Volume 59 - Number 2 - Summer 1993

E. Mortality

Studies that treat quantitative mortality data analytically. Methodological studies primarily concerned with mortality are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary. The main references to crude data are in the vital statistics items in S. Official Statistical Publications .

E.1. General Mortality

Studies of overall mortality and comparisons of several types of mortality. Studies dealing with two or more of the topics listed in this division are classified under the major section covered, or, if this is not self-evident, included here under General Mortality.

59:20098 Anson, Jon. The second dimension: a proposed measure of the rectangularity of mortality curves. Genus, Vol. 48, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1992. 1-17 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"The present paper proposes a measure of the shape (rectangularity) of the mortality curve which is statistically orthogonal to (independent of) the level of mortality over a broad range of national life tables, both historical and contemporary....We have proposed [using]...a ratio of survival probabilities in two broad age ranges, in middle and young adulthood. It is suggested that this measure is an effective first approximation, which can be built on both methodologically and substantively, in order to obtain a better understanding of the social and other conditions producing rectangular and troughed mortality curves." Data for selected developed countries are used to test the model.
Correspondence: J. Anson, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Department of Social Work, P.O. Box 653, Beersheba 84105, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20099 Benjamin, B.; Soliman, A. S. Mortality on the move: methods of mortality projection. ISBN 0-952-00980-3. [1993]. vi, 130 pp. Actuarial Education Service: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors examine different methods of projecting mortality rates, then analyze recent mortality trends in England and Wales. "Before proceeding to consider the different methods of mortality projection an initial chapter examines the history of mortality changes in the past and makes some comment about current conditions. The authors then proceed to devote individual chapters to the various methods of mortality projection. The pattern of each chapter is as far as possible the same namely a description of the basis of the method followed by a demonstration of the method in operation. In each case the method is used first to project [mortality in England and Wales] from 1961 to 1981 and to compare the results with the actual mortality rates of 1981 in order to give some measure of the 'track record' of the method. The method is then used to project from 1981 to 2001." An attempt to predict the future course of the AIDS epidemic is included.
Correspondence: Actuarial Education Service, Napier House, 4 Worcester Street, Oxford OX1 2AW, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20100 Bergmann, E.; Casper, W.; Menzel, R.; Wiesner, G. Data on trends in mortality in Germany from 1955 to 1989. [Daten zur Entwicklung der Mortalitat in Deutschland von 1955 bis 1989.] Bundesgesundheitsblatt, No. 1, Jan 1992. 29-34 pp. Cologne, Germany. In Ger.
Trends in mortality in West Germany and East Germany are analyzed and compared for the period 1955-1989. The data are from official statistics. Breakdowns by age, sex, and selected causes of death are included.
Correspondence: E. Bergmann, Abt. Gesundheitswesen und Statistik, Institut fur Sozialmedizin und Epidemiologie, Werner-Voss-Damm 62, 1000 Berlin 42, Germany. Location: British Library, Document Supply Centre, Wetherby, England.

59:20101 Bock, S.; Gans, P. The problem of fuzzy cause-specific death rates in mortality context analysis: the case of Panama City. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 36, No. 10, May 1993. 1,367-71 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In studies of mortality, small and fluctuating numbers of deaths are problems which are caused by infrequent reporting and small spatial unit reporting. To use Panama City [Panama] as an example, the paper will introduce a Monte Carlo simulation which allows for the analysis of mortality even with small absolute numbers. In addition, Panama City will be used as an example where good medical care is available in every city district, so that social class differences between the districts have a negligible effect on most cause-specific death rates and infant mortality."
Correspondence: S. Bock, University of Kiel, Department of Geography, Olshausenstrasse 40, D-2300 Kiel 1, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:20102 Brown, E.; Cazes, M. H. Mortality differentials among the Dogon of Boni. [Differences de mortalite chez les Dogon de Boni.] Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 36, No. 10, May 1993. 1,291-6 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The authors examine mortality among "a small population of approximately 5,000 persons, part of the Dogon of Mali. They are separated into four distinct groups, each composed of from three to four villages. Adjusted life tables are estimated for two periods of five years; 1977-81 and 1982-86. First these tables were calculated for the entire population and then for two of the most densely populated massifs. Mortality is very high. However, it is different in the two areas. This difference, already notable in 1977-81, increased during the period 1982-86. Possible causal factors could be linked to the presence of primary health care in the Tabi region. Although very limited, the care changed elementary rules of hygiene. Moreover, comparison between villages points to the important role of the quality and quantity of available water in relation to child mortality levels."
Correspondence: E. Brown, Institut de Demographie de Paris, 22 rue Vauquelin, 75005 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:20103 Camposortega Cruz, Sergio. Demographic analysis of mortality in Mexico, 1940-1980. [Analisis demografico de la mortalidad en Mexico, 1940-1980.] ISBN 968-12-0415-8. LC 92-220455. 1992. 443 pp. Colegio de Mexico, Centro de Estudios Demograficos y de Desarrollo Urbano: Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
The author examines levels, trends, and the structure of mortality in Mexico over the period 1940-1980 by age, sex, and cause of death. Declines in mortality and excess mortality are considered, as are regional variations.
For the English version of this doctoral thesis, published in 1989, see 56:10097.
Correspondence: Colegio de Mexico, Centro de Estudios Demograficos y de Desarrollo Urbano, Camino al Ajusco 20, Pedregal de Santa Teresa, 10740 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20104 Denisov, B. P.; Echenike, V. Kh. Projection of mortality changes in Russia to the end of the twentieth century. [Prognoz izmenenii smertnosti v Rossii do kontsa xx veka.] Vestnik Moskovskogo Universiteta, Seriya 6: Ekonomika, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1992. 53-62 pp. Moscow, Russia. In Rus.
The authors review parametric models available for the analysis of age-specific mortality schedules and their applicability to the analysis of mortality data from the former Soviet Union. They note that the fitting procedure of the U.N. Mortpak package does not supply reasonable values of the parameters if applied to these data, and that the procedure also does not provide a good fit for the Coale-Demeny regional model life tables at very low mortality levels. The Heligman-Pollard model is applied to data for the periods 1926-1936 and 1980-1990 by urban and rural residence, and its parameters are altered according to three projection scenarios, with the assumption that the parameters for older ages will reach levels similar to those for the United States. Levels of life expectancy by age and residence are then projected.
Correspondence: V. Kh. Echenike, Moscow University, Department of Economics, Population Studies Center, Moscow 119899, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20105 Fang, Ru-Kang. The geographical inequalities of mortality in China. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 36, No. 10, May 1993. 1,319-23 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author reviews levels and trends in mortality in China by region, with a focus on the period 1949-1988.
Correspondence: R.-K. Fang, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:20106 Gage, Timothy B. The decline of mortality in England and Wales 1861 to 1964: decomposition by cause of death and component of mortality. Population Studies, Vol. 47, No. 1, Mar 1993. 47-66 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to examine the decline in mortality and the epidemiological transition in the male population of England and Wales between 1861 and 1964, using a competing hazards model. The specific aims include analyses of the temporal trends in the age-patterns of overall mortality, the age-patterns of nine categories of cause of death including ill-defined conditions, and the degenerative causes of death as a group, while explicitly controlling for misclassification of causes of death. The results of this study contradict a number of current hypotheses concerning the historical dynamics of several causes of death. In particular, the analysis suggests that the degenerative diseases as a group have been declining, at least since 1900."
Aspects of this paper were originally presented at the 1988 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: T. B. Gage, State University of New York, Department of Anthropology, Albany, NY 12222. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20107 Goldman, Noreen; Lord, Graham; Hu, Yuanreng. Marriage selection and age patterns of mortality: a mathematical investigation. Mathematical Population Studies, Vol. 4, No. 1, 1993. 51-73 pp. Reading, England. In Eng.
"In this paper, we use simulation models to demonstrate the complexity of the relationship between the marriage selection process and the resulting RMRs [relative mortality ratios]. In particular, we show that marriage selection alone can produce a relative mortality ratio which remains large and relatively constant at ages far beyond the marriage span....Our general objective...is to determine the range of age patterns of relative mortality which could, in theory, result from marriage selection on the basis of health characteristics. We also evaluate the effects of variations in the marriage selection mechanisms on the resulting mortality patterns....We develop and apply several simple mathematical models of the marriage selection process. In order to distinguish the potential consequences of marriage selection from marriage protection, we consider hypothetical populations in which causal effects are absent....We begin by considering an extremely simple marriage selection process and subsequently explore a more realistic selection model based on recent death and marriage rates for Japan."
Correspondence: N. Goldman, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20108 Hobbs, C. F.; Kiggundu, M. N. A global analysis of life expectancy and infant mortality. School of Business International Development Series, No. 1, ISBN 0-88629-184-4. 1992. 75 pp. Carleton University Press: Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
This is the first in a series of monographs concerning the relationships among socioeconomic factors and development. "The objectives of this monograph are: to identify those levels of education and health services that have the greatest impact on life expectancy and infant mortality, to use the results to derive statistically based criteria for identifying development sectors with the greatest impact on life expectancy and infant mortality, [and] to provide a comparative, quantitative planning tool to less developed countries and aid agencies in donor countries for the allocation of resources....Hypotheses were developed for the relationship between education, health services and nutrition...using 1985 data [for 129 countries]." The results are compared with selected indexes found in published sources.
Correspondence: Carleton University, School of Business, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20109 Hussain, Athar; Stern, Nicholas. On the recent increase in death rates in China. China Programme Discussion Paper, No. 8, Sep 1990. 27 pp. London School of Economics and Political Science, Suntory-Toyota International Centre for Economics and Related Disciplines [STICERD]: London, England. In Eng.
The authors use official data to analyze the causes of an increase in mortality observed in China since 1979.
Correspondence: London School of Economics and Political Science, STICERD, Programme of Research into the Reform of Pricing and Market Structure in China, Houghton Street, London WC2A 2AE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20110 Ishak, Maged. Mortality models for countries with deficient data. Europaische Hochschulschriften, Reihe V: Volks- und Betriebswirtschaft, Vol. 1344, ISBN 3-631-45436-8. LC 92-34126. 1992. 203 pp. Peter Lang: New York, New York/Frankfurt am Main, Germany. In Eng.
"Reliable mortality data lack in the majority of developing countries. Indirect methods of estimation are however adopted to assess the right level and pattern of mortality in these countries. This study aims to introduce an improved statistical technique that can sufficiently utilize all the available data, i.e. both the national published data and the data obtained from sample surveys, censuses, or any other sources to estimate infant mortality experience in the country. A Bayesian approach for estimating infant mortality in developing countries is...applied. The applicability and reliability of the model is examined by applying it to the mortality data of Egypt."
Correspondence: Peter Lang, Eschborner, Landstrasse 42-50, Postfach 940225, W-6000 Frankfurt 90, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20111 Jowett, A. John. The demographic responses to famine: the case of China 1958-61. GeoJournal, Vol. 23, No. 2, Feb 1991. 135-46 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
The author uses recently available official data from China to examine the demographic impact of the previously unpublicized famine that occurred during the period 1958-1961, after the Communists came to power. "Over the four years..., China suffered some 25-30 million more deaths and experienced some 30-35 million fewer births than might have been expected under normal conditions."
Correspondence: A. J. Jowett, University of Glasgow, Department of Geography and Topographic Science, Applied Population Research Unit, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

59:20112 Kalla, Abdool C. The inequalities of morbidity and mortality in Mauritius--its ethnic and geographic dimension. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 36, No. 10, May 1993. 1,273-83 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This overview of the changing patterns of morbidity and mortality on the one hand and ethnicity and geographic variables on the other is an attempt to understand the changes which are taking place in the economic and social geography of Mauritius....This article explores the changing patterns of morbidity and mortality based on official censuses, reports and studies. It further seeks to relate these to the geography of Mauritius."
Correspondence: A. C. Kalla, Mauritius Institute of Education, Reduit, Mauritius. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:20113 Kunst, Anton E.; Looman, Caspar W. N.; Mackenbach, Johan P. Outdoor air temperature and mortality in the Netherlands: a time-series analysis. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 137, No. 3, Feb 1, 1993. 331-41 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"The purpose of our study is to obtain indications on the mechanisms that underlie the association between outdoor air temperature and mortality by means of a detailed analysis of this relation in the Netherlands from 1979 through 1987. The question that we addressed is whether this relation is largely attributable to direct effects on the human body of exposure to unfavorable temperatures....If direct effects of cold and heat on the human body play an important role, a subsequent question is to what extent such effects result in stress on the circulatory system. This will be examined by distinction of causes of death. It is reasonable to expect that cold- and heat-induced cardiovascular stress increases the death rates of patients with cardiovascular disease more than it does among other patients."
Correspondence: A. E. Kunst, Erasmus University Medical School, Department of Public Health and Social Medicine, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

59:20114 Lafontaine, Pierre. Mortality in Quebec and its socio-sanitary regions: trends from 1976 to 1986. [La mortalite au Quebec et dans les regions socio-sanitaires; evolution de 1976 a 1986.] Collection Etudes et Analyses, No. 13, ISBN 2-550-22574-0. LC 92-144917. Nov 1991. ix, 97 pp. Ministere de la Sante et des Services Sociaux, Direction Generale de la Planification et de l'Evaluation, Service des Etudes Socio-Sanitaires: Quebec, Canada. In Fre.
Trends in mortality in Quebec province, Canada, are analyzed by region for the period 1976-1987, with the main focus on the years 1985-1987. Separate consideration is given to infant mortality, age-specific mortality, and causes of death.
Correspondence: Gouvernement du Quebec, Ministere des Communications, Bibliotheque Administrative, Rez-de-Chaussee, 1056 Rue Conroy, Quebec, Quebec G1R 5EC, Canada. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

59:20115 Lee, I-Min; Paffenbarger, Ralph S. Change in body weight and longevity. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 268, No. 15, Oct 1992. 2,045-9 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"We studied prospectively the effect of body weight change during middle age, independent of the effects of cigarette smoking and physical activity, on the subsequent 12-year mortality of men in the Harvard Alumni Health Study." A total of 11,703 alumni were included in this study. The authors find that "both body weight loss and weight gain are associated with significantly increased mortality from all causes and from coronary heart disease but not from cancer."
Correspondence: I-M. Lee, Harvard University School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20116 Mokyr, Joel. Technological progress and the decline of European mortality. American Economic Review, Vol. 83, No. 2, May 1993. 324-30 pp. Nashville, Tennessee. In Eng.
The relationship between technological change and the decline in mortality in Europe from 1750 to 1914 is explored. The focus is on the impact on mortality of the Industrial Revolution and the accompanying expansion of knowledge.
Correspondence: J. Mokyr, Northwestern University, Department of Economics and History, Evanston, IL 06208. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:20117 Moore, John S. Jack Fisher's "flu": a visitation revisited. Economic History Review, Vol. 46, No. 2, May 1993. 280-307 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This article re-examines Fisher's hypothesis that the English population fell by about 20 per cent in the late 1550s, as a result of bad harvests followed by epidemic influenza, compared to the 5.5 per cent drop subsequently calculated by Wrigley and Schofield. Using all the available English probate series, the population decrease is revised to 16 per cent. The use of probate mortality as an indication of general mortality is considered and justified in the light both of the social coverage of sixteenth-century wills and of nineteenth-century evidence on epidemic mortality, and the reasons for the lack of substantial contemporary comment on the population decrease are explained."
For the article by F. J. Fisher, published in 1965, see 32:1072.
Correspondence: J. S. Moore, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1SS, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:20118 Moore, Patrick S.; Marfin, Anthony A.; Quenemoen, Lynn E.; Gessner, Bradford D.; Ayub, Y. S.; Miller, Daniel S.; Sullivan, Kevin M.; Toole, Michael J. Mortality rates in displaced and resident populations of central Somalia during 1992 famine. Lancet, Vol. 341, No. 8850, Apr 10, 1993. 935-8 pp. Baltimore, Maryland/London, England. In Eng.
"To assess mortality rates and risk factors for mortality, we carried out surveys in the central Somali towns of Afgoi and Baidoa in November and December, 1992. In Baidoa we surveyed displaced persons living in camps; the average daily crude mortality rate was 16.8...per 10,000 population during the 232 days before the survey. An estimated 74% of children under 5 years living in displaced persons camps died during this period. In Afgoi, where both displaced and resident populations were surveyed, the crude mortality rate was 4.7...deaths per 10,000 per day....These mortality rates are among the highest documented for a civilian population over a long period."
Correspondence: P. S. Moore, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, P.O. Box 2087, Fort Collins, CO 80522. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

59:20119 Ng, Edward. Reductions in age-specific mortality among children and seniors in Canada and the United States, 1971-1989. [Recul de la mortalite par age chez les enfants et les aines, au Canada et aux Etats-Unis, 1971-1989.] Health Reports/Rapports sur la Sante, Vol. 4, No. 4, Mar 1992. 367-78 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
"We compared mortality rates for children and seniors in Canada and the United States in 1971 and 1989. Children in Canada experienced a greater decrease in mortality during this period than did all children in the United States. In particular, while mortality rates for both boys and girls in Canada were higher than those for White children in the United States in 1971, in 1989 the rates for Canadian children were lower. Seniors in Canada experienced a similar or lesser reduction in age-specific mortality than did seniors in the United States....These trends in mortality reductions may reflect the fact that free universal Medicare is available for all ages in Canada, while most publicly-funded Medicare entitlements begin at age 65 in the United States."
Correspondence: E. Ng, Statistics Canada, Canadian Centre for Health Information, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20120 Paffenbarger, Ralph S.; Hyde, Robert T.; Wing, Alvin L.; Lee, I-Min; Jung, Dexter L.; Kampert, James B. The association of changes in physical-activity level and other lifestyle characteristics with mortality among men. New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 328, No. 8, Feb 25, 1993. 538-45 pp. Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The authors analyze the association between mortality and changes in the physical activity level of U.S. males. The data concern Harvard University alumni originally interviewed in 1962 or 1967, reinterviewed in 1977, and followed up in 1985. The results indicate that "beginning moderately vigorous sports activity, quitting cigarette smoking, maintaining normal blood pressure, and avoiding obesity were separately associated with lower rates of death from all causes and from coronary heart disease among middle-aged and older men."
Correspondence: R. S. Paffenbarger, Stanford University School of Medicine, Department of Health Research and Policy, HRP Building, Room 113, Stanford, CA 94305-5092. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

59:20121 Pollard, J. H. Heterogeneity, dependence among causes of death, and Gompertz's model. [Heterogenitas, fuggoseg a halalokok kozott es Gompertz.] Demografia, Vol. 35, No. 3-4, 1992. 319-41 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng.
The author develops a mortality model that incorporates heterogeneity and causes of death in order to estimate life expectancy. Gompertz's mortality model is used and evaluated in the analysis. The focus is on providing life expectancy estimates for developed countries.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20122 Riggs, Jack E. The dynamics of aging and mortality in the United States, 1900-1988. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, Vol. 66, No. 1, 1992. 45-57 pp. Limerick, Ireland. In Eng.
Factors affecting the dynamics of aging and mortality in the United States from 1980 to 1988 are analyzed. "A modified method of longitudinal Gompertzian analysis [is] applied to mortality due to stomach cancer, cervical cancer and emphysema. This modified method of longitudinal Gompertzian analysis suggests that the genetic influence upon age-related mortality is essentially the same for both men and women. Moreover, application of this modified method suggests that environmental influences upon age-related mortality in the United States have been declining for the past 20 years for men and for the past 45 years for women."
Correspondence: J. E. Riggs, West Virginia University Health Sciences Center, Department of Neurology, Morgantown, WV 26506. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20123 Salem, Gerard. The geography of mortality and fertility in Pikine (Senegal): uses and limits of civil registration data for African villages. [Geographie de la mortalite et de la natalite a Pikine (Senegal): interets et limites des donnees d'etat civil dans les villes Africaines.] Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 36, No. 10, May 1993. 1,297-311 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The author uses civil registration data to examine levels and trends in mortality and fertility in Pikine, Senegal. He considers seasonal variation and the impact of health programs.
Correspondence: G. Salem, Institut Francais de Recherche pour le Developpement en Cooperation, Maison de la Geographie, 17 Rue Abbe de l'Epee, 34000 Montpellier, France. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:20124 Sawchuk, L. A. Societal and ecological determinants of urban health: a case study of pre-reproductive mortality in 19th century Gibraltar. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 36, No. 7, Apr 1993. 875-92 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"A historical based enquiry of colonial Gibraltar at the turn of the 19th century was conducted in order to assess what factors gave rise to residential variation of pre-reproductive mortality....Using the residential district as the focus of enquiry, stepwise regression results for the period 1879-81...indicated that the number of gallons of potable water per person captured a significant amount of variability in mortality....The percentage of servants in the household, a proxy for wealth/status, proved to be the single most important factor....The complex pattern of mortality at the district and patio level is explained in terms of the development of residential preferences and decentralized nature of vital resources...."
Correspondence: L. A. Sawchuk, University of Toronto, Department of Anthropology, Scarborough Campus, 1265 Military Trail, West Hill, Ontario M1C 1A4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:20125 Schultz, T. Paul. Mortality decline in the low-income world: causes and consequences. American Economic Review, Vol. 83, No. 2, May 1993. 337-42 pp. Nashville, Tennessee. In Eng.
The causes and consequences of the mortality decline that has occurred in developing countries over the course of the twentieth century are reviewed. Influential factors identified include female education and improved nutrition.
Correspondence: T. P. Schultz, Yale University, Box 1987, Yale Station, 27 Hillhouse Avenue, New Haven, CT 06520. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:20126 Sen, Amartya. The economics of life and death. Scientific American, Vol. 268, No. 5, May 1993. 40-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author suggests that mortality data can be used to supplement traditional measures of economic development such as gross national product in order to present a more accurate picture of the economic health of a given country. Examples are taken from around the world, including famine, reduced life expectancy, and excess female mortality in the developing world, and excess black mortality in the United States.
Correspondence: A. Sen, Harvard University, Department of Economics, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SW).

59:20127 Shevyakov, A. A. Victims among the civilian population during World War II. [Zhertvy sredi mirnogo naseleniya v gody otechestvennoi voiny.] Sotsiologicheskie Issledovaniya, No. 11, 1992. 3-17 pp. Moscow, Russia. In Rus.
Using data from the Russian state archives, the author presents estimates of civilian casualties in the USSR during World War II. The estimates are provided by oblast for Belarus, Russia, and the Ukraine, as well as for Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Moldova.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20128 Tabeau, Ewa. Spatial analysis of mortality determinants in Poland in the 1980s. [Przestrzenna analiza uwarunkowan umieralnosci ludnosci Polski w latach osiemdziesiatych.] Monografie i Opracowania, No. 371, 1993. 243 pp. Szkola Glowna Handlowa, Instytut Statystyki i Demografii: Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The socioeconomic determinants of mortality in Poland are analyzed for the period 1980-1987, with attention given to regional differences. The method employed involves the analysis of linear structural relationships. The focus of the study is methodological.
Correspondence: Szkola Glowna Handlowa, Instytut Statystyki i Demografii, Al. Niepodleglosci 162, 02-554 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20129 Tabutin, Dominique. Comparative evolution of mortality in northern Africa from 1960 to the present. [Evolution comparee de la mortalite en Afrique du nord de 1960 a nos jours.] Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 36, No. 10, May 1993. 1,257-65 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"In this paper, the evolution of mortality since 1960 has been reconstructed for Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Egypt. The procedure has been to collect in each country all the existing data (population register, surveys, etc.), to check chronological and spatial cohesion and to estimate reliability....In 1970 life expectancy was only from 50 to 52 years in the region; today it reaches nearly 70 years in Tunisia, 66 years in Algeria and Morocco, and 64 years in Egypt. Infant mortality has decreased considerably....Progress in North Africa during the 1950s and 1960s has resulted in an intermediate position regarding mortality levels."
Correspondence: D. Tabutin, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie, Place Montesquieu 1, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:20130 Takase, Masato. Population, birth, and death in Japan for the period 1890-1920. Jinkogaku Kenkyu/Journal of Population Studies, No. 14, May 1991. 21-34 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
"Japanese mortality statistics since 1872 show upward [trends] in overall mortality until 1920, and thereafter mortality goes down. Whether this was true or just...caused by improvement in [the] death registration rate has been a matter of debate. The author tried to examine the accuracy and completeness of death registration data for the period 1890-1920....[It is found that] registered mortality data for the period 1890-1920 are believed to be highly reliable and would be a valuable source of data for the study of the early stage of mortality transition."
Correspondence: M. Takase, Institute of Public Health, Department of Public Health Demography, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

59:20131 van Hoorn, W. D. Determinants of mortality. [Determinanten van sterfte.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 41, No. 1, Jan 1993. 29-41 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"In this article determinants of mortality [in the Netherlands] are studied....The main results are the following: For all ages women have lower mortality risks than men....Married people live longer than those who are not. However, the cause is not certain....In large cities mortality rates are higher than in small towns (especially due to diseases of the lungs and to narcotics, alcohol and violent causes of death). People with a high socio-economic status have lower mortality risks than those with a low status."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20132 Vigneron, Emmanuel. Geographic aspects of mortality in French Polynesia. [Aspects geographiques de la mortalite en Polynesie Francaise.] Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 36, No. 10, May 1993. 1,339-48 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The author reviews recent trends in mortality in French Polynesia. Despite the rapid decline that has occurred, infant mortality remains higher than in metropolitan France. Significant geographic differences remain between Tahiti and the other islands in the group, with higher mortality in outlying areas.
Correspondence: E. Vigneron, Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Departement de Geographie, 59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:20133 Younoussi, Zourkaleini. General population census, 1988: analysis of final data. An estimation of the level of mortality. [Recensement general de la population, 1988: analyse des donnees definitives. Estimation du niveau de la mortalite.] Feb 1992. 38 pp. Bureau Central du Recensement: Niamey, Niger. In Fre.
This is an analysis of mortality levels in Niger using final data from the 1988 census. It deals separately with general mortality, infant and child mortality, and differential mortality by age, sex, residence, life style, ethnic group, and region.
Correspondence: Bureau Central du Recensement, Ministere du Plan, Niamey, Niger. Location: Encyclopaedia Britannica, Chicago, IL. Source: APLIC Census Network List, No. 135, Mar 1993.

E.2. Prenatal and Perinatal Mortality

Studies dealing primarily with fetal and neonatal mortality, except those dealing with spontaneous abortions, which are classified under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology , and those studies dealing with induced abortions, which are classified under F.4.5. Induced Abortion . Perinatal mortality is defined as mortality occurring between the twenty-eighth week of gestation and the seventh day of life.

59:20134 Baird, Donna D.; Ragan, N. Beth; Wilcox, Allen J.; Weinberg, Clarice R. The relationship between reduced fecundability and subsequent foetal loss. In: Biomedical and demographic determinants of reproduction, edited by Ronald Gray, Henri Leridon, and Alfred Spira. 1993. 329-41 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In this paper we will describe the [epidemiological] methods we have developed for measuring fecundability. Then we present a brief conceptual framework for generating hypotheses regarding the relationships between fecundability and foetal loss and summarize the existing literature. Data from the [U.S.] Collaborative Perinatal Project and the Early Pregnancy Study are used to evaluate the relationship in two very different data-sets."
Correspondence: D. D. Baird, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Epidemiology Branch, Mail Drop A3-05, P.O. Box 12233, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20135 Leslie, Paul W.; Campbell, Kenneth L.; Little, Michael A. Pregnancy loss in nomadic and settled women in Turkana, Kenya: a prospective study. Human Biology, Vol. 65, No. 2, Apr 1993. 237-54 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
"We report here the initial results of a prospective study of fetal loss among the Turkana of northwest Kenya. Over 300 nomadic and settled women provided early morning urine samples for 3 consecutive days....Follow-up surveys revealed that 45% of all pregnancies among settled women were lost; nearly 70% of pregnancies detected in the first trimester were lost. In contrast, none of the nomadic women experienced fetal loss....Anthropometric data suggest that nutritional stress may contribute to the difference between the two populations. There is also some indication that risk of fetal loss in the settled population is associated with parity."
Correspondence: P. W. Leslie, University of North Carolina, Department of Anthropology, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3115. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20136 Simpson, Joe L.; Carson, Sandra. Biological causes of foetal loss. In: Biomedical and demographic determinants of reproduction, edited by Ronald Gray, Henri Leridon, and Alfred Spira. 1993. 287-315 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"We shall first consider the frequency of foetal wastage during various stages of gestation. Thereafter, we shall review the causes of spontaneous abortions, emphasizing factors that serve as potential confounding variables." Consideration is given to chromosomal abnormality, hormonal imbalances, uterine anomaly, infection, disease, environmental chemicals, trauma, psychological factors, and maternal illness.
Correspondence: J. L. Simpson, University of Tennessee, Center for Health Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Memphis, TN 38103. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20137 Wilcox, Allen J.; Weinberg, Clarice R.; Baird, Donna D.; Canfield, Robert E. Endocrine detection of conception and early foetal loss. In: Biomedical and demographic determinants of reproduction, edited by Ronald Gray, Henri Leridon, and Alfred Spira. 1993. 316-28 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors present "new data on the detection of early foetal loss prior to the first missed menstrual period using a sensitive assay for human chorionic gonadotrophin hormone (hCG) excreted in the urine. In a cohort of 221 [U.S.] women, the frequency of unrecognized early losses detected by hCG assay was 22 per cent; the rates were 19 per cent for women under 30 and 25 per cent for women over 30 years of age. Total pregnancy losses (recognized and unrecognized) were 31 per cent of conceptions."
Correspondence: A. J. Wilcox, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Epidemiology Branch, Mail Drop A3-05, P.O. Box 12233, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20138 Zhang, Kaining; Davin, Dellia. Neonatal mortality rate, fertility and their relationship in twenty counties of south-west China. Health and Population: Perspectives and Issues, Vol. 15, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1992. 39-51 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng. with sum. in Hin.
"This paper looks at the neonatal mortality rate (NMR) and fertility in twenty counties in South-West China and examines the relationship between them. It finds both NMR and fertility were higher than the national average in the counties surveyed, and there were significant regional differences."
Correspondence: K. Zhang, Kunming Medical College, Department of Health Statistics, Kunming 650031, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.3. Infant and Childhood Mortality

Studies of infant mortality under one year of age, including neonatal mortality occurring after the seventh day of life, and childhood mortality after one year of age. The subject of infanticide, deliberate or implied, is also classified under this heading.

59:20139 Aaby, Peter; Andersen, Marc; Knudsen, Kim. Excess mortality after early exposure to measles. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 22, No. 1, Feb 1993. 156-62 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The impact of exposure to measles before 6 months of age has been investigated by comparing survival to 5 years of age for exposed children and controls in an urban (Bandim) and a rural (Quinhamel) area of Guinea-Bissau....The difference in mortality remained equally strong when socioeconomic, demographic and cultural background factors were taken into consideration....In order to assess both the generality and the size of the problem, we have conducted matched follow-up studies to examine the long-term survival of children exposed to measles in other epidemics in Guinea-Bissau. We have used information from the measles surveillance in an urban area, Bandim, between 1980 and 1983 and in a rural area, Quinhamel, between 1979 and 1983. In both areas, survival to the age of 5 years was investigated in June 1988."
Correspondence: P. Aaby, Statens Seruminstitut, Department of Epidemiology, Artillerivej 5, DK-2300 Copenhagen S, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20140 Akoto, Eliwo. Sociocultural determinants of child mortality in Black Africa: hypotheses and the search for an explanation. [Determinants socio-culturels de la mortalite des enfants en Afrique noire: hypotheses et recherche d'explication.] Institut de Demographie Monographie, No. 4, ISBN 2-87209-265-X. 1993. 269 pp. Academia: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre.
This is an analysis of differences in child mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa, with a focus on the social and cultural factors affecting mortality. The author suggests that Africans are affected to varying degrees by two substantially different cultures, that of their community of origin and the foreign culture that may influence them where they live and work. Both cultures involve behavior that affects child mortality, and the mortality differences observed can largely be explained by differences in the mix of cultural factors that predominate in different circumstances. Examples are provided from Cameroon, Kenya, and Senegal.
Correspondence: Academia-Erasme, 25 Grand'Rue, bte 115, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20141 Alter, George. Infant and child mortality in the United States and Canada. PIRT Working Paper, No. 92-10, Nov 1992. 23 pp. Indiana University, Population Institute for Research and Training [PIRT]: Bloomington, Indiana. In Eng.
This study is concerned with historical aspects of infant and child mortality in North America and is based on a review of the published literature.
Correspondence: Indiana University, Population Institute for Research and Training, Memorial Hall East 220, Bloomington, IN 47405. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20142 Bicego, George T.; Boerma, J. Ties. Maternal education and child survival: a comparative study of survey data from 17 countries. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 36, No. 9, May 1993. 1,207-27 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"A union analytical methodology was applied to survey data from 17 developing countries with the aim of addressing a series of questions regarding the positive statistical association between maternal education and the health and survival of children under age two. As has been observed previously, the education advantage in survival was less pronounced during than after the neonatal period. Strong but varying education effects on postneonatal risk, undernutrition during the 3-23 month period, and non-use of health services were shown....Other issues concerning the roles of the pattern of family formation and differential physical access to health services are explored and discussed."
Correspondence: G. T. Bicego, Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 8850 Stanford Boulevard, Columbia, MD 21045. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:20143 Brehm, Uwe. Regional inequalities of child mortality in Peninsular Malaysia with special reference to the differentials between Perlis and Kuala Terengganu. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 36, No. 10, May 1993. 1,331-4 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
Data collected in a case-control study in Perlis and Kuala Terengganu in 1987 are used to examine the role of socioeconomic factors in differences in child mortality in Malaysia. Particular attention is given to the impact of the provision of family planning and preventive medical services.
Correspondence: U. Brehm, University of Kassel, FB 6, Department of Geography, P.O. Box 101380, 3500 Kassel, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:20144 Dackam Ngatchou, Richard; Gubry, Patrick; Ngwe, Emmanuel. The geographic inequalities of mortality in Cameroon. [Les inegalites geographiques de la mortalite au Cameroun.] Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 36, No. 10, May 1993. 1,285-90 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The authors examine spatial inequalities in infant mortality in Cameroon to illustrate the research difficulties presented by the country's geographic diversity. The implications for health policy are discussed.
Correspondence: R. Dackam Ngatchou, FNUAP, BP 154, Dakar, Senegal. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:20145 Frisbie, W. Parker; Forbes, Douglas; Rogers, Richard G. Neonatal and postneonatal mortality as proxies for cause of death: evidence from ethnic and longitudinal comparisons. Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 73, No. 3, Sep 1992. 535-49 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"Past research in infant mortality has often employed timing of death as a proxy for cause of death. More recent research has questioned the validity of the assumptions underlying this practice. The authors expand on the question through use of a 51-year data set of consistently coded infant death records, which also allows comparison of Mexican American and Anglo infants. Timing is generally not a valid proxy of cause structure, but important variation over time and by ethnicity sheds additional light on mortality transition differentials....The mortality data for this research are extracted from a larger [U.S.] data base constructed from original vital records made available by the San Antonio Metropolitan Health District for the comparative study of mortality trends...."
Correspondence: W. P. Frisbie, University of Texas, Population Research Center, Main 1800, Austin, TX 78712-1088. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:20146 Hart, Nicky. Famine, maternal nutrition and infant mortality: a re-examination of the Dutch Hunger Winter. Population Studies, Vol. 47, No. 1, Mar 1993. 27-46 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"During the Dutch Hunger Winter (1945), a unique, documented example of mass famine in an industrialized population, total reproductive loss (fetal and infant mortality) among most exposed mothers remained relatively low. This is explained by highly favourable fetal mortality and unfavourable infant mortality. The author traces the pattern of low fetal mortality to the higher levels of 'embodied health status' of famine mothers. The high infant mortality of the famine area testifies to the severity of the food and fuel shortage, yet another factor held down the rate of stillbirth. This other factor, it is argued, has a socio-economic character, it is the intrinsic 'embodied' nutritional status of the regional population, arising from favourable opportunities for growth and development among successive generations of mothers. This explanation highlights the importance of maternal vitality, (a synthetic, historically variable and culturally determined phenomenon) as a neglected feature of historical demography."
Correspondence: N. Hart, University of California, Department of Sociology, Hilgard Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90024. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20147 Hartmann, Michael. Modeling childhood mortality. Journal of Official Statistics, Vol. 5, No. 3, 1989. 241-51 pp. Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"A new parametric model of child mortality is introduced and it is shown that it gives close fits to observed childhood survival functions. The model can be used for a variety of tasks including graduation or representation of childhood mortality and as an aid in indirect estimation of child mortality. The model is illustrated partly in terms of the survival function partly in terms of the mortality intensity."
Correspondence: M. Hartmann, Statistics Sweden, Population Research Office, Stockholm S-115 81, Sweden. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

59:20148 Iyun, B. Folasade. Women's status and childhood mortality in two contrasting areas in south-western Nigeria: a preliminary analysis. GeoJournal, Vol. 26, No. 1, Jan 1992. 43-52 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between some women's status factors and differentials in probability of child survival in the south-western part of Nigeria. The present analysis is based on the results of the study of children of some 4,677 women in two towns contrasting geographical zones. The results of the study indicate the significant role of age of mother at first marriage and BCG vaccination while the influence of maternal education was inconsistent at both household and regional levels. Likewise, the possession of certain household items such as dustbin [and] dining table seem to enhance the survival of children in the urban centres."
Correspondence: B. F. Iyun, University of Ibadan, Department of Geography, Ibadan, Nigeria. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

59:20149 Kishor, Sunita. "May God give sons to all": gender and child mortality in India. American Sociological Review, Vol. 58, No. 2, Apr 1993. 247-65 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Using cross-sectional data from more than 350 districts in India in 1981, I test whether female labor force participation and kinship structures explain gender differences in the mortality of children ages 0 to 5. The relationship of mortality differentials to economic development, socioeconomic stratification, rice cultivation, and region is also examined. Results suggest that kinship structures and female labor force participation are important factors in gender differences in child mortality and these factors reinforce each other to produce especially high sex differentials in mortality....Gender differences in child mortality between the North and South regions of India remain unexplained."
Correspondence: S. Kishor, University of Maryland, Department of Sociology, Center on Population, Gender, and Social Inequality, College Park, MD 20742. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20150 Kunstadter, Peter; Kunstadter, Sally L.; Podhisita, Chai; Leepreecha, Prasit. Demographic variables in fetal and child mortality: Hmong in Thailand. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 36, No. 9, May 1993. 1,109-20 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper briefly describes the health care and socioeconomic situation of one of Thailand's 'hill-tribe' minority groups, the Hmong, and considers in detail, evidence relating to the widespread conventional wisdom concerning the relationship of fertility patterns with fetal and young child deaths. Because fertility patterns fail to explain the observed changes in mortality we also consider status of women, health care variables and socioeconomic changes."
Correspondence: P. Kunstadter, University of California, Institute for Health Policy Studies, San Francisco, CA 94143. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:20151 Lakshmamma, T.; Reddy, B. Prabhakara. Child survival and family planning acceptance. Demography India, Vol. 20, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1991. 187-97 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The objective of this paper is to analyse the relationship between child survival and acceptance of family planning....This study is conducted in Prakasam district of Andhra Pradesh [India]." Consideration is given to attitudes toward family size and child replacement, child mortality, fertility, and child health. The impact of mother's knowledge about health or child survival is also discussed.
Correspondence: T. Lakshmamma, Sri Venkateswara University, Department of Population Studies, Tirupati 517 502, Andhra Pradesh, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20152 Maksudov, Sergei. On infant mortality in Turkmenistan. Central Asia Monitor, No. 1, 1992. 26-30 pp. Fair Haven, Vermont. In Eng.
Recent trends in infant mortality in Turkmenistan are analyzed using a variety of Soviet sources.
Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

59:20153 Mammo, Abate. Factors responsible for childhood mortality variation in rural Ethiopia. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 25, No. 2, Apr 1993. 223-38 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper uses the 1981 National Rural Demographic Survey to document childhood mortality variations in rural areas of Ethiopia. Four significant findings are highlighted. (1) Health status of parents is identified as an important determinant of childhood mortality. (2) Religion, region of residence and ethnicity interact in their effects on childhood mortality and the effect of ethnicity varies in different regions for the same religion; in some areas ethnicity may serve as a proxy for economic and cultural differences. (3) Childhood mortality is inversely related to literacy status of parents, which may also reflect socioeconomic status. (4) The data show a clear difference in childhood mortality between the famine-prone areas and the rest."
Correspondence: A. Mammo, New Jersey State Department of Health, 129 East Hanover Street, Trenton, NJ 08650. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20154 Mason, James O. Reducing infant mortality in the United States through "Healthy Start" Public Health Reports, Vol. 106, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1991. 479-83 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author reviews current trends in infant mortality in the United States. Attention is given to the importance of early prenatal care and to the behavioral and cultural factors related to differences in infant mortality rates among ethnic groups.
Correspondence: OASH Office of Communications, News Division, 717-H Hubert Humphrey Building, 200 Independence Avenue SW, Washington, D.C. 20201. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20155 Paim, Jairnilson S.; Costa, Maria da C. Decline and unevenness of infant mortality in Salvador, Brazil, 1980-1988. Bulletin of the Pan American Health Organization, Vol. 27, No. 1, 1993. 1-14 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Data relating to infant mortality in Salvador, Brazil, were analyzed in order to determine how infant mortality evolved in various parts of the city during the period 1980-1988. This analysis showed sharp drops in the numbers of infant deaths, proportional infant mortality (infant deaths as a percentage of total deaths), and the infant mortality coefficient (infant deaths per thousand live births) during the study period despite deteriorating economic conditions. It is also suggested that while these declines occurred throughout the city, the overall distribution of infant mortality in different reporting zones remained uneven."
Correspondence: J. S. Paim, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Departamento de Medicina Preventiva da Faculdade de Medicina, Rua Padre Feijo, 29 4o andar 40140, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20156 Park, Chai Bin; Horiuchi, Brian Y. Ethnicity, birth weight, and maternal age in infant mortality: Hawaiian experience. American Journal of Human Biology, Vol. 5, No. 1, 1993. 101-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"To investigate the role of ethnicity, birth weight, and maternal age in infant mortality, separately in neonatal and postneonatal phases, this study used linked birth and infant death certificates for a 10-year period, 1979-1988, in the State of Hawaii. Log-linear analysis was applied to the cross-classified tables generated from the two files. Birth weight was a strong factor both in neonatal and postneonatal phases, but ethnicity was a factor only in the latter phase. Maternal age was not significant in infant survival in either phase, but it was strongly associated with the other two factors. Among the nine major ethnic groups residing in the state, black and Hawaiian women were more likely to have infants dying during the postneonatal period."
Correspondence: C. B. Park, University of Hawaii, School of Public Health, 1960 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96822. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20157 Paul, Bimal K. Causes of infant mortality in rural Bangladesh: implications for policy. Papers and Proceedings of Applied Geography Conferences, Vol. 14, 1991. 189-97 pp. Binghamton, New York. In Eng.
An attempt is made to identify the causes of infant mortality in rural Bangladesh. Data are from a sample survey carried out in selected rural areas in 1984, and concern reported causes of infant deaths from 1976 to 1983. Causes of neonatal and postneonatal mortality are also analyzed. The policy implications of the analysis are examined in detail.
Correspondence: B. K. Paul, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506. Location: Dartmouth College Library, Hanover, NH.

59:20158 Pison, G.; Trape, J. F.; Lefebvre, M.; Enel, C. Rapid decline in child mortality in a rural area of Senegal. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 22, No. 1, Feb 1993. 72-80 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Retrospective and prospective demographic and health data collected [in]...a rural area of Senegal, show that the probability of dying before the age of 5 years declined from 350 to 81 deaths per [thousand] livebirths in the last 25 years....The drop in mortality mainly results from improved access to new and efficient health services--a dispensary and a maternity clinic--and from growth surveillance, health education, vaccination and malaria programmes initiated in the 1960s and 1970s."
Correspondence: G. Pison, Musee de l'Homme, Laboratoire d'Anthropologie Biologique, 17 place du Trocadero, 75116 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20159 Quine, M. P.; Quine, S. Estimation of infant mortality rates categorized by social class for an Australian population. Applied Statistics, Vol. 42, No. 2, 1993. 333-8 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper reports a method of deriving simultaneous confidence intervals for [Australian] infant mortality rates based on a birth sample rather than the birth population. The large sample size employed enables the use of asymptotic multivariate techniques....[The authors find that] where the population distribution of a characteristic such as social class is not known, confidence intervals can be estimated for rates based on the distribution of this characteristic in a sample of that population."
Correspondence: M. P. Quine, University of Sydney, Department of Mathematical Statistics, NSW 2006, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

59:20160 Sinha, U. P. On the measurement of post neonatal mortality: a technical note. Demography India, Vol. 20, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1991. 311-2 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author presents a model to measure postneonatal mortality and briefly discusses aspects of a similar method suggested by C. L. Chiang.
For the article by Chiang, published in 1984, see 50:10018.
Correspondence: U. P. Sinha, International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Bombay 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20161 United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] (Atlanta, Georgia). Infant mortality--United States, 1990. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 42, No. 9, Mar 12, 1993. 161-5 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
"This report summarizes 1990 [U.S.] infant mortality data based on information from birth and death certificates compiled by CDC's National Center for Health Statistics' (NCHS) Vital Statistics System and compares findings with those for 1989."
For the report concerning 1989, see 58:10156.
Correspondence: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20162 Wadhera, Surinder; Strachan, Jill. Selected infant mortality and related statistics, Canada, 1921-1990. [Statistiques choisies sur la mortalite infantile et statistiques connexes, Canada, 1921-1990.] Health Reports/Rapports sur la Sante, Vol. 4, No. 4, Mar 1992. 429-34 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
The authors provide data from the third in a series of publications presenting historical demographic statistics for Canada. In this article, trends in infant, perinatal, neonatal, and maternal mortality are briefly discussed for the period 1921-1990.
Correspondence: S. Wadhera, Statistics Canada, Canadian Centre for Health Information, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20163 Zenger, Elizabeth. Siblings' neonatal mortality risks and birth spacing in Bangladesh. OPR Working Paper, No. 92-8, Nov 1992. 20, [2] pp. Princeton University, Office of Population Research [OPR]: Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
"This paper studies familial clustering of neonatal mortality in Matlab, Bangladesh, and its relationship to birth-spacing effects on mortality....The data are from the Demographic Surveillance System...[and concern] all women who were present in the 1974 census and had at least one birth after the 1974 census."
Correspondence: Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.4. Mortality at Other Ages

Studies of age-specific mortality and of mortality in special groups defined by age.

59:20164 Furner, Sylvia E.; Maurer, Jeffrey; Rosenberg, Harry. Mortality. Vital and Health Statistics, Series 3: Analytic and Epidemiological Studies, No. 27, Jan 1993. 77-112 pp. Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
This report presents extensive data on causes of death among the elderly in the United States over the period 1960-1986. The statistics concern those over 55 years of age and are presented by sex, race, and age. A brief analysis is also included.
Correspondence: S. E. Furner, University of Illinois, P.O.B. 4348, Chicago, IL 60680. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20165 Golemanov, Nikolai. Some predictions of possible changes in the mortality of Bulgarian men by the year 2000. [Za vazmozhnite promeni v smartnostta na mazhete v Balgariya kam dvekhilyadnata godina.] Naselenie, No. 6, 1992. 88-96 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
"Dynamic sequences of general mortality rates of Bulgarian men for the period 1964-1991 are represented. Trends are evaluated by the statistical significance of linear regression coefficients of every sequence. Trends of mortality rates by [social] classes...are also represented. It is found...that the general mortality of Bulgarian men as well as their mortality from practically all leading causes had significantly increased during the period....Based on these trends, the author foresees that today's regimen of male mortality in Bulgaria most probably will remain unchanged at least till the end of the current century...."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20166 Makinson, Carolyn. Estimates of adult mortality in Burundi. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 25, No. 2, Apr 1993. 169-86 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Adult mortality in Burundi during the 1970s and 1980s is estimated using data from the 1987 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). Estimates from traditional indirect methods are compared with those from the inter-survey method using data on the number of years since the respondent's parent died. Life expectancy at birth was estimated as 48.55 years for males and 51.23 years for females."
Correspondence: C. Makinson, Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, 140 East 62nd Street, New York, NY 10021. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.5. Life Tables

Studies that present actual life table data and all studies concerned primarily with life tables, including the appropriate methodological studies. Life table studies that are concerned with topics other than mortality are classified under the appropriate heading and cross-referenced to this heading.

59:20167 Compilation Committee of Classified (Regional) Model Life Tables of China (Beijing, China). The classified (regional) model life tables of China. ISBN 7-5074-0566-4. 1991. 263 pp. China City Publishing House: Beijing, China. In Eng; Chi.
Model life tables for China are presented that are based primarily on data from the 1982 census. 360 model life tables are provided for both males and females with life expectancies ranging from age 40 to 75. These tables are divided into five regional categories covering southwest China, middle and eastern China, north China, northeast China, and Xinjiang autonomous region.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.6. Differential Mortality

Studies on the ratio of mortality in different subgroups of a population, classified according to certain criteria, such as sex, social class, occupation, and marital status. Also includes studies on excess mortality and comparative mortality.

59:20168 Bahr, Jurgen; Wehrhahn, Rainer. Life expectancy and infant mortality in Latin America. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 36, No. 10, May 1993. 1,373-82 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This is a general review of differential mortality in Latin America that considers causes of differences within countries as well as differences among them. The development of primary and secondary health care is identified as a critical factor associated with reduced rates of mortality, particularly with regard to marginal urban and rural populations.
Correspondence: J. Bahr, University of Kiel, Department of Geography, Olshausenstrasse 40, D-2300 Kiel 1, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:20169 Bellini, Pierantonio; Dalla Zuanna, Gianpiero; Marsili, Marco. Trends in geographical differential mortality in Italy (1970-90): tradition and change. Genus, Vol. 48, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1992. 155-82 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"The aim of this paper is to study [sex,] age and cause differential mortality in the 95 Italian provinces during the last twenty years...." Tabular data on causes of death are presented and compared for regions in Italy and between Italy and the international community.
Correspondence: P. Bellini, Universita degli Studi, Dipartimento di Scienze Statistiche, Via 8 Febbraio 2, 35122 Padua, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20170 Carter, Lawrence R.; Lee, Ronald D. Modeling and forecasting U.S. sex differentials in mortality. International Journal of Forecasting, Special Issue, Vol. 8, No. 3, Nov 1992. 393-411 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper examines differentials in observed and forecasted sex-specific life expectancies and longevity in the United States from 1900 to 2065. Mortality models are developed and used to generate long-run forecasts, with confidence intervals that extend recent work by Lee and Carter (1992). These results are compared for forecast accuracy with univariate naive forecasts of life expectancies and those prepared by the Actuary of the Social Security Administration."
Correspondence: L. R. Carter, University of Oregon, Department of Sociology, Eugene, OR 97403. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20171 Goldman, Noreen. Marriage selection and mortality patterns: inferences and fallacies. Demography, Vol. 30, No. 2, May 1993. 189-208 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Researchers have long wondered whether marital-status differences in mortality arise largely from selection mechanisms or from causal processes typically known as marriage protection....In this paper, a simple mathematical simulation model is used to demonstrate that many inferences derived from observed patterns are simply not justified....We focus on two types of approaches, and examine how several scholars have applied each to draw conclusions about the importance of marriage selection in producing the excess mortality of the single population. The first approach is based on age patterns of mortality differentials; the second, on the direction and strength of the relationship between the magnitude of the mortality differential and the relative size of the single population."
Correspondence: N. Goldman, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20172 Iyun, B. Folasade. The geographical inequalities in mortality in Africa. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 36, No. 10, May 1993. 1,243-5 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper reviews the progress that has been made in studies on geographic differentials of mortality in Africa....[The author] calls on geographers to exploit ways of utilizing the enormous clinic-based data in the continent."
Correspondence: B. F. Iyun, University of Ibadan, Department of Geography, Ibadan, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:20173 Lopez Rios, O.; Mompart, A.; Wunsch, G. The health care system and regional mortality: a causal analysis. [Systeme de soins et mortalite regionale: une analyse causale.] European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 8, No. 4, 1992. 363-79 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"We examine the impact of the health care system on regional adult mortality differences in Spain, distinguishing between the demand and supply of health care. We have used a covariance analysis model, fitted to the data using LISREL 7. The distinction made between supply and demand of medical care leads to a significant spatial impact of the use of the health care system on adult mortality."
Correspondence: G. Wunsch, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie, 1 place Montesquieu, BP 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20174 Lundberg, Olle. The impact of childhood living conditions on illness and mortality in adulthood. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 36, No. 8, Apr 1993. 1,047-52 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The relationships between economic and social problems in childhood and illness and mortality in adulthood are examined using data on a representative 1968 sample of the Swedish population born between 1906 and 1951 who were reinterviewed in 1981. The results show that children exposed to economic as well as social problems have higher risks of both morbidity and mortality in adulthood, with conflict within the family a major factor. They also suggest that an unhealthy life style triggered by childhood conditions is the most likely explanation for this, rather than a biologically increased susceptibility to illness caused directly by childhood problems.
Correspondence: O. Lundberg, Stockholm University, Swedish Institute for Social Research, S-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:20175 Marshall, Stephen W.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Pearce, Neil; Borman, Barry. Social class differences in mortality from diseases amenable to medical intervention in New Zealand. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 22, No. 2, Apr 1993. 255-61 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Social class differences in mortality from causes of death amenable to medical intervention were examined. All deaths in New Zealand males aged 15-64 years during the periods 1975-1977 and 1985-1987 were identified. Strong social class gradients in mortality from causes of death amenable to medical intervention were observed during both periods. Furthermore, social class inequalities were more pronounced for amenable causes of mortality than for non-amenable causes. However, a marked decline in the age-standardized mortality rate from amenable causes was observed, with the rate falling by 30% over the 10-year study period. This decline was twice as large as the drop in the non-amenable mortality rate. Despite the fall in the death rate from amenable causes, social class inequalities in mortality persisted among New Zealand men, with the lowest socioeconomic group experiencing a death rate from amenable causes of mortality that was 3.5 times higher than men in the highest socioeconomic group."
Correspondence: S. W. Marshall, Otago Medical School, Injury Prevention Research Unit, Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, P.O. Box 913, Dunedin, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20176 Orihuela-Egoavil, Emilio F. Regional and socioeconomic differences in mortality in Latin America. [Disparites regionales et socio-economiques de la mortalite en Amerique Latine.] Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 36, No. 10, May 1993. 1, 357-65 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"Differences in life expectancy between various countries of Latin America decreased considerably between 1960 and 1979. More recently, this decrease has slowed down in the 1980s. Disparities between Latin American countries remain considerable. Indeed, some countries are near European standards, others are more similar to some countries of sub-Saharan Africa with low life expectancy. Statistical analysis has demonstrated that after 1960, disparities are associated with economic factors, life expectancy is lower than 64 years; with cultural factors life expectancy is higher. According to the results of a factoral analysis, it is possible to classify countries into six groups with regard to life expectancy."
Correspondence: E. F. Orihuela-Egoavil, 1006 Belles Portes, Apt. 90, 14200 Herouville Saint Clair, France. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:20177 Sharif, A. H. M. Raihan; Huq, Sheikh Md. Monzurul; Mesbah-us-Saleheen. Spatial patterns of mortality in Bangladesh. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 36, No. 10, May 1993. 1,325-30 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
Geographic differences in mortality in Bangladesh are calculated using indirect estimation techniques and available official data. The authors briefly explore the relationship between occupation and mortality.
Correspondence: A. H. M. R. Sharif, Jahangirnagar University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography, Savar, Dhaka 1342, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:20178 Valkonen, Tapani; Martelin, Tuija; Rimpela, Arja; Notkola, Veijo; Savela, Soili. Socio-economic mortality differences in Finland 1981-90. Vaesto/Befolkning/Population 1993, No. 1, ISBN 951-47-7022-6. Jan 1993. 100 pp. Tilastokeskus: Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"This study describes socio-economic differences in mortality and related changes in Finland primarily during the period 1981-90. The study follows an earlier report concerning the development of mortality according to education and occupational class during the period 1971-85....The 1990 report dealt with mortality differences in three separate age groups: children aged 5 to 14, middle-aged persons (35-64) and elderly persons (60 and above). These groups are also included in the present study. In addition, mortality data are now provided for infants under the age of 1 and young people aged 15 to 34."
For a related report by Valkonen et al., published in 1990, see 57:20180.
Correspondence: Tilastokeskus, PL 504, 00101 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20179 VandenHeuvel, Audrey. Mortality and morbidity trends among American veterans: explanatory perspectives. Carolina Population Center Paper, No. 89-8, Dec 1989. 22 pp. University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center: Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
Mortality and morbidity differentials among U.S. World War II and Korean War veterans are examined by rank and by prisoner-of-war status.
Correspondence: University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square, 143 West Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20180 Verhasselt, Yola; Pyle, Gerald F. Geographical inequalities of mortality in developing countries. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 36, No. 10, May 1993. 1,239-382 pp. Pergamon Press: Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng; Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Most of the 18 studies in this issue were presented at a joint conference of the International Geographical Union's Commissions on Health and Development and Population Geography, held in Lille, France, in April 1990. The focus is on geographical aspects of differential mortality in developing countries. The papers are in English or French; summaries are provided in English for the French-language articles.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Pergamon Press, Pergamon House, Bampfylde Street, Exeter EX1 2AH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:20181 Veron, Jacques. Geographic inequalities in mortality in south Asia, Southeast Asia, and east Asia. [L'inegalite geographique devant la mort en Asie du sud, du sud-est et de l'est.] Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 36, No. 10, May 1993. 1,313-7 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The author analyzes and compares mortality levels among the countries of eastern, southern, and Southeast Asia. He concludes that the "various levels of development of the countries under consideration (examined through three variables: income per capita, urbanization and education) do not explain spatial inequality of mortality very well. In order to understand the disparities better, the macro-approach should be supplemented by a micro-approach."
Correspondence: J. Veron, Centre Francais sur la Population et le Developpement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Medecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:20182 Wannamethee, Goya; Shaper, A. Gerald; Macfarlane, Peter W. Heart rate, physical activity, and mortality from cancer and other noncardiovascular diseases. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 137, No. 7, Apr 1, 1993. 735-48 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"In this study of [7,735] middle-aged British men, resting heart rate was strongly associated with an increased risk of noncardiovascular mortality, particularly cancer mortality. This relation appeared to be independent of smoking, physical activity, and underlying ill health. Although the nature of the association is unclear, it appears that men with elevated heart rates are at greater risk of death, particularly from cancer, even among nonsmokers. There is also some suggestion that high levels of physical activity may be associated with lower risks of lung cancer and digestive tract cancer."
Correspondence: G. Wannamethee, Royal Free Hospital School of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, London NW3 2PF, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

E.7. Mortality by Cause

Studies of demographic relevance on causes of death. Studies of morbidity and of public health measures are included only if they relate specifically to mortality. Also included are maternal mortality and comparisons of causes.

59:20183 Aziz, Makki M. Spatial patterns of exogenous mortality in Kuwait. Geographical Review of Japan, Series B, Vol. 63, No. 2, 1990. 188-97 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng. with sum. in Jpn.
"Exogenous causes [of death]...represent a serious threat to health in Kuwait, where they accounted for over 40 percent of the total mortality in 1985. This paper is concerned with the spatial distribution of these diseases. It will also help to reflect the influence of various social, economic, and demographic factors on the patterns of distribution. Mortality rates are calculated for 100,000 persons of the country's two communities: Kuwaitis and non-Kuwaitis....In some parts of the country, and the Capital governorate in particular, nearly half of the deaths were caused by parasitic diseases. Other major causes are tuberculosis and intestinal infections....Death tolls among Kuwaiti nationals are more than twice those of non-Kuwaitis."
Correspondence: M. M. Aziz, University of Kuwait, Department of Geography, Safat 13096, Kuwait. Location: Yale University Library, New Haven, CT.

59:20184 Bock, Steffen. Methodological problems of analyzing cause-specific mortality rates--the case of Panama City. [Methodische Probleme bei der Analyse von todesursachenspezifischen Sterbeziffern--dargestellt am Beispiel von Panama-Stadt.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 18, No. 2, 1992. 229-46 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
Problems in mortality data analysis and classification by cause of death are discussed. "With the example of Panama City, a Monte-Carlo-simulation is presented which allows for the analysis of mortality by specific causes of death....It [is] shown for the administrative districts of Panama City that because of good medical care available in every city district the social class differences between the districts had a negligible effect on most cause-specific mortality rates and infant mortality."
Correspondence: S. Bock, Universitat Kiel, Geographisches Institut, Olshausenstrasse 40, 2300 Kiel 1, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20185 Bulatao, Rodolfo A.; Stephens, Patience W. Global estimates and projections of mortality by cause, 1970-2015. Policy Research Working Paper: Population, Health, and Nutrition, No. WPS 1007, Oct 1992. iv, 83 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors present mortality estimates "based on data from country reports to the World Health Organization and regression models."
Correspondence: World Bank, Population and Human Resources Department, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

59:20186 Cullen, Kevin J.; Knuiman, Matthew W.; Ward, Nicholas J. Alcohol and mortality in Busselton, Western Australia. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 137, No. 2, Jan 15, 1993. 242-8 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
The authors examine the relationship between alcohol consumption and mortality. "They analyzed 23-year mortality (1966-1989) in 2,171 subjects aged 40 years [or older] from a Busselton, Western Australia, prospective study. The analysis revealed significant inverse associations between alcohol consumption and mortality, with trends of decreasing mortality shown from nondrinkers to mild drinkers to moderate drinkers....Adjustment for baseline coronary disease risk factors strengthened these trends in the relative risks observed in both women and men."
Correspondence: K. J. Cullen, Health Centre, Mill Road, Busselton, Western Australia 6280, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

59:20187 Eades, Carol A.; Brace, Christopher; Osei, Lawrence; LaGuardia, Katherine D. Traditional birth attendants and maternal mortality in Ghana. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 36, No. 11, Jun 1993. 1,503-7 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The impact of trained traditional birth attendants (TBAs) on maternal mortality is assessed using data on 37 TBAs trained during the Danfa Rural Health Project and currently practicing in a rural area of Ghana near Accra. The authors note that TBAs frequently perform the high-risk deliveries they have been taught to refer to higher-level care. Reasons for referral refusal include financial limitations, lack of transportation, or patient's fear of treatment by medical personnel.
Correspondence: C. A. Eades, University of California, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, San Francisco, CA 94122. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:20188 Egunjobi, Layi. Spatial distribution of mortality from leading notifiable diseases in Nigeria. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 36, No. 10, May 1993. 1,267-71 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This study shows that a total of 36 notifiable diseases account for nearly all the reported deaths in Nigeria. When ranked by magnitude, measles, malaria, pneumonia, tetanus, dysentery and tuberculosis together account for 85% of all deaths. The objective of this paper is to gain an insight into the geographical distribution of deaths arising from these six leading diseases using the administrative states as the spatial framework. The data were obtained from the Statistical Unit of the Federal Ministry of Health and the emerging pattern of mortality is highlighted. An attempt is also made to identify factors that explain the observed variations among the states and the contiguous geographical regions in the country."
Correspondence: L. Egunjobi, University of Ibadan, Geography Department, Centre for Urban and Regional Planning, Ibadan, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:20189 Faundes, Anibal; Cecatti, Jose G. Maternal mortality: an avoidable tragedy. [Morte materna: uma tragedia evitavel.] Saude da Mulher, ISBN 85-268-0197-X. 1991. 217 pp. Editora da UNICAMP: Campinas, Brazil. In Por.
This is a collection of works on maternal mortality in Brazil. The papers are divided into sections concerning how to improve data quality, method of delivery and maternal health, the health care system, prevention of maternal mortality, and abortion and contraception. A section is devoted to the city of Botucatu.
Correspondence: Editora da Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Rua Cecilio Feltrin 253, Cidade Universitaria, Barao Geraldo, CEP 13083, Campinas, SP, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20190 Fingerhut, Lois A. Firearm mortality among children, youth, and young adults 1-34 years of age, trends and current status: United States, 1985-90. Advance Data from Vital and Health Statistics, No. 231, Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 93-1250. Mar 23, 1993. 20 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
This report uses recent data for 1985-1990 to update a previous report on firearm mortality among children and young adults in the United States. The focus is on race and sex differences in homicide and suicide associated with firearms among males aged 15-34.
For a related report presenting data for 1979-1988, see 57:20187.
Correspondence: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, Division of Analysis, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20191 Hanke, Wojciech; Szadkowska-Stanczyk, Irena; Tabeau, Ewa. Causes of high mortality of working-age males in Poland--sample survey, 1987-1989. [Przyczyny wysokiej umieralnosci mezczyzn w wieku produkcyjnym w Polsce--badania ankietowe 1987-1989.] Monografie i Opracowania, No. 346, 1992. 137 pp. Szkola Glowna Handlowa, Instytut Statystyki i Demografii: Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
This work is in two parts. The first part presents results from a five-year epidemiological study on the high mortality rate from cardiovascular diseases among males in Poland. A comparative analysis of mortality was carried out in Wroclaw, a region of high male cardiovascular mortality, and Ciechanow, an area of low mortality. Factors associated with high mortality include hypertension, obesity, diabetes, cigarette smoking, and poor health services. The second part of the study concerns the modeling of probabilities of death from cardiovascular diseases. The results identify various characteristics associated with lower risks.
Correspondence: Szkola Glowna Handlowa, Instytut Statystyki i Demografii, Al. Niepodleglosci 162, 02-554 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20192 Mbizvo, Michael T.; Fawcus, Susan; Lindmark, Gunilla; Nystrom, Lennarth. Maternal mortality in rural and urban Zimbabwe: social and reproductive factors in an incident case-referent study. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 36, No. 9, May 1993. 1,197-205 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"A community-based incident case-referent study was undertaken in a rural and an urban setting in Zimbabwe in order to define risk factors associated with maternal deaths....Using a multiple source confidential reporting network for all maternal deaths, the maternal mortality rate for the rural setting was 168/100,000 live births and that for the urban setting was 85/100,000 live births. A model for interacting factors contributing to maternal mortality was designed. Haemorrhage and abortion sepsis were the major direct causes while malaria was the leading indirect cause in the rural setting. In the urban setting, eclampsia, abortion and puerperal sepsis were the leading causes of maternal deaths. It was found that...being single,...divorced, widowed, one of several wives, cohabiting, or self-supporting carried an increased risk of maternal mortality, especially in the rural area....The pregnancy was reported as unwanted for nearly half of both index cases and referents, with four suicides resulting, clearly illustrating the large unmet need for family planning...."
Correspondence: M. T. Mbizvo, University of Zimbabwe, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, P.O. Box A178, Avondale, Harare, Zimbabwe. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:20193 McNown, Robert; Rogers, Andrei. Forecasting cause-specific mortality using time series methods. International Journal of Forecasting, Special Issue, Vol. 8, No. 3, Nov 1992. 413-32 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Age profiles of cause-specific mortality for five leading causes of death [in the United States] are represented by parameterized mortality schedules. Such schedules are estimated for males and females over the period 1960-1985. The resulting time series of parameters are modeled as ARIMA processes, and parameter forecasts from these models yield forecasts of the complete age profile of mortality-by-cause. Forecasted profiles for most causes show satisfactory mean absolute percent errors and Theil statistics, with improvements relative to trend extrapolation methods at the longer forecast horizons."
Correspondence: R. McNown, University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science, Population Program, Campus Box 484, Boulder, CO 80309. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20194 Mesle, France; Shkolnikov, Vladimir; Vallin, Jacques. Mortality by cause in the USSR in 1970-1987: the reconstruction of time series. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 8, No. 4, 1992. 281-308 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper is the first step in an exploration of Soviet cause-of-death statistics which became accessible after 1986. Its main aim is the reconstruction of consistent annual series for the period 1970-1987 in spite of changes in cause-of-death classification caused by the 1980 revision of the Soviet nosological system. In a second part, the series thus reconstructed are analysed to describe the main features of the evolution of mortality during these two decades, using first standardized mortality rates for several very important specific causes and, second, using a method of decomposition of life expectancy changes. For the first time, trends in causes of death are thus shown for the crucial period where life expectancy has grown again after two decades of regression."
Correspondence: F. Mesle, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20195 Moussa, Mohamed A. A.; El Sayed, Ali M.; Sugathan, Thattaruparambil N.; Khogali, Mustafa M.; Verma, Dhirendra. Analysis of underlying and multiple-cause mortality data. Genus, Vol. 48, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1992. 89-105 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"A variety of life table models were used for the analysis of the (1984-86) Kuwaiti cause-specific mortality data. These models comprised total mortality, multiple-decrement, cause-elimination, cause-delay and disease dependency. The models were illustrated by application to a set of four chronic diseases: hypertensive, ischaemic heart, cerebrovascular and diabetes mellitus. The life table methods quantify the relative weights of different diseases as hazards to mortality after adjustment for other causes. They can also evaluate the extent of dependency between underlying cause of death and other causes mentioned on [the] death certificate using an extended underlying-cause model."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20196 Sprenger, Marc J. W.; Mulder, Paul G. H.; Beyer, Walter E. P.; Van Strik, Roel; Masurel, Nic. Impact of influenza on mortality in relation to age and underlying disease, 1967-1989. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 22, No. 2, Apr 1993. 334-40 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Based on data from the Dutch Central Bureau of Statistics, the impact of influenza on mortality in The Netherlands was estimated for a 22.5-year period (1967-1989) in four age groups and three entities of disease, using Poisson regression techniques. Our analysis suggests that, on average, more than 2,000 people died from influenza in The Netherlands each year, but in only a fraction of these deaths was influenza recognized as the cause of death....Therefore, the overall impact of influenza on mortality is estimated to be greater than registered influenza mortality by a factor of 3.6....This study stresses the serious effects of influenza, mainly in the elderly...."
Correspondence: M. J. W. Sprenger, Erasmus University, Department of Virology, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20197 Sverre, Jan M. Secular trends in coronary heart disease mortality in Norway, 1966-1986. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 137, No. 3, Feb 1, 1993. 301-10 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
The author uses a cohort analysis to examine trends in coronary heart disease mortality from 1966 to 1986 in Norway. "This study demonstrates that age, period, and cohort effects are needed to describe adequately the variation in the Norwegian mortality rates of coronary heart disease. Furthermore, the secular trends in [such] mortality rates...are primarily identified as cohort effects. These may depend on cohort-specific development of risk factor levels as well as on the provision of medical care."
Correspondence: J. M. Sverre, Ullevaal Hospital, Department of Geriatric Medicine, 0407 Oslo, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

59:20198 Thomas, Pauline A.; Weisfuse, Isaac B.; Greenberg, Alan E.; Bernard, Godwin A.; Tytun, Alex; Stellman, Steven D. Trends in the first ten years of AIDS in New York City. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 137, No. 2, Jan 15, 1993. 121-33 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"This report examines cases [of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)] diagnosed through 1990 and reported through 1991 to describe rates and trends in the affected subpopulations. Case data were collected by the New York City Department of Health AIDS Surveillance Team....Predominant trends included a sustained plateau in reported incidence in men who reported having sex with men and a continuing rise in cases in injection drug users and women infected through heterosexual intercourse. HIV-related deaths in men, women, and children were continuing to rise at the end of the decade."
Correspondence: P. A. Thomas, New York City Department of Health, Office of AIDS Surveillance, 346 Broadway, Room 706, New York, NY 10013. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

59:20199 Velasco, Maria del Pilar. The cholera epidemic of 1833 and mortality in Mexico City. [La epidemia de colera de 1833 y la mortalidad en la Ciudad de Mexico.] Estudios Demograficos y Urbanos, Vol. 7, No. 1, Jan-Apr 1992. 95-135 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
The author examines the impact of the 1833 cholera epidemic in Mexico City, Mexico, on social, economic, and political aspects of life in that city. She finds that some five percent of the population died during the epidemic, and enumerates them by age and sex.
Correspondence: M. del P. Velasco, Instituto Veracruzano de Investigaciones en Education y Salud, Veracruz, Veracruz, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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