Volume 59 - Number 1 - Spring 1993

E. Mortality

Studies that treat quantitative mortality data analytically. Methodological studies primarily concerned with mortality are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary. The main references to crude data are in the vital statistics items in S. Official Statistical Publications .

E.1. General Mortality

Studies of overall mortality and comparisons of several types of mortality. Studies dealing with two or more of the topics listed in this division are classified under the major section covered, or, if this is not self-evident, included here under General Mortality.

59:10111 Capocaccia, Riccardo; Farchi, Gino; Prati, Sabrina; Mariotti, Sergio; Verdecchia, Arduino; Angeli, Andrea; Scipione, Riccardo; Feola, Giuseppe; Morganti, Pietro. Mortality in Italy in 1989. [La mortalita in Italia nell'anno 1989.] Rapporti ISTISAN, No. 92/22, 1992. ii, 59 pp. Istituto Superiore di Sanita [ISTISAN]: Rome, Italy; Istituto Nazionale di Statistica [ISTAT]: Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng.
"A series of analytical tables for mortality data in Italy in 1989 is described. The age-and-sex specific rates for [the] whole of Italy are reported for 45 different death causes, as well as the national standardized rate referred to 1971 population. The standardized rates for each of the 20 regions and the three main subdivisions; North, Center, South/Islands are also reported. This report belongs to a series describing mortality in Italy since 1970, using the same methods, with yearly [updated] editions."
For a previous study concerning 1988, see 58:10104.
Correspondence: Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, Rome 00161, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10112 Islam, M. N. Mortality in three selected villages of Bangladesh. Rural Demography, Vol. 16, No. 1-2, 1989. 9-18 pp. Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
"The present study was undertaken to identify the levels and age patterns of mortality in one rural area of Bangladesh. Some of the most recently developed nontraditional methods were applied to the...data set for obtaining estimates of infant and child mortality and adult mortality. The validity of estimates was assessed by making a comparison with a few indicators of mortality available from various sources. Although the basic data from local studies might have been deficient, the application of nontraditional methods to such information on mortality could still provide consistent and plausible estimates both at regional and national levels." Data are from a survey conducted in 1986.
Correspondence: M. N. Islam, University of Dhaka, Department of Statistics, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10113 Kytir, Josef. Estimating future mortality rates for Austria based on a model of parameterized mortality schedules. [Vorausschatzung der kunftigen Mortalitatsentwicklung in Osterreich unter Verwendung eines Modells parametrisierter Sterbewahrscheinlichkeiten.] In: Acta demographica 1992, edited by Gunter Buttler, Gerhard Heilig, and Gerhard Schmitt-Rink. 1992. 209-22 pp. Physica-Verlag: Heidelberg, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
"This analysis provides estimates for death probabilities of the Austrian population for the year 2030....Annual death probabilities...for the years 1948 to 1989 were modelled using Heligman's and Pollard's nine parameter function....Using this method, life expectancy values for the year 2030 were--especially for women--estimated to be significantly higher than those of the Austrian Statistical Office. Therefore, population forecasts based on these mortality assumptions, will also result in significantly higher estimates of the number of old and very old people in Austria in the future decades."
Correspondence: J. Kytir, Canalettogasse 5/17, A-1120 Vienna, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10114 Seeman, Isadore. Sampler of findings from the 1986 National Mortality Followback Survey on risk factors, disability, and health care. Public Health Reports, Vol. 107, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1992. 707-12 pp. Rockville, Maryland. In Eng.
The author discusses results from the 1986 U.S. National Mortality Followback Survey. "Illustrative results are presented on the four major subject areas studied: risk factors for premature death, disability and care in the last year of life, socioeconomic differentials, and the reliability of selected items reported on the death certificate."
Correspondence: I. Seeman, 9915 Dameron Drive, Silver Spring, MD 20902. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10115 Valkovics, Emil. An attempt of decomposition of the differences between life expectancies at age X (on the basis of abridged Italian life tables of 1972 and 1982). Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione Working Paper, No. 12/90, Dec 1990. 42 pp. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione [IRP]: Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"This is an attempt to decompose the differences between life expectancies [by sex] at age X based on the abridged Italian life tables of 1972 and 1982 elaborated and published by the Italian Institution for Population Research (IRP)."
Correspondence: Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione, Viale Beethoven 56, 00144 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10116 Witkowski, Janusz; Kowalska, Anna. The quality of natural environment and mortality (based on the example of major cities in Poland). Polish Population Review, No. 2, 1992. 48-57 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Eng.
"The paper presents the results of [a] study on the relationship between environmental degeneration and mortality in major cities of Poland [during the 1980s]....The authors examine 22 major cities differed according to the degree of pollution....The analysis employs...life tables and methods of multiple regression....The influence of the natural environment quality on mortality is diversified according to sex and age but in general, the interdependence is not strong."
Correspondence: J. Witkowski, Warsaw School of Economics, Al. Niepodleglosci 162, 02-554 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10117 Zopf, Paul E. Mortality patterns and trends in the United States. Studies in Population and Urban Demography, No. 7, ISBN 0-313-26769-3. LC 92-15488. 1992. xx, 281 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"The principal focus of this book is twofold. First, it concerns present patterns of mortality, including general mortality and differentials among various groups, the mortality situation of the United States relative to other nations, infant mortality, and life expectancy. Second, it traces revolutionary mortality changes in the United States, including long-term reductions in general death rates and infant mortality rates, increases in life expectancy, changes in the relative importance of various causes of death, and fluctuations in mortality differentials among population components, especially males and females and blacks and whites. The book also accounts for certain social, economic, and other causes of mortality patterns and changes, and for some social, economic, and other results of those patterns and changes."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.2. Prenatal and Perinatal Mortality

Studies dealing primarily with fetal and neonatal mortality, except those dealing with spontaneous abortions, which are classified under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology , and those studies dealing with induced abortions, which are classified under F.4.5. Induced Abortion . Perinatal mortality is defined as mortality occurring between the twenty-eighth week of gestation and the seventh day of life.

No citations in this issue.

E.3. Infant and Childhood Mortality

Studies of infant mortality under one year of age, including neonatal mortality occurring after the seventh day of life, and childhood mortality after one year of age. The subject of infanticide, deliberate or implied, is also classified under this heading.

59:10118 Alonso, Pedro L.; Hill, Allan G.; David, Patricia H.; Fegan, Greg; Armstrong, Joanna R. M.; Francisco, Andreas; Cham, K.; Greenwood, Brian M. Malaria: the impact of treated bed-nets on childhood mortality in the Gambia. Policy Research Working Paper: Population, Health, and Nutrition, No. 883, Apr 1992. 30 pp. World Bank, Population and Human Resources Department: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"In rural Gambia, as in many parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, malaria remains a major cause of death for children below the age of five--indeed, the principal cause of death when vaccination coverage rates are high and death rates from common infectious diseases of childhood are reduced. In recent years, concern has grown about the development of drug-resistant strains of malaria--provoking renewed interest in vector control and the reduction of man-vector transmission rates." The results indicate that "general and malaria-specific mortality in children under 5 have both been sharply reduced by the introduction of Permethrin-treated bed-nets."
Correspondence: World Bank, Population and Human Resources Department, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

59:10119 Bhuiya, Abbas; Streatfield, Kim. A hazard logit model analysis of covariates of childhood mortality in Matlab, Bangladesh. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 24, No. 4, Oct 1992. 447-62 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"In a prospective study in Matlab, a rural area in Bangladesh, the relationship between a variety of covariates and childhood mortality was examined. Economic status of household, education of mother, sex of the children, health intervention programmes, age of mother, and live birth order of the children were identified as having a statistically significant impact on child survival when the effect of age was controlled. The effects of sex of the children, health programmes, age of mother, and birth order were found to be dependent on the age of the children, but the effect of mother's education was dependent on sex of the children."
Correspondence: A. Bhuiya, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, GPO Box 128, Dhaka 2, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10120 Chalakova, Diana. The infant mortality rate in Bulgaria (1900-1990). [Razvitie na detskata smartnost v Balgariya (1900-1990g.).] Naselenie, No. 5, 1992. 40-51 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Infant mortality patterns in Bulgaria since 1900 are analyzed in the context of trends in the country's economic development. The author notes that while death rates have declined in the past 10 years, the infant mortality rate is still significantly higher in Bulgaria than in other developed countries.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10121 Crook, Nigel; Malaker, C. R. Child mortality in new industrial localities and opportunities for change: a survey in an Indian steel town. Health Transition Review, Vol. 2, No. 2, Oct 1992. 165-76 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"As Asia becomes increasingly urbanized the effect of new industrial development on child mortality becomes of increasing interest....This survey of Durgapur steel town in West Bengal [India] shows that although the average level of child mortality in the working class population is favourable in comparison with other Indian cities, considerable differentials, that can be related to social, economic and environmental differences within the population, have risen since the creation of the city in the late 1950s. The paper argues that the undertaking of selective sanitary interventions to improve access to drinking water (in particular) would be administratively feasible in these industrial new towns, of immediate impact, and indeed necessary if the differentials in mortality are to be eliminated."
Correspondence: N. Crook, University of London, School of Oriental and African Studies, Department of Economics, Thornhaugh Street, Russell Square, London WC1H 0XG, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10122 Curtis, Sian L.; Diamond, Ian; McDonald, John W. Birth interval and family effects on postneonatal mortality in Brazil. Demography, Vol. 30, No. 1, Feb 1993. 33-43 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"In this paper random-effects logistic models are used to analyze the effects of the preceding birth interval on postneonatal mortality in Brazil, controlling for the correlation of survival outcomes between siblings. The results are compared to those obtained by using ordinary logistic regression. Family effects are found to be highly significant in the random-effects model, but the substantive conclusions of the ordinary logistic model are preserved. In particular, birth interval effects remain highly significant."
Correspondence: S. L. Curtis, University of Southampton, Department of Social Statistics, Southampton SO9 5NH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10123 de Meer, Kees; Bergman, Roland; Kusner, John S. Socio-cultural determinants of child mortality in southern Peru: including some methodological considerations. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 36, No. 3, Feb 1993. 317-31 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"We compared mortality rates in children calculated from retrospective survey data in 86 rural families from 2 Aymara and 3 Quechua peasant communities living at the same level of altitude (3,825 m) in southern Peru. Relations between land tenure, socio-cultural factors and child mortality were studied, and methodological considerations in this field of interest are discussed." The authors also consider perinatal, neonatal, and infant mortality.
Correspondence: K. de Meer, University Children's Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Gastroenterology, Wilhelmina Kinderziekenhuis, Nieuwe Gracht 137, 3512 LK Utrecht, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:10124 Forbes, Douglas; Frisbie, W. Parker. What's in a name?: ethnicity, endogamy, and infant mortality. Texas Population Research Center Paper, No. 13.09, 1991-1992. 25, [5] pp. University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center: Austin, Texas. In Eng.
This study "explores the effect of intermarriage on risk of infant mortality among Mexican Americans and Anglos employing a data set that spans a half-century with ethnicity coded consistently over the entire period....This analysis is based on a data set...which consists of all mortality records for the period 1935-1985 in the custody of the San Antonio [Texas] Metropolitan Health District...."
Correspondence: University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center, Main 1800, Austin, TX 78712. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10125 Guo, Guang; Rodriguez, German. Estimating a multivariate proportional hazards model for clustered data using the EM algorithm, with an application to child survival in Guatemala. JASA: Journal of the American Statistical Association, Vol. 87, No. 420, Dec 1992. 969-76 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"This article discusses a random-effects model for the analysis of clustered survival times, such as those reflecting the mortality experience of children in the same family. We describe parametric and nonparametric approaches to the specification of the random effect and show how the model may be fitted using an accelerated EM algorithm. We then fit two specifications of the model to child survival data from Guatemala....The results...show that, at least in this particular application to child survival in Guatemala, the introduction of family-level random effects has made a very modest difference in the estimation of observed covariate effects."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1991 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: G. Guo, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SM).

59:10126 Guo, Guang. Use of sibling data to estimate family mortality effects in Guatemala. Demography, Vol. 30, No. 1, Feb 1993. 15-32 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper examines the potential bias in estimates of child mortality determinants produced by the questionable assumption that sibling data are independent, and estimates the unmeasured familial effects shared among siblings. The parameter estimates yielded by the multivariate hazard model are very similar to those yielded by the standard hazard model. The standard errors of the parameter estimates, however, tend to be underestimated in conventional analyses. The contribution to child mortality from the familial factors seems modest net of household socioeconomic status, at least in this Guatemalan data set."
Correspondence: G. Guo, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, 123 West Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10127 Gursoy-Tezcan, Akile. Infant mortality: a Turkish puzzle? Health Transition Review, Vol. 2, No. 2, Oct 1992. 131-49 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"In this paper I examine the problem of high infant and child mortality in Turkey. In view of my research results, I argue for a re-evaluation of the theoretical paradigm that views childhood issues primarily in relation to mothers rather than within the dynamics of a broader cultural context. The present emphasis on mothers as a primary key to the problem reflects an extensive and implicit conceptualization of 'motherhood' that has penetrated scientific discourse and methodology. The research results presented here show that in our Istanbul sample most of the factors related to high child mortality are household and cultural conditions encircling the mother, and that only a few of the factors are direct attributes of the mother herself. These results have significant implications for research and policy on child health."
Correspondence: A. Gursoy-Tezcan, Marmara University, Faculty of Social and Administrative Sciences, Goztepe, Istanbul, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10128 Hojman, David E. Evolution of infant and child mortality in Chile: a model. Applied Economics, Vol. 24, No. 10, Oct 1992. 1,173-9 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"A model in which the birth rate and the infant and child mortality rates are jointly determined is used to explain the coexistence of declining infant and child mortality, with increasing unemployment and falling living standards for at least part of the population [of Chile]. The causes of the mortality decline are complex and include economic, health care, welfare, urbanization and other aspects."
Correspondence: D. E. Hojman, University of Liverpool, Department of Economics, P.O. Box 147, Liverpool L69 3BX, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

59:10129 Hope, Kempe R. Child survival and health care among low-income African-American families in the United States. Health Transition Review, Vol. 2, No. 2, Oct 1992. 151-63 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper provides an assessment and analysis of the increasing rates of mortality among the children of low-income African-American families in the United States and the intensifying problem of improper health care that seems to have given rise to it. The paper first documents the nature and determinants of the problem and then addresses the issue of policy prescriptions for eradicating the dilemma. The primary problem underlying the health-care access of low-income African-Americans is that there is neither a system of universal entitlement that ties their health care in with the rest of the population nor an explicit and comprehensive strategy for care outside the dominant private system."
Correspondence: K. R. Hope, United Nations, Multilateral Fund, 1800 McGill Avenue, Montreal, Quebec H3A 3J6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10130 Hubacher, David; Bailey, Patricia; Janowitz, Barbara; Barahona, Fidel; Pinel, Marco. Estimating infant mortality rates prospectively in Honduras. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 24, No. 4, Oct 1992. 433-45 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"In order to determine the validity of infant mortality estimates based on retrospective reporting, the Honduran Ministry of Health carried out a follow-up survey of women interviewed in a 1987 national survey. Women were interviewed approximately 14 months after the baseline survey and were asked about the outcomes of their pregnancies and the survival status of their young children. The overall infant mortality rate calculated from the follow-up survey was lower than that obtained from the baseline survey, due to the particularly low rate among the group of women who were pregnant at the time of the baseline survey. Possible explanations for this low rate are discussed."
Correspondence: D. Hubacher, Family Health International, P.O. Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10131 Islam, M. Ataharul. Assessing homogeneity and association in male and female infant mortality in Bangladesh. Rural Demography, Vol. 16, No. 1-2, 1989. 1-7 pp. Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
"This paper reveals some interesting characteristics regarding the nature of sex differential in neonatal, post neonatal and infant mortality [in Bangladesh]. The association between sex of an infant and mortality appears to be highly significant for neonatal and post-neonatal stages but these associations are not very heterogeneous over time....The association appears to be nonsignificant for infant mortality but the association in male and female infant mortality is found to be heterogeneous over time." Data cover the period 1966-1981.
Correspondence: M. A. Islam, University of Dhaka, Department of Statistics, Ramna, Dhaka 2, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10132 Koumans, E. H. A. Infant and child mortality in the Elim District, northern Transvaal, 1976-1986, and a comparison of trends. South African Medical Journal/Suid-Afrikaanse Mediese Joernaal, Vol. 81, No. 4, Feb 15, 1992. 202-5 pp. Pinelands, South Africa. In Eng.
Trends in infant and child mortality among rural blacks in South Africa are analyzed using data from records on 28,000 pregnancies that occurred at a hospital in the Transvaal from 1976 to 1988. The results indicate that the mean infant mortality rate was 88 per 1,000 live births and did not decline over the period.
Correspondence: E. H. A. Koumans, Harvard School of Public Health, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02138. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

59:10133 Kumar, A. K. Shiva. Maternal capabilities and child survival in low-income regions: an economic analysis of infant mortality in India. Pub. Order No. DA9228341. 1992. 341 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study was undertaken as a doctoral dissertation at Harvard University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 53(5).

59:10134 Kunstadter, Peter; Kunstadter, Sally L.; Leepreecha, Prasit; Podhisita, Chai; Laoyang, Mai; Thao, Cheng Sae; Thao, Rasamee Sae; Yang, Wirachon Sae. Causes and consequences of increase in child survival rates: ethnoepidemiology among the Hmong of Thailand. Human Biology, Vol. 64, No. 6, Dec 1992. 821-41 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
This study concerns "interactions between fertility and child survival and the relative roles of health care, demographic, and socioeconomic factors as determinants of child mortality....We first contrast socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of the ethnic Thai and minority 'hill tribe' Hmong populations of Thailand and compare the increase in child survival rates in these two populations over the past three decades. We next consider possible causes of the survival increase among the Hmong and describe Hmong parents' perceptions and explanation of this increase. Finally, we examine the relationship between the perceived increase and parents' desired family size. Original data for this study were collected by survey questionnaire, observation, and unstructured interviews [between 1987 and 1991]."
Correspondence: P. Kunstadter, University of California, School of Medicine, Institute for Health Policy Studies, 11th Floor, 1388 Sutter Street, San Francisco, CA 94109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10135 Li, Rose M. Using World Fertility Survey data to assess the preceding birth technique. Population Studies Center Research Report, No. 92-235, Mar 1992. 28, [13] pp. University of Michigan, Population Studies Center: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The author evaluates the use of the preceding birth technique in estimating child mortality. "The reliability of the method in producing differential effects from mother's age, residence, and education, as well as birth order and sex of the preceding birth is also examined." Data are from World Fertility Surveys conducted in 24 developing countries.
An earlier version of this research was presented at the 1990 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10136 MacDorman, Marian F.; Rosenberg, Harry M. Trends in infant mortality by cause of death and other characteristics, 1960-88. Vital and Health Statistics, Series 20: Data from the National Vital Statistics System, No. 20, Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 93-1857. ISBN 0-8406-0465-3. LC 92-49935. Jan 1993. ii, 51 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
"Trends and patterns in U.S. infant mortality from 1960-88 are analyzed by age, race, sex, season, and cause of death. The report discusses major shifts in leading causes of infant mortality from 1960-88 and the recent divergence in mortality rates between black and white infants."
Correspondence: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10137 Metropolitan Life Insurance Company (New York, New York). Variations in the incidence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), United States 1980-1988. Statistical Bulletin, Vol. 74, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1993. 10-8 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
Recent trends in sudden infant death syndrome in the United States are analyzed. "Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) continues to be the second leading cause of infant mortality in the United States. In 1989, 5,634 SIDS cases were recorded, resulting in a rate of 139.4 per 100,000 live births....As with total infant mortality rates, SIDS rates have been slowly declining over the years but remain disproportionately higher among black infants than white....Geographic differences in SIDS rates persist, with rates being the highest in the West and Midwest regions and lowest in the Northeast."
Correspondence: Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, One Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10010. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10138 Nordstrom, Marie-Louise; Cnattingius, Sven; Haglund, Bengt. Social differences in Swedish infant mortality by cause of death, 1983 to 1986. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 83, No. 1, Jan 1993. 26-30 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Social differences in infant mortality in Sweden are analyzed using official data for the period 1983-1986. Only for sudden infant death syndrome were significant social differences found, and the authors conclude that these differences were not significant when age, parity, and smoking habits were taken into account.
Correspondence: M.-L. Nordstrom, Uppsala University, Department of Social Medicine, Akademiska Sjukhuset, S-751 85 Uppsala, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

59:10139 Prybylski, Dimitri; Alto, William A.; Rogers, Stephen; Pickering, Helen. Measurement of child mortality in association with a multipurpose birth certificate programme in the Southern Highlands Province of Papua New Guinea. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 24, No. 4, Oct 1992. 527-37 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"A simple and inexpensive method for monitoring child mortality in association with birth registration was introduced into the Southern Highlands [Province] of Papua New Guinea. Eight thousand two hundred and one newborn infants were registered in 1988, approximately 77% of all children born in that year. The risk of death by age 2 was determined from reports given by the mother on the present status of a previously born child at the time of a recent delivery or during clinic registration of the current birth....This method was validated by comparison with a continuing demographic surveillance system covering 30,000 people in the western part of the province. The new birth certificate has been an incentive to increase supervised delivery rates and to generate a register that can be used to increase vaccination coverage."
Correspondence: D. Prybylski, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Department of International Health, 615 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10140 Rajan, S. Irudaya. Infant and child mortality among Roman Catholics in Bombay. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 37, No. 2, Jun 1991. 50-61 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
The author examines levels and trends in infant and child mortality among the Roman Catholic population in Bombay, India, using church burial records. Data are from four parishes and cover the period 1869-1984.
Correspondence: S. I. Rajan, Centre for Development Studies, Global Training Programme in Population and Development, Ulloor, Trivandrum 695 011, India. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

59:10141 Singh, Baljit. Determinants of IMR in very high infant mortality African countries. Health and Population: Perspectives and Issues, Vol. 14, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1991. 89-95 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng. with sum. in Hin.
Factors affecting infant mortality in selected African countries are reviewed. The author finds that low birth weight, fertility, immunization, female literacy rates, and nutritional status are all significant variables affecting infant mortality rates. Data are from official and other published sources.
Correspondence: B. Singh, University of Delhi, SGTB Khalsa College, Delhi 110 007, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10142 Soemantri, Soeharsono. Indirect measurement of childhood mortality: response reliability of childhood survival method vs last live birth survival method. Pub. Order No. DA9216630. 1992. 219 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study concerns Indonesia and was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Johns Hopkins University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Location: Princeton University Library (DR). Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 53(4).

59:10143 United States. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS] (Hyattsville, Maryland); United States. Centers for Disease Control [CDC] (Atlanta, Georgia). Proceedings of the International Collaborative Effort on Perinatal and Infant Mortality, Volume III. Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 92-1252. Oct 1992. xxii, [363] pp. Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
These are the papers presented at the International Symposium on Perinatal and Infant Mortality, held in Bethesda, Maryland, in 1990. The meeting was sponsored by the International Collaborative Effort on Perinatal and Infant Mortality, created by the National Center for Health Statistics to examine reasons for the relatively poor international ranking of the United States in perinatal and infant mortality. Most of the papers are based on a standardized, birth-weight specific, data set covering birth cohorts from 1980 to 1985. They provide insights into sources of differences in infant and perinatal mortality among participating developed countries, and are grouped under the headings: health care and services; relation of cultural and social factors to pregnancy outcomes; birthweight, gestational age, and age at death; cause of death; and infant survival and preventable mortality.
Correspondence: Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Center for Health Statistics, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10144 Vaz-Grave, Maria J. Child mortality in Luanda. [La mortalite des enfants a Luanda.] Les Dossiers du CEPED, No. 21, ISBN 2-87762-053-0. Nov 1992. 39 pp. Centre Francais sur la Population et le Developpement [CEPED]: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Por.
A method of child mortality estimation developed by Brass and Macrae based on reports on previous births given by mothers at the time of maternity is used to estimate levels and differentials in child mortality in Luanda, Angola. The data concern 4,089 women who gave birth at Lucrecia Paim maternity center. Various factors affecting child mortality differentials are analyzed, including maternal age, parity, and birth intervals; socioeconomic factors, including housing conditions; and use of health services.
Correspondence: Centre Francais sur la Population et le Developpement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Medecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10145 Vella, V.; Tomkins, A.; Borghesi, A.; Migliori, G. B.; Adriko, B. C.; Crevatin, E. Determinants of child nutrition and mortality in north-west Uganda. Bulletin of the World Health Organization/Bulletin de l'Organisation Mondiale de la Sante, Vol. 70, No. 5, 1992. 637-43 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The present article reports on the nutritional status in a district of Uganda and on attempts to identify sensitive predictors of childhood mortality; a further aim was to determine the major causes of malnutrition and mortality in the study region." Anthropometric data collected from 1,178 children during February and March 1987. The authors find that "use of unprotected water supplies in the dry season, prolonged breast-feeding, and age negatively affected nutrition; in contrast, parental education level improved nutrition....Children whose fathers' work was associated with the distillation of alcohol had a higher risk of mortality than other children. The lowest mortality was among children whose fathers were businessmen or who grew tobacco."
Correspondence: V. Vella, World Bank, SA3PH, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10146 Victora, Cesar G.; Barros, Fernando C.; Huttly, Sharon R. A.; Teixeira, Ana M. B.; Vaughan, J. Patrick. Early childhood mortality in a Brazilian cohort: the roles of birthweight and socioeconomic status. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 21, No. 5, Oct 1992. 911-5 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The deaths of children aged 1-4 years were studied in a cohort of 5,914 Brazilian liveborns. A total of 29 early childhood deaths were recorded (cumulative mortality risk of approximately 6 per 1,000), 17 of which (59%) were due to infectious diseases. The death rate was highest in the second year. Deaths were highly concentrated in children from low income...families, where the cumulative risk of early childhood death was about 10 per 1,000....Birthweight was also associated with mortality....These findings confirm the strong association between early childhood mortality and socioeconomic conditions, but also make evident the long-term effects of low birthweight."
Correspondence: C. G. Victora, Universidad Federal de Pelotas, Departamento de Medicina Social, CP 464, 96001 Pelotas, RS, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10147 Vidal, David E.; Ravanera, Zenaida. Altitude and urbanization: their influence on infant and child mortality in Bolivia. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 92-9, ISBN 0-7714-1401-3. May 1992. 32 pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
"The purpose of this study is to examine the differences in infant mortality for various ecological strata and spatial contexts, since infant mortality varies according to the altitude where the population lives and the natural resources to which they have access, especially among the populations where an economy of subsistence is predominant. In Bolivia the predominance of a particular ethnic group in each ecological strata is manifested, as well as differing degrees of urbanization. These factors will be reflected in the levels of infant mortality."
Correspondence: University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10148 Wolowyna, Oleh; Pinto Aguirre, Guido. Infant survival in Bolivia. [Sobrevivencia infantil en Bolivia.] 1990. 262 pp. Consejo Nacional de Poblacion [CONAPO]: La Paz, Bolivia. In Spa.
The authors examine levels and trends in infant morbidity and mortality in Bolivia. Chapters are included on mortality during the first five years of life; respiratory diseases, diarrhea, and immunization programs; causes of infant death; malnutrition; risk factors associated with the mother; and the health care system. Data cover the period 1950-1990, with a focus on the 1980s.
Correspondence: Consejo Nacional de Poblacion, Avenida Acre 2147, Casilla 686, La Paz, Bolivia. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

E.4. Mortality at Other Ages

Studies of age-specific mortality and of mortality in special groups defined by age.

59:10149 Hansluwka, Harald. Some aspects of adult mortality in developed countries. [A felnottkori halandosag nehany aspektusa a fejlett orszagokban.] Demografia, Vol. 35, No. 2, 1992. 173-206 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun.
The author examines aspects of adult mortality in developed countries. Consideration is given to suicide, survivors per 100,000 live births by sex, probability of dying by cause and sex, and years of potential life lost.
Correspondence: H. Hansluwka, Alliiertenstrasse 14, 1020 Vienna, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10150 Molnar, D. Laszlo; Kocsis, Sandor. Mortality model of middle-aged males in Budapest. [A kozepkoru Budapesti ferfiak halalozasi modellje.] Statisztikai Szemle, Vol. 70, No. 12, Dec 1992. 1,048-52 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Factors affecting mortality among middle-aged men in Budapest, Hungary, are analyzed using official data from a survey conducted in the mid-1980s. A strong link between low socioeconomic status and higher risk of mortality is noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10151 Rakowski, William; Mor, Vincent. The association of physical activity with mortality among older adults in the Longitudinal Study of Aging (1984-1988). Journal of Gerontology: Medical Sciences, Vol. 47, No. 4, Jul 1992. M122-9 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Self-reported physical activity/exercise and mortality among adults aged 70 and over were examined using data drawn from the 1984-1988 [U.S.] Longitudinal Study of Aging (LSOA)....Analyses were conducted both for the LSOA sample as a whole, and for women and men separately. In addition, although the study of physical activity is important in its own right, there is also a potential for integration with research on functional health status." It is found that "less activity/exercise was associated with a higher risk of mortality for each of four questions (activity compared to peers, have regular exercise routine, get enough exercise, days walking a mile per week). Analyses by gender indicated that all four questions were important for women, while the two questions asking for a judgment about activity were important for men."
Correspondence: W. Rakowski, Brown University, Department of Community Health, Box G-A405, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SW).

59:10152 Steinbach, Ulrike. Social networks, institutionalization, and mortality among elderly people in the United States. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, Vol. 47, No. 4, Jul 1992. S183-90 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study focuses on the effect of social networks on institutionalization and mortality among elderly people in the United States. Data are from the Longitudinal Study of Aging (LSOA), which incorporates a baseline interview in 1984 and a follow-up interview two years later. The study population consists of a sample of 5,151 noninstitutionalized elderly people who were 70 years of age or older in 1984. Multivariate analyses using logistic regression revealed that social networks are negatively related to the likelihood of institutionalization and mortality when controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and baseline health status."
Correspondence: U. Steinbach, University of California, School of Nursing, Institute for Health and Aging, 201 Filbert Street, Suite 500, San Francisco, CA 94133-3203. Location: Princeton University Library (SW).

59:10153 Thatcher, A. R. Trends in numbers and mortality at high ages in England and Wales. Population Studies, Vol. 46, No. 3, Nov 1992. 411-26 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The author describes methods for the reestimation of the size and death rate of an aged population. "In this paper I examine the results which are obtained when these methods are applied to the data for deaths at ages 80 and over, in England and Wales, between 1911 and 1990. The paper also includes information about the highest ages which have been recorded and verified."
Correspondence: A. R. Thatcher, 129 Thetford Road, New Malden, Surrey KT3 5DS, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.5. Life Tables

Studies that present actual life table data and all studies concerned primarily with life tables, including the appropriate methodological studies. Life table studies that are concerned with topics other than mortality are classified under the appropriate heading and cross-referenced to this heading.

59:10154 Maccio, Guillermo A.; Damonte, Ana M. Uruguay: abbreviated regional life tables by sex and age, 1984-1986. [Uruguay: tablas abreviadas regionales de mortalidad por sexo y edad, 1984-1986.] CELADE Serie OI, No. 57, Pub. Order No. LC/DEM/G.104. Dec 1992. 48 pp. Direccion General de Estadistica y Censos: Montevideo, Uruguay; U.N. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia [CELADE]: Santiago, Chile. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
Regional abridged life tables are presented for Uruguay by age and sex for the period 1984-1986. Data are from official sources, including the 1975 and 1985 censuses.
For complete life tables for this period, see 58:30154.
Correspondence: Direccion General de Estadistica y Censos, Cuareim 2052, Montevideo, Uruguay. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10155 Qiao, Xiaochun. A theoretical explanation of the contradiction in life tables. Population Research, Vol. 8, No. 4, Dec 1991. 37-40 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
The author presents and evaluates a method for computing life tables, using infant mortality data for China.
Correspondence: X. Qiao, People's University of China, Institute of Population Research, 39 Haidian Road, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10156 United States. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS] (Hyattsville, Maryland). Vital statistics of the United States, 1989. Volume II, Section 6. Life tables. Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 93-1104. ISBN 0-16-038278-5. Dec 1992. iv, 20 pp. Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
These are the official life tables for the United States for 1989. They include abridged life tables by race and sex, number of survivors at single years of age by race and sex, expectation of life at single years of age by race and sex, and retrospective life tables and length of life by race and sex from 1900.
For the 1988 tables, see 57:20162.
Correspondence: Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.6. Differential Mortality

Studies on the ratio of mortality in different subgroups of a population, classified according to certain criteria, such as sex, social class, occupation, and marital status. Also includes studies on excess mortality and comparative mortality.

59:10157 Andreev, E. M.; Dobrovol'skaya, V. M.; Shaburov, K. Yu. Ethnic mortality differentials. [Etnicheskaya differentsiatsiya smertnosti.] Sotsiologicheskie Issledovaniya, No. 7, 1992. 43-9 pp. Moscow, Russia. In Rus.
Mortality differentials in the former Soviet Union are analyzed by sex, age, and ethnic group for the period 1969-1988. The focus is on ethnic differences in mortality and their causes. Data are included on differences in life expectancy and in infant mortality by ethnic group.
Correspondence: E. M. Andreev, State Committee on Statistics, Scientific Research Institute, Laboratory of the Demographic Information System, Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10158 Carey, Arlen D.; Frisbie, W. Parker; Bradshaw, Benjamin S.; Smith, David P. The Mexican origin mortality transition: differentials by age and sex. Texas Population Research Center Paper, No. 13.06, 1991-1992. 64 pp. University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center: Austin, Texas. In Eng.
The authors analyze mortality trends for U.S. Mexican Americans using data for Bexar County, Texas. Death certificates for the period 1935-1985 were examined to "(1) determine...the degree of excess mortality among Mexican Americans, Mexican immigrants, and Anglos due to leading underlying causes of death, (2) estimate the extent to which life expectancy might be increased in each of these groups by elimination of specific causes of death, (3) specify the degree to which cause-of-death patterns vary by gender, and (4) determine the extent to which aging of the population contributed to gender-specific changes in mortality risk...."
Correspondence: University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center, Main 1800, Austin, TX 78712. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10159 Desenclos, Jean-Claude A.; Hahn, Robert A. Years of potential life lost before age 65, by race, Hispanic origin, and sex--United States, 1986-1988. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 41, No. SS-6, Nov 20, 1992. 13-23 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
"National vital statistics were used to establish a baseline for the surveillance of rates of years of potential life lost before age 65 (YPLL <65) in the United States. Rates of YPLL <65 were calculated for 1986 through 1988 for leading causes of preventable death, by race, Hispanic origin, and sex. U.S. racial and ethnic populations differed widely in YPLL <65."
Correspondence: J.-C. A. Desenclos, Hopital National de Saint-Maurice, European Centre for the Epidemiological Monitoring of AIDS, 14 rue du Val d'Osne, 94410 Saint-Maurice, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10160 Eggerickx, Thierry; Tabutin, Dominique. The mortality of the young and excess mortality among women in Belgium around 1890: a regional approach. [La mortalite des jeunes et la surmortalite feminine en Belgique vers 1890: une approche regionale.] Institut de Demographie Working Paper, No. 168, ISBN 2-87209-232-3. Nov 1992. 26 pp. Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre.
Trends in differential mortality by sex are analyzed at the regional level in Belgium using data from official sources, including the 1890 census. The authors consider mortality differences by size and type of place of residence, with a focus on female mortality by education and type of economic activity. The results suggest that both the economic activity of children and urbanization had important impacts on regional mortality differences in nineteenth-century Belgium.
Correspondence: Universite Catholique de Louvain, Place Montesquieu 1, bte 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10161 Goldman, Noreen; Hu, Yuanreng. Excess mortality among the unmarried: a case study of Japan. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 36, No. 4, Feb 1993. 533-46 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In this paper, we use a variety of data sources to explore several explanations for [the] unique mortality patterns in Japan....We begin by reviewing the Japanese mortality patterns by marital status and the ways in which these patterns are distinct from those observed elsewhere. We subsequently consider several possible mechanisms underlying the Japanese patterns--errors in the data, as well as selection and causal explanations. We combine a variety of sources of data--anthropological studies, sample surveys and information on cause-of-death by marital status--in our efforts to demonstrate both the importance of the Japanese marriage selection process and the likely influence of a variety of marriage protection mechanisms in producing the distinct mortality patterns by marital status in Japan."
Correspondence: N. Goldman, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:10162 Gunnarsdottir, Holmfridur; Rafnsson, Vilhjalmur. Mortality among female manual workers. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 46, No. 6, Dec 1992. 601-4 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The aim of this study was to see if a cohort of female manual workers, defined by their own occupation, had higher mortality than other women....The study population comprised 18,878 women who contributed to a pension fund for unskilled manual workers in Reykjavik [Iceland] any time during the period 1970-1986." The authors found that "mortality is high among some groups of female manual workers. A deficit was found among those with the longest employment....An excess of suicides shows that women in this group have, for some reason, less will to live than other women."
Correspondence: H. Gunnarsdottir, Administration of Occupational Safety and Health, Department of Occupational Medicine, Bildshofda 16, 112 Reykjavik, Iceland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10163 Humphries, Jane. "Bread and a pennyworth of treacle": excess female mortality in England in the 1840s. Cambridge Journal of Economics, Vol. 15, No. 4, Dec 1991. 451-73 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
The author analyzes excess female mortality in nineteenth-century England. She concludes that such mortality was affected by the economic environment and that "much literary evidence points to unequal access to food and a resulting susceptibility to epidemic and respiratory diseases as the transmission mechanism converting dependence and discrimination into relatively high death rates." Women were also adversely affected by harsh labor conditions, in addition to the heavy duties involved in motherhood and housework.
Correspondence: J. Humphries, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1TN, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

59:10164 Jones, Fiona; Fletcher, Ben C. Disease concordances amongst marital partners: not "way of life" or mortality data artifact. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 35, No. 12, Dec 1992. 1,525-33 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Mortality statistics for Great Britain (1979-80, 1982-3) for more than 500 occupations and 20 different causes of death were examined. The paper demonstrates that there is clear concordance of cause of death between men and married women which can be linked to the occupation of the male. Various possible explanations are considered including shared social class and way of life and the suggestion that the associations reported are the result of various forms of statistical bias inherent in Standardized Mortality Ratio statistics."
Correspondence: B. (C.) Fletcher, University of Hertfordshire, School of Health and Human Sciences, Psychology Division, College Lane, Hatfield, Herts AL10 9AB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:10165 Keil, J. E.; Sutherland, S. E.; Knapp, R. G.; Tyroler, H. A.; Pollitzer, W. S. Skin color and mortality. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 136, No. 11, Dec 1, 1992. 1,295-302 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"The relation of skin color and mortality from all causes, coronary heart disease, and all cardiovascular diseases was explored in 787 [U.S.] black men and women of the Charleston Heart Study Cohort. Associations were studied by examining rates of mortality during the period 1960-1990 by tertiles of skin color, as measured by reflectometer. Across the tertiles of reflectance there were no significant differences in mortality rates, except for sex differences."
Correspondence: J. E. Keil, Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Systems Science, 171 Ashley Avenue, Charleston, SC 29425. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

59:10166 Khlat, Myriam. Applying epidemiological methods to the analysis of differential mortality: the example of studies of migrants. [Application des methodes de l'epidemiologie a l'analyse de la mortalite differentielle: l'exemple des etudes de migrants.] Population, Vol. 47, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1992. 933-58 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"This paper concerns methods used by epidemiologists and demographers to compare [mortality in] sub-populations. Three groups of methods are examined: (1) methods based on standardization (direct and indirect), (2) Mantel-Haenszel methods, and (3) log-linear modelling. For each group, methods based on mortality rates are distinguished from those based on proportional mortality data. The use of log-linear modelling in studies of cancer risk in migrants is discussed, to illustrate an application of the case-control approach, and more generally to illustrate standard applications of log-linear modelling in the analysis of mortality based on civil registration statistics."
Correspondence: M. Khlat, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10167 Lopez Rios, Olga; Wunsch, Guillaume. A covariance structure model for the analysis of spatial differences in Mexican mortality. [Modelo de estructura de covarianzas para el analisis de las diferencias espaciales de la mortalidad mexicana.] Estudios Demograficos y Urbanos, Vol. 6, No. 2, May-Aug 1991. 379-89, 479 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This article examines some of the possible determinants of spatial mortality differentials in Mexico, on the basis of [a] path analytical model with latent variables."
Correspondence: O. Lopez Rios, Catholic University of Louvain, Institute of Demography, Place de l'Universite 1, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10168 Mohanty, Bidyut. Orissa famine of 1866: demographic and economic consequences. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 28, No. 1-2, Jan 2-9, 1993. 55-66 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
The author examines the causes and the demographic, social, and economic consequences of the 1866 famine in Orissa, India. The focus is on the differential mortality impact by class, caste, age, and sex.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

59:10169 Nordmoe, Dennis I. Social pathology among urban black males: an explanatory model for variation in mortality rates across metropolitan statistical areas. Pub. Order No. DA9225908. 1992. 152 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study concerns the United States and was undertaken as a doctoral dissertation at Wayne State University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 53(5).

59:10170 Trovato, Frank. Mortality differentials in Canada by marital status. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 19, No. 2, 1992. 111-43 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The sociological and epidemiological literature suggests that married people enjoy lower death rates as a result of the social and psychological benefits that marriage affords individuals. In this study, I review the literature to delineate how marital status translates into differential mortality and the mechanisms which intervene in this process....The data for the analysis are from the Mortality Data Base and from the 1986 Census of Canada. Eleven causes of death are examined....It is shown that the married generally display the lowest odds of death, providing support for a marriage protection effect. Further evidence indicates that health selection cannot be ruled out as an additional source of mortality discrepancies. Both marriage protection and health selection appear to be important mechanisms explaining the superior survival probabilities of married people...."
Correspondence: F. Trovato, University of Alberta, Department of Sociology, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10171 United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] (Atlanta, Georgia). Trends in years of potential life lost before age 65 among whites and blacks--United States, 1979-1989. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 41, No. 47, Nov 27, 1992. 889-91 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
Patterns in early mortality are calculated for whites and blacks living in the United States during the period 1979-1989. To assess these trends, rates for years of potential life lost (YPLL) are determined for those deaths occurring before age 65 (YPLL-65). "From 1979 to 1989, the rate of YPLL-65...decreased for white males...and white females....For blacks, the YPLL-65 rate decreased from 1979 through the mid-1980s, then began to increase....[The findings indicate] an increasing disparity in early death between whites and blacks in recent years. The greatest disparities in rates...are for homicide, HIV infection, and cerebrovascular disease. These race-specific differences...may reflect, in part, differences in socioeconomic status and health-care access and use...."
Correspondence: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10172 Valkonen, Tapani. Problems in the measurement and international comparisons of socio-economic differences in mortality. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 36, No. 4, Feb 1993. 409-18 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The opportunities for research of socio-economic differences in mortality are best in countries where a system of personal identification numbers makes the computerised linkage of census and death records possible. The first part of this study is an example of the use of such linked records. It presents results on the development of mortality differences by level of education and occupational class in Finland in the period 1971-1985....The second part of the article discusses the problems in international comparisons of socio-economic mortality differences and summarises results from two comparative studies. The results are inconsistent: differences by level of education among men were found to be similar in six countries included in the comparison, whereas marked variation was found in the ratios of the mortality of manual workers to the mortality of non-manual workers."
Correspondence: T. Valkonen, University of Helsinki, Department of Sociology, Hameentie 68B, 00550 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:10173 Waldron, Ingrid. Recent trends in sex mortality ratios for adults in developed countries. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 36, No. 4, Feb 1993. 451-62 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper analyzes changes in sex mortality ratios between 1979 and 1987 for adults in 23 developed countries....The paper presents additional data concerning the contributions of trends in specific causes of death to changes in sex mortality ratios and briefly reviews evidence concerning probable causes of the observed mortality trends. It appears that recent trends in sex mortality ratios have been influenced by changing sex differences in smoking and a variety of additional factors, such as the effects of improvements in health care interacting with inherent sex differences in vulnerability to ischemic heart disease."
Correspondence: I. Waldron, University of Pennsylvania, Department of Biology, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6018. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

E.7. Mortality by Cause

Studies of demographic relevance on causes of death. Studies of morbidity and of public health measures are included only if they relate specifically to mortality. Also included are maternal mortality and comparisons of causes.

59:10174 AbouZahr, Carla; Royston, Erica. Maternal mortality: a global factbook. Pub. Order No. WHO/MCH/MSM/91.3. ISBN 92-4-159001-7. 1991. viii, 598 pp. World Health Organization [WHO], Division of Family Health: Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
Data from various sources concerning global trends in maternal mortality are presented. The data are provided by country and concern demographic, social, and economic indicators; health services; summaries of the results of community studies, hospital studies, civil registration or other government sources, and other sources concerning maternal mortality; data sources; and bibliographies.
Correspondence: World Health Organization, Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10175 Ales, Milan. Suicides in the Czechoslovak Federal Republic, 1960-1990. [Sebevrazdy v CSFR v letech 1960 az 1990.] Demografie, Vol. 34, No. 3, 1992. 193-202 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author describes changes in the suicide rate in Czechoslovakia for the period 1960-1990. A decline is noted over the period, and differences by age, sex, and region are examined. Some comparisons are made with other central European countries.
Correspondence: M. Ales, Federalni Statisticky Urad, Sokolovska 142, 18613 Prague 8, Czech Republic. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10176 Benfante, Richard. Studies of cardiovascular disease and cause-specific mortality trends in Japanese-American men living in Hawaii and risk factor comparisons with other Japanese populations in the Pacific region: a review. Human Biology, Vol. 64, No. 6, Dec 1992. 791-805 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
"This review summarizes the early work of the Honolulu Heart Program and the Ni-Hon-San investigations of cardiovascular disease rates and risk factors among Japanese men living in Japan, Hawaii, and California and later work that focused on cardiovascular disease and cause-specific mortality changes over time in the Honolulu Heart Program cohort in particular." The author concludes that "the subjects, although sharing a common ethnic background, experience different rates of disease when living in diverse geographic and cultural locales. This finding supports evidence that environmental and behavioral factors influence chronic disease rates and provides a basis for intervention and prevention. The finding that nonparticipants in epidemiologic studies can show different incidence trends suggests that caution should be used in interpreting trends limited only to participants."
Correspondence: R. Benfante, Kuakini Medical Center, Honolulu Heart Program, 347 North Kuakini Street, Honolulu, HI 96817. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10177 Bulatao, Rodolfo A.; Bos, Eduard. Projecting the demographic impact of AIDS. Policy Research Working Paper: Population, Health, and Nutrition, No. 941, Aug 1992. 57 pp. World Bank, Population and Human Resources Department: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This report consists of three separate papers. The first "illustrates an approach to investigating the demographic implications of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) pandemic in Africa. A simple model is constructed to simulate the spread of AIDS. The model is used to generate estimates of deaths from AIDS, which are incorporated into population projections covering 20 years. Preliminary results from applying the model to one country [Zaire] are shown." The other two papers look at the implications of birth control methods for the spread of HIV infections and project the demographic impact of the HIV epidemic using standard parameters.
Correspondence: World Bank, Population and Human Resources Department, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

59:10178 Casper, Michele; Wing, Steve; Strogatz, David; Davis, C. E.; Tyroler, H. A. Antihypertensive treatment and U.S. trends in stroke mortality, 1962 to 1980. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 82, No. 12, Dec 1992. 1,600-6 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study examines the association between increases in antihypertensive pharmacotherapy and declines in stroke mortality among 96 U.S. groups stratified by race, sex, age, metropolitan status, and region from 1962 to 1980. Data on the prevalence of controlled hypertension and socioeconomic profiles were obtained from three successive national health surveys. Stroke mortality rates were calculated using data from the National Center for Health Statistics and the Bureau of Census....[The] results do not support the hypothesis that increased antihypertensive pharmacotherapy has been the primary determinant of recent declines in stroke mortality." A comment by David R. Jacobs, Paul G. McGovern, and Henry Blackburn is included (pp. 1,596-9).
Correspondence: M. Casper, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road NE, MS-K-47, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

59:10179 Fingerhut, Lois A.; Ingram, Deborah D.; Feldman, Jacob J. Firearm and nonfirearm homicide among persons 15 through 19 years of age: differences by level of urbanization, United States, 1979 through 1989. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 267, No. 22, Jun 10, 1992. 3,048-53 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
Trends in firearm and non-firearm homicide rates in U.S. urban areas are analyzed for the period 1979-1989 using data from the Compressed Mortality File maintained by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). "Large urbanization differentials in firearm homicide and smaller differentials in nonfirearm homicide are identified. Firearm homicide rates are highest and increasing the fastest among black teenage males in the core, fringe, and medium metropolitan strata."
Correspondence: L. A. Fingerhut, National Center for Health Statistics, Office of Analysis and Epidemiology, Room 1080, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: University of Pennsylvania Medical Library, Philadelphia, PA.

59:10180 Fingerhut, Lois A.; Ingram, Deborah D.; Feldman, Jacob J. Firearm homicide among black teenage males in metropolitan counties: comparison of death rates in two periods, 1983 through 1985 and 1987 through 1989. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 267, No. 22, Jun 10, 1992. 3,054-8 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
The purpose of this study is "to identify U.S. counties (1) that had either significantly high or significantly low firearm homicide rates among black males 15 through 19 years of age in 1983 through 1985 and in 1987 through 1989, and/or (2) that experienced a significant increase in the firearm homicide rate between 1983 through 1985 and 1987 through 1989." Data are from the Compressed Mortality File maintained by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS).
Correspondence: L. A. Fingerhut, National Center for Health Statistics, Office of Analysis and Epidemiology, Room 1080, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: University of Pennsylvania Medical Library, Philadelphia, PA.

59:10181 Frisbie, W. Parker; Cruz, Rodolfo. Violent deaths: ethnic and life-cycle differentials among Mexican Americans, Mexican immigrants and Anglos, 1970-1980. Texas Population Research Center Paper, No. 13.01, 1991-1992. 35 pp. University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center: Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"We provide a comparative analysis of violent death rates among the [male] Mexican American, Mexican immigrant, and Anglo populations for 1970 and 1980 in Bexar County (San Antonio), Texas. While the data reveal a continuing Mexican origin disadvantage in regard to violent death rates, there has also been a marked improvement over time as compared to Anglo males. Moreover, important ethnic differentials in risk of death by life-cycle stage are demonstrated. Possible explanations for the differences found among the three ethnic groups are discussed."
Correspondence: University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center, Main 1800, Austin, TX 78712. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10182 Garenne, Michel; Ronsmans, Caroline; Campbell, Harry. The magnitude of mortality from acute respiratory infections in children under 5 years in developing countries. World Health Statistics Quarterly/Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales, Vol. 45, No. 2-3, 1992. 180-91 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This article reviews the available evidence of mortality from acute respiratory infections (ARI) among children aged under 5 years in contemporary developing countries and compares the findings with European populations before 1965....In developing countries, the role of ARI mortality seems to be similar to the European experience....Results are discussed in light of the definitions of ARI used in various studies, the difficulties in ascertaining and coding multiple causes of death and the quality of data from some sources."
Correspondence: M. Garenne, Harvard University, Center for Population and Development Studies, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10183 Heilig, Gerhard K. Crises: demographic causes and consequences. In: Acta demographica 1992, edited by Gunter Buttler, Gerhard Heilig, and Gerhard Schmitt-Rink. 1992. 57-80 pp. Physica-Verlag: Heidelberg, Germany. In Eng.
Loss of human life due to natural or man-made disasters is examined. "This paper deals with demographic causes and consequences of crises. Its main objective is to review available, but scattered, information on some of the most serious population-related catastrophes. The paper also includes a typology that classifies the various events. Finally, problems related to the identification of demographic causes and consequences of crises are discussed. In general, the paper tries to increase awareness of the broad spectrum of traumatic events that can affect a population, [including]...famines, epidemics, wars, genocides, systematic terror and suppression, massive displacement and forced migration of peoples, ecological catastrophes, and epochal crises." The geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: G. K. Heilig, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Schlossplatz 1, 2361 Laxenburg, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10184 India. Office of the Registrar General. Vital Statistics Division (New Delhi, India). Survey of causes of death (rural): annual report, 1990. Series 3, No. 23, 1992. 121 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
This is the twenty-third in a series of annual reports that present results from a continuous survey of causes of death in rural India. This survey covered 1,305 primary health centers, which reported 21,028 deaths. Data are provided at regional and state levels and concern the 10 major causes of mortality by age and sex. A mortality profile for selected major states and regions is included.
For the report for 1989, published in 1991, see 57:20192.
Correspondence: Office of the Registrar General, Vital Statistics Division, SCD Unit, New Delhi 110 066, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10185 Jannetta, Ann B. Famine mortality in nineteenth-century Japan: the evidence from a temple death register. Population Studies, Vol. 46, No. 3, Nov 1992. 427-43 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Historians who have studied Japan's early modern period argue that preventive checks to fertility were the primary cause of Japan's stationary population in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, and that the role of 'positive' checks was negligible. This paper presents evidence and a claim that mortality crises--famines in particular--also played an important role in checking population growth during this period. It analyses data from the death register of Ogen-ji, a Buddhist temple in the Hida region of central Japan." Data are from Buddhist temple death registers.
Correspondence: A. B. Jannetta, University of Pittsburgh, Department of History, 4200 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15260-0001. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10186 La Vecchia, Carlo; Levi, Fabio; Negri, Eva; Randriamiharisoa, Alex; Schuler, Georges; Paccaud, Fred; Gutzwiller, Felix. Trends in mortality from coronary heart and cerebrovascular disease in Switzerland, 1969-87. Sozial- und Praventivmedizin/Medecine Sociale et Preventive, Vol. 36, No. 1, 1991. 18-24 pp. Bern, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"Trends in age-specific and age-standardized death certification rates from all ischaemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease in Switzerland have been analysed for the period 1969-87, i.e. since the introduction of the Eighth Revision of the International Classification of Diseases for coding causes of death....[The authors conclude that] certified mortality is now lower in Switzerland than in any other industrialized country,...[and] recent falls in ischaemic heart disease mortality are similar to those observed in several other western European countries with a 10 to 15 year delay in comparison with the U.S.A...."
Correspondence: C. La Vecchia, Institut Universitaire de Medecine Sociale et Preventive, Bugnon 17, CH-1005 Lausanne, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10187 Mao, Yang; Gibbons, Laurie; Wong, Tina. The impact of the decreased prevalence of smoking in Canada. Canadian Journal of Public Health/Revue Canadienne de Sante Publique, Vol. 83, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1992. 413-6 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
"Using data on the prevalence of smoking among different age and gender groups, we estimated the impact of the prevalence of smoking on the present and future mortality of Canadians....The total number of smoking-attributable deaths from all causes was estimated for every decade from 1969 to 2019. A decrease in smoking prevalence from 1989 levels to 10% overall in 1999 would result in 15,000 and 6,000 fewer smoking-attributable deaths among women and men, respectively."
Correspondence: L. Gibbons, Laboratory Centre for Disease Control, Bureau of Chronic Disease Epidemiology, Tunney's Pasture, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0L2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10188 Mina Valdes, Alejandro. Suicidal intentions and suicides in Mexico, 1977-1984. [Intentos de suicidio y suicidios en Mexico, 1977-1984.] Estudios Demograficos y Urbanos, Vol. 6, No. 2, May-Aug 1991. 435-63 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
The author examines and compares levels and trends in suicide in Mexico, using official data for 1977 and 1984. Consideration is given to characteristics of those who attempt or commit suicide, including geographic differences, method preferred, age, marital status, and reasons for wanting to die.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10189 Okonofua, Friday E.; Abejide, A.; Makanjuola, Roger A. Maternal mortality in Ile-Ife, Nigeria: a study of risk factors. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 23, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1992. 319-24 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The objective of this study was to determine which background factors predispose women to maternal mortality at the Obafemi Awolowo University Hospital in Nigeria. The study examined 35 cases of maternal death occurring in the hospital during the period 1 October 1989 to 30 April 1991. The control group comprised 35 women who were admitted to the hospital with similar complications during the same period, but who survived....The results showed that the maternal deaths involved women who were younger and of poorer socioeconomic status than the women in the control group. Both groups showed an equal lack of prenatal care. However, a higher incidence of delayed treatment was found in the management of the cases of maternal deaths. Maternal mortality in the study population can be reduced through improved transportation and institutional management, and, on a long-term basis, through the adoption of measures to improve the socioeconomic status of women."
Correspondence: F. E. Okonofua, Obafemi Awolowo University, College of Medical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10190 Pitkanen, Kari. The patterns of mortality during the great Finnish famine in the 1860s. In: Acta demographica 1992, edited by Gunter Buttler, Gerhard Heilig, and Gerhard Schmitt-Rink. 1992. 81-102 pp. Physica-Verlag: Heidelberg, Germany. In Eng.
"The Great Finnish Famine of the 1860s offers a unique opportunity to study a famine crisis in a pre-industrial society. Despite its late occurrence, the crisis took place in an 'under-developed', agrarian society, and yet, the rich source materials available allow one to study the demographic developments during the catastrophe in great detail. This article will focus on the patterns of mortality, demonstrating the impact of the famine on mortality differentials among ages, regions, and social classes." Data are from statistical records kept by the Lutheran church and concern the period 1861-1868.
Correspondence: K. Pitkanen, University of Helsinki, Department of Economic and Social History, Aleksannterinkatu 7, SF-000100 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10191 Riggs, Jack E. Rising cancer mortality in the United States, 1962-1987: evidence against environmental causation. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, Vol. 16, No. 1, 1992. 81-92 pp. San Diego, California. In Eng.
"The recorded rise in cancer mortality, particularly in industrialized nations such as the United States, is often attributed to increasing environmental carcinogens and has resulted in the public expectation for increased regulation. However, longitudinal Gompertzian analysis indicates that the major factor for rising cancer mortality is the increasing deterministic competitiveness of cancer in a climate that is becoming more conducive to human survival. Hence, rising cancer mortality is a predictable manifestation of a natural relationship between human aging and mortality, and should not be interpreted as evidence of increased environmental carcinogens."
Correspondence: J. E. Riggs, West Virginia University, School of Medicine, Departments of Neurology, Medicine, and Community Medicine, Morgantown, WV 26506. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10192 Rodriguez Ocana, Esteban. Morbidity and mortality from the cholera epidemic of 1833-1835 in Andalusia. [Morbimortalidad del colera epidemico de 1833-35 en Andalucia.] Boletin de la Asociacion de Demografia Historica, Vol. 10, No. 2, 1992. 87-111 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
The author examines the demographic impact of the Asiatic cholera epidemic from 1833 to 1835 in Andalusia, Spain, using archival medical reports. Data on mortality by region, sex, and age are included, and some worldwide comparisons among cities that experienced the 1830s epidemic are made.
Correspondence: E. Rodriguez Ocana, Universidad de Granada, Hospital Real, Calle Cuesta del Hospicio s/n, 18071 Granada, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10193 Rudnitskii, E. P. Demographic losses in the Ukraine due to famine in the years 1932-1933. [Demograficheskie poteri Ukrainy vsledstvie goloda 1932-1933 gg.] Demograficheskie Issledovaniya, Vol. 15, 1991. 135-41 pp. Kiev, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
"The paper analyzes demographic aspects of famine in the Ukraine in [1932-1933] and the population losses caused by it. The study is..based on...published and new archival...information...."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10194 Salomaa, Veikko; Arstila, Matti; Kaarsalo, Esko; Ketonen, Matti; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Lehto, Seppo; Miettinen, Heikki; Mustaniemi, Harri; Niemela, Matti; Palomaki, Pertti; Pyorala, Kalevi; Torppa, Jorma; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Vuorenmaa, Tapio. Trends in the incidence of and mortality from coronary heart disease in Finland, 1983-1988. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 136, No. 11, Dec 1, 1992. 1,303-15 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"Trends in the incidence of and mortality from coronary heart disease during the period 1983-1988 were assessed in the population aged 35-64 years in three areas of Finland." Data are from official sources and from the Finnish portion of the Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease (MONICA) project. The results show that mortality from this cause decreased significantly, although the incidence remained relatively stable. "These results suggest that the routine mortality statistics alone may give an overly favorable picture of coronary heart disease trends."
Correspondence: V. Salomaa, National Public Health Institute, Department of Epidemiology and Health Promotion, Elimaenkatu 25 A, 6th Floor, SF-00510 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

59:10195 Smith, Dawn K. HIV disease as a cause of death for African Americans in 1987 and 1990. Journal of the National Medical Association, Vol. 84, No. 6, Jun 1992. 481-7 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Official U.S. data for 1987 and 1988 are used to measure the impact of the HIV epidemic within the African-American community. The author notes that by 1990, HIV infection was the eighth leading cause of death for all Americans, but the sixth leading cause for African Americans. "For African-American men between the ages of 35 and 44, HIV disease became the leading cause of death, accounting for 23.5% of all deaths. This disease was the second leading cause of death for all African-American men and women between the ages of 25 and 35, and the eighth leading cause of death for African-American children ages 0 to 14."
Correspondence: D. K. Smith, Centers for Disease Control, Division of HIV/AIDS, 1600 Clifton Road, Mailstop E-45, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

59:10196 Surault, Pierre. Nuptiality, divorce rates, and suicide rates: changes to reconcile? [Nuptialite, divortialite et suicidite: des ruptures a rapprocher?] Population, Vol. 47, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1992. 1,042-4 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
This note examines the relationship between marital status and suicide rates. Consideration is also given to how family membership protects one from suicide. Data concern France from 1980 to 1989.
Correspondence: P. Surault, Universite de Poitiers, Faculte de Sciences Economiques, 15 rue de Blossac, 86034 Poitiers Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10197 Zhai, Shangda; McGarvey, Stephen T. Temporal changes and rural-urban differences in cardiovascular disease risk factors and mortality in China. Human Biology, Vol. 64, No. 6, Dec 1992. 807-19 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
"We summarize several studies, from the last 10 years, of temporal changes and rural-urban differences in the risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in China to indicate the influences of economic modernization....We also review here more detailed studies that point to more specific exposure and CVD risk factor and/or outcome associations. We indicate how the available data from various study designs suggest a link between the processes and the specific exposures of economic modernization and health. We describe the results and briefly discuss the implications of each survey separately. We also discuss the general trends and future prospects in a concluding discussion."
Correspondence: S. Zhai, Brown University, Miriam Hospital, Program in Geographic Medicine, 164 Summit Avenue, Providence, RI 02906. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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