Volume 59 - Number 1 - Spring 1993

G. Nuptiality and the Family

Studies that quantitatively analyze aspects of nuptiality and the family. Studies concerned equally with marriage and the family are coded first under G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to G.1. Marriage and Divorce . Methodological studies on nuptiality and the family are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , as appropriate.

G.1. Marriage and Divorce

Studies of trends in marriage and divorce, nuptiality, duration of marriage, age at marriage, and demographic characteristics of marriage partners. Also includes studies of unmarried cohabitation and consensual unions.

59:10383 Aaberge, Rolf; Kravdal, Oystein; Wennemo, Tom. Unobserved heterogeneity in models of marriage dissolution. Statistisk Sentralbyra Discussion Paper, No. 42, [1989]. 34 pp. Statistisk Sentralbyra: Oslo-Kongsvinger, Norway. In Eng.
"The goal of this paper is to examine the impact of unobserved heterogeneity when analysing the determinants of marriage dissolution....When the unobserved heterogeneity is taken into consideration, the divorce risks increase steadily with duration. This supports the view that the declining hazard found in most studies of marital instability is due to a selection mechanism. Our analysis also demonstrates that the unobservables account for a considerable amount of the population variation in divorce propensity compared to the amount accounted for by the observed covariates." Data are from the 1960, 1970, and 1980 censuses of Norway.
Correspondence: Statistisk Sentralbyra, P.B. 8131 Dep., 0033 Oslo 1, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10384 Bergstrom, Theodore; Lam, David. The two-sex problem and the marriage squeeze in an equilibrium model of marriage markets. CREST Working Paper, No. 91-7, Apr 1991. 17 pp. University of Michigan, Department of Economics, Center for Research on Economic and Social Theory [CREST]: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This paper develops a model of marriage market equilibrium that can be used to analyze the effects of age structure on marriage patterns. The model clarifies a number of issues in the literature on the 'two-sex problem' and the 'marriage squeeze.' Particular emphasis is placed on the age difference between spouses as an equilibrating mechanism in marriage markets....We derive conditions for the assignment of marriage partners among men and women born in different cohorts and use the results to analyze the effects of fluctuations in cohort size fluctuations on marriage markets. The results indicate that even large changes in cohort size can be absorbed by relatively modest adjustments in the age difference between spouses, with no necessary adjustments in the proportions of men and women marrying."
Correspondence: University of Michigan, Department of Economics, Center for Research on Economic and Social Theory, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1220. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10385 Bittles, A. H.; Coble, J. M.; Rao, N. Appaji. Trends in consanguineous marriage in Karnataka, South India, 1980-89. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 25, No. 1, Jan 1993. 111-6 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Analysis of data on 106,848 marriages in the cities of Bangalore and Mysore, South India, between 1980 and 1989 showed that levels of consanguineous marriage varied between cities through time and by religion. The average coefficient of inbreeding was higher in Bangalore (F=0.0339) than in Mysore (F=0.0203), principally reflecting large-scale, post-Independence rural migration into Bangalore. Although there was some evidence of a decline in consanguineous marriages in Mysore, there was no convincing support in either city for earlier projections of a rapid reduction in the popularity of unions between close biological relatives."
Correspondence: A. H. Bittles, University of London, King's College, Strand, London WC2R 2LS, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10386 Booth, Alan; Edwards, John N. Starting over: why remarriages are more unstable. Population Issues Research Center Working Paper, No. 1992-04, Feb 1992. 26 pp. Pennsylvania State University, Institute for Policy Research and Evaluation, Population Issues Research Center: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"Using interview data from a [U.S.] national sample of married persons, the extent to which people in remarriages have attributes that adversely influence marital quality and stability is examined. Five models linking remarriage induced attributes to an increased probability of a decline in marital quality and divorce are evaluated. Persons in remarriages are more likely to be poorly integrated with parents and in-laws, willing to leave the marriage, be poor marriage material, and to have lower socio-economic status and age heterogenous marriages. All but socioeconomic status are found to explain declines in marital quality and higher levels of marital instability. Together the remaining four models explain major portions of the remarriage-marital quality/divorce relationship."
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Institute for Policy Research and Evaluation, Population Issues Research Center, 22 Burrowes Building, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10387 Brichacek, Vaclav; Matejcek, Zdenek; Dunovsky, Jiri; Karabelova, Helena. Prague's study of illegitimate children, part 2. Changes in mothers' family status. [Prazska studie deti narozenych mimo manzelstvi II. Vyvoj rodinneho stavu matek.] Demografie, Vol. 34, No. 3, 1992. 216-22 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The authors examine changes in the status of 327 single mothers in Czechoslovakia as part of a long-term study on the development of children born to unmarried parents. "There prevails the tendency to conclude marriage with [the] father or at least to live in a permanent union with another man. The number of single [mothers] remains rather low and the tendency towards creating matrimonial families thus predominates."
Correspondence: V. Brichacek, ILF, Kabinet Socialni Pediatrie, Prague, Czech Republic. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10388 Casper, Lynne M. Community variations in the rate and type of cohabitation: an evaluation of three explanations with new data. Pub. Order No. DA9226658. 1992. 198 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study concerns the United States and was undertaken as a doctoral dissertation at Pennsylvania State University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 53(5).

59:10389 Cherlin, Andrew J. Marriage, divorce, remarriage. Social Trends in the United States, Rev. ed. ISBN 0-674-55082-X. LC 91-47163. 1992. ix, 178 pp. Harvard University Press: Cambridge, Massachusetts/London, England. In Eng.
This is a revised and enlarged edition of a 1981 study on marriage, divorce, and remarriage in the United States. In particular, the author describes and interprets new research findings about the rise of cohabitation and its relationship to marriage. He also elaborates on the weakening of marriage as an institution and its meaning for contemporary Americans. The first three chapters describe demographic trends since World War II, the explanations for these trends, and their consequences. The fourth chapter has been rewritten and examines the relationships among marriage patterns, race, and poverty. The fifth and final chapter is also new and looks at the state of the family in light of changes that have occurred in the second half of the twentieth century.
For the first edition, published in 1981, see 48:10470.
Correspondence: Harvard University Press, 79 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10390 Choe, Minja Kim; Kong, Sae Kwon; Cho, Ae Jeo. Post-nuptial coresidence of married women in Korea. Journal of Population, Health and Social Welfare, Vol. 11, No. 2, Dec 1991. 67-82 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Kor. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper examines the pattern of the post-nuptial coresidence [with their husband's parents] of married women in [South] Korea in recent years, and the factors associated with it. The study is based on the data from the Survey of Family Role in Korea conducted by [the] Korea Institute for Population and Health in 1989. The survey collected information from 2,838 ever married women of ages 15 and over about their marriage, fertility, health status of the family, and their roles within and outside the family." The authors conclude that "the proportion of couples living with husband's parents immediately after marriage is declining, especially in urban areas."
Correspondence: M. K. Choe, East-West Center, Population Institute, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96822. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10391 De Rose, Alessandra. Socio-economic factors and family size as determinants of marital dissolution in Italy. European Sociological Review, Vol. 8, No. 1, May 1992. 71-91 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
This is an analysis of marital dissolution in Italy, with a focus on the life events and socioeconomic factors that put individuals at high risk of a marital breakup. The author notes that Italian society still largely conforms to traditional conjugal models and attitudes toward cohabitation and divorce. "Women most exposed to the risk of marital disruption seem to be those who married very young, who have had no more than one child, who are better educated, who have full-time jobs and who reside in large towns in the north-west of Italy. In addition, a woman who cohabits with her partner before marrying him is more likely to separate than a woman entering marriage directly."
Correspondence: A. De Rose, Universita di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento Scienze Demografiche, Via Nomentana 41, I-00161 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:10392 Klissou, Pierre. Polygamy in Benin and in the west African subregion. [La polygamie au Benin et dans la sous-region ouest-africaine.] Institut de Demographie Working Paper, No. 169, ISBN 2-87209-234-X. Nov 1992. 38 pp. Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper deals with [the literature concerning] polygamy in the West-African sub-region....Several factors lead certain groups to practice polygamy. These...are: post-partum abstinence, medical reasons, economic and social factors. The present study also gives an overview of the position of governments concerning polygamy, on the basis of laws dealing with the family and marriage, which were passed after independence; it summarizes also the well-known debate on the possible end of polygamy."
Correspondence: Universite Catholique de Louvain, Place Montesquieu 1, bte 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10393 Landale, Nancy S.; Tolnay, Stewart E. Generation, ethnicity, and marriage: historical patterns in the northern United States. Demography, Vol. 30, No. 1, Feb 1993. 103-26 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Using data from the Public Use Microdata Sample of the 1910 U.S. Census, we examine generational and ethnic differences in marital timing. The analysis reveals a striking pattern of delayed marriage among native whites with foreign parents, but marked ethnic variation in the extent of marriage delay within the second generation. We hypothesize that locational factors, especially diverse economic opportunities, were important in shaping this marriage pattern. Separate multilevel analyses are conducted for females and for males living in urban and in rural places. Although significant effects for a variety of contextual factors are found, generational and ethnic differences in nuptial timing persist in multivariate models."
Correspondence: N. S. Landale, Pennsylvania State University, Department of Sociology, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10394 Lichter, Daniel T.; McLaughlin, Diane K.; Kephart, George; Landry, David J. Race and the retreat from marriage: a shortage of marriageable men? American Sociological Review, Vol. 57, No. 6, Dec 1992. 781-99 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"We provide a search-theoretic model of the transition to first marriage among young [black and white] women in the United States. We measure directly the pool of unmarried men relative to unmarried women in local marriage markets, as well as the economic attractiveness of available men, for each unmarried woman in the NLSY [National Longitudinal Survey of Youth]....Our event-history analysis evaluates the contextual effects of marriage market conditions, while controlling for individual factors, like women's employment and value orientations, known to affect marital timing...."
Correspondence: D. T. Lichter, Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 3 Burrowes Building, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10395 Mozny, Ivo; Rabusic, Ladislav. Unmarried cohabitation in Czechoslovakia. Czechoslovak Sociological Review, Special Issue, Vol. 28, Aug 1992. 107-17 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Eng.
Trends in consensual union in Czechoslovakia are discussed using data from two surveys conducted in 1985 and 1990. "Results showed that 31% and 37% of couples contracting their first marriage lived together in 1985 and 1990, respectively. The proportion of cohabitants among couples contracting a second or third marriage was 73% and 77%. Our conclusion is that unmarried cohabitation in Czechoslovakia...is not of a Scandinavian type....We call it 'engaged cohabitation', which is oriented toward marriage."
Correspondence: I. Mozny, Masaryk University, Department of Sociology, Social Work and Policy, Arne Novaka 1, 660 88 Brno, Slovakia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10396 Onuoha, Nelson. Nuptiality patterns in two west African states. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 25, No. 1, Jan 1993. 39-43 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Using data from the Demographic Health Survey for Ghana and Senegal, the influences of education and rural versus urban residence, and the difference between the two states on proportions married by various ages and on singulate mean age at marriage are investigated."
Correspondence: N. Onuoha, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies, 99 Gower Street, London WC1E 6AZ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10397 Qu, Xihua. Marital status of Tibetan women and its characteristics. Population Research, Vol. 8, No. 4, Dec 1991. 9-14 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
Results are presented from a survey conducted in China in 1985 to determine marital status among Tibetan women. Data are provided on marital status by age, fertility status, and past marital status. The methodology used in the analysis is also described.
Correspondence: X. Qu, Sichuan University, Institute of Population Research, 29 Wangjianglu, Jiuyanqiao, Chengdu, Sichuan, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10398 Rajulton, Fernando; Burch, Thomas K. A behavioural analysis of remarriage: motivation and market influences. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 92-8, ISBN 0-7714-1400-5. May 1992. 22, [5] pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
"An accelerated failure time model...of remarriage is developed, with covariates for age at first marriage dissolution and supply of potential mates. Applied to cohort data for Canadian men and women 18-64, the model gives expected results for age at dissolution and supply of mates, and the novel result that for most cohorts, the underlying hazard increases with duration from dissolution. The addition of a gamma distribution to capture unmeasured heterogeneity in motivation and/or personal eligibility for remarriage reveals averages and variances that generally decline across age groups...and are higher for men than for women. The results suggest the possibility that motivation may have played a larger role than previously thought in the failure of some women to remarry...."
Correspondence: University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10399 Sardon, Jean-Paul. Women's first marriage rates in Europe: elements for a typology. [La primo-nuptialite feminine en Europe: elements pour une typologie.] Population, Vol. 47, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1992. 855-91 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The author compares marriage patterns in Western Europe with those in Eastern Europe. He finds that "marriage is common and is contracted at relatively young ages in the East; it is less frequent and occurs later in the West. This gap between Eastern and Western Europe only dates back to the late 1970s....The present gap is caused by the fact that newly emerging alternative matrimonial models have not yet reached Eastern Europe. The present gap could, therefore, prove to be only a temporary episode, until the new forms of union which have not yet become established in Eastern Europe for economic reasons, develop there as well."
Correspondence: J.-P. Sardon, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10400 van Poppel, Frans. Marriage in the Netherlands. A historic-demographic study of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. [Trouwen in Nederland. Een historisch-demografische studie van de 19 en vroeg-20e eeuw.] A. A. G. Bijdragen, No. 33, ISBN 90-70990-39-3. 1992. [xx], 654 pp. Landbouwuniversiteit, Afdeling Agrarische Geschiedenis [AAG]: Wageningen, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"This study deals with the development of marriage, marital dissolution, and remarriage in the Netherlands in the period 1815-1930. It pays attention to the cultural ideas that guided the marriage decisions of 19th century men and women, making extensive use of 19th and 20th century statistical, sociological, historical, legal, economic, and ethnographic sources....The very high regional variation in age at marriage and marriage frequency in this period was analyzed using multivariate analysis of statistical data for 27 regions. The Dutch pattern of dissolution of marriage (by death and divorce) and of remarriage was examined in detail for the period 1850-90 using existing Dutch data on widowhood, divorce and remarriage, a variety of qualitative sources and data from the vital registration system and the population register for several cities. Proportional hazards models were used in this analysis."
Correspondence: Landbouwuniversiteit, Afdeling Agrarische Geschiedenis, Salverdaplein 11, POB 9101, 6700 HB Wageningen, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10401 Wadhera, Surinder; Strachan, Jill. Selected marriage statistics, 1921-1990. [Certains renseignements sur les mariages contractes de 1921 a 1990.] Pub. Order No. 82-552. ISBN 0-660-54879-8. Sep 1992. 55 pp. Statistics Canada, Canadian Centre for Health Information: Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
"This publication is a compilation of historical data relating to selected marriage data from 1921-1990 for Canada, the ten provinces, and the two territories. The major topics included in this publication relate to: numbers and rates of marriages, marriages by month, age-specific marriage rates, marriages by age and marital status, and average and median age of bride and bridegroom at marriage."
Correspondence: Statistics Canada, Canadian Centre for Health Information, Ottawa, Ontario K1A OT6, Canada. Location: New York Public Library.

59:10402 Wineberg, Howard. Childbearing and dissolution of the second marriage. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 54, No. 4, Nov 1992. 879-87 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"Using 1987-88 [U.S.] National Survey of Families and Households data, this study examines the relationship between childbearing and dissolution of the second marriage among white women. Women who give birth in the second marriage have a significantly reduced probability of dissolution. Childbearing prior to remarriage is associated with a significantly increased risk of dissolution in the first 5 years of the second marriage....An examination of the timing of births occurring before the second marriage shows that entering the second marriage with a preschool-age child or having an intermarital birth is not related to dissolution. The results suggest that bringing school-age children into a new marriage is associated with an increased risk of dissolution. The implications of the results are discussed."
Correspondence: H. Wineberg, Portland State University, School of Urban and Public Affairs, Center for Population Research and Census, Portland, OR 97207-0751. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10403 Xenos, Peter; Gultiano, Socorro A. Trends in female and male age at marriage and celibacy in Asia. Papers of the Program on Population, No. 120, ISBN 0-86638-153-8. LC 92-27059. Sep 1992. 46 pp. East-West Center, Program on Population [POP]: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
"This paper examines trends across Asia in the female and male mean ages at entrance to marriage....We show that with few exceptions the long-term trend to later female marriage continued into the 1980s and in many countries has produced quite high percentages single among the young....Trends for males are in sharp contrast. There has been less change and the pace of change has been slower. In fact, the underlying components of change have been different for females and males. The essential difference is that female ages at marriage have become more diverse, while there has been a homogenization of male marriage ages."
Correspondence: East-West Center, Program on Population, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10404 Zamudio, Lucero; Rubiano, Norma. Nuptiality in Colombia. [La nupcialidad en Colombia.] ISBN 958-616-114-5. LC 92-163614. 1991. [xviii], 182, 81 pp. Universidad Externado de Colombia: Bogota, Colombia. In Spa.
Results are presented from two nuptiality studies conducted in urban Colombia in 1984 and 1985, supplemented by data from the 1985 census. The authors compare current marriage trends with those of the early 1900s. Following an examination of first marriages that took place from 1910 to 1939, Part 2 describes remarriage. Part 3 covers social aspects of current trends, including age factors, religion, mate selection, and couple relations.
Correspondence: Universidad Externado de Colombia, Calle 12, Numero 1, 17 Este Bogota, Colombia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

G.2. Family and Household

Studies of household structure and of family composition and size and the factors influencing them. Includes the full range of family concepts from the one-parent to the extended family and includes studies on the life course of the family. Studies on attitudes toward family size are coded under F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control .

59:10405 Bruce, Judith; Lloyd, Cynthia B. Finding the ties that bind: beyond headship and household. Population Council Research Division Working Paper, No. 41, 1992. 37 pp. Population Council, Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper...combines a review of recent literature on female-headed and -maintained families and a reanalysis of newly available data on family circumstances and the living arrangements of women and children [in developing countries]....The paper [also] draws out lessons for future research priorities and population development policy....Special emphasis is placed on the specification and support of parenting roles--particularly fathering roles--in fulfilling the social and economic needs of children."
Correspondence: Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10406 Burch, Thomas K. Estimating kinship counts from the Goodman, Keyfitz, Pullum equations: an alternative procedure. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 92-4, ISBN 0-7714-1392-0. May 1992. 6, [2] pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
The author describes an alternative to the method outlined in a 1974 paper by K. A. Goodman, N. Keyfitz, and T. W. Pullum on modeling kinship counts. "This note illustrates [another] method of evaluating the kinship integrals directly, using readily available computer software developed since their paper first appeared. The method requires a minimum of programming, yields results that agree well with the Pullum approximations, and has the advantage, both scientific and pedagogical, of working directly with the theoretical equations rather than with finite approximation algorithms. Theory and computation are more closely linked....The method is illustrated for children and grandchildren for 1981 Canadian data...."
For the article by Goodman et al., published in 1974, see 40:3393.
Correspondence: University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10407 Buvinic, Mayra; Valenzuela, Juan P.; Molina, Temistocles; Gonzalez, Electra. The fortunes of adolescent mothers and their children: the transmission of poverty in Santiago, Chile. Population and Development Review, Vol. 18, No. 2, Jun 1992. 269-97, 393, 395 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Six years after a group of low-income adolescent mothers in Santiago, Chile had given birth to their first child, 42 percent of the fathers had abandoned their children. The authors gathered retrospective life-histories on these mothers and used indicators of child well-being to examine patterns of family formation and the reproduction of poverty in mother-child pairs." The aim of the study was "to determine whether adolescent motherhood gives rise to disadvantaged female-headed households; whether adolescent mothers and/or households headed by women transmit disadvantage and poverty to the next generation; and, if so, which mechanisms contribute to this transmission."
Correspondence: M. Buvinic, International Center for Research on Women, Washington, D.C. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10408 Camilleri, Carmel. Changes in Maghrebian and Portuguese family structure in France. [Evolution des structures familiales chez les Maghrebins et les Portugais de France.] Revue Europeenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1992. 133-46 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The author examines family formation in France by immigrant groups from northern Africa and Portugal. The influence of Western culture on traditional patriarchical societies is noted.
Correspondence: C. Camilleri, Universite de Paris V, Centre Henri Pierron, 28 rue Serpente, 75006 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10409 Cheong, Keywon. Family ties of out-migrants: determinants of visiting and paying support to the family of origin. Journal of Population, Health and Social Welfare, Vol. 11, No. 2, Dec 1991. 83-99 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Kor. with sum. in Eng.
"This study investigates the socioeconomic and demographic determinants of [the] family ties of out-migrants. Family ties are measured by the frequency of visits and the amount of financial support that recent outmigrants pay to their family of origin....Data [are] from the Korean National Migration Survey of 1983...."
Correspondence: K. Cheong, Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs, San 42-14, Bulgwang-dong, Eunpyung-ku, Seoul 122-040, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10410 Cigno, Alessandro. Economics of the family. ISBN 0-19-828709-7. LC 91-6319. 1991. vii, 212 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
This study is an attempt "to reproduce the main propositions of the economic theory of the family, and to generate some new ones, within a unified analytical framework--the simplest possible." The book endeavors to "establish functional relationships that will help explain observed changes of aggregate family behaviour, and differences of behaviour between broadly defined categories of families and individuals. It also sets out to examine the congruity of various kinds of public policy aimed at the family with the declared objectives of those policies." Topics covered include household formation and marriage, the cost of children, the demand for children, the timing of births, and intergenerational issues. The geographical focus is on developed market-economy countries.
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, Walton Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

59:10411 De Vos, Susan; Lee, Yean-Ju. Change in extended family living among elderly people in South Korea, 1970-1980. Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 41, No. 2, Jan 1993. 377-93 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
Changes in family characteristics in South Korea are explored using data from the 1970 and 1980 censuses. The focus is on the living arrangements of the population over age 60. The authors establish that "the proportion of individuals 60 years or older living in extended family households dropped from about 71% in 1970 to 64% in 1980."
Correspondence: S. De Vos, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53201. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

59:10412 Desai, Sonalde; Jain, Devaki. Maternal employment and changes in family dynamics: the social context of women's work in rural south India. Population Council Research Division Working Paper, No. 39, 1992. 42 pp. Population Council, Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"The goal of this paper is to examine the role of gender inequality within the political economy in shaping intra-family dynamics associated with women's employment. In particular, we examine the relationship between maternal employment and child welfare within the context of gender inequality in the labor market, poverty, and lack of access to infrastructure in rural South India."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1992 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10413 Dumont, Gerard-Francois. The marital status of single-parent families with low or no income in France. [La situation matrimoniale en France des familles monoparentales a revenu faible ou sans revenu.] Population, Vol. 47, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1992. 1,045-51 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The author examines single-parent families in France to determine whether a relationship exists between income level and marital status. Data are from records of widowed, divorced, separated, or never-married recipients of government family aid and concern the period 1980-1990.
Correspondence: G.-F. Dumont, Universite de Paris-Sorbonne, 12 place du Pantheon, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10414 Fratczak, Ewa; Paszek, Barbara. An examination of family and migration career correlation--an application of the non-parametric analysis methods to the results of the retrospective study--life course (Family Occupational and Migratory Biography), 1988. Polish Population Review, No. 2, 1992. 5-47 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Eng.
The authors analyze the relationships between family life cycle events and migration using data for Poland. "Two main questions have been asked....1. how does migration influence the future family career of [an] individual? 2. how does an event in [the] family career, e.g., birth [of] a child, influence migration options? Two methods of non-parametric analysis were taken into consideration...a method of standardization and [a] method based on the theory of dependent competing risks. Conclusions following from the application of the competing risks model correspond to those drawn from the method of standardization."
Correspondence: E. Fratczak, Warsaw School of Economics, Institute of Statistics and Demography, Al. Niepodleglosci 162, 02-554 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10415 Fratczak, Ewa. Living arrangements of the elderly in Poland--evidence from survey Life Course (Family, Occupation and Migratory Biography), 1988. Polish Population Review, No. 2, 1992. 106-26 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Eng.
"The paper presents a structural analysis of the living arrangements of the elderly in Poland based on the results of [a 1988] Polish retrospective survey....Evaluation of living arrangements includes persons aged 60 and over and concentrates mainly on: family and household composition, intergenerational transfers, occupational activity of retired persons and selected aspects of health and life satisfaction."
Correspondence: E. Fratczak, Warsaw School of Economics, Institute of Statistics and Demography, Al. Niepodleglosci 162, 02-554 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10416 Gaye Guingnido, Kossi. Measuring the impact of migration on household changes: the case of Benin. [La mesure de l'impact des migrations sur l'evolution des menages: le cas du Benin.] Institut de Demographie Monographie, No. 3, ISBN 2-87209-235-8. 1993. 216 pp. Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie, Departement des Sciences de la Population et du Developpement: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; Academia-Erasme: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre.
The author attempts to include the migration factor into an analysis of household change using data from Benin. These data are from a variety of sources, including the 1979 census and a 1988 survey of some 500 households carried out in Cotonou. The author first develops the concept of a migrant household. The methodological aspects of analyzing the effects of migration on household characteristics and size are discussed. The study examines the impact on households of such migration-related practices as the migration of children on their own and the fostering of children into other households.
Correspondence: Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie, Departement des Sciences de la Population et du Developpement, 1 place Montesquieu, BP 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10417 Goldscheider, Frances K.; Waite, Linda J. New families, no families? The transformation of the American home. Studies in Demography, Vol. 6, ISBN 0-520-07222-7. LC 91-15452. 1991. xvi, 303 pp. University of California Press: Berkeley, California/London, England. In Eng.
"This book is about two revolutions confronting the family [in the United States]. The first revolution is taking place inside the family, where changes in sex roles, which have increased women's participation in the paid labor force, are now challenging the rules underlying traditional marriage....The second revolution is going on outside the family, where unmarried people are experiencing the privacy, dignity, and authority (and sometimes the loneliness) of living in their own home rather than living in a family as a child, relative, or lodger." Data are from a variety of published sources.
Correspondence: University of California Press, 2120 Berkeley Way, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

59:10418 Greenhalgh, Susan. The changing value of children in the transition from socialism: the view from three Chinese villages. Population Council Research Division Working Paper, No. 43, 1992. 32 pp. Population Council, Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
The author assesses the impact of a country's transition from socialism on the value of children, using the example of China, with data collected in three villages in Shaanxi province. She finds that "almost a decade after...reforms were instituted, children played important roles in agricultural production, but their contributions to entrepreneurship were negligible, and their participation in the old-age social security system was no longer assured. It argues that the state itself was responsible for weakening the family labor regime....The reduced value of children may have limited the family's economic potential, but its demographic implications were more favorable. In an environment where many children are perceived as economic burdens, peasant fertility can be expected to remain modest with or without the existence of a forceful population policy."
Correspondence: Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10419 Heida, H. R. The PRIMOS household model. [Het PRIMOS-huishoudenmodel.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 40, No. 11, Nov 1992. 16-25 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The PRIMOS model, developed to forecast changes in household composition in the Netherlands, is applied to official data for the period 1977-1990. "The forecast results in an increasing number of households in the Netherlands, from 5.95 million in 1990 to 7.37 million in 2015." Projections by region are also included.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10420 Hermalin, Albert I.; Riley, Ann P.; Rosero-Bixby, Luis. Regional differences in family size preferences in Costa Rica and their implications for transition theory. Population Studies Center Research Report, No. 90-162, Jun 1990. 29, [12] pp. University of Michigan, Population Studies Center: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This paper examines the role of region in shaping family size preferences among rural Costa Rican women....The strong effect of region on preferences is contrasted with its role as a determinant of actual family size and of contraceptive use, and the implications of the findings for competing theories about the demographic transition is discussed in some detail."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1989 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10421 Himes, Christine L. Future caregivers: projected family structures of older persons. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, Vol. 47, No. 1, Jan 1992. S17-26 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This research uses multiple decrement life tables and component projection methods to project the future family status of elderly persons [in the United States] until the year 2020. The high level of fertility among women during the 1950s will result in greater proportions of future elderly persons having surviving children. Declines in mortality, coupled with increases in rates of marriage, increase the probability that both men and women will have spouses surviving in their old age."
Correspondence: C. L. Himes, Pennsylvania State University, Population Issues Research Center, 22 Burrowes Building, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SW).

59:10422 Knodel, John; Chayovan, Napaporn. Do Thai newlyweds really live separately? Social Forces, Vol. 71, No. 2, Dec 1992. 513-8 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
The authors present a critique of a recent study by Aphichat Chamratrithirong, S. Philip Morgan, and Ronald R. Rindfuss on whether newlyweds in Thailand actually live together following marriage. A reply by Chamratrithirong et al. is included (pp. 517-8).
For the study by Chamratrithirong et al., published in 1988, see 54:30373.
Correspondence: J. Knodel, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48104-2590. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10423 Knodel, John; Debavalya, Nibhon. Social and economic support systems for the elderly in Asia: an introduction. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 7, No. 3, Sep 1992. 5-12 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
This is an introduction to a special issue on aspects of demographic aging in Asia. It provides "an overview of the issues related to the rapid increase in the number of elderly in some Asian countries. It describes how the articles contained in this special issue...demonstrate that the familial system of support for the elderly has persisted despite major social and economic change. It also briefly highlights the findings of the country studies."
Correspondence: J. Knodel, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10424 Landale, Nancy S.; Hauan, Susan M. The family life course of Puerto Rican children. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 54, No. 4, Nov 1992. 912-24 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"Using data from a survey of Puerto Rican women residing in the New York City area in 1985, this paper examines the implications of changing marital behavior for Puerto Rican children's family life course. The analysis shows that: (a) a growing proportion of Puerto Rican children are born outside of formal or informal coresidential unions; (b) among children born into intact unions, an increasing proportion are the offspring of informal unions; (c) Puerto Rican children face high and rising risks of experiencing family disruption during childhood; and (d) among those who enter single-parent families, the duration of time with a single mother is rarely brief. Given the high poverty rate of female-headed families, our findings imply that Puerto Rican children face rising risks of experiencing sustained poverty during childhood."
Correspondence: N. S. Landale, Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 22 Burrowes Building, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10425 Li, Jingneng. Reproduction worship and population growth in China. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 4, No. 1, 1992. 27-31 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The history of family size desires and son preference values in China are examined. The focus is on how these beliefs affect modern Chinese family formation decisions. The author finds that "the idea of family perpetuation still persists in the minds of the people, although the nature of the state power has completely changed, traditional peasant economy no longer plays a leading role in the national economy, and modern industry and commerce have penetrated into the economy of the rural family."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10426 Mason, Karen O. Family change and support of the elderly in Asia: what do we know? Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 7, No. 3, Sep 1992. 13-32 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"After outlining variations in traditional family systems in Asia, this article discusses likely impacts of urbanization, industrialization and migration on family structure and care of the elderly. Evidence about changing family support for the elderly in Asia is then reviewed. The article's main conclusion is that future changes in Asian countries and areas seem likely to erode traditional family-based systems of care for the elderly, even if the overall welfare of the elderly improves because of higher incomes. Problems faced by elderly women are likely to be especially acute and may require special policies to deal with them."
Correspondence: K. O. Mason, East-West Center, Program on Population, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10427 Menniti, Adele. Italian families in the 1980s. [Le famiglie italiane degli anni '80.] Collana Monografie, No. 2, 1991. 306 pp. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione [IRP]: Rome, Italy. In Ita.
This is a selection of papers by various authors concerning the family in Italy in the 1980s. A common feature is the use of census data and the results of surveys undertaken by the National Research Council to analyze changes in family characteristics. Chapters are included on families without children, one-person households, families with elderly relatives, one-parent families, premarital cohabitation, and consensual unions.
Correspondence: Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione, Viale Beethoven 56, 00144 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10428 Morgan, S. Philip; McDaniel, Antonio; Miller, Andrew T.; Preston, Samuel H. Racial differences in household and family structure at the turn of the century. American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 98, No. 4, Jan 1993. 799-828 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"Using recently available data drawn from the 1910 [U.S.] census manuscripts, this article documents sharp racial differences in family and household structure at the turn of the century. Compared with those of native whites, African-American households were less likely to be nuclear and more likely to be headed by women. Further, African-American women were much more likely than white women to have surviving children who were not living with them at the time of the census. Because such historical differences parallel contemporary ones, the authors call for greater attention to persistent structural, cultural, and demographic factors that affect racial differences in family structure."
Correspondence: S. P. Morgan, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10429 Oderkirk, Jillian; Lochhead, Clarence. Lone parenthood: gender differences. Canadian Social Trends, No. 27, Winter 1992. 16-9 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
Census data for 1991 and statistics from surveys conducted in 1987, 1988, and 1989 are used to examine one-parent families in Canada. The emphasis is on differences among households headed by women or men. Age differences, educational status, and income sources are examined.
Correspondence: J. Oderkirk, Canadian Social Trends, Statistics Canada, Ottawa K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10430 Padmanabhan, M. Profile of rural female headed households. Journal of Rural Development, Vol. 9, No. 6, Nov 1990. 1,061-5 pp. Hyderabad, India. In Eng.
The author presents a profile of rural households headed by women in India, using data from the 1987-1988 Employment and Unemployment Survey. Comparisons between female-headed and other types of rural households are made in terms of household size, land owned and cultivated, use of hired agricultural labor, and household consumption.
Correspondence: M. Padmanabhan, National Institute of Rural Development, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad 500 030, India. Location: Center for Research Libraries, Chicago, IL.

59:10431 Suzuki, Toru. An analytical model of kin frequencies based on the age-parity structure of population. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 48, No. 3, Oct 1992. 1-15 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
"After a mathematical inspection of demographic models of kin frequencies, this article shows that lack of parity structure is the most problematic weakness of existing models....[An] effort is made to develop a kin frequency model [based] on [an] age-parity-structured population model. Fertility rates by birth order [are] obtained from [the] 1987 Japan National Fertility Survey, and female life tables with parity structure [are] constructed. Intrinsic growth rate is calculated to get a stable population model with parity. Expressions to attain various kin counts and family life cycle [events] are developed...."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10432 Szucs, Zoltan. The effect of double address registration on household and family structures. [A kettos lakcimbejelentes hatasa a haztartas- es csaladstrukturara.] Statisztikai Szemle, Vol. 70, No. 10, Oct 1992. 820-33 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author examines ways in which Hungary's double address registration system influences the number and composition of families and households.
Correspondence: Z. Szucs, Kozponti Statisztikai Hivatal, P.O.B. 51, Keleti Karoly Utca 5-7, H-1525 Budapest II, Hungary. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10433 Tan, Poo Chang. Implications of changing family structures on old-age support in the ESCAP region. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 7, No. 2, Jun 1992. 49-66 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This article considers the various types of old-age support and care, and the implications of changing family structures [in the Asia-Pacific region]. It concludes that long-term development planning should cater for the need to increase social support services in line with changing demographic scenarios."
Correspondence: P. C. Tan, University of Malaya, Faculty of Economics and Administration, Lembah Pantai, 59100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10434 Tuan, Chi-hsien. Gender selection and fertility regulation in the process of family building in China. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 4, No. 1, 1992. 33-54 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author uses "data obtained from the per thousand sampling survey of fertility in China in 1982" to examine the effect of sex preference and government-imposed birth quotas on family size. "The...analysis indicates that the major cause of extra unplanned births is the conflict between the government's planning and the individuals' ideal of family size."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10435 Ulijaszek, Stanley J. Influence of birth interval and child labour on family energy requirements and dependency ratios in two traditional subsistence economies in Africa. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 25, No. 1, Jan 1993. 79-86 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
The author investigates the rationality of child labor in traditional subsistence economies. "The consequences of different birth intervals on dietary energy requirements and dependency ratios at different stages of the family lifecycle are modelled for Gambian agriculturalists and !Kung hunter-gatherers. Energy requirements reach a peak at between 20 and 30 years after starting a family for the Gambians, and between 15 and 20 years for the !Kung. For the Gambians, [a] shorter birth interval confers no economic advantage over the traditional birth interval of 30 months. For the !Kung, the lack of participation in subsistence activities by children gives an output:input ratio in excess of that reported in other studies, suggesting that they are in a state of chronic energy deficiency."
Correspondence: S. J. Ulijaszek, University of Cambridge, Department of Biological Anthropology, Cambridge CB2 1TN, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10436 Vijgen, J.; van Engelsdorp Gastelaars, R. A varied existence: the use of time and space in the daily life of some "old" and "new" groups within the Dutch population. [Een gevarieerd bestaan: het gebruik van tijd en ruimte in het dagelijks leven van enkele "oude" en "nieuwe" groepen binnen de Nederlandse bevolking.] Stedelijke Netwerken Werkstukken, No. 28, ISBN 90-5405-007-1. Apr 1991. vi, 208 pp. Universiteit van Amsterdam, Centrum voor Grootstedelijk Onderzoek: Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Dut.
Changes in the characteristics of Dutch households since the 1970s are explored. The focus is on how the various types of households differ with regard to their daily way of life and behavior. The authors compare traditional and modern types of households and note differences between urban and other households.
Correspondence: Stedelijke Netwerken, Postbus 80.1115, 3508 TC Utrecht, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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