that was carried out in 1990."
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 22 Burrowes Building, University Park, PA 16802-6202. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20272 Shapiro, David. Women's employment, education, fertility, and family planning in Vietnam: an economic perspective. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 1992-17, Sep 1992. 19 pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
Data for this study are from the 1988 Viet Nam Demographic and Health Survey, the 1989 census, and other published sources.
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 22 Burrowes Building, University Park, PA 16802-6202. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20273 Singh, K. K.; Suchindran, C. M.; Singh, Vipin; Ramakumar, R. Analysis of birth intervals in India's Uttar Pradesh and Kerala states. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 25, No. 2, Apr 1993. 143-53 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Life tables of birth intervals and median birth intervals in two Indian states, Uttar Pradesh and Kerala, were computed for several subgroups of the study population. Multivariate hazards modelling technique was used to examine the net effect of each of the variables studied. The results show a substantial effect of socioeconomic variables in child-spacing after controlling for the major intermediate variables."
Correspondence: K. K. Singh, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square 300A, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20274 Skretowicz, Biruta. Models of procreative behavior based on the concept of the life cycle. [Model zachowan prokreacyjnych oparty na koncepcji cyklu zycia.] Wiadomosci Statystyczne, Vol. 37, No. 1, 1993. 8-13 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng.
This is the first in a planned series of papers applying path analysis methods to the study of reproductive behavior in rural areas in Poland. Factors considered include total number of births, birth intervals, birth control and abortion, and future fertility intentions. The objective is to examine how the fertility of rural women is affected by various social and economic factors.
Correspondence: B. Skretowicz, Instytut Medycyny Wsi im. Witolda Chodzki, ul. Jaczewskiego 2, 20-950 Lublin, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20275 Takahashi, Shinichi. Fertility transition in Asia: the case of ASEAN. Jinkogaku Kenkyu/Journal of Population Studies, No. 14, May 1991. 74-8 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
The author reviews the fertility transition in Asia, with a focus on member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).
Correspondence: S. Takahashi, Institute of Population Problems, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

59:20276 Thieme, Gunter. Fertility and population policy in a newly industrializing country. The example of Singapore. In: The geographical approach to fertility, edited by Jurgen Bahr and Paul Gans. 1991. 355-68 pp. Universitat Kiel, Geographisches Institut: Kiel, Germany. In Eng.
The effects of economic development and population policy on fertility trends and the age structure in Singapore are discussed. Data are from official and other published sources and cover the period 1820-1987 for ethnic groups and total population.
Correspondence: G. Thieme, Universitat Bonn, Geographisches Institut, Meckenheimer Allee 166, W-5300 Bonn 1, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

59:20277 Tomobe, Ken'ichi. Estimates of natural fertility in rural Tokugawa Japan. Jinkogaku Kenkyu/Journal of Population Studies, No. 14, May 1991. 35-47 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper estimates the value of [natural fertility] and [the degree of parity-specific fertility control] in rural Tokugawa Japan mainly using [the Coale-Trussell model]. What we gained through this analysis is 1) the level of natural fertility in rural Tokugawa Japan was very low compared to the pre-transition level of England, [and] 2) in spite of this low level fertility, parity-specific fertility control was not practiced....We can say that rural Tokugawa Japan since the second half of [the] seventeenth-century was in a 'natural fertility regime'...."
Correspondence: K. Tomobe, Tokuyama University, Faculty of Economics, Tokuyama, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

59:20278 Tsuya, Noriko O. Trends and correlates of fertility decline in the NIES. Jinkogaku Kenkyu/Journal of Population Studies, No. 14, May 1991. 49-66 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
"Trends and correlates of dramatic fertility declines in the NIES [newly industrialized economies of Asia] from the 1960s to the 1980s are examined in this paper. Specifically, we first look at changes in the fertility effects of such demographic factors as age structure of fertility, age pattern of marriage, and marital fertility. Next, as major proximate determinants of fertility, we examine changes in contraception and induced abortion. We then examine the fertility effects of changes in infant mortality and family planning programs. Finally, by examining changes in such socioeconomic factors as educational attainment and female labor force participation as well as attitudinal changes toward marriage and the family, we seek to infer their effects on fertility declines in the NIES." The data primarily concern Hong Kong, the Republic of Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan.
Correspondence: N. O. Tsuya, Nihon University, Population Research Institute, 3-2 Misaki-cho, 1-chome Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

59:20279 Tyagi, V. K. Urbanization and changing pattern of fertility in Delhi. In: The geographical approach to fertility, edited by Jurgen Bahr and Paul Gans. 1991. 389-402 pp. Universitat Kiel, Geographisches Institut: Kiel, Germany. In Eng.
"This paper is an attempt to further investigate the close relationship between urbanization and the levels of fertility at [the] micro level. The Union Territory of Delhi [India] has been selected for the analysis....Section one provides a brief generalization of historical [trends and geographical changes] and population growth....Section two examines the change in fertility patterns during 1975-85 for the entire Union Territory of Delhi. The final section discusses urban-rural fertility differentials in association with different variables for the year 1985."
Correspondence: V. K. Tyagi, University of Delhi, Shaheed Bhagat Singh College, Department of Geography, Kalkaji, New Delhi 110 019, India. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

59:20280 van de Walle, Etienne; Meekers, Dominique. The socio-cultural context of family and fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 1992-18, Sep 1992. [vi], 56 pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"The aim of this paper is to summarize the state of knowledge of family and fertility in African cultures, and to make recommendations for future population policy and program efforts."
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 22 Burrowes Building, University Park, PA 16802-6202. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20281 VanderPost, Cornelis. Fertility in Botswana: a district perspective. Botswana Notes and Records, Vol. 22, 1990. 99-104 pp. Gaborone, Botswana. In Eng.
The author analyzes geographical differences in the rate of the fertility decline in Botswana using data from official sources.
Correspondence: C. VanderPost, University of Botswana, Private Bag 0022, Gaborone, Botswana. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

59:20282 Wagner, Adolf. Fertility decisions and population trends: contributions to microeconomic fertility theory and study of its relevance under the political conditions in the German Democratic Republic. [Fertilitatsentscheidungen und Bevolkerungsentwicklung: Beitrage zur mikrookonomischen Fertilitatstheorie und Unterschung ihrer Relevanz unter den ordnungspolitischen Gegebenheiten der DDR.] Tubinger Volkswirtschaftliche Schriften, Vol. 1, ISBN 3-7720-1931-5. LC 92-145224. 1991. ix, 176 pp. Francke: Tubingen, Germany. In Ger.
This book, which contains papers by several authors, is concerned with fertility theories and their relevance to the area that was formerly East Germany. The papers are grouped into sections dealing with theoretical explanations of fertility from an East German viewpoint, approaches and problems in theoretical models of fertility, empirical tests of a theoretical model as an explanation for East German fertility trends, and financial policy after German reunification.
Correspondence: Francke Verlag, Dischingerweg 5, Postfach 2560, W-7400 Tubingen 5, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20283 Weber, Egon. Fertility differences in the European socialist countries. In: The geographical approach to fertility, edited by Jurgen Bahr and Paul Gans. 1991. 229-48 pp. Universitat Kiel, Geographisches Institut: Kiel, Germany. In Eng.
The author discusses some "theoretical aspects of geographic approaches to fertility and [presents] some empirical findings [for the 1970s and 1980s] of fertility differentials in the socialist world with special reference to the USSR and the GDR [German Democratic Republic]....[It is found that] the European socialist countries, like many other countries of the developed world, have experienced a more or less distinctive downward trend of fertility over the last decades, as they have entered into the final stage of demographic transition."
Correspondence: E. Weber, J.-Stelling-Strasse 8, O-2200 Greifswald, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

59:20284 Wu, Cangping; Jia, Shan. Chinese culture and fertility decline. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 4, No. 2, 1992. 95-103 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors analyze the impact of culture on China's fertility decline. Consideration is given to a comparison of fertility rates in China with rates in other Asian countries; fertility levels among regions in China, with a focus on differences between Han and ethnic minorities; and aspects of Chinese culture that may hinder fertility decline.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20285 Yan, Xiaopei. The spatial dimension of fertility, Sichuan, China. In: The geographical approach to fertility, edited by Jurgen Bahr and Paul Gans. 1991. 423-34 pp. Universitat Kiel, Geographisches Institut: Kiel, Germany. In Eng.
Regional fertility patterns in Szechwan Province, China, are analyzed and compared for the period 1964-1982. Topics covered include age-specific fertility rates, parity, fertility among ethnic groups, and total fertility rates. Socioeconomic indicators within regions are also discussed.
Correspondence: X. Yan, Southwest China Teachers University, Department of Geography, Chongqing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

59:20286 Yang, Shuzhang; Gu, Baochang; Xiao, Zili; Wang, Yanzu. Analysis of the direction of fertility change for Chinese women. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 4, No. 2, 1992. 105-18 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Using the 1988 two per thousand sampling survey of fertility and birth control as the primary source, this paper attempts to analyze the course of the change of the crude birth rate (CBR), total fertility rate (TFR) and total progressive rate (TPPR) of the population in China in the 1980s with a view to clarifying the determinants of the current fertility level in China (mainly for the 70s), [the] current state of affairs and the direction of development."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20287 Yeung, Wei-Jun Jean. Female employment and fertility in Canada: a sequential life-cycle analysis. Pub. Order No. DANN69941. ISBN 0-315-69941-8. 1991. 140 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study was undertaken as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Alberta, Canada.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 53(8).

F.2. Differential Fertility

Studies on differences in fertility patterns and levels in subgroups of a population. Also included are studies on age-specific fertility, such as teenage pregnancy.

59:20288 Bahr, Jurgen; Gans, Paul. Regional fertility differentials in developing countries. In: The geographical approach to fertility, edited by Jurgen Bahr and Paul Gans. 1991. 313-37 pp. Universitat Kiel, Geographisches Institut: Kiel, Germany. In Eng.
The importance of taking regional differences into account in the analysis of fertility patterns and determinants in developing countries is illustrated using case studies for India, Mexico, and Sri Lanka.
Correspondence: J. Bahr, Universitat Kiel, Geographisches Institut, Olshausenstrasse 40, W-2300 Kiel 1, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

59:20289 Becker, Stan. The determinants of adolescent fertility with special reference to biological variables. In: Biomedical and demographic determinants of reproduction, edited by Ronald Gray, Henri Leridon, and Alfred Spira. 1993. 21-49 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author examines determinants of adolescent fertility, with an emphasis on biological variables. "After a brief overview of levels and trends of adolescent fertility, this paper examines the evidence on the age of menarche and its secular trend, fecundability after menarche, as well as observed spontaneous loss rates in the early reproductive years. Age at entry into sexual union and use of contraception and abortion within sexual unions are also considered, but in a perfunctory manner. To structure the discussion on fertility after menarche, the framework of the intermediate fertility variables is utilized." The geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: S. Becker, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20290 Bouraoui, Abdelhamid. Regional variations in fertility in Tunisia: a cartographic representation. [Variation regionales de la fecondite en Tunisie: representation cartographique.] Revue Tunisienne de Sciences Sociales, Vol. 28, No. 104-105, 1991. 11-8 pp. Tunis, Tunisia. In Fre.
Fertility differentials in Tunisia are illustrated with two maps, which are based on data from the censuses of 1975 and 1984.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20291 Caldas, Stephen J. The private and societal economic costs of teenage childbearing: the state of the research. Population and Environment, Vol. 14, No. 4, Mar 1993. 389-99 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author assesses the economic costs of teenage childbearing in the United States for both the individual parent and for society. He finds that "the most significant individual costs of teenage childbearing are associated with truncated educations and lost human capital investment. Among the most significant direct public costs are the expenditures of just three government programs: AFDC, Food Stamps, and Medicaid. An important public cost of teenage childbearing overlooked by many researchers is the cost to U.S. productivity of large numbers of undereducated and impoverished mothers in the work force, and the intergenerational transfer of this impoverishment to their children. Any restrictions on abortion will likely increase unwanted teenage fertility, and its associated costs, particularly among the disadvantaged."
Correspondence: S. J. Caldas, Louisiana State Department of Education, Office of Research and Development, P.O. Box 94064, Baton Rouge, LA 70804. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20292 Davis, William L.; Olson, Kent W.; Warner, Larkin. An economic analysis of teenage fertility: some evidence from Oklahoma. American Journal of Economics and Sociology, Vol. 52, No. 1, Jan 1993. 85-99 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The relationship between the probability of a teenage birth and various independent variables representing fecundity, attitudes, resources, and the economic opportunities for a sample of teenage females drawn from the 1980 census is examined. A theoretical framework, based on Becker's model, is employed to describe the birth-decision process and tested using a logit technique. The findings suggest that receipt of public assistance income and perceived economic opportunities are more important in explaining fertility probabilities among older (18-19 years old) teenagers. Among younger teens, accessibility to family planning and abortion services, and religious attitudes toward family planning are more important predictors of fertility."
Correspondence: W. L. Davis, University of Tennessee, Department of Economics, Martin, TN 38238-5015. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

59:20293 Fagnani, Jeanne. Fertility in France: the influence of urbanization. In: The geographical approach to fertility, edited by Jurgen Bahr and Paul Gans. 1991. 165-73 pp. Universitat Kiel, Geographisches Institut: Kiel, Germany. In Eng.
Fertility levels in France are analyzed and compared, with an emphasis on differences between women living in Paris and those in smaller towns. Data are from an additional questionnaire administered to 310,000 women as part of the 1982 census.
Correspondence: J. Fagnani, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, U.A. STRATES, 39 rue d'Estienne d'Orves, 92260 Fontenay-aux-Roses, France. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

59:20294 Faus-Pujol, Maria C. Differential fertility in Spain. In: The geographical approach to fertility, edited by Jurgen Bahr and Paul Gans. 1991. 129-49 pp. Universitat Kiel, Geographisches Institut: Kiel, Germany. In Eng.
Fertility differentials among the provinces of Spain are examined, with a focus on the period 1975-1987. Consideration is given to age factors, urban or rural residence, nonmarital fertility, women's social status and role in the family and society, attitudes toward the family, economic factors, labor force participation, and children's education. The effect of biological and behavioral factors on fertility is also assessed.
Correspondence: M. C. Faus-Pujol, Universidad de Zaragoza, Facultad de Filosofia y Letras, Departamento de Geografia y Ordenacion del Territorio, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

59:20295 Geronimus, Arline T.; Korenman, Sanders. The socioeconomic costs of teenage childbearing: evidence and interpretation. Demography, Vol. 30, No. 2, May 1993. 281-96 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors critically examine an article by Saul A. Hoffman, Michael Foster, and Frank F. Furstenberg concerning the socioeconomic costs of teenage childbearing in the United States. A reply by Hoffman et al. is included (pp. 291-6).
For the article by Hoffman et al., published in 1993, see 59:10270.
Correspondence: A. T. Geronimus, University of Michigan, School of Public Health, Department of Public Health Policy and Administration, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20296 Gosal, Gurdev S. Spatial patterns of fertility trends in India 1971-1987. An interpretative study. In: The geographical approach to fertility, edited by Jurgen Bahr and Paul Gans. 1991. 379-88 pp. Universitat Kiel, Geographisches Institut: Kiel, Germany. In Eng.
"The main objective of this study is not only to trace the change in fertility from 1971 to 1987 in India as a whole, but also to identify and interpret spatial disparities in this change....In terms of spatial disparities..., the northern and southern cultural regimes...stand in marked contrast to each other. This macro-regional contrast has much more to do with the social status and autonomy of the women as provided in their respective cultures than economic development, industrialization, and urbanization."
Correspondence: G. S. Gosal, Panjab University, Department of Geography, Chandigarh 160 014, India. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

59:20297 Hayward, Mark D.; Grady, William R.; Billy, John O. G. The influence of socioeconomic status on adolescent pregnancy. Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 73, No. 4, Dec 1992. 750-72 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"Modeling pregnancy as a dynamic, age-dependent process, the authors adopt a structural equation modeling strategy to obtain insight into the extent to which socioeconomic characteristics affect the risk of [U.S. adolescent premarital] pregnancy via two key proximate determinants, exposure to sexual intercourse and contraceptive behavior. The analysis is stratified by race to address possible differences in the determinants of pregnancy. The results provide mixed support, showing that among blacks socioeconomic status indirectly affects the risk of pregnancy via both contraceptive behavior and exposure to sexual intercourse. Among nonblacks, however, socioeconomic factors and the proximate determinants have independent effects." Data are from Cycle III of the National Survey of Family Growth.
Correspondence: M. D. Hayward, Pennsylvania State University, Department of Sociology, 211 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:20298 Iwanicka-Lyra, Elzbieta; Witkowski, Janusz. Spatial differentiation of female fertility in Poland: 1975-1987. In: The geographical approach to fertility, edited by Jurgen Bahr and Paul Gans. 1991. 267-74 pp. Universitat Kiel, Geographisches Institut: Kiel, Germany. In Eng.
"The aim of the present work is the presentation of the spatial picture of female fertility in Poland over the last dozen or so years. The paper is confined mainly to a statistical description and cartographic illustration of fertility rates....The rates were examined on the level of voivodship...with an additional division into urban and rural areas. We do not apply standardized rates on purpose for we are interested in the demonstration of the real spatial differences of fertility regardless of their determinants."
Correspondence: E. Iwanicka-Lyra, Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization, Krakowskie Przedmiescie 30, 00-927 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

59:20299 Karjalainen, Elli. Regional differences and temporal changes of fertility in Finland. In: The geographical approach to fertility, edited by Jurgen Bahr and Paul Gans. 1991. 109-19 pp. Universitat Kiel, Geographisches Institut: Kiel, Germany. In Eng.
"The purpose of this research is to study areal differences and temporal changes in birth rates in Finland in general and in the Kainuu region in particular....Cause and effect phenomena involved in birth rate changes will also be examined in general terms." Problems resulting from the aging of the large postwar cohort are described.
Correspondence: E. Karjalainen, Research Institute of Northern Finland, Kauppakatu 25A, 87100 Kajaani 10, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

59:20300 Kemper, Franz-Josef. Recent developments in household and family structure and their impact on regional fertility differences. The example of the FRG. In: The geographical approach to fertility, edited by Jurgen Bahr and Paul Gans. 1991. 219-28 pp. Universitat Kiel, Geographisches Institut: Kiel, Germany. In Eng.
Regional fertility patterns in the former Federal Republic of Germany for 1986 are analyzed and compared. Some consideration is also given to marriage patterns and trends in family formation during the period 1966-1986, with a focus on the rise in one-parent families and single-person households.
Correspondence: F.-J. Kemper, Universitat Bonn, Geographisches Institut, Meckenheimer Allee 166, W-5300 Bonn 1, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

59:20301 Kupiszewski, Marek. Spatial fertility patterns of observed and stable population in Poland: 1977-1988. In: The geographical approach to fertility, edited by Jurgen Bahr and Paul Gans. 1991. 275-86 pp. Universitat Kiel, Geographisches Institut: Kiel, Germany. In Eng.
Regional fertility trends in Poland are analyzed using data for the period 1977-1988. The focus is on the impact of age structure on fertility differentials among regions. The author notes that the effect of migration on regional fertility differentials is apparent but diminishes over time.
Correspondence: M. Kupiszewski, Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization, Krakowskie Przedmiescie 30, 00-927 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

59:20302 Lee, Bung Song. The influence of rural-urban migration on migrant's fertility behavior in Cameroon. International Migration Review, Vol. 26, No. 4, Winter 1992. 1,416-47 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"An autoregressive model has been applied to the 1978 Cameroon World Fertility Survey data to test the fertility adaptation hypothesis of rural-urban migration. The fertility differential between rural-urban migrants and rural stayers is very small in Cameroon when compared with that of Korea and Mexico. However, the lack of fertility differentials between rural-urban migrants and rural stayers which are the result of the unique cultural and biosocial parameters of African fertility does not imply a weak fertility adaptation effect."
Correspondence: B. S. Lee, University of Nebraska, Omaha, NB 68182. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20303 Marksoo, Ann. Geographical peculiarities of fertility in the Estonian settlement system. In: The geographical approach to fertility, edited by Jurgen Bahr and Paul Gans. 1991. 303-12 pp. Universitat Kiel, Geographisches Institut: Kiel, Germany. In Eng.
The author discusses demographic and fertility trends in Estonia during the period 1980-1986. The main focus is on regional differentials in fertility. Some data from 1959 to 1980 are included.
Correspondence: A. Marksoo, University of Tartu, Department of Geography, Vanemuise 46, 202400 Tartu, Estonia. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

59:20304 Noin, Daniel; Chauvire, Yvan. The geographical disparities of fertility in France. In: The geographical approach to fertility, edited by Jurgen Bahr and Paul Gans. 1991. 151-64 pp. Universitat Kiel, Geographisches Institut: Kiel, Germany. In Eng.
The authors analyze regional variations in fertility in France using data from the 1982 census. A strong disparity between northern and southern areas is observed. "If the north-south disparities which characterize fertility in France [are] the product of several factors, the attitude of the population towards education appears to be a key element...."
Correspondence: D. Noin, Universite de Paris I, 191 rue Saint Jacques, 75005 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

59:20305 Pantelides, Edith A.; Cerrutti, Marcela S. Reproductive behavior and adolescent pregnancy. [Conducta reproductiva y embarazo en la adolescencia.] Cuaderno del CENEP, No. 47, Nov 1992. xiii, 97 pp. Centro de Estudios de Poblacion [CENEP]: Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa.
The authors present the results of a survey on adolescent fertility, conducted in Argentina in 1990 and 1991. The data are from 373 adolescents interviewed at public hospitals in Buenos Aires and in Puerto Madryn, in Chubut province. The report examines adolescent sexual behavior, adolescent knowledge about the body and reproduction, knowledge and use of contraception, to whom adolescents talk, and teenage pregnancy.
Correspondence: Centro de Estudios de Poblacion, Casilla 4397, Correo Central, 1000 Buenos Aires, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20306 Potrykowska, Alina. Spatial differences and temporal changes of fertility in the Warsaw urban region. In: The geographical approach to fertility, edited by Jurgen Bahr and Paul Gans. 1991. 287-302 pp. Universitat Kiel, Geographisches Institut: Kiel, Germany. In Eng.
Urban fertility trends and determinants in Warsaw, Poland, during the period 1950-1987 are analyzed. "The results of the multiple regression analysis confirmed that...fertility rates...were largely shaped by the magnitudes of rural to urban migration, economic activity of young females, and age-sex and marital structure...."
Correspondence: A. Potrykowska, Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization, Krakowskie Przedmiescie 30, 00-927 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

59:20307 Preston, Samuel H.; Campbell, Cameron. Differential fertility and the distribution of traits: the case of IQ. American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 98, No. 5, Mar 1993. 997-1,043 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"A recurrent fear during the past century is that the mean IQ level of populations will decline because persons with lower IQ scores have above-average fertility. Most microlevel data demonstrate such fertility differentials, but population IQ levels have risen rather than fallen. In this article, a simple two-sex model shows that negative fertility differentials are consistent with falling, rising, or constant IQ distributions. Under a wide variety of conditions, a constant pattern of fertility differentials will produce an unchanging, equilibrium distribution of IQ scores in the population. What matters for IQ trends is how the IQ distribution in one generation relates to the equilibrium distribution implied by that generation's fertility differentials." Separate commentaries by James S. Coleman (pp. 1,020-32) and David Lam (pp. 1,033-9) are included, as is a reply by the authors (pp. 1,039-43).
Correspondence: S. H. Preston, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20308 Sporton, Deborah. The differential fertility of immigrants within the Paris region, France. In: The geographical approach to fertility, edited by Jurgen Bahr and Paul Gans. 1991. 187-202 pp. Universitat Kiel, Geographisches Institut: Kiel, Germany. In Eng.
"This paper examines the motivations and mechanisms behind intergenerational and cross-generational differences in immigrant fertility within the Paris region...to assess the validity of the 'immigrant adjusted fertility hypothesis'. Fertility differences, it is suggested, reflect alternate stages of an adjustment process whereby culturally determined differences in reproductive behavior are reduced over time as a result of demographic assimilation....The results to be presented here have been drawn from...the Enquete des Familles database. One fiftieth of all women born between 1917 and 1963 enumerated in the census were interrogated in the Enquete des Familles giving a sample of approximately 6,000 immigrant women. The Ile-de-France region was selected as the study area...."
Correspondence: D. Sporton, University of Sheffield, Department of Geography, Sheffield S10 2TN, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

59:20309 Teo, Peggy. The impact of poverty on fertility in Peninsular Malaysia: a cohort analysis. GeoJournal, Vol. 23, No. 2, Feb 1991. 125-33 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
Data from the 1980 census of Malaysia are used to analyze the impact of the New Economic Policy (NEP), formulated in 1970, on reducing ethnic fertility differentials and inequalities in wealth. The relationship between fertility and income differentials is explored. The author concludes that the NEP has had relatively little impact on either reducing fertility or achieving income equity.
Correspondence: P. Teo, National University of Singapore, Department of Geography, Kent Ridge, Singapore 0511. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

59:20310 Wilson, Murray G. A. Sources of variation in the fertility of the post-transitional society: the case of birth order and maternal age in New South Wales, Australia. In: The geographical approach to fertility, edited by Jurgen Bahr and Paul Gans. 1991. 3-16 pp. Universitat Kiel, Geographisches Institut: Kiel, Germany. In Eng.
"This paper...addresses two questions, (1) whether, in a [post-transitional] society in which it has already been shown that areal differentials in total and marital fertility are both small and resistant to analysis by conventional methods, decomposition of the dependent variable according to birth order and maternal age may allow further insight into the spatially variable process of family formation in general and (2) whether it is possible to identify distinctive locality or region specific combinations of age- and order-specific marital fertility ratios (regional reproductive syndromes)....Aggregate and areal patterns of order-specific fertility in the metropolitan and non-metropolitan portions of New South Wales [Australia] are described and recent findings relevant to their analysis are reviewed...."
Correspondence: M. G. A. Wilson, University of Wollongong, Department of Geography, P.O.B. 1144, Wollongong, NSW 2500, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology

Studies on infertility, as well as studies of spontaneous abortion, prematurity, and other relevant pathologies of pregnancy.

59:20311 Cates, Willard; Rolfs, Robert T.; Aral, Sevgi O. The pathophysiology and epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases in relation to pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility. In: Biomedical and demographic determinants of reproduction, edited by Ronald Gray, Henri Leridon, and Alfred Spira. 1993. 101-25 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors review the etiology and epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases, pelvic inflammatory disease, and infertility. They find that "data strongly implicate sexually transmitted infections as a primary aetiology of tubal infertility, acting largely through the intermediary of pelvic inflammatory disease." Infertility estimates for the United States are included.
Correspondence: W. Cates, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20312 Dubey, Shail; Singh, Shri K. Socio-cultural analysis of the cases of reversal of female sterilisation: a retrospective study. Health and Population: Perspectives and Issues, Vol. 15, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1992. 26-31 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng. with sum. in Hin.
Hospital data on operations to reverse female sterilization in Varanasi, India, are examined, with a focus on "the socio-cultural, economic and other characteristics of people who seek reversal of...female sterilisation....Findings revealed that the middle class urban couples were in preponderance....Loss of children due to high infant mortality rate, particularly male ones, were the most important deciding factors behind reversal of...female sterilisation."
Correspondence: S. Dubey, Banaras Hindu University, Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Centre of Post Partum Programme, Varanasi 221 005, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20313 Evina, Akam. Indicators for the measure of infertility. [Les indicateurs de la mesure de l'infecondite.] Genus, Vol. 48, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1992. 107-22 pp. Rome, Italy. In Fre. with sum. in Ita.
Methods to calculate infertility rates and probabilities are demonstrated using data for Hutterite women married between 1921 and 1930; Nzakara women of the Central African Republic, surveyed in 1958-1959; Rwandan women in a union in 1983; and married Belgian women surveyed in 1980-1981.
Correspondence: A. Evina, Institut de Formation et de Recherche Demographiques, B.P. 1556, Yaounde, Cameroon. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20314 Hodgen, Gary D. Hormonal regulation in in vitro fertilization. In: Biomedical and demographic determinants of reproduction, edited by Ronald Gray, Henri Leridon, and Alfred Spira. 1993. 243-70 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author reviews both the experience of an in vitro fertilization program in the United States and the insights that the procedure can provide into the biological determinants of fecundability.
Correspondence: G. D. Hodgen, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Jones Institute for Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Norfolk, VA. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20315 Lansac, Jaques. Artificial insemination with frozen donor semen: a model to appreciate human fecundity. In: Biomedical and demographic determinants of reproduction, edited by Ronald Gray, Henri Leridon, and Alfred Spira. 1993. 231-42 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The results of an artificial insemination by donor (AID) program in France are reviewed, and the implications for biologically measuring fecundability are assessed. It is found that "success rates with artificial insemination are greater with women under 30 years of age, especially if they have previously borne children and if the couple has a shorter history of infertility."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20316 Mosher, W. D.; Pratt, W. F. The demography of infertility in the United States. Annual Progress in Reproductive Medicine, 1993. 37-43 pp. Pearl River, New York/Carnforth, England. In Eng.
"Some popular descriptions of infertility have suggested that there are nine or ten million infertile couples, that one in six couples is infertile, that infertility is increasing rapidly, or that there is an 'epidemic' of infertility in the USA....The purpose of this chapter is to determine whether these perceptions are accurate and if not, to suggest why there is a perception that infertility is epidemic....We report two measures of infertility here. The first is called 'impaired fecundity' and is derived from a series of direct survey questions...on the ability to have children. The second is 'infertility status' among married couples." Data are from the National Survey of Family Growth for 1976, 1982, and 1988. Data for 1965 are from the National Fertility Study.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20317 Oberle, Mark W.; Rosero-Bixby, Luis; Whitaker, Pat. A descriptive epidemiology of infertility in Costa Rica. In: Biomedical and demographic determinants of reproduction, edited by Ronald Gray, Henri Leridon, and Alfred Spira. 1993. 126-31 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The prevalence of infecundity in many Latin American countries has been calculated primarily from World Fertility Survey (WFS) data and from clinic-based studies....A national survey in Costa Rica in 1984 obtained information on infecundity, using questions that differed from those included in the WFS. This study allowed us to compile a population-based description of the characteristics of Costa Rican women with a history of infecundity. In addition, serum specimens obtained at the interviews were used to compare the respondents' history of infecundity to serological evidence of infection with three sexually transmitted diseases."
Correspondence: M. W. Oberle, University of Costa Rica, Institute for Health Research, San Jose, Costa Rica. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20318 Spira, Alfred; Ducot, Beatrice; Guihard-Moscato, Marie-Luce; Job-Spira, Nadine; Mayaux, Marie-Jeanine; Menetrier, Jaqueline; Wattiaux, Jeanne. Conception probability and pregnancy outcome in relation to age, cycle regularity, and timing of intercourse. In: Biomedical and demographic determinants of reproduction, edited by Ronald Gray, Henri Leridon, and Alfred Spira. 1993. 271-84 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors review results from studies conducted from 1973 to 1984 in France among couples undergoing assisted conception procedures. "This paper presents the results of four different epidemiological studies and reviews the current state of knowledge about the probability of conception and pregnancy outcome in relation to age (both male and female), cycle regularity, and the timing of intercourse. Spontaneous abortions, congenital malformations, the sex ratio, and twinning are all considered."
Correspondence: B. Ducot, Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Kremlin-Bicetre, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4. Actions and Activities Directly Affecting Fertility

Studies concerning activities, including family planning programs, that are primarily designed to influence fertility.

F.4.1. General Fertility Control and Contraception

General aspects of fertility control, primarily those concerned with family planning and family planning programs.

59:20319 Akbaba, Muhsin; Alparslan, Z. Nazan; Balkan, Enis. Family planning practices of migrant farm-workers: a methodological approach. Nufusbilim Dergisi/Turkish Journal of Population Studies, Vol. 14, 1992. 77-86 pp. Ankara, Turkey. In Eng. with sum. in Tur.
"This is a methodological study concerning the family planning practices of the migrant farm-workers in the Dogankent region [of Turkey]. The workers were given health services and education about family planning methods during off-work hours. Out of the 3,022 subjects starting the study, 304 of whom were already benefiting from some kind of (traditional or modern) family planning methods: 1,393 ended up...with using effective methods...."
Correspondence: M. Akbaba, Cukurova University, Medical Faculty, Department of Public Health, Balcali Campusu, Adana, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20320 Anker, Richard; Khan, M. E.; Prasad, C. V. S.; Test-Mason, K. Use of community schedule for rapid appraisal of family welfare programme: is the approach accurate and feasible? Demography India, Vol. 20, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1991. 243-57 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The present paper analyses the accuracy of community-level data from a study in India where both community-level and household-level data were collected using community and household questionnaires....These data are especially valuable for a methodological analysis of data quality." The statistics concern family planning practice, attitudes toward fertility and contraception, and quality of life in general in three Indian states.
Correspondence: R. Anker, International Labour Organisation, 4 route des Morillons, CH-1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20321 Bailey, Wilma; Wynter, H.; Lee, A. Race, integration and family planning in Trinidad and Tobago. GeoJournal, Vol. 26, No. 1, Jan 1992. 13-20 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The study considered the effect of the integration of the health services on family planning in Trinidad and Tobago. A drop-out study was based on a sample of six clinics, three representing integrated and three clinics that were non-integrated or vertical. Efforts were also made to solicit the views of a sample of drop outs, current acceptors and health-care providers. The study found that there were characteristics of the population from which acceptors were drawn that were more important in explaining utilization than the question of integration or non-integration of the clinics. Many of the problems were organizational and could, with adequate financing, be met by an even higher level of integration."
Correspondence: W. Bailey, University of the West Indies, Department of Geography, Mona, Kingston 7, Jamaica. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

59:20322 Bernhart, Michael H. Strategic management of population programs. Policy Research Working Paper: Population, Health, and Nutrition, No. WPS 996, Oct 1992. 26 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author "surveys the literature on strategic management in private/for-profit organizations and applies lessons from that literature to population programs." The geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: World Bank, Population and Human Resources Department, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

59:20323 Boukhris, Mohamed. The population of Tunisia: the current situation and future prospects. [La population en Tunisie: realities et perspectives.] 1992. 264 pp. Office National de la Famille et de la Population: Tunis, Tunisia. In Fre.
This study describes the development of the national family planning program in Tunisia over the past 25 years. Sources of demographic data for the country are first described briefly. The author then outlines the basic policy measures on which the program was based and describes the evolution of the program since its origin in 1964. The next section looks at the effect the demographic transition has had on health and socioeconomic development. The extent of demographic aging is then examined. Finally, the author looks at population prospects for the period 2001-2026.
Correspondence: Office National de la Famille et de la Population, 42 Avenue de Madrid, Tunis, Tunisia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20324 Bromham, D. R.; Cartmill, R. S. V. Knowledge and use of secondary contraception among patients requesting termination of pregnancy. British Medical Journal, Vol. 306, No. 6877, Feb 27, 1993. 556-7 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors interviewed abortion acceptors in England and found that "an increasing proportion of such [unplanned] pregnancies are due to condom failure....The simple structured interview covered patients' knowledge and previous use of contraceptives and knowledge of secondary methods of contraception to be used if failure of a primary method was suspected. The source of advice on family planning was also recorded."
Correspondence: D. R. Bromham, St. James's University Hospital, Fertility Control Unit, Leeds LS9 7TF, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

59:20325 Bulatao, Rodolfo A.; Levin, Ann; Bos, Eduard R.; Green, Cynthia. Effective family planning programs. ISBN 0-8213-2305-9. LC 92-45644. Feb 1993. vii, 103 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Part I of this book assesses the performance of family planning programs in developing countries, looking at their contributions and their costs. Part II then attempts to identify the attributes and approaches critical to effective programs...." The authors note that providing contraceptive services of acceptable quality is the primary task of a family planning program, and that elements associated with achieving this goal are "effective management, to provide sound and strategically appropriate use of program resources...; adequate participation by the private sector, which increases coverage and provides competition on both quality and efficiency...; broad promotion of the program...; and political and financial support from governments and donors...."
Correspondence: World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20326 De Silva, W. Indralal. Do fertility intentions and behaviour influence sterilization in Sri Lanka? Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 7, No. 4, Dec 1992. 41-60 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This article examines determinants of sterilization, including fertility intentions and behaviour, among Sir Lankan women, using longitudinal data for the period 1982-1985. Age and fertility jointly influenced the likelihood of sterilization, as did education and certain ethno-religious affiliation....[The author notes that] if the country is to achieve the replacement fertility target by the year 2001, the prevalence of contraceptive methods must rise from 55 per cent in 1981 to 71 per cent in the year 2001, with female sterilization increasing annually by 30,000 and male sterilization by 7,000 throughout the period."
Correspondence: W. I. De Silva, University of Colombo, Demographic Training and Research Unit, 94 Cumaratunga Munidasa Mawatha, Colombo 3, Sri Lanka. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20327 Dorman, Shawn. More access to contraception? Russian city surveyed. Population Today, Vol. 21, No. 3, Mar 1993. 5, 10 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author reviews the status of reproductive health care and contraceptive availability in St. Petersburg, Russia. Data are from a survey she conducted in 1991 and 1992.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20328 Dumani, Bukuri. Fertility and family planning in Albania. Planned Parenthood in Europe, Vol. 22, No. 1, Jan 1993. 17-9 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The situation concerning family planning and illegal induced abortion in Albania is reviewed. The author focuses on the effect of recent political change on the country's pro-natalist policies, which included a ban on contraception.
Correspondence: B. Dumani, University of Tirane, Faculty of Economics, Population Studies Unit, Tirane, Albania. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20329 Fathalla, Mahmoud F. Family planning: future needs. Ambio, Vol. 21, No. 1, Feb 1992. 84-7 pp. Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
The success record of family planning programs in developing countries is reviewed as a preface to an examination of future needs. Consideration is given to unmet need, access to family planning, quality of services, contraceptive choice, and resource and research requirements.
Correspondence: M. F. Fathalla, World Health Organization, Special Program of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction, CH-1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20330 Ferguson, Alan. Family planning adoption, change and discontinuation: a retrospective study from two rural areas of Kenya. Jul 1991. viii, 80 pp. Ministry of Health, Division of Family Health, GTZ Family Planning Support Unit: Nairobi, Kenya. In Eng.
"The study investigates family planning adoption, discontinuation and method change in a cohort of married women aged 25-34 years in two contrasting rural areas of Kenya, Kisa, in Kakamega District and Ena, in Embu District. The influence of contraceptive use in regulating fertility is compared with the effects of other fertility determinants, particularly separation of husband and wife and lactational amenorrhea. Samples of 377 women in Kisa and 338 in Ena were interviewed between November 1990 and March 1991...."
Correspondence: Ministry of Health, Division of Family Health, GTZ Family Planning Support Unit, P.O. Box 41607, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20331 Gorter, Anna; Miranda, Esperanza; Smith, George D.; Ortells, Pascual; Low, Nicola. How many people actually use condoms? An investigation of motel clients in Managua. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 36, No. 12, Jun 1993. 1,645-7 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This study examines condom use in Nicaraguan motels, which are popular venues for both commercial and noncommercial sexual encounters. "We interviewed all motel owners in one district of Managua and in five randomly selected motels ascertained, by retrieval and inspection, actual rates of condom use by clients. Six out of 26 establishments initially supplied condoms: when provided on entry to the motel condoms were used in 37% of observed encounters. Condom use can be assessed objectively in certain circumstances and this method can provide a reliable outcome measure for condom promotion programmes."
Correspondence: A. Gorter, UNAN, Leon, Nicaragua. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:20332 Grady, William R.; Klepinger, Daniel H.; Billy, John O. G.; Tanfer, Koray. Condom characteristics: the perceptions and preferences of men in the United States. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 25, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1993. 67-73 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study examines both perceptions about the consequences of condom use and preferences for various condom characteristics among adult males in the United States....Perceptions regarding two dimensions of condom use are examined. The first dimension encompasses psychological and interpersonal consequences of condom use, or those having an impact on the relationship between the man and his partner. The second dimension involves the device-related consequences of condom use....This study builds on the information obtained in [previous] studies in two ways. First, it is based on a nationally representative survey, and the results can be generalized to 20-39-year-old U.S. males. Second, it takes into account individual characteristics and how they affect perceptions about condoms as well as preferences for certain types of condoms." Data are from the 1991 National Survey of Men.
Correspondence: W. R. Grady, Battelle Human Affairs Research Centers, 4000 NE 41st Street, Seattle, WA 98105. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20333 Grady, William R.; Klepinger, Daniel H.; Billy, John O. G. The influence of community characteristics on the practice of effective contraception. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 25, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1993. 4-11 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"An analysis combining individual-level data from the National Survey of Family Growth with aggregate-level information provides evidence that the characteristics of communities influence the contraceptive decisions of currently married white women in the United States. The analysis examined the relationship between the average effectiveness level of the contraceptive methods that a woman used over a three-and-a-half-year period and community characteristics such as employment opportunities, the availability of contraceptive and abortion information and services, and the level of religious adherence in communities. Community characteristics associated with higher levels of contraceptive effectiveness were rapid population growth, high rates of unemployment, elevated levels of religious affiliation, high socioeconomic status, and ready access to family planning information and services. Community liberality was negatively associated with effective contraceptive use. The results support arguments that various community characteristics affect a woman's contraceptive choices by increasing or decreasing the costs of an unintended pregnancy."
Correspondence: W. R. Grady, Battelle Human Affairs Research Centers, 4000 NE 41st Street, Seattle, WA 98105. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20334 Guo, Youning; Lin, Deliang; Shi, Yuanli; Lou, Chaohua; Fang, Kejuan; Li, Huixing; Gao, Ersheng; Zhang, Dewei. The newly-weds' decisions on contraception. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 4, No. 2, 1992. 175-85 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"To obtain information on contraceptive use by newly-weds from a sociopsychological perspective, we surveyed 15,938 newly-weds and interviewed 7,872 [in Shanghai, China] of them in a effort to provide a scientific basis for the policy makers of birth control and for effective measures to reduce abortion."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20335 Havanon, Napaporn; Bennett, Anthony; Knodel, John. Sexual networking in provincial Thailand. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 24, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1993. 1-17 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study aimed to determine the types of connections that exist between commercial sex patrons and noncommercial sex partners [in Thailand]...." Data are for a sample of 181 urban men and 50 women. "The most common network pattern for men was a combination of commercial and noncommercial sexual relationships. Men reported that they commonly used condoms when they engaged in sex with prostitutes, but condom use was lowest for men who were the most frequent patrons. In noncommercial, nonmarital relationships, men screen partners for risk rather than practice safe sex, and condom use is generally low....Men who have both commercial and noncommercial sexual partners can be found throughout the social strata."
Correspondence: N. Havanon, Srinakharinwirot University, Graduate School, Prasarn Mitr Road, Sukhumwit 23, Bangkok 10110, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20336 Herlitz, Claes. Sexual behavior in the general population of Sweden. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 36, No. 12, Jun 1993. 1,535-40 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author analyzes changes in sexual behavior in Sweden during the late 1980s, using data from annual mail surveys conducted among some 4,000 individuals. The focus is on the impact of AIDS information campaigns that promote safe sex behavior. The results indicate that the population reporting the highest number of sexual partners was the least likely to use condoms, and that although the sale of condoms increased over the study period, most casual sexual contacts took place without their use.
Correspondence: C. Herlitz, University of Uppsala, Department of Social Medicine, P.O. Box 256, Uppsala 75105, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:20337 Huston, Perdita. Motherhood by choice: pioneers in women's health and family planning. ISBN 1-55861-068-5. LC 91-44239. 1992. viii, 182 pp. Feminist Press: New York, New York. Distributed by Talman Company, 150 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10011. In Eng.
This is a collection of biographies of 12 pioneers of family planning around the world. The biographies are primarily based on personal interviews with those concerned or with those who knew them.
Correspondence: Feminist Press, City University of New York, 311 East 94th Street, New York, NY 10128. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20338 Jacobson, Jodi L. India's misconceived family plan. World Watch, Nov-Dec 1991. 18-25 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author reviews India's various official family planning programs since their inception in 1952. She attributes their overall lack of success to the fact that "in India's tradition-bound society, where childbearing is often the only route to status and security, the majority of women have little to gain from having fewer children. The government, by contrast, is bent on cutting birthrates in half over the next decade, but has shown little commitment to meeting women's needs....By filling the existing demand for quality voluntary family planning services, the government can make cuts in birthrates of at least 25 percent over the next decade, thereby starting the process toward reducing the country's population. Equally critical to a long-term strategy of sustainable development is a sustained political commitment to improve the status of women throughout India."
Correspondence: J. L. Jacobson, Worldwatch Institute, 1776 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20339 Jain, Anrudh K. Managing quality of care in population programs. Kumarian Press Library of Management for Development, ISBN 1-56549-013-4. LC 92-8839. 1992. xx, 162 pp. Kumarian Press: West Hartford, Connecticut. In Eng.
"The papers included in this volume were presented at the 1990 international conference organized by the International Council on the Management of Population Programmes (ICOMP) in collaboration with The Population Council. It was held on November 12-15, 1990 in Kuala Lumpur....This volume consists of eight chapters; the focus of the papers included is on how quality of care is being achieved and managed and how it can be improved and monitored....This book is addressed primarily to [family planning] program managers, researchers, and training institutions. It identifies specific interventions that program managers can take to improve the quality of services provided by their programs. It also illustrates the application of methodologies that researchers can use to measure and monitor quality of services." The geographical focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: Kumarian Press, 630 Oakwood Avenue, Suite 119, West Hartford, CT 06110-1529. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

59:20340 Janowitz, Barbara. Why do projections of the cost of family planning differ so widely? Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 24, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1993. 62-5 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author discusses reasons for the wide variations in projections of family planning costs. Methods of estimating costs are evaluated using studies conducted in 1980, 1985, 1988, and 1990. "This note makes clear that one reason that projections of family planning costs in the year 2000 differ so dramatically, even if similar assumptions are made about factors other than per-unit costs, is that we know so little about service-delivery costs....In addition, studies of nonservice-delivery costs are needed in order to get a total picture of family planning costs that includes both direct and indirect costs."
Correspondence: B. Janowitz, Family Health International, Service Delivery Research Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20341 Kane, Thomas T.; De Buysscher, Rose; Taylor-Thomas, Tunde; Smith, Tamara; Jeng, Momodou. Sexual activity, family life education, and contraceptive practice among young adults in Banjul, the Gambia. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 24, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1993. 50-61 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This report presents results from a 1986-87 two-stage probability sample survey of 2,507 young men and women aged 14-24 living in the Greater Banjul region of The Gambia. Although premarital sexual activity was common and began at an early age, lack of knowledge and limited access to modern contraceptives were obstacles to the use of family planning. Of all ever sexually active single persons, only 21 percent of the young women and 7 percent of the young men had practiced contraception at the time of first intercourse. Almost half of the sexually active young adults had ever used contraceptives, with oral contraceptives and condoms being the methods most widely known and used. Results of logistic regression analyses show that attendance at family life education lectures in school had significant positive relationships to both knowledge and use of contraceptives among the young people surveyed."
Correspondence: T. T. Kane, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Department of Population Dynamics, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20342 Khan, M. E.; Gupta, R. B. Community participation in family planning: a case study of Kundam Integrated Rural Project. ISBN 81-7040-248-4. LC 91-900266. 1990. 91 pp. Himalaya Publishing House: Bombay, India. In Eng.
This study concerns the problems of involving the community in family planning activities in rural India. The report, which is based on the results of a project carried out in Kundam, Madhya Pradesh, "brings out the dynamics of community participation, how village level committees could be availed of to expand the base of the programme and help in evolving a beyond-family-planning approach."
Correspondence: Himalaya Publishing House, Ramdoot, Dr. Bhalerao Marg, Girgaon, Bombay 400 004, India. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

59:20343 Krishnan, Vijaya. Gender of children and contraceptive use. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 25, No. 2, Apr 1993. 213-21 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"In 1984, half of married/cohabiting Canadian women aged 18-49 years were using contraception, with sterilisation being the most prevalent method. This study, using data from the 1984 Canadian Fertility Survey of 5,315 women aged 18-49 years, found that there was a preference for sons. Women with two sons are more likely to use contraception than those who have had two daughters; the gender of children may have a weak effect on contraceptive behaviour of Canadian couples at higher parities. Sociocultural factors (e.g. education, religion, religiosity) were also found to influence contraceptive behaviour."
Correspondence: V. Krishnan, University of Alberta, Department of Sociology, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20344 Mauritius. Ministry of Health (Port Louis, Mauritius); University of Mauritius (Reduit, Mauritius); United States. Centers for Disease Control [CDC] (Atlanta, Georgia). 1991 Mauritius Contraceptive Prevalence Survey: preliminary report. Mar 1992. 21, [29] pp. U.S. Centers for Disease Control [CDC]: Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
These are the preliminary results from the 1991 Mauritius Contraceptive Prevalence Survey. After a discussion of the methodology used, including response rates, data are presented on breast-feeding and amenorrhea, planning status of last pregnancy and current pregnancy intention, natural family planning, and fertility regulation, including knowledge of contraceptives, current use, and sources for contraceptives.
Correspondence: U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

59:20345 Monteith, Richard S.; Stupp, Paul; Morris, Leo; Montana, Eduardo. Family Planning and Child Survival Survey, Ecuador 1989. Aug 1992. xxiv, 311, 52 pp. U.S. Centers for Disease Control [CDC], National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Reproductive Health: Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
This is the first English-language report from this survey, which was conducted in Ecuador in 1989. The survey included a nationally representative sample of 7,961 women aged 15-49. The main chapters of the report are concerned with fertility, contraceptive practice, infant and child mortality, the use of maternal and child health services, and sexual experience and contraceptive use among women aged 15-24.
For related reports, published in Spanish in 1991, see 58:30769, 10750, and 10749.
Correspondence: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Reproductive Health, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20346 Omondi-Odhiambo. Men and family planning in Kenya: alternative policy intervention strategies for reducing population growth. Pub. Order No. DA9234242. 1992. 276 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Florida State University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 53(7).

59:20347 Riddle, John M. Contraception and abortion from the ancient world to the Renaissance. ISBN 0-674-16875-5. LC 91-33682. 1992. x, 245 pp. Harvard University Press: Cambridge, Massachusetts/London, England. In Eng.
The author examines evidence of the practice of birth control in premodern times using historical records and sources. Medical records from classical Greece and Rome, ancient Egypt, medieval Byzantium and Europe, and Islamic and Arabic medical practice in the Middle Ages are considered. He concludes that people in historical times were able to distinguish between contraceptives and abortifacients and were aware of methods that were reasonably effective.
Correspondence: Harvard University Press, 79 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20348 Sichona, Francis J. Population growth and family planning in Tanzania. Carolina Population Center Paper, No. 92-05, Oct 1992. 10 pp. University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center: Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
In this general review of the demographic situation in Tanzania, the author notes that fertility remains high and contraceptive practice low, and that this situation is unlikely to change unless health services improve and more children survive to adulthood.
Correspondence: University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square, 143 West Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20349 Simmons, George B.; Koerber, Sara; Simmons, Ruth. Techniques for improving client relations in family planning programs. Policy Research Working Paper: Population, Health, and Nutrition, No. WPS 975, Sep 1992. 32 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors "describe four broad techniques for improving client relations, emphasizing their potential as entry points into [family planning] program development...." The geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: World Bank, Population and Human Resources Department, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

59:20350 Tanfer, Koray; Grady, William R.; Klepinger, Daniel H.; Billy, John O. G. Condom use among U.S. men, 1991. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 25, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1993. 61-6 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The primary purpose of this article is to provide information on the prevalence of and factors associated with condom use among 20-39-year-old men in the United States." Data are from the 1991 National Survey of Men. "Our results show that the threat of AIDS has not stopped men from engaging in unprotected sex and that this continued risk-taking does not appear to result from lack of awareness. A preliminary examination of our data showed that between January 1990 and the interview date (an average of 18 months), one-third of the men in our sample had engaged in one or more types of sexual behavior that put them at some risk of HIV infection. The proportion engaging in such behavior was somewhat higher among black men (47%) than among white men (33%)."
Correspondence: K. Tanfer, Battelle Human Affairs Research Centers, 4000 NE 41st Street, Seattle, WA 98105. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20351 Tezcan, Sabahat; Enunlu, Tayfun; Guciz Dogan, Bahar; Bumin, Cigdem. Continuation and termination rates of some contraceptive methods in two districts of Ankara, Turkey. Nufusbilim Dergisi/Turkish Journal of Population Studies, Vol. 14, 1992. 53-75 pp. Ankara, Turkey. In Eng. with sum. in Tur.
The authors assess method-specific continuation rates and reason-specific termination rates of the most widely used contraceptive methods in two districts of Ankara Province, Turkey. Methods considered were the IUD, withdrawal, and condoms.
Correspondence: S. Tezcan, Hacettepe University, Department of Public Health, Hacettepe Parki, Ankara, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20352 Trussell, James; Vaughan, Barbara. Contraceptive use projections: 1990 to 2010. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol. 167, No. 4, Oct 1992. 1,160-4 pp. St. Louis, Missouri. In Eng.
"Factors that will affect both contraceptive use and choice of method [in the United States] during the next 20 years are reviewed....Numbers of women using oral contraception, other reversible methods, sterilization, and no method are projected from 1990 to 2010 under the assumption that use patterns in each age group resemble those observed in 1988. We conclude that discrepancies between projections of contraceptive use and fact are likely to occur because of the unpredictable nature of these few important variables." Data are from the 1988 National Survey of Family Growth.
Correspondence: J. Trussell, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20353 United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA] (New York, New York). Contraceptive requirements and logistics management needs in Pakistan. UNFPA Report, ISBN 0-89714-152-0. [1991]. vii, 91 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This is one in a series of publications examining population issues and developments in developing countries. "This report presents the findings and conclusions of a mission to Pakistan organized by UNFPA....The mission, which took place from 10 February to 6 March 1992, assessed the contraceptive requirements and logistics management needs of Pakistan up to the year 2000."
Correspondence: United Nations Population Fund, 220 East 42nd Street, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20354 United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA] (New York, New York). Family planning, fertility decline and child survival. UNFPA Report, ISBN 0-89714-131-8. [1991]. 23 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This is one in a series of publications examining population issues and developments in developing countries. This volume presents the proceedings of a UNFPA conference held in May 1990 on topics concerning the relationship between fertility and mortality, and more specifically, how this relationship affects family planning programs. "The meeting was divided into several sessions: Session One: Differential effects of infant mortality on fertility and demand for family planning. Session Two: Impact of family planning practice on child survival and factors responsible for differential effects. Session Three: Role of breastfeeding in fertility regulation programmes. Session Four: Conclusions, [and] Policy implications."
Correspondence: United Nations Population Fund, 220 East 42nd Street, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20355 United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA] (New York, New York). Research on socio-cultural factors affecting family planning programmes in developing countries. UNFPA Report, ISBN 0-89714-137-7. [1991]. 33 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This is one in a series of publications examining population issues and developments in developing countries. This report contains the proceedings of a meeting on research on sociocultural factors that affect family planning programs, sponsored by the UNFPA and held in New York in June 1990. Topics discussed include gender, family, and the status of women. Abstracts of papers presented at the meeting are included.
Correspondence: United Nations Population Fund, 220 East 42nd Street, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20356 Vera, Hernan. The client's view of high-quality care in Santiago, Chile. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 24, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1993. 40-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The meaning of quality of care for the women who receive reproductive health services at a family planning and maternal and infant care clinic in Santiago, Chile, was examined to describe the clinic's service from the women's point of view....[The study] consisted of interviews with 60 of the 330 women who came to the clinic during two weeks in June 1991....Among specific elements of care they identified were cleanliness, promptness and availability of service, time made available for consultation, learning opportunities for themselves and their partners, and cordial treatment."
Correspondence: H. Vera, University of Florida, Department of Sociology, Gainesville, FL 32611. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20357 Visaria, Pravin; Jain, Anrudh; Visaria, Leela. Contraceptive use and fertility in Gujarat. Dec 1992. xvii, 286 pp. Gujarat Institute of Development Research: Ahmedabad, India; Population Council: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This report presents the key results of a study of contraceptive use and fertility in Gujarat [India]. It is based on a large survey of 13,600 households conducted during 1989 in four districts of Gujarat State." The main objective of the study is to assess the accuracy of official estimates of the effective contraceptive prevalence rate. Also considered are the sources of inconsistency between district-level estimates of contraceptive use, the relationship between the reported contraceptive prevalence rate and fertility, and the program and non-program factors associated with district-level differences. "An overestimation of contraceptive use from service statistics notwithstanding, the family planning program seems to have made a substantial contribution in raising contraceptive use and in decreasing fertility in these districts."
Correspondence: Gujarat Institute of Development Research, Gota, Ahmedabad 382 481, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20358 Webb, Anne; Morris, Julie. Practice of postcoital contraception--the results of a national survey. British Journal of Family Planning, Vol. 18, No. 4, Jan 1993. 113-8 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors present and discuss results from "a questionnaire looking at prescribing habits in postcoital contraception [that] was sent to each health authority/board in the [United Kingdom]....Details were obtained on frequency of usage, consent forms, timing and repeated use, dosage and contraindications, instructions and follow up, [and] future contraception...."
Correspondence: A. Webb, Palatine Centre, 63/65 Palatine Road, Withington, Manchester M20 9LJ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20359 Weller, Susan C. A meta-analysis of condom effectiveness in reducing sexually transmitted HIV. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 36, No. 12, Jun 1993. 1,635-44 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper reviews evidence on condom effectiveness in reducing the risk of heterosexually transmitted human HIV. A meta-analysis conducted on data from in vivo studies of HIV discordant sexual partners is used to estimate the protective effect of condoms. Although contraceptive research indicates that condoms are 87% effective in preventing pregnancy, results of HIV transmission studies indicate that condoms may reduce risk of HIV infection by approximately 69%. Thus, efficacy may be much lower than commonly assumed...."
Correspondence: S. C. Weller, University of Texas Medical Branch, Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, 1.128 Ewing, Galveston, TX 77555-1053. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:20360 Zinanga, Alex F. Development of the Zimbabwe family planning program. Policy Research Working Paper: Population, Health, and Nutrition, No. WPS 1053, Dec 1992. 13 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author concentrates on the post-independence period beginning in 1980.
Correspondence: World Bank, Population and Human Resources Department, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

F.4.2. Clinical Aspects & Use-Effectiveness Studies

Selected studies on the medical aspects of fertility control methods, including studies on side effects and use-effectiveness.

59:20361 Trussell, James; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence. Further analysis of contraceptive failure of the ovulation method. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol. 165, No. 6, Pt. 2, Dec 1991. 2,054-9 pp. St. Louis, Missouri. In Eng.
"Reanalysis of data on the ovulation method of natural family planning collected by the World Health Organization yields the following conclusions. The method is effective during perfect (correct and consistent) use, with a first-year probability of failure of 3.4%. However, it is extremely unforgiving of imperfect use, with a first-year probability of failure of 84.2% if the method is not used correctly. During the initial year, 87% of the cycles were characterized by perfect use. Nevertheless, the 13% of cycles characterized by imperfect use had a tremendous impact on the overall failure rate. During the first year of typical use, 22.5% of the women in the clinical trial became accidentally pregnant." Data were collected at centers located in El Salvador, India, Ireland, New Zealand, and the Philippines.
For a previous study published in 1990 and presenting an initial analysis of this data, see 56:20283.
Correspondence: J. Trussell, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.3. Evaluation of Programs

Studies evaluating either the demographic impact or other criteria of effectiveness of family planning programs.

59:20362 Baldwin, George. Targets and indicators in World Bank population projects. Policy Research Working Paper: Population, Health, and Nutrition, No. WPS 1048, Nov 1992. v, 57 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"In reviewing World Bank evaluations of the impact of population projects, [the author] explains the nature and uses of four families of performance indicators. Two measure inputs...and two measure output."
Correspondence: World Bank, Population and Human Resources Department, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

59:20363 Bertrand, Jane T.; Brown, Judith E. Family planning success in two cities in Zaire. Policy Research Working Paper: Population, Health, and Nutrition, No. WPS 1042, Nov 1992. 37 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Two family planning programs are evaluated in the cities of Matadi and Kananga.
Correspondence: World Bank, Population and Human Resources Department, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

59:20364 Bongaarts, John. The fertility impact of family planning programs. Population Council Research Division Working Paper, No. 47, 1993. 35 pp. Population Council, Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
New estimates are provided of both the gross and net impact of family planning programs in developing countries.
Correspondence: Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20365 Foreit, Karen G.; Foreit, James R.; Lagos, Gloria; Guzman, Alfredo. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of postpartum IUD insertion in Lima, Peru. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 19, No. 1, Mar 1993. 19-24, 33 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of postpartum family planning service provision were assessed in a study of 1,560 women giving birth in 1988-1989 at the largest hospital of the Peruvian Social Security Institute (IPSS). Contraceptive counseling and temporary methods were offered to one ward of postpartum women, while a second ward, acting as a control group, was discharged without being offered comparable services. In the second half of the study period, almost 90% of the experimental group accepted family planning prior to discharge, and 25% of the women received an IUD. Six months after delivery, 82% of the members of the experimental group were using a contraceptive method, with 40% using an IUD; by comparison, 69% of controls were using a method, and 27% an IUD."
Correspondence: K. G. Foreit, Futures Group, 1101 14th Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20366 Gray, Ronald H.; Kambic, Robert T.; Lanctot, Claude A.; Martin, Mary C.; Wesley, Roselind; Cremins, Richard. Evaluation of natural family planning programmes in Liberia and Zambia. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 25, No. 2, Apr 1993. 249-58 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Studies to evaluate use-effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of natural family planning (NFP) were conducted in Liberia and Zambia. The Liberian programme provided uni-purpose NFP services to 1,055 clients mainly in rural areas; the Zambian programme provided NFP services...to 2,709 clients predominantly in urban areas. The one-year life table continuation and unplanned pregnancy rates were 78.9 and 4.3 per 100 woman-years in Liberia, compared to 71.2 and 8.9 in Zambia....Costs per couple-year protection were higher during learning than autonomy, and declined over time. These studies suggest that NFP programmes can achieve acceptable use- and cost-effectiveness in Africa."
Correspondence: R. H. Gray, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20367 Kirby, Douglas; Resnick, Michael D.; Downes, Blake; Kocher, Thel; Gunderson, Paul; Potthoff, Sandra; Zelterman, Daniel; Blum, Robert W. The effects of school-based health clinics in St. Paul on school-wide birthrates. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 25, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1993. 12-6 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"School-based clinics in St. Paul [Minnesota] have provided comprehensive health services, including reproductive health care, for almost two decades. This study examines the effects of those clinics on the birthrates in their respective schools, using a newly developed methodology with numerous advantages over previous methods for estimating student birthrates. Confidentially matching the names of female students from school records with the names of mothers on birth records at the Department of Health provided birthrates for each of the St. Paul public high schools with clinics for each year between 1971 and 1986. The results show that birthrates fluctuated dramatically from one year to the next, but school-wide birthrates were not significantly lower in the years immediately following the opening of a clinic than in the years preceding it."
Correspondence: D. Kirby, ETR Associates, Santa Cruz, CA. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20368 McNamara, Regina; McGinn, Therese; Lauro, Donald; Ross, John. Family planning programs in Sub-Saharan Africa: case studies from Ghana, Rwanda, and the Sudan. Policy Research Working Paper: Population, Health, and Nutrition, No. WPS 1004, Oct 1992. 23 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors examine three case studies in order to assess the status of family planning programs in Sub-Saharan Africa since their inception in the 1980s.
Correspondence: World Bank, Population and Human Resources Department, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

59:20369 Nag, Moni. Family planning success stories in Bangladesh and India. Policy Research Working Paper: Population, Health, and Nutrition, No. WPS 1041, Nov 1992. 37 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author evaluates two family planning programs, the Matlab Project in Bangladesh and the Kundam Project in India.
Correspondence: World Bank, Population and Human Resources Department, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

59:20370 Qiao, Xiaochun. A feasible example of implementation of the one-child policy in the countryside: an evaluation of the results of implementation of family planning policies in Heishan County. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 4, No. 2, 1992. 187-95 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Results from a 1989 survey conducted among six rural provinces in Heishan County, China, are presented and analyzed to determine the success of state family planning programs and the one-child policy. Consideration is given to marriage age, parity, and birth intervals. The author concludes "that the results of family planning are not only determined by the success of local family planning work, but are also determined by local socioeconomic conditions...."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20371 Shariff, Abusaleh; Visaria, Pravin. Family planning programme in Gujarat: a qualitative assessment of inputs and impact. Nov 1991. ix, 120 pp. Gujarat Institute of Area Planning: Ahmedabad, India. In Eng.
This study is concerned with the problem of measuring the impact of family planning programs on fertility in India. The authors first assess the quality of inputs into family planning and related health programs and analyze the role of the public and private sectors in providing such services. Socioeconomic and cultural factors associated with family planning acceptance are then identified, and program performance and cost-effectiveness are evaluated. The data concern programs in the state of Gujarat and were collected from focus group interviews, secondary data analysis, and individual interviews.
Correspondence: Gujarat Institute of Area Planning, Near Gota Char Rasta, Gota 382 481, Ahmedabad, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20372 Sichona, Francis J.; Lacey, Linda; Tsui, Amy O. Evaluating family planning program impact in Sub-Saharan Africa. Carolina Population Center Paper, No. 92-06, Dec 1992. 20 pp. University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center: Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"This article identifies appropriate evaluation methods and data sources required to monitor the performance and impact of family planning programs in sub-Saharan African countries."
Correspondence: University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square, 143 West Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20373 United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA] (New York, New York). South Asian women. UNFPA Report, ISBN 0-89714-161-X. [1992]. 38 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This is one in a series of reports examining population issues and developments in developing countries. "This report on South Asian women is drawn from the South Asia Study of Population Policy and Programmes: Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan, commissioned by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and published in 1990....The purpose...was to assess the reasons for the relative failure or success of population programmes and strategies in Bangladesh, Nepal, India and Pakistan, and to review societal constraints, in particular the low status of women, so as to identify areas in which policy change and programme development hold the most promise."
Correspondence: United Nations Population Fund, 220 East 42nd Street, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.4. Attitudes Toward Fertility & Fertility Control

Studies concerned with the interrelations between fertility control and attitudinal variables, including studies on wanted and unwanted pregnancy and children, motivation for parenthood, sex preference, and voluntary childlessness. Studies on knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of family planning and attitudes toward family size are classified under this heading.

59:20374 Ford, Nicholas. The sexual and contraceptive lifestyles of young people: Part II. British Journal of Family Planning, Vol. 18, No. 4, Jan 1993. 119-22 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This is the second of two linked papers which describe survey findings concerning the sexual and contraceptive lifestyles of young people. The findings are drawn from a programme of surveys undertaken among 3,777 16 to 24 year olds in households throughout the South West of England in 1989-90. The pattern of contraceptive use is described in terms of age, sex, relationship status and numbers of partners in the last year. Particular reference is made to intentions and attitudes towards condom use."
For Part I, published in 1992, see 58:40404.
Correspondence: N. Ford, University of Exeter, Institute of Population Studies, Hoopern House, 101 Pennsylvania Road, Exeter EX4 6DT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20375 Glasgow, Isik K. East-west regional differentials in the role of males in the determination of family size in Turkey. Institute of Social Studies Working Paper, No. 104, Jul 1991. ii, 58, 8 pp. Institute of Social Studies: The Hague, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The main purpose of this paper is to explore the male role as decision-maker in the family [in Turkey] and its relation to fertility." Data are from the 1988 Turkish Fertility and Health Survey.
Correspondence: Institute of Social Studies, Publications Office, P.O. Box 90733, 2509 LS The Hague, Netherlands. Location: University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography Library, Madison, WI.

59:20376 Marsiglio, William. Adolescent males' orientation toward paternity and contraception. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 25, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1993. 22-31 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Using data from the first wave of the 1988 [U.S.] National Survey of Adolescent Males (NSAM), this study examines how young men's perceptions of masculinity are related to their procreative experiences. It also considers whether young men's social class and race or ethnic background are indirectly related to their procreative experiences through their possible association with gender role attitudes....Although a variety of factors probably affect men's reproductive experiences, this study focuses primarily on young men's socioeconomic status, race or ethnicity, and gender role attitudes....This study is based upon two general social psychological concepts: procreative consciousness (men's subjective experiences related to reproductive issues) and procreative responsibility (men's sense of obligation regarding contraception, pregnancy resolution and child support and care)."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1992 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: W. Marsiglio, University of Florida, Sociology Department, Gainesville, FL 32611. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20377 Moen, Elizabeth. Sex selection: implications for females in the third world. Working Papers on Women in International Development, No. 225, Jun 1991. 27 pp. Michigan State University, Women and International Development Program: East Lansing, Michigan. In Eng.
"This paper is concerned with the sociological and policy implications of one of the new biotechnologies: fetal sex determination." The geographical focus is on China.
Correspondence: Michigan State University, Women and International Development Program, 202 International Center, East Lansing, MI 48824-1035. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20378 Nag, Moni. Sex preference in Bangladesh, India and Pakistan, and its effect on fertility. Demography India, Vol. 20, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1991. 163-85 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The objective of this paper is to review the quantitative findings regarding attitudinal and behavioral evidence of sex preference from surveys conducted in Bangladesh, India and Pakistan, and assess its impact on contraceptive use and fertility. An attempt will also be made to compare the strength of son preference in the three countries."
Correspondence: M. Nag, Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20379 Riley, Ann P.; Hermalin, Albert I.; Rosero-Bixby, Luis. A new look at the determinants of nonnumeric response to desired family size: the case of Costa Rica. Demography, Vol. 30, No. 2, May 1993. 159-74 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"In this paper we have approached nonnumeric response to [desired family size questions] from a conceptual framework that views such responses as a function of macro-level factors, such as the aggregate level of fertility, of micro-level factors, such as individual cognitive skills and reproductive experience, and of circumstances of data collection. The analysis presents evidence from two different levels of observation. At the macro level, we compare country-level data on the proportion of nonnumeric responses and the number of children desired among numeric respondents in a variety of countries. At the micro level, we examine the 1981 CPS [contraceptive prevalence] survey in Costa Rica."
Correspondence: A. P. Riley, Georgetown University, Department of Demography, 37th and O Streets NW, Washington, D.C. 20057. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20380 van der Vliet, Ron. Love without ties: a new phase in the sexual life course. Netherlands Journal of Social Sciences, Vol. 27, No. 2, Oct 1991. 67-79 pp. Assen, Netherlands. In Eng.
Changes in age at onset of puberty and age at first intercourse in the Netherlands are explored. The focus is on shifts in attitudes toward these events since the turn of the century. Data are from the 1968 and 1981 Sexuality in the Netherlands Surveys and the 1989 Netherlands' Youth Sexuality Survey.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:20381 Vanderwater, Bette. Meanings and strategies of reproductive control: current feminist approaches to reproductive technology. Issues in Reproductive and Genetic Engineering, Vol. 5, No. 3, 1992. 215-30 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article discusses the tension within feminism between an individual and a more social approach to the meanings of reproductive control....It is argued that the position advocating resistance to the technologies holds more potential overall for women's reproductive control. As much as the historical appeal of a woman's 'right to choose' holds appeal for feminists, it is seen that a woman's individual power and potential resistance to the technologies is limited by the strength of the medical model. An individualized focus on reproductive control detracts from a focus on the very serious health implications some technologies pose for all women."
Correspondence: B. Vanderwater, R. R. No. 3, Tottenham, Ontario L0G 1W0, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

59:20382 Vu, Quy Nhan. Viet Nam: knowledge and attitudes of grassroots family planning workers about contraceptive methods. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 86-D, Pub. Order No. ST/ESCAP/687. 1989. 16, [60] pp. U.N. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]: Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
This is one in a series of publications presenting results of an ESCAP study on the knowledge and attitudes of grassroots family planning workers about contraceptive methods. This study concerns Viet Nam. The author concludes that knowledge about various methods of contraception is uneven, due mainly to the lack of widespread availability of several modern methods.
Correspondence: U.N. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, United Nations Building, Rajdamnern Nok Avenue, Bangkok 10200, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20383 Weber, Christian E. The economics of fertility when children are consumer's and producer's goods. Pub. Order No. DA9237873. 1992. 178 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The relative costs and benefits of having children in rural areas of developing countries are explored. A model is developed and tested using data from Kenya. This study was developed as a doctoral dissertation at Duke University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 53(7).

59:20384 Wen, Xingyan. The effect of sex preference on subsequent fertility in two provinces of China. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 7, No. 4, Dec 1992. 25-40 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This article provides evidence from two peasant-dominated provinces of China which indicates that a strong, pervasive son preference persisted during the powerful family planning programme period, while the fertility of those provinces declined dramatically. Compared with some major socio-economic characteristics, son preference is the most significant factor which continued to exert a great influence on bearing a third child even during the period of the one-child campaign. The study finds that the overall quantitative effect of sex preference on recent fertility is substantial."
Correspondence: X. Wen, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Demography Program, GPO BOX 4, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.5. Induced Abortion

Studies on induced abortion, including those on attitudes, with the exception of studies primarily concerned with government regulation of abortion, which are coded under M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility . Studies of spontaneous abortion appear under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology .

59:20385 Anderson, Barbara A.; Katus, Kalev; Puur, Allan; Silver, Brian D. Characteristics of women having abortions in Estonia. Population Studies Center Research Report, No. 92-254, Sep 1992. 13 pp. University of Michigan, Population Studies Center: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This paper investigates the characteristics of women who had legal abortions in Estonia in 1991...[using] hospital and survey data for 360 women who had in-hospital abortions in the city of Tallinn during that year."
Correspondence: University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20386 Baulieu, Etienne-Emile; Rosenblum, Mort. The "abortion pill": RU-486, a woman's choice. ISBN 0-671-73816-X. LC 91-5054. 1991. 238 pp. Simon and Schuster: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
The authors describe the history and mode of action of RU-486, the French abortion pill, which Baulieu developed. They outline political aspects of the development process, with a focus on attitudes of the pharmaceutical companies involved, distribution of the drug outside France, pressures from pro-choice and antiabortion groups, and world opinion on dissemination of the drug. Moral arguments for and against the use of RU-486 are considered. Other possible medical uses for the drug are described, and the current state of contraceptive research is assessed.
This book was originally published in French as "Generation Pilule", Paris, France, Editions Odile Jacob, 1990.
Correspondence: Simon and Schuster, Simon and Schuster Building, Rockefeller Center, 1230 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10020. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20387 Brooks, Joel E. Abortion policy in Western democracies: a cross-national analysis. Governance, Vol. 5, No. 3, Jul 1992. 342-57 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This article provides a comparative analysis of abortion policies for 21 countries in Western Europe and North America. First, after briefly discussing the historical evolution of abortion attitudes and policies, a typology of current abortion laws is presented. Second, the mode of determining abortion policy is compared--judicial (Germany, Canada), legislative (Britain, France), and direct democracy (referenda in Italy, Ireland). Third, the question of abortion policy implementation is considered. In other words, does the legal status of abortion really make a difference regarding the pattern of availability and use of abortion services? Fourth, potential explanatory variables (left-wing party strength, feminism, Catholicism) regarding the content and process of abortion policies is evaluated."
Correspondence: J. E. Brooks, Illinois State University, Political Science Department, Schroeder 306, Normal, IL 61761-6901. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

59:20388 Guilbert, Edith. Characteristics of 2,829 women who obtained an abortion at the family planning clinic of the Centre Hospitalier at Universite Laval. [Caracteristiques de 2,829 femmes ayant obtenu un avortement a la clinique de planification des naissances du Centre Hospitalier de l'Universite Laval.] Canadian Journal of Public Health/Revue Canadienne de Sante Publique, Vol. 84, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1993. 28-30 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"This descriptive study was performed in a family planning clinic in Quebec City where induced abortion is available on demand until 16 weeks of gestational age and was obtained [by] 2,829 women over a period of 20 months during 1988-90. These women were mostly young, unmarried and well educated; being at school or in the workforce, they used abortion to postpone childbearing."
Correspondence: E. Guilbert, Universite Laval, Centre Hospitalier, Departement de Sante Communautaire, Clinique de Planification des Naissances, 2705 boulevard Laurier, Sainte-Foy, Quebec, Quebec G1V 4G2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20389 Israel. Central Bureau of Statistics (Jerusalem, Israel). Demographic characteristics of women applying for interruption of pregnancy in Israel, 1989. Monthly Bulletin of Statistics, Vol. 42, No. 11, Suppl., Nov 1991. 77-102 pp. Jerusalem, Israel. In Eng; Heb.
Data are presented on the characteristics of women requesting a legal abortion in Israel in 1989. Data are included on district of residence and number of prior abortions. Of the 17,761 applications, 15,918 were approved.
Correspondence: Central Bureau of Statistics, Prime Minister's Office, P.O.B. 13015, Jerusalem 91130, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

59:20390 Johnson, Brooke R.; Horga, Mihai; Andronache, Laurentia. Contraception and abortion in Romania. Lancet, Vol. 341, No. 8849, Apr 3, 1993. 875-8 pp. Baltimore, Maryland/London, England. In Eng.
The relationships among attitudes toward modern contraceptive methods, contraceptive availability, and the practice of induced abortion in Romania are examined using data from structured interviews with 1,000 women in 1991-1992. The authors conclude that "abortions on request will diminish substantially only when the general population (and especially women who receive abortions) become better informed about family planning and when modern contraceptive methods become widely and dependably available."
Correspondence: B. R. Johnson, International Projects Assistance Services, P.O. Box 100, Carrboro, NC 27510. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

59:20391 Johnson, Brooke R.; Benson, Janie; Bradley, Janet; Rabago Ordonez, Aurora. Costs and resource utilization for the treatment of incomplete abortion in Kenya and Mexico. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 36, No. 11, Jun 1993. 1,443-53 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors analyze factors contributing to cost differences between two methods of treatment of incomplete abortion, sharp curettage and manual vacuum aspiration. Data are from patient management and resource use records in two hospitals, one in Kenya and one in Mexico. The results suggest that treatment by manual vacuum aspiration requires a shorter patient stay and involves fewer hospital resources.
Correspondence: B. R. Johnson, IPAS, P.O. Box 100, Carrboro, NC 27510. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:20392 Klinger, Andras. Induced abortion by marital status. [Muvi abortuszok csaladi allapot szerint.] Demografia, Vol. 35, No. 3-4, 1992. 342-74 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in induced abortion in Hungary are examined by marital status for the period 1960-1991. A slight increase in abortion rates is noted, and the effects of the growth in consensual unions, continuing low levels of contraceptive knowledge, and infrequent use of sterilization on these rates are assessed.
Correspondence: A. Klinger, Demografia, Veres Palne u. 10, H-1364 Budapest V, Hungary. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20393 Meier, Kenneth J.; McFarlane, Deborah R. State policies on funding of abortions: a pooled time series analysis. Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 73, No. 3, Sep 1992. 690-8 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"This research note had two objectives--to examine [U.S.] state abortion funding policy and to contribute to the state policy literature. Using a model with demand for abortion funding, advocacy groups, ideology, and prior policy, we were able to explain most of the variation in whether or not states funded abortions and whether or not they funded them voluntarily."
Correspondence: K. J. Meier, University of Wisconsin, Department of Political Science, Box 413, Milwaukee, WI 53201. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:20394 Requena, Mariano. Induced abortion in Chile. [Aborto inducido en Chile.] ISBN 956-7102-01-4. 1990. 181 pp. Sociedad Chilena de Salud Publica: Santiago, Chile. In Spa.
This is a collection of works examining levels and trends in induced abortion in Chile. Topics include the regulation of fertility in Latin America, medical consequences of abortion in Chile, reproductive behavior from an anthropological perspective, the male role in abortion decisions, and the legality of abortion worldwide.
Correspondence: Sociedad Chilena de Salud Publica, Esmeralda 678 3er Piso, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20395 Wetstein, Matthew E.; Albritton, Robert B. Determinants of abortion use in the United States. [1991?]. 14 pp. Northern Illinois University, Social Science Research Institute: De Kalb, Illinois. In Eng.
Access to abortion providers is examined as a key variable in explaining differences in abortion rates by U.S. state using 1988 data.
Correspondence: Northern Illinois University, Social Science Research Institute, De Kalb, IL 60115-2854. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20396 Wetstein, Matthew E. How stable is stable? Abortion attitudes in the 1972-1976 NES Panel Study. [1991?]. 6, [4] pp. Northern Illinois University, Social Science Research Institute: De Kalb, Illinois. In Eng.
"Two LOGIT models are tested in an attempt to predict the stability of abortion attitudes in the 1972-1976 [U.S.] Panels of the National Election Study."
Correspondence: Northern Illinois University, Social Science Research Institute, De Kalb, IL 60115-2854. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility

Studies on lactation, nutrition, fecundability, sex behavior, menarche and menopause, and other biological factors or social customs as they affect fertility directly. Factors affecting contraceptive practice and factors affecting fertility indirectly are not included here.

59:20397 Cumming, David C. The effects of exercise and nutrition on the menstrual cycle. In: Biomedical and demographic determinants of reproduction, edited by Ronald Gray, Henri Leridon, and Alfred Spira. 1993. 132-56 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The purpose of the present paper is to examine the effects of exercise on reproductive function in women and to discuss the mechanisms through which reproductive dysfunction can be influenced by changes in physical activity and nutritional status."
Correspondence: D. C. Cumming, University of Alberta, Division of Endocrinology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20398 Ford, Kathleen; Kim, Young J. Demographic research on lactational amenorrhoea. In: Biomedical and demographic determinants of reproduction, edited by Ronald Gray, Henri Leridon, and Alfred Spira. 1993. 359-71 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper describes the approaches that demographers have taken toward collecting data on lactational amenorrhoea and modelling its determinants. The first section of the paper describes approaches to data collection and attempts to model the distribution of amenorrhoea; the second section discusses demographic models of the determinants of amenorrhoea." Data are primarily from developing countries.
Correspondence: K. Ford, University of Michigan, School of Public Health, Department of Population Planning and International Health, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20399 Ford, Kathleen; Huffman, Sandra L. Maternal nutrition, infant feeding, and post-partum amenorrhoea: recent evidence from Bangladesh. In: Biomedical and demographic determinants of reproduction, edited by Ronald Gray, Henri Leridon, and Alfred Spira. 1993. 383-90 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The objectives of this paper are to review studies of the effects of maternal nutrition and lactation on post-partum amenorrhoea and to present results from a recent study of a group of chronically malnourished women in a rural area of Bangladesh....The data used in these analyses were collected in the Birth Interval Dynamics study conducted in Matlab, Bangladesh....A total of 2,445 women were available for study at some point during the period from October 1975 to January 1980."
Correspondence: K. Ford, University of Michigan, School of Public Health, Department of Population Planning and International Health, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20400 Fricke, Tom; Techman, Jay D. Writing the names: marriage style, living arrangements, and first birth interval in a Nepali society. Demography, Vol. 30, No. 2, May 1993. 175-88 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Using data from a Nepali population, this analysis argues that marriage style and postmarital living arrangements affect coital frequency to produce variations in the timing of first birth after marriage. Event history analysis of the first birth interval for 149 women suggests that women's autonomy in marriage decisions and marriage to cross-cousins accelerate the pace of entry into first birth. Extended-household residence with reduced natal kin contact, on the other hand, significantly lengthens the first birth interval. These findings are consistent with previous arguments in the literature while offering new evidence for the impact of extended-family residence on fertility." Data are from the 1987-1988 Tamang Family Research Project.
Correspondence: T. Fricke, University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research, Department of Anthropology, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1248. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20401 Gray, Ronald H.; Campbell, Oona; Eslami, Susan; Zacur, Howard; Labbok, Miriam; Apelo, Ruben. The return of ovarian function during lactation: results of studies from the United States and the Philippines. In: Biomedical and demographic determinants of reproduction, edited by Ronald Gray, Henri Leridon, and Alfred Spira. 1993. 428-45 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The present study was designed to assess predictors of ovulation in breastfeeding women, because this is of programmatic importance to policies on contraceptive introduction during lactation. However, we also wished to advance our understanding of the relationship between breastfeeding and the return of ovarian activity by using more refined research measures applied in an identical manner to populations with widely divergent patterns of feeding, socio-economic conditions, and maternal nutritional status. Therefore,...investigations were conducted with lactating women in Manila, the Philippines, and in Baltimore, U.S.A."
Correspondence: R. H. Gray, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20402 Harlow, Sioban; Zeger, Scott L. An application of longitudinal methods to the analysis of menstrual diary data. Carolina Population Center Paper, No. 90-2, Jun 1990. 25 pp. University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center: Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
This study is based on data for 166 U.S. women who maintained a menstrual diary during their freshman year in college in 1985.
Correspondence: University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square, 143 West Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20403 John, A. Meredith. Statistical evidence of links between maternal nutrition and post-partum infertility. In: Biomedical and demographic determinants of reproduction, edited by Ronald Gray, Henri Leridon, and Alfred Spira. 1993. 372-82 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author reviews the evidence linking maternal nutrition and postpartum infertility and concludes that "the only way to sort out the role played by maternal nutritional status on post-partum infertility is to consider it in conjunction with breastfeeding behaviour, rather than as a sole explanatory factor."
Correspondence: A. M. John, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20404 Leridon, Henri. Fecundability and post-partum sterility: an insuperable interaction? In: Biomedical and demographic determinants of reproduction, edited by Ronald Gray, Henri Leridon, and Alfred Spira. 1993. 345-58 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author "shows that there are inconsistencies in the data relating the duration of amenorrhoea to the waiting time to conception which suggests bias, particularly affecting the estimates for women with an early resumption of menstruation....I will first review the indirect techniques that have been used to estimate the components of birth intervals without actually measuring each of them; then, we will examine methods using information on the duration of breastfeeding, which is, as already mentioned, a major determinant of the birth interval; and, finally, we will see what can be gained from information on the actual duration of amenorrhoea after the last birth."
Correspondence: H. Leridon, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20405 McNeilley, A. S. Breastfeeding and fertility. In: Biomedical and demographic determinants of reproduction, edited by Ronald Gray, Henri Leridon, and Alfred Spira. 1993. 391-412 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author reviews "the findings from endocrinological studies of breastfeeding and the post-partum return of pituitary/ovarian function....[It is found that] the suckling stimulus is critical to the maintenance of lactational infecundity, but there are no reliable and broadly applicable guidelines for the frequency or duration of suckling required to maintain infertility. [The author] also presents data...which show that the introduction of supplementary foods is associated with a reduction in suckling and the resumption of ovarian activity."
Correspondence: A. S. McNeilley, University of Edinburgh, MRC Reproductive Biology Unit, Old College, South Bridge, Edinburgh EH8 9YL, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20406 Pandey, Arvind; Dwivedi, Sada N.; Mishra, Ravindra N. Distribution of closed birth intervals with some biosocial components: a stochastic model and its application. Journal of Mathematical Sociology, Vol. 16, No. 1, 1990. 89-106 pp. New York, New York/Reading, England. In Eng.
The authors "propound a stochastic model to describe the variation in the length of closed birth intervals by birth order for women of a given marriage duration. The model accounts for two biosocial components: adolescent sterility and temporary separation between the partners (called an inoperative period at the beginning of the reproductive process). Applying the model on an observed set of data, we estimate the risk of conception and the extent of adolescent sterility among women with varying ages at consummation of marriage." The model is applied to data for India from the 1978 Rural Development and Population Growth Survey.
Correspondence: A. Pandey, University of North Carolina, 300 A/CB No. 8120, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:20407 Rahman, Omar; Menken, Jane. Age at menopause and fecundity preceding menopause. In: Biomedical and demographic determinants of reproduction, edited by Ronald Gray, Henri Leridon, and Alfred Spira. 1993. 65-84 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors examine trends in age at menopause and fertility preceding it, using data for selected countries. They find that "the age at menopause is much less variable than the age at menarche; it generally falls between 47 and 50 years in most populations....Fertility declines from the mid-30s, and there is a growing concern about infecundity at later ages in industrialized countries where women frequently delay childbearing....Recent reanalyses of WFS (World Fertility Survey) data using either a history of diagnosed infertility or the absence of a birth over five years as a definition of infecundity, show a much greater variation in the level of apparent sterility by age than was previously recognized."
Correspondence: O. Rahman, Harvard University, School of Public Health, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20408 Riley, Ann P.; Samuelson, Julia L.; Huffman, Sandra L. The relationship of age at menarche and fertility in undernourished adolescents. In: Biomedical and demographic determinants of reproduction, edited by Ronald Gray, Henri Leridon, and Alfred Spira. 1993. 50-64 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors "show that poor nutrition slows and delays growth and is associated with later ages at menarche. However, later menarche does not necessarily result in lower fertility. In some societies age at menarche is closely tied with age at marriage, and endocrinological studies suggest that late menarche coincides with a longer period of adolescent sterility. Overall the evidence that poor nutrition has a significant impact on fertility is equivocal. However, early childbearing during the period of adolescent growth may impair long-term growth, resulting in small adult stature and small pelvic diameter, which, in turn, are associated with a higher risk of morbidity and mortality among mothers and their offspring." Data are from selected developed and developing countries.
Correspondence: A. P. Riley, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20409 Rodriguez, German; Diaz, Soledad. Breastfeeding and the length of post-partum amenorrhoea: a hazards model approach. In: Biomedical and demographic determinants of reproduction, edited by Ronald Gray, Henri Leridon, and Alfred Spira. 1993. 413-27 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors "analyse Chilean data on breastfeeding in relation to the duration of amenorrhoea using a proportional hazards model. [They find that] partial breastfeeding increases the risk of menstruation, but this can be offset by maintaining a high frequency of suckling."
Correspondence: G. Rodriguez, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20410 Rosenberg, Michael J. Toxic substances, conception, and pregnancy outcome. In: Biomedical and demographic determinants of reproduction, edited by Ronald Gray, Henri Leridon, and Alfred Spira. 1993. 170-9 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author examines the effects of physical, chemical, and biological agents that people are exposed to, particularly in the workplace, on conception and pregnancy outcomes. He stresses the need for further study in light of the changing sex composition of the work force worldwide.
Correspondence: M. J. Rosenberg, University of North Carolina, Department of Epidemiology and Obstetrics-Gynecology, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7400. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20411 Sichona, Francis J. The polygyny-fertility hypothesis revisited: the situation in Ghana. Carolina Population Center Paper, No. 92-01, Jun 1992. 21 pp. University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center: Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
The relationship between polygyny and fertility is examined using multiple regression analysis and data from the 1988 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey.
Correspondence: University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square, 143 West Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20412 Singh, Kaushalendra K.; Suchindran, Chirayath M.; Singh, Kiran. Effects on breast feeding after resumption of menstruation on waiting time to next conception. Human Biology, Vol. 65, No. 1, Feb 1993. 71-86 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
"We investigate the association between breast feeding after resumption of menstruation and the duration from resumption of menses to the next conception. Data from a [1987] survey...[in Varanasi,] India, were used....After resumption of menstruation, when there is no breast feeding, the risk of conception increases with the increase in postpartum amenorrhea. However, breast feeding attenuates the effects of postpartum amenorrhea. These results suggest that breast feeding beyond the resumption of menstruation plays a significant role in the proximate determinants to reduce fertility."
Correspondence: K. K. Singh, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, CB 8120, University Square, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20413 Udry, J. Richard. Coitus as demographic behaviour. In: Biomedical and demographic determinants of reproduction, edited by Ronald Gray, Henri Leridon, and Alfred Spira. 1993. 85-97 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author "reviews the literature on coital frequency, which shows clear declines with age and duration of marriage in all populations, as well as culturally determined variations in levels between populations....[He] shows that there is no simple relationship between hormone levels and coital frequency, except among adolescents in whom sexual activity is related to androgen levels. However, recent data suggest that the distribution of coital acts during the menstrual cycle may be related to endocrine changes...." The geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: J. R. Udry, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square 300A, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20414 van de Walle, Etienne; van de Walle, Francine. Post-partum sexual abstinence in tropical Africa. In: Biomedical and demographic determinants of reproduction, edited by Ronald Gray, Henri Leridon, and Alfred Spira. 1993. 446-60 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The importance of post-partum sexual abstinence and lactational amenorrhoea as determinants of the birth interval is examined....In most tropical African countries the duration of abstinence is shorter than the duration of amenorrhoea, and the duration of abstinence has been declining with increasing modernization, urbanization, and the spread of Islamic influence." A case study undertaken in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso, is included.
Correspondence: E. van de Walle, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20415 Weinstein, Maxine; Wood, James; Chang, Ming-Cheng. Age patterns of fecundability. In: Biomedical and demographic determinants of reproduction, edited by Ronald Gray, Henri Leridon, and Alfred Spira. 1993. 209-27 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In this paper, we attempt to partition the decline in fecundability with advancing age into its physiological and behavioural components in order to determine which components are more important in causing the decline. Later in the paper, we focus on one particular aspect of the behavioural component, namely couple-to-couple variation in coital rates, to ascertain how it contributes to the decline and to heterogeneous fecundability in general....We address these questions using a mathematical model of fecundability." The data concern Taiwan and the United States.
Correspondence: M. Weinstein, Georgetown University, Department of Demography, Washington, D.C. 20057. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.6. Fertility Outside Marriage

Studies on nonmarital fertility, including illegitimacy. Studies of common-law marriage and other forms of cohabitation or voluntary single parenthood are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

59:20416 Gage-Brandon, Anastasia J.; Meekers, Dominique. Sex, contraception and childbearing before marriage in Sub-Saharan Africa. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 19, No. 1, Mar 1993. 14-8, 33 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This study documents current patterns of sexual activity, contraceptive use and childbearing among unmarried women aged 15-24 for seven Sub-Saharan African countries--Botswana, Burundi, Ghana, Kenya, Liberia, Mali and Zimbabwe--to identify similarities and differences in levels of premarital fertility among countries....Our analysis uses DHS data obtained between 1986 and 1989...." Wide variations are found among countries. "In some, such as Botswana and Liberia, more than 75% of unmarried women have had sexual intercourse, while in Burundi only 4% have done so. Although more than 75% of unmarried, sexually experienced young women in the countries studied know of at least one modern contraceptive method, less than 30% of these women in most countries have ever used a modern method. Childbearing among unmarried women is almost nonexistent in Burundi (2%) and very low in Ghana (9%), but it is fairly common in Botswana (42%) and Liberia (34%)."
Correspondence: A. J. Gage-Brandon, Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 8850 Stanford Boulevard, Columbia, MD 21045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20417 Sarrazin, Line. Fertility outside marriage in France. In: The geographical approach to fertility, edited by Jurgen Bahr and Paul Gans. 1991. 175-85 pp. Universitat Kiel, Geographisches Institut: Kiel, Germany. In Eng.
The author examines levels and trends in extramarital fertility in France, with a focus on the increase seen in the 1980s. Data are presented by department, and some comparison with other European Community countries is made.
Correspondence: L. Sarrazin, 51 Boulevard Gambetta, 93130 Noisy-le-Sec, France. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

59:20418 Wu, Lawrence L.; Martinson, Brian C. Family structure and the risk of a premarital birth. American Sociological Review, Vol. 58, No. 2, Apr 1993. 210-32 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors examine three hypotheses regarding the impact of a woman's family characteristics between birth and age 19 on her chances of having a premarital birth. "We construct dynamic measures of family structure using parent-history data from the [U.S.] National Survey of Families and Households. We use these data to examine the relative importance of family events during childhood, changes in family structure during childhood and adolescence, and durations spent in the modal family structures experienced by respondents while growing up. Our results suggest that these dynamic measures capture both theoretically and empirically distinct dimensions of family experience, and that distinguishing between these dimensions provides sufficient analytical leverage to test the socialization, social control, and instability and change hypotheses."
Correspondence: L. L. Wu, University of Wisconsin, Department of Sociology, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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