Volume 59 - Number 1 - Spring 1993

J. Characteristics

Primarily references to descriptive studies. Official tabular material will be found under S. Official Statistical Publications . Items that are primarily analytical, but that also contain information on characteristics, will be found under K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations and Natural Resources or L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations , as appropriate.

J.1. General Demographic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to various demographic characteristics, including age, sex, sex ratios, and marital status. Studies on demographic aging are also included.

59:10574 Ahmed, Bashir; Smith, Stanley K. How changes in components of growth affect the population aging of states. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, Vol. 47, No. 1, Jan 1992. S27-37 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"We analyzed the demographic determinants of population aging for states of the United States between 1950 and 1980. Using the factorial projections method, we estimated the effects of population momentum and changes in mortality, fertility, and migration on changes in the proportion of persons age 65+. Declining mortality rates caused the population to age in virtually every state in every decade between 1950 and 1980, but the effects were very small. The effects of changes in fertility rates were considerably greater. Population momentum generally had a greater effect on population aging than changes in either fertility or mortality rates. Net migration was by far the most volatile component of population aging, both in terms of changes over time and state-to-state differences at a given point in time. We expect this trend to continue in coming decades."
Correspondence: B. Ahmed, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Population Division, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SW).

59:10575 Andrews, Gary R.; Hennink, Monique M. The circumstances and contributions of older persons in three Asian countries: preliminary results of a cross-national study. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 7, No. 3, Sep 1992. 127-46 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This article examines some of the findings from surveys carried out in Indonesia, Sri Lanka and Thailand as part of a cross-national study of ageing sponsored by the World Health Organization. It finds that the majority of elderly in these countries live in households with their children and in many cases also with their grandchildren. The elderly also contribute significantly to household activities. In the future, the special needs of very old women will have to be addressed as it will be difficult for their children to meet those needs without assistance."
Correspondence: G. R. Andrews, Flinders University of South Australia, Centre for Ageing Studies, Bedford Park, SA 5042, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10576 Bae, Wha-Oak. Sex ratio at birth in Korea. Journal of Population, Health and Social Welfare, Vol. 11, No. 2, Dec 1991. 114-31 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng. with sum. in Kor.
The author examines South Korea's sex ratio in light of both the country's tradition of son preference and the recent fertility decline. "The study [tries] to describe the current status of the sex ratio at birth in Korea, and some socio-demographic factors contributing to the unbalanced sex ratio at birth, and furthermore to predict the effects of this imbalance on the future population structure." Data are from vital statistics reports for the period 1979-1988 and from decennial population and housing censuses, starting from the year 1970.
Correspondence: W.-O. Bae, Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs, San 42-14, Bulgwang-dong, Eunpyung-ku, Seoul 122-040, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10577 Choe, Ehn Hyun. An overview of the aging population in Korea. Journal of Population, Health and Social Welfare, Vol. 11, No. 2, Dec 1991. 132-43 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng. with sum. in Kor.
The author examines demographic aging in South Korea in light of the country's near-completion of the demographic transition. "An attempt is made to describe the general features of the present situation of the Korean elderly by reviewing several aspects of the aging phenomenon in Korea, namely, the demographic, family, psychological, and social welfare aspects."
Correspondence: E. H. Choe, Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs, San 42-14, Bulgwang-dong, Eunpyung-ku, Seoul 122-040, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10578 Das Gupta, Prithwis. Reconstruction of the age distribution of the extreme aged in the 1980 census by the method of extinct generations. In: American Statistical Association, 1990 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1990]. 154-9 pp. American Statistical Association: Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
The author uses the extinct generations method to reconstruct the age distribution of those aged 85 and older using U.S. mortality data for the period 1980-1988. Results are presented by ethnic group and sex.
Correspondence: P. Das Gupta, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10579 Estonian Interuniversity Population Research Centre (Tallinn, Estonia); Viljandi County Statistics Bureau (Viljandi, Estonia). Population age structure: counties of Estonia, 1990-1991. [Rahvastiku vanuskoostis: eesti maakonnad, 1990-1991.] Eesti Rahvastikustatistika/Population Statistics of Estonia, ISBN 5-7976-0401-9. 1992. xiii, 59 pp. Tallinn, Estonia. In Eng; Est.
"This publication contains the postcensal estimates of the age structure of the population of Estonian counties on January 1, 1990 and 1991. This is...the first time in...postwar Estonia that the postcensal estimates are being produced [at the] county-level." The estimates are presented by age and sex. Data are from official sources.
Correspondence: Estonian Interuniversity Population Research Centre, P.O. Box 3012, EE0090 Tallinn, Estonia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10580 Finland. Tilastokeskus (Helsinki, Finland). Structure of population, 1991. [Vaestorakenne, 1991/Befolkningens sammansattning, 1991.] Vaesto/Befolkning/Population 1992, No. 11, 1992. 128 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Fin; Swe. with sum. in Eng.
Characteristics of the population of Finland in 1991 are enumerated. Data for the whole country and its provinces are included on marital status, sex distribution, age distribution, citizenship, residence characteristics, language, place of birth and fertility. Some data are given by municipality.
Correspondence: Tilastokeskus, PL 504, 00101 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10581 Frey, William H. Metropolitan distribution of the U.S. elderly: 1960-70, 1970-80, 1980-90. Population Studies Center Research Report, No. 92-246, Jul 1992. 21, [12] pp. University of Michigan, Population Studies Center: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This article examines the extent to which elderly and nonelderly distribution patterns [in the United States] are becoming less alike. It also explores their implications for differential 'population aging' across regions and metropolitan areas." The focus is on trends since 1960.
Correspondence: University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10582 Ghenciu, Gh.; Balaci, M.; Arcan, V. M. The influence of life expectancy variations and of the survivals number on the change in prevalence of some groups of persons from the overall population. Romanian Journal of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Vol. 12, No. 3-4, 1991. 257-65 pp. Bucharest, Romania. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Rum.
The authors examine changes in the distribution of cohorts aged 45, 60, 75, and 85 and over, using official data for Romania for the period 1900-1989. Consideration is given to the effect of changes in life expectancy and survivorship.
Correspondence: Gh. Ghenciu, National Institute of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Bucharest, Romania. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10583 Gulati, Leela. Dimensions of female aging and widowhood: insights from Kerala experience. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 27, No. 43-44, Oct 24-31, 1992. WS93-9 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
In this study, demographic aging in India is examined. "In Section II we look at the comparative picture of population aging in India as a whole and in Kerala, in the light of current and future demographic trends, and its pronounced female dimension. Section III deals with the implications of the evolving pattern of aging in regard to the incidence of widowhood....In the fourth and final section we raise some questions about the social and economic aspects of the female aging and widowhood phenomenon."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

59:10584 Hahn, Walter A. Aging America. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 522, Jul 1992. 116-29 pp. Newbury Park, California/London, England. In Eng.
"Aging is among the more powerful and ubiquitous structural trends occurring in the United States. An increasingly large proportion of the population is middle-aged, young old, or old old. Dual views of aging from the inside and as generations moving through time are offered. The persistent and popular myth is that elders--persons 65-85 years old--are mostly old fogies, forgetful, sick or of limited ability, and generally out of it. While this indeed may describe some seniors, the reality is that almost the reverse is true for most. This article includes four sample 'future history' scenarios from the viewpoint of elders for four time periods: Toward 1999, 2001+, 2020, and 2040."
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

59:10585 Ilieva, Nikolina; Mikhova, Genoveva. Women in the population structures of Bulgaria. [Zhenite v strukturite na naselenieto na Balgariya.] Naselenie, No. 5, 1992. 52-63 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The size and characteristics of the female population in Bulgaria are estimated and analyzed. Particular attention is given to female labor force participation and the rise in unemployment among women over the past three years.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10586 Jamshidi, Roxanne; Oppenheimer, Allison J.; Lee, Doris S.; Lepar, Felice H.; Espenshade, Thomas J. Aging in America: limits to life span and elderly care options. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 11, No. 2, 1992. 169-90 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper discusses the three primary modes of care available to older persons [in the United States]: (1) the informal network of the family, (2) the more formal arrangements of home and community care, and (3) the institutionalized care of nursing homes. Of particular policy interest are the questions: Who provides the care? What type of care is available? Who receives the care? How much does each type of care cost? and Who pays? The current patterns and costs especially of long-term care provide a framework for planning future options. A discussion of research and policy recommendations concludes the paper." Consideration is given to the causes of the increase in the proportion of aged.
Correspondence: T. J. Espenshade, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10587 Kanitkar, Tara. The sex ratio in India: a topic of speculation and research. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 37, No. 3, Sep 1991. 18-22 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
The author reviews trends in the sex ratio in India, beginning with the 1871 census, which first publicized the country's deficit of women. Various explanations are considered, including undercount of women, son preference, and female infanticide.
Correspondence: T. Kanitkar, International Institute for Population Sciences, Department of Development Studies, Deonar, Bombay 400 088, India. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

59:10588 Kim, Ik Ki; Choe, Ehn Hyun. Support exchange patterns of the elderly in the Republic of Korea. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 7, No. 3, Sep 1992. 89-104 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
The authors examine support of the elderly in South Korea, with a focus on the future implications of demographic aging. "Owing to socio-economic development in the Republic of Korea and the country's success in reducing mortality and fertility, the proportion and number of elderly in the population is rapidly rising. Co-residence with adult children is the most important pattern of support for the elderly. But the elderly also contribute support in the form of financial and material assistance as well as services such as care of grandchildren. The article concludes that, because of the rapid increase in the absolute size of the elderly population, government services need to be expanded to assist in providing care for the elderly."
Correspondence: I. K. Kim, Dongguk University, Department of Sociology, 26 3-ga, Pil-dong, Chung-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10589 Lee, Ronald D. Population aging and its social and economic consequences. Program in Population Research Working Paper, No. 32, Jun 1992. 69, 8 pp. University of California, Institute of International Studies, Program in Population Research: Berkeley, California. In Eng.
This publication contains the texts of seven lectures on the costs of demographic aging. The talks were presented at Peking University in Beijing, China, in 1991. The topics covered included "the demography of aging; dependency, mortality change and the life cycle; labor supply, health and retirement; public sector transfer systems in industrial nations; kinship, demographic change, and old age support; [and] life cycle saving, old age support and the macro economy." An appendix on the mathematical aspects of aging and its consequences is provided.
Correspondence: University of California, Institute of International Studies, Program in Population Research, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10590 Liang, Jersey; Gu, Shengzu; Krause, Neal. Social support among the aged in Wuhan, China. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 7, No. 3, Sep 1992. 33-62 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This study provides information on supportive social relations in a sample of 2,762 elderly people in Wuhan, China. The elderly concerned were found to be actively engaged in exchanges of social support with their families and kin. They not only receive assistance but also provide a substantial amount of help to others. These supportive ties were highly positive and satisfactory to the great majority of the respondents. Only moderate correlations were found among various dimensions of social support. These results underscore the multi-dimensional nature of social support and suggest that caution needs to be exercised in extrapolating interpersonal exchanges from social embeddedness."
Correspondence: J. Liang, University of Michigan, Institute of Gerontology, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10591 Metropolitan Life Insurance Company (New York, New York). Geographic profile of the aged. Statistical Bulletin, Vol. 74, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1993. 2-9 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
Results from the 1980 and 1990 U.S. censuses are analyzed for trends in demographic aging, with a focus on regional patterns. Consideration is given to changes in age distribution by sex and geographic area for ages 65 and over and 85 and over, 1980-1990; age distribution among ethnic groups; and the implications of aging for health care costs.
Correspondence: Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, One Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10010. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10592 Mitra, S. Can immigration affect age composition when fertility is below replacement? Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 19, No. 2, 1992. 163-74 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The effect of immigration on the age composition of a population when fertility is below replacement level has been studied....Using [a] Canadian example where the population in the working age-group accounts for more than two-thirds of the population, it has been shown that such an age composition is difficult to perpetuate over an extended period of time. Selective immigration may offer some advantage in the short run but the increase in old age dependency created by the process in the following years will render that strategy extremely inefficient in the long run. Thus a sustained pattern of immigration can only be helpful in preventing population decline or even its extinction when fertility continues to remain at below replacement level. The age composition of such a population is determined solely by its level of mortality and cannot be tampered with effectively by an immigration policy."
Correspondence: S. Mitra, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10593 Myers, George C.; Torrey, Barbara B.; Kinsella, Kevin G. The paradox of the oldest old in the United States: an international comparison. In: The oldest old, edited by Richard M. Suzman, David P. Willis, and Kenneth G. Manton. 1992. 58-85 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This chapter compares the oldest old in the United States with their counterparts in seven other countries that represent a spectrum of the industrial world. These countries include Australia and Canada, two of the youngest developed countries; the Federal Republic of Germany, Sweden, and the United Kingdom, which are among the oldest; Japan, the emergent industrial giant; and Hungary, an Eastern European nation. Discussion focuses initially on past, present, and future growth of the oldest old, which helps to provide a perspective for the rest of the issues raised. The chapter then examines widowhood and the ratio of the oldest old to their potential caretakers over time. The life expectancy and causes of mortality of the very old also are examined, followed by a comparison of the level and sources of income of the very old in six countries. A short section on the People's Republic of China is added at the end because of the unique aging issues China faces in the future."
Correspondence: G. C. Myers, Duke University, Center for Demographic Studies, Durham, NC 27706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10594 Neury, J.-E. The elderly population in Switzerland and in Geneva: some aspects. [La population agee en Suisse et a Geneve: quelques aspects.] Aspects Statistiques, No. 89, Dec 1992. 19-35 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Fre.
The first part of this article examines changes in and characteristics of the elderly population in Switzerland as a whole and in the canton of Geneva. The second part looks at trends in the economic activity of the aged since 1920.
Correspondence: Service Cantonal de Statistique, 8 rue du 31 Decembre, Case Postale 36, 1211 Geneva 6, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10595 Neville, Warwick. The dynamics of population ageing into the twenty-first century: ASEAN and selected countries of Pacific Asia. ASEAN Economic Bulletin, Vol. 9, No. 1, Jul 1992. 4-21 pp. Singapore. In Eng.
Demographic aging is examined in selected countries of east and Southeast Asia. "Among the 10 countries discussed in this article, there is a wide range of experience in the process of aging from the advanced stage reached by Japan to the incipient stage evident in the Philippines. Although the direction of age structural shift in these countries is consistent throughout, earlier patterns of fertility, mortality and migration dictate differing effects over the 50-year period, 1970-2020. This is apparent in the behaviour and changing relationships of cohorts passing through the various stages of the life course. The ultimate phase of the current ageing cycle results in a greatly expanded elderly component which, if the case of Japan provides a precedent, is likely to be further inflated by concurrent increases in life expectancy among the elderly themselves."
Correspondence: W. Neville, University of Auckland, Department of Geography, Auckland 1, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10596 Pirozhkov, S. I.; Safarova, G. L. On measuring instability in demography. [Ob izmerenii instabil'nosti v demografii.] Demograficheskie Issledovaniya, Vol. 15, 1991. 53-64 pp. Kiev, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
"A concept of instability as an integral measure for estimating [the] age structure of real and stable populations is substantiated. A system of instability indices is suggested [that] permits estimating the effect of external conditions and internal factors of population reproduction on the age structure." The geographical focus is on the USSR.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10597 Rajan, S. Irudaya; Mishra, U. S.; Navaneetham, K. Decline in sex ratio: alternative explanation revisited. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 27, No. 46, Nov 14, 1992. 2,505-8 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
The authors contribute to the debate concerning reasons for the adverse decline in the sex ratio in India. The focus remains on the accuracy of the data collected in recent censuses as a possible explanation.
For related articles, see 58:20586 and 58:10555.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

59:10598 Stolnitz, George J. Demographic causes and economic consequences of population aging: Europe and North America. UN/ECE Economic Studies, No. 3, Pub. Order No. GV.E.92.0.4. ISBN 92-1-100372-5. 1992. xi, 483 pp. U.N. Economic Commission for Europe [ECE]: New York, New York; United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]: New York, New York. In Eng.
This report is intended "to extend knowledge about...aging as one of the most important phenomena of the world in the third millennium and also to inspire a more active stance towards the problem of aging by policymakers, not only in Europe and North America but also in other regions, including the developing countries." It includes a number of background papers prepared as part of an ECE project on population aging. "The first chapter focuses on various aspects of changes in the age structure of the population, including their demographic determinants. The subsequent three chapters consider general economic implications of population aging, its more specific consequences for the labour force and employment, and its effects on age specific social programme commitments by the public sector."
Correspondence: United Nations, Sales Section, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10599 Sutton, Gordon F.; Danziger, George E. Statistical measures of social integration of communities. In: American Statistical Association, 1990 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1990]. 89-93 pp. American Statistical Association: Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"We illustrate the approach to an ecological model that shows the relationship of the composition of population and changes in this composition, given known levels of 'growth potential,' to the levels and changes in levels of economic conditions in the local community. We hypothesize the role of specified alternative conditions on the 'shape' of the age-density distribution and, hence, on local area population development." Data are for towns and cities in Massachusetts.
Correspondence: G. F. Sutton, University of Massachusetts, MISER, Amherst, MA 01003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10600 Suzman, Richard M.; Willis, David P.; Manton, Kenneth G. The oldest old. ISBN 0-19-505060-6. LC 90-14340. 1992. xi, 444 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This collection of papers by various authors is the product of a session on the very aged that was held at the 1984 Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. The volume contains articles originally published in a special issue of the Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly in 1985, articles that have been revised and updated, and some new contributions. Following a general introduction, the 19 papers are divided into sections covering the demographic perspective, problems in studying the oldest old, population dynamics among the elderly, a social portrait of the very aged, and social and medical policy toward the oldest old. The geographical focus is on the United States.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, 200 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10601 Taeuber, Cynthia M.; Rosenwaike, Ira. A demographic portrait of America's oldest old. In: The oldest old, edited by Richard M. Suzman, David P. Willis, and Kenneth G. Manton. 1992. 17-49 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In this chapter, we will examine the rapid growth of the oldest old population [in the United States] and the reasons for that growth; compare their demographic, social, and economic characteristics with those of the younger old; describe the characteristics of the centenarian population; examine the quality of census data on the oldest old; and discuss the implications of the growth and characteristics of this unique important group. Projections are from the Census Bureau's middle series unless noted otherwise."
Correspondence: C. M. Taeuber, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Population Division, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10602 van den Brekel, Hans; Moors, Hein. Attitudes toward the elderly and aspects of aging. [Opvattingen over de positie van ouderen en aspecten van de vergrijzing.] Bevolking en Gezin, Vol. 3, 1992. 51-76 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The authors analyze results from two surveys conducted in the Netherlands in 1986 and 1990 that contain information on attitudes toward the elderly and aging. "Attention was paid to a number of aspects which could be considered important for the well-being of persons aged 65 years and over: work, care, and housing. Also included are attitudes towards possible governmental measures on trying to maintain the affordability of elderly care...."
Correspondence: H. van den Brekel, Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute, Postbus 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10603 Veras, Renato P. Brazil is getting older: demographic changes and epidemiological challenges. Revista de Saude Publica, Vol. 25, No. 6, 1991. 476-88 pp. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In Eng.
"In this paper the features of a population's ageing and the process of epidemiological transition are discussed along with the worldwide changes in age-structure....The Brazilian elderly population is also discussed, particularly the issues relating to the social cost of the aged population, its urban and rural distribution, the elderly by sex, marital status and level of schooling, and emphasis is given to the imbalance of the sexes and the consequences of it for women."
Correspondence: R. P. Veras, Rua Sao Francisco Xavier 524, 7o andar, 20550 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10604 Vossen, Ad. Demographic aging and increases in the dependency burden: is population policy a remedy? [Bevolkingsveroudering en stijgende collectieve lasten: bevolkingsbeleid als remedie?] Bevolking en Gezin, Vol. 3, 1992. 1-27 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The author projects some consequences of demographic aging in developed countries by "proposing an index which relates a simple age specific public expenditures profile to an age specific labour force participation profile. This index is calculated for different demographic ageing scenarios representing possible future situations in The Netherlands....Next, analyses are carried out in order to investigate whether either demographic policies or labour market policies might reduce the expected costs of an ageing society. [They show] that...stimulating (female) labour force participation is more promising than any demographic policy."
Correspondence: A. Vossen, Katholieke Universiteit Brabant, Faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen, Postbus 90153, 5000 LE Tilburg, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10605 Vossen, Ad. Population ageing and public expenditure. Is population policy the answer? Department of Sociology Working Paper Series, No. 52, May 1990. 29 pp. Tilburg University, Department of Sociology: Tilburg, Netherlands. In Eng.
This paper attempts to indicate the specific consequences of demographic aging in developed countries "by proposing an index which relates a simple age specific public expenditures profile to an age specific labour force participation profile. This index is calculated for different demographic ageing scenarios representing possible future situations in The Netherlands. Most scenarios show rapidly increasing index values between the second and fourth decade of the 20th century." The author also looks at the extent to which policies designed to influence fertility, migration, or labor force participation might alleviate the expected costs of an aging society.
Correspondence: Tilburg University, Department of Sociology, P.O. Box 90153, 5000 LE Tilburg, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.2. Biological Characteristics

Descriptive studies of menarche and menopause, longevity, and increasing the life span, as well as other biological characteristics such as sex selection. Studies that are concerned with menarche and menopause as they specifically affect fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility .

59:10606 Frolkis, Vladimir V.; Muradian, Khachick K. Life span prolongation. ISBN 0-8493-6741-7. LC 91-19361. 1991. 425 pp. CRC Press: Boca Raton, Florida. In Eng.
This study, translated from the original Russian by Nailja G. Edelsburg, is concerned with the biological aspects of increasing the life span in humans. It is divided into three parts concerned with the mechanisms of aging, models of the life span, and the means of prolonging human life.
Correspondence: CRC Press, 2000 Corporate Boulevard NW, Boca Raton, FL 33431. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

59:10607 Kirchengast, Sylvia. Relations between fertility, body shape and menopause in Austrian women. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 24, No. 4, Oct 1992. 555-9 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The influence of number and date of pregnancies, births, and spontaneous and induced abortions on body shape, age at menopause and menopausal symptoms have been studied for 110 postmenopausal Viennese women. A significant correlation between fertility and age at menopause was not found, but several menopausal symptoms showed statistically significant correlations with fertility. With a higher number of pregnancies the individual symptoms became more severe."
Correspondence: S. Kirchengast, University of Vienna, 1 Gynaecological Clinic, Vienna, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10608 Oldenburg, Philip. Sex ratio, son preference and violence in India: a research note. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 27, No. 49-50, Dec 5-12, 1992. 2,657-62 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"This article examines the hypothesis that families in west-central UP [Uttar Pradesh, India,] want (or need) more sons than families elsewhere because additional sons enhance their capacity to literally defend themselves or to exercise their power by investigating the correlation of sex ratio with violence in the state."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

59:10609 Tolley, H. Dennis; Manton, Kenneth G. Statistical tests for bounds to human life expectancy. In: American Statistical Association, 1990 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1990]. 36-45 pp. American Statistical Association: Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"We examine procedures by which human longevity and the limits to human life expectancy, can be statistically evaluated. This examination is done using the distribution of survival times of individuals from a heterogeneous population....The analysis is focused specifically on the 'squaring' of the survival curve....We present selected survival curves for different dates and theoretical survival models."
Correspondence: H. D. Tolley, 230 TMCB, Provo, UT 84602. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10610 Uchida, Eiichi; Araki, Shunichi; Murata, Katsuyuki. Socioeconomic factors affecting the longevity of the Japanese population: a study for 1980 and 1985. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 24, No. 4, Oct 1992. 497-504 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The effects of urbanisation, low income and rejuvenation of the population on life expectancy at birth and at 20, 40 and 65 years of age for males and females in Japan were examined twice, in 1980 and 1985. For males, urbanisation was the major factor determining life expectancy at birth and at age 20 years, and low income was the key determinant of decreased life expectancy except at 65 years of age. For females high income was the factor significantly decreasing life expectancy at 65 years of age in 1980, and rejuvenation of the population inversely influenced life expectancy except at birth in 1985. Life expectancy for all age groups in 1985 was significantly longer than in 1980 for both males and females."
Correspondence: E. Uchida, University of Tokyo, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health, Tokyo, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.3. Economic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of income differentials, earnings, career mobility, and other economic characteristics if allocated according to demographic groups. Analytical studies are classified under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population , and studies concerned with employment and labor force are classified under K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation .

59:10611 Biblarz, Timothy J.; Raftery, Adrian E. The effects of family disruption on social mobility. American Sociological Review, Vol. 58, No. 1, Feb 1993. 97-109 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors examine the effects of family disruption on U.S. men's socioeconomic status. It is found that "the experience of family disruption during childhood substantially increases men's odds of ending up in the lowest occupational stratum as opposed to the highest. Family disruption also weakens the association between dimensions of men's occupational origins and destinations....Men from traditional two-parent homes exhibit a stronger pattern of intergenerational occupational inheritance than do men from disrupted families. These effects are the same for blacks and whites." Data are from the 1973 Occupational Changes in a Generation Survey and concern civilian men aged 20-64.
Correspondence: T. J. Biblarz, University of Southern California, Department of Sociology, University Park, Los Angeles, CA 90089-2539. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10612 Borsch-Supan, Axel. Saving and consumption patterns of the elderly: the German case. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 5, No. 4, Nov 1992. 289-303 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"The paper provides an empirical analysis of saving and consumption choices of the elderly in [the former West] Germany, based on the German income and expenditure surveys 1978 and 1983....The observed age-consumption profiles are very different from those predicted by the pure life-cycle theory. Although wealth is declining between age 60 and 70, it increases again after 70, such that the very old have the highest savings rates among all age groups and accumulate wealth rather than decumulate it."
Correspondence: A. Borsch-Supan, University of Mannheim, Department of Economics, P.O. Box 103462, W-6800 Mannheim 1, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10613 Cigno, Alessandro. Symposium on saving and age structure. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 5, No. 4, Nov 1992. 257-341 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
These are some of the papers presented at a symposium on age structure and saving behavior held during the European Population Conference in Paris in October 1991. Topics cover savings and intergenerational transfers in the United States, saving patterns among the elderly in Germany, inheritance trends in France, and the effects of saving and social security on fertility in Italy.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Springer-Verlag, 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 07094. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10614 Cigno, Alessandro; Rosati, Furio C. The effects of financial markets and social security on saving and fertility behaviour in Italy. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 5, No. 4, Nov 1992. 319-41 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"This paper outlines the relevant theory and presents some empirical evidence on the effects of capital market developments and social security coverage on fertility and saving behaviour in Italy....The data examined appear to lend support to the hypothesis that saving and fertility are jointly determined. They also show that the availability and attractiveness of market-based or state-provided alternatives to the family as a provider of old-age support significantly and systematically affect the saving and reproductive decisions of individuals." The data cover the period 1931-1987.
Correspondence: A. Cigno, University of Pisa, Faculty of Political Science, I-56126 Pisa, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10615 Eloundou-Enyegue, Parfait M. Solidarity in crisis or crisis of family solidarities in Cameroon? Recent evolution of exchanges between urban and rural areas. [Solidarite dans la crise ou crise des solidarites familiales au Cameroun? Evolutions recentes des echanges entre villes et campagnes.] Les Dossiers du CEPED, No. 22, Dec 1992. 40 pp. Centre Francais sur la Population et le Developpement [CEPED]: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The current economic crisis in Cameroon and its effect on the family networks that link rural-urban migrants with their rural regions of origin are explored. The focus is on the extent to which rural-urban transfers help alleviate the economic conditions of the poor and unemployed. Data are from a survey carried out in Bafou in 1991 among 335 households. The results indicate that such support is declining among low- and middle-income groups, and that upper-income groups in rural and urban areas are facing increased demands for assistance.
Correspondence: Centre Francais sur la Population et le Developpement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Medecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10616 Greenwood, Daphne T.; Wolff, Edward N. Changes in wealth in the United States, 1962-1983: savings, capital gains, inheritance, and lifetime transfers. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 5, No. 4, Nov 1992. 261-88 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"A simulation model is developed to account for observed changes in mean household wealth both overall and by age cohort over the 1962-1983 period in the United States. There are three major findings. First, capital gains are the major factor explaining overall wealth changes and account for 77% of the simulated growth in wealth over the entire period. Second, for cohorts under age 40, inheritance and inter vivos transfers dominate observed changes in wealth....Third, while differences in portfolio composition favored the younger cohorts over this period, such differences do not explain a large portion of the great variation in real wealth changes by cohort over the two decade period."
Correspondence: D. T. Greenwood, University of Colorado, Department of Economics, Colorado Springs, CO 80933. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10617 Meyer, Daniel R. Child support and welfare dynamics: evidence from Wisconsin. Demography, Vol. 30, No. 1, Feb 1993. 45-62 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper provides estimates of the effect of child support on exiting and reentering welfare for a sample of divorced women in Wisconsin. Modest amounts of child support do not have large effects on exiting welfare in this sample. The percentage of women who return to welfare is higher than has been reported previously. Receiving child support significantly decreases the likelihood of returning to welfare."
Correspondence: D. R. Meyer, University of Wisconsin, School of Social Work, Institute for Research on Poverty, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10618 Perelman, Sergio; Pestieau, Pierre. Inheritance and wealth composition. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 5, No. 4, Nov 1992. 305-17 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"This paper studies the effects of variables pertaining to alternative bequest motives on the composition of households' portfolio. It relies on a 1986 survey on the assets structure of 5,600 French households. The main conclusion is that bequest motives indeed influence the composition of households' wealth....In general, however, for lack of data but also because households have mixed bequest motives, one cannot establish a clear relation between specific models of inheritance on the one hand and wealth pattern on the other hand."
Correspondence: S. Perelman, University of Liege, Department of Economics, Boulevard du Rectorat 7 (B31), B-4000 Sart Tilman, Liege 1, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10619 Sakamoto, Arthur; Chen, Meichu D. The effect of schooling on income in Japan. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 11, No. 3, 1992. 217-32 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper uses cross-sectional data from the 1955, 1965, and 1975 Social Stratification and Mobility Surveys to investigate the effect of schooling on personal income in the Japanese male labor force. For each survey, log-income regressions are estimated which include (in addition to controls for years of work experience) two variables to indicate educational attainment: (1) years of schooling completed, and (2) percentile ranking in the distribution of years of schooling for one's age-cohort....The results indicate that controlling for the credentialing effect of schooling significantly reduces the net effect of schooling as human capital. Regression decomposition is then used to ascertain the components of the growth in mean log-income between 1955 and 1975. The contribution of years of schooling to the increase in mean log-income across these decades is significantly reduced after controlling for the credentialing effect."
Correspondence: A. Sakamoto, University of Texas, Department of Sociology, Austin, TX 78712. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10620 Wojtkiewicz, Roger A. The counteracting influences of increased female headship and decreased number of children on inequality in economic well-being by age: 1960 to 1980. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 11, No. 3, 1992. 263-79 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This study uses 1960, 1970, and 1980 U.S. Census data to investigate the effects of increased female headship and decreased number of children on economic well-being. The main findings are (1) while increases in female headship lowered economic well-being, decreases in number of children raised economic well-being so that these changes had counteracting effects, and (2) age inequality in economic well-being changed because family composition changes varied in intensity by age group."
Correspondence: R. A. Wojtkiewicz, Louisiana State University, Department of Sociology, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-5411. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.4. Social Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to literacy and educational attainment, cultural background, religious affiliation, residential characteristics and segregation, and the like. Studies on social mobility are also coded under this heading.

59:10621 Devi, D. Radha. Literacy: a study of south Indian districts. Demography India, Vol. 20, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1991. 103-12 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This study addresses itself to the variation in the literacy rates among the districts of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu [India], sex difference in literacy rates, and the share of females among literates in comparison with their share in total population. Some correlates of literacy were also examined. In general, the literacy rates increased in all the districts, the sex difference in literacy rates narrowed and the share of females among the literates increased. The proportion of Scheduled Castes/Tribes population and the percent of agricultural workers were found to be inversely related to literacy rates while [the] percent of modern sector workers and urbanisation were positively related."
Correspondence: D. R. Devi, International Institute for Population Sciences, Deonar, Bombay 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10622 Domingo, Lita J.; Casterline, John B. Living arrangements of the Filipino elderly. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 7, No. 3, Sep 1992. 63-88 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
The authors describe the living arrangements of the elderly in the Philippines. They find that "only a small fraction of the Filipino elderly are isolated from close kin; however, it is not certain that their living arrangements are favourable for their overall well-being. In many cases of co-residence, the flow of support is from the elderly parents to their children. The article raises several questions concerning social change in the Philippines that need to be answered in future research."
Correspondence: L. J. Domingo, University of the Philippines, Population Institute, College of Social Sciences and Philosophy, Dillman, Quezon City, Philippines. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10623 Gober, Patricia. Urban housing demography. Progress in Human Geography, Vol. 16, No. 2, Jun 1992. 171-89 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The purpose of this article is to review the literature in housing demography with emphasis on its geographic aspects." The differences among developed countries concerning patterns of home ownership are noted. "After a short discussion of households as the point of articulation between population and housing, I will examine interurban differentials in housing demography, review various population-oriented and housing-oriented approaches to intraurban housing demography, and finally, discuss the problems of and challenges for geographic research in this field."
Correspondence: P. Gober, Arizona State University, Department of Geography, Tempe, AZ 85287-0104. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:10624 Jejeebhoy, Shireen J. Female literacy in India: the situation in 1991. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 37, No. 3, Sep 1991. 23-34 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"This note examines changes in literacy since 1971 and focuses on gender specific changes in literacy in India on the whole and in its fourteen major states. Specifically, we should like to respond to the following questions: To what extent have female literacy levels improved? Has the relative position of women as compared to men improved in terms of literacy? Is the change uniformly evident or do gender differences in literacy vary regionally?"
Correspondence: S. J. Jejeebhoy, Population Studies, Sett Minar, 16 A. G. Deshmukh Marg, Bombay 400 026, India. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

59:10625 Jolly, K. G. Strategies to attain universal literacy in India by 2001. Demography India, Vol. 20, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1991. 141-54 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
Literacy rates by age and sex for districts, Union territories, and states in India for the period 1961-1991 are presented and discussed. Consideration is also given to rural-urban differentials and to projections to 2001.
Correspondence: K. G. Jolly, Delhi University Enclave, Institute of Economic Growth, Delhi 100 007, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10626 Jozefowicz, Adam. Polish education in the crisis decade--the testimony of population census. Polish Population Review, No. 2, 1992. 58-78 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Eng.
"The purpose of this essay is to offer information on the links that exist between...demographic growth, education and the [labor force] in Poland, as revealed in past population censuses...taken in 1978 and 1988...." The effect of education on occupational status is discussed, and some projections for Poland's educational and employment sectors are made.
Correspondence: A. Jozefowicz, Polish Academy of Sciences, Demographic Committee, 00-927 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10627 Knodel, John. Fertility decline and children's education in Thailand: some macro and micro effects. Population Studies Center Research Report, No. 92-239, Jun 1992. 16, [9] pp. University of Michigan, Population Studies Center: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"The present study examines evidence from Thailand relating to the macro and micro effects of fertility decline and family size on children's education."
Correspondence: University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10628 Knodel, John. Fertility decline and children's education in Thailand: some macro and micro effects. Population Council Research Division Working Paper, No. 40, 1992. 34 pp. Population Council, Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
The author examines the effect of Thailand's fertility decline on children's education, with a focus on the period from the 1960s to the present. "At the family level, a substantial inverse association exists in Thailand between the number of children and children's education. As fertility declines, a far higher share of children come from small families, within which the proportions continuing to secondary school are relatively high, and a far smaller share come from large families, within which the proportions continuing to secondary school are relatively low. This in turn contributes to an increase in the proportion of children entering both the lower and upper levels of secondary school in Thailand. In this way, the micro effects reinforce the macro consequences of fertility decline in improving the education of children."
Correspondence: Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10629 Knodel, John; Chayovan, Napaporn; Siriboon, Siriwan. The familial support system of Thai elderly: an overview. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 7, No. 3, Sep 1992. 105-26 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"The present study is intended as an overview of the familial system of support for the elderly as it currently exists in Thailand. The focus is on living arrangements and material support of the elderly Thais in relation to their children. Data come from a nationally representative survey of the elderly in private households conducted in 1986....[The authors find that] the most prominent feature of the living arrangements of the Thai elderly and the most crucial aspect of the familial system of support and assistance as it currently exists in Thailand is co-residence with an adult child."
Correspondence: J. Knodel, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10630 Lesthaeghe, R.; Moors, G.; Halman, L. Living arrangements and values among young adults in the Netherlands, Belgium, France and Germany, 1990. IPD Working Paper, No. 1992-3, 1992. 19, [21] pp. Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Interuniversity Programme in Demography: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
Data from the 1990 European Values Surveys for Belgium, France, the Netherlands, and West Germany are examined "to show that ideational factors and tastes related to what a partnership should yield are necessary elements in the selection of individuals into living arrangements, and that the omission of these factors in both the neo-classic economic theory and the relative economic deprivation theory constitutes a major weakness." Consideration is given to the effects of religion, political and ethical values, and family and social values on life satisfaction and choice of living arrangements. "Our findings indicate that the selection filter according to these ideational dimensions operates among all social classes and at all income or educational levels."
Correspondence: Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Centrum Sociologie, Interuniversity Programme in Demography, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10631 Lloyd, Cynthia B.; Desai, Sonalde. Children's living arrangements in developing countries. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 11, No. 3, 1992. 193-216 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper documents the wide variation in living arrangements experienced by children in developing regions using data from 19 Demographic and Health Surveys. Traditionally, researchers and policymakers concerned with child welfare have assumed that, apart from exceptional cases, children live with their mothers, experience childhood together with their siblings, and have access to resources from both biological parents. Data presented in this paper contradict this assumption. The data demonstrate that, in many countries of sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America as opposed to parts of Asia and North Africa, children spend substantial proportions of their childhood years apart from one or both parents and, by extension, apart from at least some of their siblings....The focus of the paper is on four essential elements of children's living arrangements that influence their access to resources: (1) mother-child co-residence, (2) father-child co-residence, (3) household structure and (4) the number, presence and spacing of siblings."
Correspondence: C. B. Lloyd, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10632 Premi, Kusum K. Education for all: the concern areas. Demography India, Vol. 20, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1991. 91-101 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"In this paper we plan to (i) analyse the situation of literacy and universal primary education [in India], (ii) identify the specific issues and problems, and (iii) spell out some...strategies from [the] viewpoint of achieving the goal of education for all." Data are from censuses and other published and official sources and cover the period 1951-1991.
Correspondence: K. K. Premi, National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration, Education Policy Unit, New Delhi 110 016, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10633 Preston, Samuel H. Cohort succession and the future of the oldest old. In: The oldest old, edited by Richard M. Suzman, David P. Willis, and Kenneth G. Manton. 1992. 50-7 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In this chapter I will illustrate the usefulness of a cohort perspective by examining likely changes in the composition of the [U.S.] older population with respect to two important social characteristics: educational attainment and number of surviving children."
Correspondence: S. H. Preston, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10634 Raju, Saraswati. Caste and gender disparities in literacy in urban India: some developmental implications. Demography India, Vol. 20, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1991. 113-26 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"Based on 1981 and 1991 census data, this paper attempts to examine different aspects of inequalities in literacy that exist between male/female and non-scheduled and scheduled caste segments of population in [selected] cities of India....The gender relation within these caste groups is also explored."
Correspondence: S. Raju, Jawaharlal Nehru University, Centre for Study of Regional Development, New Delhi 110 067, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10635 Ravanera, Zenaida R.; Rajulton, Fernando; Burch, Thomas K. A cohort analysis of home-leaving in Canada, 1910-1975. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 92-3, ISBN 0-7714-1384-X. May 1992. 24, [10] pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
"This paper presents a descriptive analysis of the timing and other aspects of home-leaving in Canada. The data gathered through the 1990 General Social Survey allowed a cohort analysis that spans 60 years....However, the analysis made use of only a partial information obtained by the survey on home-leaving and is therefore considered a preliminary analysis."
Correspondence: University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10636 Sarkar, B. N. Population backward in literacy: problems and prospects. Survey Research Centre Technical Publication, No. 6, Apr 1992. 15 pp. Indian Academy of Social Sciences, Survey Research Centre: Calcutta, India. In Eng.
"Inter-state literacy growth differences of all the 16 major states [in India] and inter-district and inter-sex disparities of literacy of Andhra Pradesh, Bihar and Rajasthan are...reviewed in this paper based on age specific literacy rates of teen agers of rural areas of 1981 census." The importance of female education as part of programs to limit population growth is stressed.
Correspondence: Indian Academy of Social Sciences, Survey Research Centre, 157 Ashokegarh, Calcutta 700 035, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10637 Sommers, David G.; Rowell, Katherine R. Factors differentiating elderly residential movers and nonmovers: a longitudinal analysis. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 11, No. 3, 1992. 249-62 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper identifies factors which differentiate elderly residential movers and nonmovers. Longitudinal data were used in the analysis. Logistic regression results showed that length of residency, home ownership, use of community support services, and number of adult children each had an effect on relocation. Respondents who reported longer lengths of residency and those who owned a home were less likely to relocate. Those elders who utilized more community support services were also less likely to move. Conversely, elders with greater numbers of adult children were more likely to relocate. There was not a significant effect of health status on relocation....The data set used in this project is the 1984-86 [U.S.] National Health Interview Survey: Longitudinal Study of Aging (LSOA)."
Correspondence: D. G. Sommers, Ohio State University, Department of Sociology, Columbus, OH 43210-1353. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.5. Ethnic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations on the basis of race, ethnic group, language, and national origin.

59:10638 Bennett, Claudette E. The black population in the United States: March 1991. Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, No. 464, Sep 1992. iv, 74, [35] pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report presents a statistical portrait of the demographic, social, and economic characteristics of [U.S.] Blacks based primarily on the March 1991 Supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS). Topics covered include population growth, marital status, family type and distribution, living arrangements of children, fertility, education, employment, unemployment, family income, earnings, and poverty status."
Correspondence: U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D.C. 20402. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10639 de Beer, J.; Sprangers, A. H. Demographic differences between nonnative groups: the impact of international migration. [Demografische verschillen tussen allochtone groepen: het effect van de buitenlandse migratie.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 40, No. 11, Nov 1992. 26-34 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The impact of international migration on the composition of the population of the Netherlands is examined. The authors conclude that "the non-native population shows a considerable variety from a demographic point of view. Differences in composition by age and sex can largely be attributed to differences in migration patterns. Both the size and the period of migration flows have had their influence, as well as the type of migration (labour migration, family reunification, etc.). Apart from the direct influence there are also indirect effects because of demographic events that took place after the migration, like births, marriages and deaths."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10640 Goldstein, Sidney. Profile of American Jewry: insights from the 1990 National Jewish Population Survey. In: American Jewish Year Book 1992. 1992. 77-173 pp. American Jewish Committee: New York, New York; Jewish Publication Society: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
Results are presented from the 1990 National Jewish Population Survey conducted in the United States by the Council of Jewish Federations. The author describes the survey methodology, with a focus on the difficulties encountered in categorizing various degrees of Jewishness for enumeration purposes. Data are then included on spatial distribution, internal migration, age composition, sex distribution, generational status, educational level, employment, fertility trends, levels of religious involvement, visits to Israel, and marriage patterns, including intermarriage. Some comparisons with the results of the survey conducted in 1970 are made.
For the 1970 survey, published in 1971, see 37:4493.
Correspondence: S. Goldstein, Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10641 Guillon, Michelle; Ma Mung, Emmanuel. The Chinese diaspora in Western countries. [La diaspora chinoise en Occident.] Revue Europeenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 8, No. 3, 1992. 230 pp. Universite de Poitiers, Departement de Geographie: Poitiers, France. In Eng; Fre.
This is a selection of articles by various authors on aspects of Chinese emigration and the demography of Chinese populations around the world. The articles are mainly in French, with two in English, and are provided with abstracts in English, French, and one other language (Dutch, Italian, or Spanish). Most of the articles consist of case studies of the Chinese population in selected countries in Europe and North America.
Correspondence: Universite de Poitiers, Departement de Geographie, 95 avenue du Recteur-Pineau, 86022 Poitiers Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10642 Lott, Juanita T. Do United States racial/ethnic categories still fit? Population Today, Vol. 21, No. 1, Jan 1993. 6-7, 9 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author describes current U.S. government categories for defining race and ethnicity. She then examines this classification system, its development, and its applicability today. Some possible changes are outlined.
Correspondence: J. T. Lott, Tamayo Lott Associates, Silver Spring, MD. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10643 Ma, Zhengliang. Comprehensive survey and analysis of the Yugu population. Population Research, Vol. 8, No. 4, Dec 1991. 15-25 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
The author describes results from a demographic survey conducted in 1986 among the Yugu, a pastoralist people living in China. Data are presented on the division of labor within households and the society, marriage customs, traditional food and dress, age structure, incomes, and attitudes toward fertility and contraception.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10644 Macias Hernandez, Antonio M. European expansion and aboriginal demographics. The example of the Canary Islands, 1400-1505. [Expansion europea y demografia aborigen. El ejemplo de Canarias, 1400-1505.] Boletin de la Asociacion de Demografia Historica, Vol. 10, No. 2, 1992. 9-45 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
The author examines the indigenous population of the Canary Islands from the thirteenth century to 1505. He uses the limited available data to describe the effect of contact with and eventual colonization by Spain on such aspects as spatial distribution, mortality, and forced labor migration to the Continent. Comparisons are made with the indigenous experience in the Americas.
Correspondence: A. M. Macias Hernandez, Universidad de La Laguna, Avenida de la Universidad, La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10645 Pati, R. N.; Jagatdeb, Lalitendu. Tribal demography in India. ISBN 81-7024-445-5. 1991. xvii, 263 pp. Ashish Publishing House: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The present volume is an attempt to explore in detail the health situation of tribes in India [by] reviewing the tribal development programmes, various policies and issues on family formation, birth spacing, contraceptive prevalence, fertility and family planning among these homogeneous populations." Chapters are written by various authors and also cover tribal health and traditional medicine, nomadism, marriage age and bride prices, dowries, agricultural changes and their effect on fertility, and infant mortality. A list of authors and their affiliations is included.
Correspondence: Ashish Publishing House, 8/81 Punjabi Bagh, New Delhi 110 026, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10646 Petrovic, Ruza. The national composition of Yugoslavia's population, 1991. Yugoslav Survey, Vol. 33, No. 1, 1992. 3-24 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Eng.
Data from the 1991 census of Yugoslavia are used to describe the ethnic composition of the country and its constituent republics at the time the census was taken. Comparisons are made with the situation in 1981, and political and other problems affecting the quality of the available data are discussed.
Correspondence: R. Petrovic, Univerzitet u Beogradu, Faculty of Philosophy, Studentski trg 1, 11001 Belgrade 6, Yugoslavia. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

59:10647 Ryvkina, R.; Kosals, L.; Kovalkina, K. Small populations of the north: their problems and how to solve them. [Malochislennye narody severa: problemy i puti ikh resheniya.] Vestnik Statistiki, No. 4, 1992. 44-8 pp. Moscow, Russia. In Rus.
The authors examine the present conditions of 26 small, isolated populations living in the north of Russia. The total size of the population under consideration is 181,600, according to the 1989 Soviet census. The conclusion is that these populations are under severe threat of extinction and that there is no consensus about how to resolve their present predicament.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10648 Savva, M. V.; Chuprov, V. I. Ethnic status among young people. [Etnicheskii status v molodezhnoi srede.] Sotsiologicheskie Issledovaniya, No. 7, 1992. 20-30 pp. Moscow, Russia. In Rus.
This analysis of ethnic groups in Russia is based on a survey carried out in 1990, which included 8,282 Russians, 519 Tatars, and 300 Ukrainians. Differences in the level of cultural identity preserved by the various ethnic groups are noted. The authors note that ethnic identity is preserved more strongly among minority groups living in regions dominated by other ethnic groups.
Correspondence: M. V. Savva, Moscow University, Department of Research Methodology in Sociology, Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10649 Tolts, Mark. The balance of births and deaths among Soviet Jewry. Jews and Jewish Topics in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, Vol. 2, No. 18, Summer 1992. 13-26 pp. Jerusalem, Israel. In Eng.
Demographic dynamics among Jews in the former Soviet Union are reconstructed using official and published data sources. "According to official censuses, between 1959 and 1989 the Jewish population of the USSR fell from 2,267,814 to 1,450,511. It is of considerable significance that only the smaller part of this decrease is attributable to emigration....Moreover...the drop in the Jewish population increased despite the decline in the scale of emigration. These facts require that attention be paid to fertility and mortality and the balance between them...." The author concludes that "Soviet Jewry presented a clear example of a demographically dying Jewish community. Mass emigration/aliya, accompanied by a dramatic aging [and low fertility], merely hastened the process of its decline. Under these conditions one must be extremely careful in estimating the real demographic potential of the Jewish population now living in the former Soviet Union."
Correspondence: M. Tolts, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Institute of Contemporary Jewry, Division of Jewish Demography and Statistics, Mount Scopus, Jerusalem 91905, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10650 Topilin, A. V. The impact of migration on ethno-national structure. [Vliyanie migratsii na etnonatsional'nuyo strukturu.] Sotsiologicheskie Issledovaniya, No. 7, 1992. 31-43 pp. Moscow, Russia. In Rus.
Trends in ethnic assimilation and migration in the former Soviet Union are analyzed for the period 1959-1989 using census data. Differences in the rate of growth of different ethnic groups are first outlined. The focus is on the process of assimilation into an ethnic group of individuals of mixed backgrounds. The author notes that there has been a trend toward greater dissemination among certain groups, primarily those from Eastern Europe, while at the same time a trend toward greater concentration among others, such as those from Central Asia. The increasing significance of refugee movements is noted. Probable future developments among ethnic groups in the region are reviewed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10651 United Nations. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia [CELADE] (Santiago, Chile). Latin America: censal information about indigenous people. [America Latina: informacion censal sobre pueblos indigenas.] Boletin Demografico/Demographic Bulletin, Vol. 25, No. 50, Jul 1992. 122 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Eng; Spa.
This issue presents a selection of data on the indigenous populations of Latin America, taken from national censuses. The data are provided separately by country and are given in varying format depending on their availability and the way they were obtained in the countries concerned. In most cases, the data concern language spoken, age and sex distribution, and educational status.
Correspondence: U.N. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia, Edificio Naciones Unidas, Avenida Dag Hammarskjold, Casilla 91, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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