Volume 59 - Number 1 - Spring 1993

C. Spatial Distribution

Studies with an emphasis on locational patterns and their interpretation.

C.1. General Spatial Distribution

Studies of rural and urban populations considered together. Studies that are concerned primarily with the movement of population are classified under H. Migration . Studies concerned with the definition of urban or rural areas and with boundary changes are classified here or in O.1. Population Statistics, General Aspects .

59:10035 Anderson, William P.; Papageorgiou, Yorgos Y. Metropolitan and nonmetropolitan population trends in Canada, 1966-1982. Canadian Geographer/Geographe Canadien, Vol. 36, No. 2, Summer 1992. 124-44 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The purpose of this paper is to discuss the recent dynamics of spatial population distribution in Canada. More specifically, we examine the effect of interregional migration flows on growth and decline in Canadian regions. Our analysis is based on an annual series of aggregate migration at the metropolitan level, which supplements the information available in existing census-year studies and further clarifies the impact of international migrants on recent spatial population trends in Canada."
Correspondence: W. P. Anderson, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:10036 Arnould, E. Spatial changes in the population of Lorraine: findings from the 1990 census. [L'evolution spatiale de la population en Lorraine: les enseignements du recensement de 1990.] Revue Geographique de l'Est, Vol. 32, No. 1, 1992. 57-82 pp. Nancy, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Results from the 1990 census of France are used to analyze recent population trends in Lorraine, focusing on changes in spatial distribution. Two contradictory trends are noted: firstly, the concentration of population into the major urban centers, and secondly, movement from the cities to rural suburban areas.
Location: New York Public Library.

59:10037 Fournier, Daniel. Spatial inter-attraction: a historical analysis, 1871-1985. [L'interattraction spatiale: analyse historique, 1871-1985.] Recherches Sociographiques, Vol. 32, No. 2, May-Aug 1991. 151-74 pp. Quebec, Canada. In Fre.
Changes in the spatial distribution of the population of the Canadian province of Quebec over the past 100 years are analyzed. The author notes that a period of geographic expansion in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries has been followed by a period of population concentration in the Saint Lawrence valley. Factors affecting these trends, such as the possession of automobiles, are reviewed. The author also discusses the demographic implications of these changes.
Location: New York Public Library.

59:10038 Gormar, Wilfried; Maretzke, Steffen. Settlement structure and regional population development. [Siedlungsstruktur und regionale Bevolkerungsentwicklung.] Geographische Rundschau, Vol. 44, No. 3, Apr 1992. 148-54 pp. Brunswick, Germany. In Ger.
Demographic differences in settlement structure between the areas that formerly made up East and West Germany are analyzed. The findings indicate that the East exhibits less suburbanization, lower population and settlement densities, and a larger number of small communities. Policy implications are also discussed.
Correspondence: W. Gormar, Bundesforschungsanstalt fur Landeskunde und Raumordnung, Aussenstelle Berlin, Scharrenstrasse 2-3, 0-1026 Berlin, Germany. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

59:10039 Miyata, Yuzuru; Yamaguchi, Sogo. A study on evolution of regional population distribution based on the dynamic self-organization theory. Environmental Science, Vol. 13, No. 1, Jun 1990. 1-33 pp. Sapporo, Japan. In Eng.
"This study aims to investigate the evolution of regional population distribution in Hokkaido [Japan] brought about by regional infrastructure provision. For this objective we employ the dynamic self-organization model to simulate changes of the regional population. First, a simple explanation of the principle of dynamic self-organization is presented in this paper. Secondly, construction of highways is regarded as 'fluctuation', then the evolutions of the regional population distribution are simulated under the principle of dynamic self-organization."
Correspondence: Y. Miyata, Hokkaido University, Graduate School of Environmental Science, Division of Environmental Planning, Department of Regional Planning, Sapporo 060, Japan. Location: Syracuse University, Bird Library, Syracuse, NY.

59:10040 Ocovsky, Stefan. Current problems in the geography of population and settlements. [Aktualna problematika geografie obyvatel'stva a sidel.] Geograficky Casopis, Vol. 43, No. 3, 1991. 250-7 pp. Bratislava, Czechoslovakia. In Slo. with sum. in Eng.
The author reviews the literature regarding population growth and changes in spatial distribution in Slovakia over the period 1948-1990.
Location: University of California Library, Berkeley, CA.

59:10041 Pavageau, Colette. Census: spatial trends. The west conforms, the south surprises. [Recensement: evolutions spatiales. L'ouest confirme, le sud surprend.] Economie de la Reunion, No. 49, Sep-Oct 1990. 14-7 pp. Ste.-Clothilde, Reunion. In Fre.
Recent changes in the spatial distribution of the population of Reunion are analyzed using 1990 census data.
Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

59:10042 Rebhun, Uzi. Changes in the geographical distribution of the Israeli population, 1972-1983. [Ha shinuim b'ochlosiat Israel ba shonim 1972-1983.] Horizons: Studies in Geography/Ofakim B'Geographia, No. 30, 1989-1990. 21-46 pp. Haifa, Israel. In Heb. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper investigates changes in the geographical distribution of Israel's population between 1972 and 1983, by districts. The various sources of growth and their effects on geographical distribution are examined, both for the total Israeli population and for its major religious components....The paper also describes changes in the characteristics of the districts' population according to period of immigration, geographical origin, age groups, educational levels and socioeconomic status."
Correspondence: U. Rebhun, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Mount Scopus Campus, Institute of Contemporary Jewry, Division of Jewish Demography and Statistics, Jerusalem 91905, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10043 Schaeffer, Peter V. Deconcentration, counter-urbanization, or trend reversal? The population distribution of Switzerland, 1900-1980. Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Vol. 26, No. 2, Apr 1992. 89-102 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper provides a detailed description of changes in the population distribution of Switzerland from 1900 through 1980....The results show that Switzerland has experienced deconcentration from 1970-1980. There is also weak evidence for counter-urbanization. The data are not sufficient, however, to conclude that this most recent development is atypical."
Correspondence: P. V. Schaeffer, University of Colorado, School of Architecture and Planning, Denver, CO 80217-3364. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

59:10044 Stokowski, Franciszek. The concept of spatial order and other problems of regional research in demography. [Koncepcja ladu przestrzennego i inne problemy badan regionalnych w demografii.] Wiadomosci Statystyczne, Vol. 37, No. 1, Jan 1992. 26-9 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol.
The concept of spatial demographic order is introduced and defined as the preferred spatial distribution of a given demographic variable. The results of a multivariate statistical analysis of demographic trends in rural and urban areas in Poland are presented to illustrate the convergence of such trends. The author concludes that the increasing similarity in demographic processes between rural and urban areas is due mainly to migration.
Correspondence: F. Stokowski, Szkola Glowna Handlowa, Instytut Statystyki i Demografii, Al. Niepodleglosci 162, Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10045 Taaffe, Edward J.; Krakover, Shaul; Gauthier, Howard L. Interactions between spread-and-backwash, population turnaround and corridor effects in the inter-metropolitan periphery: a case study. Urban Geography, Vol. 13, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1992. 503-33 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"In this study we examine a portion of the inter-metropolitan periphery with explicit attention to the impact of a large, nonmetropolitan center on a changing spatial structure. In particular, we consider the ways in which three familiar concepts, spread-and-backwash, the population turnaround, and corridor effects have expressed themselves in a portion of the inter-metropolitan periphery....The complex interactions between these aspects of metropolitan structure and growth are viewed primarily from the vantage point of a single large nonmetropolitan city (NMC), Portsmouth, Ohio. The focus is on the period between 1960 and 1980....This study suggests that the emphasis on randomized samples of county-level data dispersed over large areas may have obscured a complex, rural-area pattern that is evolving around corridors and hierarchical sets of nonmetropolitan cities of different sizes."
Correspondence: E. J. Taaffe, Ohio State University, Department of Geography, 190 North Oval Mall, Columbus, OH 43210-1361. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

C.2. Urban Spatial Distribution

Studies of urban populations, including those of metropolitan areas and suburban and semi-urban zones. Also includes studies on urbanization insofar as they relate to the effects of migration on urban areas or the socioeconomic and demographic structure of urban populations. Studies on the actual process of rural-urban migration are coded under H.6. Rural-Urban Migration .

59:10046 Arnot, R. H. Provincial cities and country towns in Australia. ISBN 0-86419-805-1. Apr 1991. xi, 90 pp. Australian Institute of Urban Studies, Victorian Division: Melbourne, Australia. In Eng.
The author presents a demographic analysis of provincial centers in Australia and attempts to identify trends toward population stagnation, demographic aging, and imbalances between the sexes.
Correspondence: Australian Institute of Urban Studies, Victorian Division, GPO Box 2620W, Melbourne, Victoria 3001, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10047 Balogh, Karoly; Csabane, Julianna V.; Kostka, Palne; Forika, Laszlone M. I.; Szabo, Karolyne; Szlabon, Ferencne; Bartane, Eva K.; Szeredas, Judit. The Budapest agglomeration, 1980-1990. [Budapesti agglomeracio, 1980-1990.] Statisztikai Szemle, Vol. 70, No. 11, Nov 1992. 909-29 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
"The study analyses the development of Budapest and [the] 6 towns and 37 communes forming its conurbation between 1980 and 1990." Consideration is given to the city's population dynamics; housing conditions, including availability of utilities, transportation, telecommunications, and retail stores; health conditions of the population; and educational opportunities for residents.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10048 Basovsky, O.; Divinsky, B. The development of modern urbanisation in Slovakia and its present problems. Revue Belge de Geographie, Vol. 115, No. 1-3, 1991. 265-77 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
Trends in urbanization in Slovakia over the past 40 years are reviewed.
Correspondence: O. Basovsky, Univerzita Komenskeho, Safarikovo nam. 6, 818 06 Bratislava, Slovakia. Location: New York Public Library.

59:10049 Bylka, Teresa. Aspects of urban traditions and contemporary migration in tropical Africa (the case of the countries of the Gulf of Guinea). [Quelques aspects des traditions urbaines et des migrations contemporaines en Afrique tropicale (le cas des pays du Golfe de Guinee).] Africana Bulletin, No. 38, 1991. 55-66 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Fre.
The author examines the increasing primacy associated with migration to the largest cities in precolonial west Africa. She finds that this trend has intensified since independence. The effect of education on migration from poor rural areas is pointed out, and the ability of residents in traditional cities to preserve contacts with their regions of origin is assessed.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:10050 Cawley, Mary. Town population change 1971-1986: patterns and distributional effects. Irish Geography, Vol. 24, No. 2, 1991. 106-16 pp. Dublin, Ireland. In Eng.
"Population change was traced for census town-size groups [in Ireland] for the years 1971-1981 and 1981-1986. The 1970s were characterised by widespread growth; medium-size towns in particular increased their share of the total population and some redistribution from inner-areas to suburbs took place. The years 1981-1986 were, by contrast, marked by lower growth rates, selective town decline and considerable continuity in distribution patterns."
Correspondence: M. Cawley, University College, Department of Geography, Galway, Ireland. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:10051 Cohen, S. I.; Tuyl, J. M. C. Recent urban growth and distribution in the Netherlands: SAM applications. Institute for Economic Research Discussion Paper, No. 9107/g, Feb 1991. 21 pp. Erasmus University, Institute for Economic Research: Rotterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
The authors apply a general equilibrium framework to the analysis of the linkages between economic activities and households at different levels of urbanization, and explore the tendencies toward urban growth and urban spatial distribution over time. They construct a two-period social accounting matrix (SAM) for the Netherlands "which distinguishes between six household groups classified by urbanization level....Multipliers of this inverted SAM are analysed to show the impact of various injections on the growth of the six urbanization levels in two different years namely 1981 and 1985....A decomposition of urban growth performance is done over the four years...."
Correspondence: Erasmus University, Institute for Economic Research, Room H09-23, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

59:10052 Ebanks, G. Edward. Urbanization and the environment: Latin America and the Caribbean. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 92-7, ISBN 0-7714-1399-8. May 1992. 25 pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
"This paper presents some aspects of the urban situation in Latin America and the Caribbean and some associated environmental concerns...as well as making some observations and conclusions concerning certain determinants and consequences."
Correspondence: University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10053 El Hassan, Ismat M. Population estimation of Riyadh City using aerial photography. Australian Journal of Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Surveying, No. 53, Dec 1990. 75-90 pp. Sydney, Australia. In Eng.
Two sets of aerial photographs of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, taken in 1968 and 1983 are used to estimate population size and growth during the period. The estimates are compared with census data and official forecasts and are shown to be within four percent of the official estimates of population size.
Correspondence: I. M. El Hassan, King Saud University, Civil Engineering Department, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Location: University of California Library, Santa Barbara, CA.

59:10054 Ewing, Gordon O. The bases of differences between American and Canadian cities. Canadian Geographer/Geographe Canadien, Vol. 36, No. 3, Fall 1992. 266-79 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Eng.
The author presents a reanalysis of multivariate data used in a 1986 study by Goldberg and Mercer entitled "The myth of the North American city: continentalism challenged", which examined differences between U.S. and Canadian cities. He concludes that "if one factors out that part of the variance in these 34 variables associated with metropolitan population, racial composition, and variations in the boundaries delimiting central municipalities, and in the criteria used to delimit metropolitan areas in the two countries, then the apparent national urban differences they find are considerably muted."
Correspondence: G. O. Ewing, McGill University, Department of Geography, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2K6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:10055 Frey, William H.; Speare, Alden. Metropolitan areas as functional communities: a proposal for a new definition. Population Studies Center Research Report, No. 92-245, Jul 1992. 36, [15] pp. University of Michigan, Population Studies Center: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This proposal offers a new approach toward representing the geography of the U.S. settlement system that is consistent with the changing nature of this system and the kinds of statistical comparisons users will want to make. Our recommendations are based on a review of the original Standard Metropolitan Area (SMA) concept that has formed the basis for settlement statistics since 1950, and our assessment of evolving changes in the settlement pattern which renders some aspects of the old concept obsolete."
Correspondence: University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10056 Gao, Jia Ling; Feng, Shiyong. Estimation methods of target variables and accuracy analysis of the 1986 sampling survey on migration in 74 cities and towns in China. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 4, No. 1, 1992. 1-13 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors analyze data from a 1986 sampling survey on migration conducted in 74 cities and towns in China. "In order to further utilize these valuable data, we...applied sampling survey theories and methods and formulated the methods of estimation of relevant target variables and the methods of gross estimation of corresponding target variables at the national level. Using the random grouping method, we estimated and analyzed the accuracy (variance) of the...target variables for the 74 cities and towns, and at the same time assessed the calculation of the indexes at the national level."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10057 Gupta, Kamla. An appraisal of population growth in cities of India and Maharashtra. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 37, No. 3, Sep 1991. 35-43 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"This is a very preliminary study of some important population characteristics such as population growth rates, sex ratios and male and female literacy levels of the cities of Maharashtra [India] based on the data furnished in Paper 1 of the 1991 Census of Maharashtra."
Correspondence: K. Gupta, International Institute for Population Sciences, Department of Migration and Urban Studies, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Bombay 400 088, India. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

59:10058 Haberkorn, Gerald. Temporary versus permanent population mobility in Melanesia: a case study from Vanuatu. International Migration Review, Vol. 26, No. 3, Fall 1992. 806-42 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"Melanesia's urban population tripled from...7 percent of the region's total population in 1955 to 20 percent by 1985. The recency and magnitude of this development...virtually rules out natural population growth as the principal cause behind this process of rapid urbanization and suggests massive internal population mobility as the most likely cause....This article argues that much of the alleged continued predominance of circular mobility owes more to its underlying operationalizations, ways of measurement, and theoretical conceptualizations than reflects contemporary reality. This argument is substantiated by an analysis of recent developments in Vanuatu mobility set in the local and historical conditions of migration from the island of Paama....Evidence for this mobility change is derived from a comparative analysis of lifetime mobility histories of urban and rural Paamese men and women."
Correspondence: G. Haberkorn, National Planning and Statistics Office, Port Vila, Vanuatu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10059 Hampl, Martin; Pavlik, Zdenek. Population trends in the major urban centers and metropolitan regions of the Czech Republic. [Evolution de la population des principaux centres urbains et des territoires metropolitains de la Republique Tcheque.] Revue Belge de Geographie, Vol. 115, No. 1-3, 1991. 257-64 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Fre.
Recent trends in urban population development in the Czech Republic are reviewed based on published sources.
Correspondence: M. Hampl, Univerzita Karlova, Ovocny trh 5, 116 36 Prague 1, Czech Republic. Location: New York Public Library.

59:10060 Krishan, Gopal. The slowing down of Indian urbanisation. Geography, Vol. 78, Pt. 1, No. 338, Jan 1993. 80-4 pp. Sheffield, England. In Eng.
Reasons for the decreasing rate of urbanization in India, as revealed by 1991 census data, are discussed. The author concludes that this change is caused not only by a decline in rural-urban migration but also by the fact that cities are less accommodating to poor migrants, forcing them to reside on the periphery rather than within the city itself.
Correspondence: G. Krishan, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160 014, India. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:10061 Krishnakumari, K. Changing pattern of urbanisation in Kerala 1971-1991. Demography India, Vol. 20, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1991. 85-90 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
Urbanization trends in the districts and cities of Kerala State, India, are analyzed and compared using census data for the period 1971-1991.
Correspondence: K. Krishnakumari, University of Kerala, Department of Demography and Population Studies, Kariavattom, Kerala, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10062 Lemelin, Andre; Polese, Mario. Economic development, urbanization, and urban concentration: an attempt at a synthesis. [Developpement economique, urbanisation et concentration urbaine: essai de synthese.] Canadian Journal of Development Studies/Revue Canadienne d'Etudes du Developpement, Vol. 13, No. 2, Jun 1992. 251-76 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The relationship between economic development and urbanization in developing countries is reviewed. The authors conclude that urbanization is a necessary but not in itself a sufficient condition of development. They note that policies designed to either encourage or discourage urbanization have proved ineffective. Problems encountered are primarily due to the fact that, although urbanization is not occurring in developing countries at the same rate as it did previously in today's developed ones, the overall rate of population growth is much higher. "The degree of concentration of urban systems reflects a moving equilibrium between economies of agglomeration (centripetal), and diseconomies (centrifugal) and distance costs. Big city environmental costs are externalities not reflected in market prices, and which public authorities are called upon to manage. The choice of public investment in infrastructures can influence, marginally, the patterns of urban systems."
Correspondence: A. Lemelin, Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, 2635 boulevard Hochelaga, Suite 640, CP 7500, Sainte-Foy, Quebec G1V 4C7, Canada. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

59:10063 McGee, T. G.; Greenberg, Charles. The emergence of extended metropolitan regions in ASEAN: towards the year 2000. ASEAN Economic Bulletin, Vol. 9, No. 1, Jul 1992. 22-44 pp. Singapore. In Eng.
"This article analyses the growth of large Extended Metropolitan Regions in the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) in the period since 1960. The analysis reveals two trends. First, urbanization levels in ASEAN countries are rapidly increasing. By the year 2000, almost 40 per cent of the population will be urban residents. Second, these accelerating processes are creating giant urban regions, called Extended Metropolitan Regions. Analysis of demographic patterns of the emergence of the major urban regions of ASEAN...reveals that these are major areas of economic growth, with industrialization, building development and leisure activities fuelling this process. However, this rapid growth is causing major problems of urban infrastructure provision, land use conflict and environmental deterioration."
Correspondence: T. G. McGee, University of British Columbia, Institute of Asian Research, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1W5, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10064 Negrete, Maria E. An information system for the study of the urban structure of Mexico City. [Un sistema de informacion para el estudio de la estructura urbana de la ciudad de Mexico.] Estudios Demograficos y Urbanos, Vol. 6, No. 2, May-Aug 1991. 465-70 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
The author describes SIUMEX, a program she developed to analyze the urban structure of Mexico City. The program was used in 1990 to examine the city's spatial distribution and to measure the physical expansion of the urban region. Other applications for the program are briefly described.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10065 Premi, Mahendra K. India's urban scene and its future implications. Demography India, Vol. 20, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1991. 41-52 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author examines urbanization trends in India since 1961, with a focus on "the growth of cities and metropolises. The contribution of different factors in urban growth, and the future implications of the observed urbanisation pattern from the view-point of industrialisation, and quality of life [are also assessed]."
Correspondence: M. K. Premi, Jawaharlal Nehru University, Centre for the Study of Regional Development, New Delhi 110 067, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10066 Puri, Romesh. The Indian urban scene. Demography India, Vol. 20, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1991. 65-73 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
Trends in urban population growth and spatial distribution in India are analyzed using data from the 1991 census. Some census data for 1971 and 1981 are also included for comparative purposes.
Correspondence: R. Puri, Office of the Registrar General, Sewa Bhavan, R. K. Puram, New Delhi 110 066, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10067 Quintanilla Rodriguez, Ernesto. Internal migration and urban growth in Mexico. [Migracion interna y crecimiento urbano en Mexico.] Oct 1991. 121 pp. Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Centro De Investigaciones Economicas, Facultad de Economia: Monterrey, Mexico. In Spa.
A brief analysis of urbanization in Mexico from 1960 to 1980 is presented. The bulk of the publication consists of statistical tables on the age of migrants by city for the decades 1960-1970 and 1970-1980.
Correspondence: Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Centro de Investigaciones Economicas, Facultad de Economia, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10068 Roberts, J. Timmons. Squatters and urban growth in Amazonia. Geographical Review, Vol. 82, No. 4, Oct 1992. 441-57 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article examines the growth of a new Amazonian boomtown, Parauapebas [Brazil], through a series of urban squatter invasions. Parauapebas is a decade-old boomtown located outside the Carajas mining project in Para. The invasions are analyzed in the context of household survival strategies and local politics. A model explaining the form taken by these invasions is based on the expected and actual responses by landowners and the state."
Correspondence: J. T. Roberts, Tulane University, Latin American Studies, New Orleans, LA 70118. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:10069 Rowland, Richard H. Selected urban population characteristics of Moscow. Post-Soviet Geography, Vol. 33, No. 9, Nov 1992. 569-90 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"This paper investigates total and regional population characteristics in Moscow [Russia] during 1979-1989, specifically nationality, age, sex and education and their interrelationships. Population dynamics of Russians, Ukrainians, Jews, and, to a lesser extent, other groups are examined based on a regionalization scheme dividing the city into Inner Zone and Outer Zone [regions]. The same spatial framework is employed in an analysis of changes in the age and sex structures of the city's overall population, as well as in levels of education. Linkages between these characteristics and rates of housing construction, recent demographic history, and city migration policy are explored."
Correspondence: R. H. Rowland, California State University, San Bernardino, CA 92407. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:10070 Sjoberg, Orjan. Underurbanisation and the zero urban growth hypothesis: diverted migration in Albania. Geografiska Annaler, Series B: Human Geography, Vol. 74, No. 1, 1992. 3-19 pp. Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
The author challenges the hypothesis "that the mode of production accounts for the specific forms of urbanisation under socialism and the slow urban growth observed...[and emphasizes instead] the effects of planning in the traditionally organised command economy." It is suggested that strict migration policy is a pivotal factor in achieving zero urban growth. "A case study focusing on patterns of diverted migration and the growth of non-urban settlements on the outskirts of the Albanian capital, Tirana, illustrates how the proposed explanations may help to re-interpret the particulars of urbanisation under orthodox socialist rule."
Correspondence: O. Sjoberg, Stockholm School of Economics, Department of International Economics and Geography, Box 6501, S-113 83 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10071 Tyagi, R. P. Spatial pattern of urban growth and agricultural development. Demography India, Vol. 20, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1991. 75-84 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"In this study we...first analyse rural-urban growth differentials as revealed by [the] 1991 Census [of India] by taking district as the unit of analysis. Then we...study the pattern of growth in [three] different size classes of towns and cities separately for the two census decades, 1971-81 and 1981-91."
Correspondence: R. P. Tyagi, Delhi University Enclave, Institute of Economic Growth, Delhi 110 007, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10072 United States. New York. Department of City Planning (New York, New York). Demographic profiles: a portrait of New York City's community districts from the 1980 and 1990 censuses of population and housing. Pub. Order No. DCP 92-32. Aug 1992. 297, [29] pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This report presents a detailed portrait of each of New York City's 59 Community Districts. Each demographic profile contains four pages of full count data from the 1980 and 1990 Censuses including race and Hispanic origin, age, marital status, composition of households, and living arrangements of children and elderly persons. The profiles also include a number of housing characteristics....Selection of items [is] based on the thousands of inquiries from census data users over the past decade. Maps showing neighborhoods within each community district are included. A copy of the 1990 Census questionnaire and an extensive glossary comprising 1980 and 1990 content and definitions are provided in the appendix, as well as a technical section on how the data were assembled."
Correspondence: New York City Planning Commission, 22 Reade Street, New York, NY 10007. Location: New York Public Library.

59:10073 Verduzco Chavez, Basilio. Employment and urban growth; an application of Czamanski's model to the Mexican case. [Empleo y crecimiento urbano; aplicacion del modelo de Czamanski al caso mexicano.] Estudios Demograficos y Urbanos, Vol. 6, No. 2, May-Aug 1991. 261-82, 477 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The author applies the 1964 model developed by Stanislaw Czamanski, based on theories of urban growth and industrial localization, to the analysis of urban growth in Mexico. "The advantages of this model in its application as a support instrument in the process of urban planning when the information available is incomplete are...discussed...." Census data for 44 cities in Mexico are used.
Correspondence: B. Verduzco Chavez, Universidad de Guadalajara, Instituto de Estudios Economicos y Regionales, Guadalajara, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10074 Vorlaufer, Karl; Thomi, Walter. Urbanization in Sub-Saharan Africa. [Urbanisierungsprozesse in schwarzafrikanischen Stadten.] Zeitschrift fur Wirtschaftsgeographie, Vol. 36, No. 1-2, 1992. 128 pp. Buchenverlag: Frankfurt am Main, Germany. In Ger.
This is a special issue devoted to urbanization in Sub-Saharan Africa. It contains six articles by various authors that discuss aspects of urbanization in Ghana, Kenya, Senegal, and Zambia. An article on methodological problems in sociological research in developing countries is included.
Correspondence: Buchenverlag, Postfach 90 01 26, 6000 Frankfurt am Main, Germany. Location: New York Public Library.

59:10075 Walsh, A. Crosbie. The status of circular migration in the evolution of Melanesian towns: an attempt at explanation. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1992. 196-219 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"This article proposes a model of Melanesian urbanization and associated forms of migration, both permanent and temporary/circular. The model describes four stages of urban development, spanning the arrival of capitalism to a futuristic city of the next century. The author links the future of circular migration in Melanesia to the relative strengths of the precapitalist and capitalist modes of production and associated social relations, particularly the wantok [kinship network]."
Correspondence: A. C. Walsh, Massey University, PO Palmerston North, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

C.3. Rural Spatial Distribution

Studies of agricultural and farming populations.

59:10076 Levina, T. The demographic situation in rural areas. [Demograficheskaya situatsiya v sel'skoi mestnosti.] Vestnik Statistiki, No. 1, 1992. 10-5 pp. Moscow, Russia. In Rus.
Demographic trends in rural areas of the former Soviet Union are analyzed over the 10-year period 1979-1989, using census data. Over the whole country, the rural population decreased by 1 percent, while the urban population increased by 15 percent, although significant differences existed between the European and Central Asian republics. Factors affecting the dynamics of rural populations are analyzed, including the undeveloped social and economic infrastructure in rural areas.
Correspondence: T. Levina, State Committee on Statistics, Office of Demographic Statistics, Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10077 Pan, Qi. Factors affecting the redistribution of surplus agricultural labour force in China. Population Research, Vol. 8, No. 4, Dec 1991. 41-9 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
Using data for China, the author makes "a case analysis of factors affecting the abnormal redistribution of surplus agricultural population based on a description of abnormal changes in economic structure."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10078 Stockdale, A. Recent trends in urbanisation and rural repopulation in Northern Ireland. Irish Geography, Vol. 24, No. 2, 1991. 70-80 pp. Dublin, Ireland. In Eng.
The author examines the process of urbanization in Northern Ireland, focusing on the trend toward rural population revival. It is concluded that "while rural repopulation, rural rejuvenation or counterurbanisation trends elsewhere have been associated with urban or metropolitan population decline and, accordingly, a weakening of the urbanisation process, evidence from Northern Ireland suggests that both processes can occur simultaneously."
Correspondence: A. Stockdale, University of Aberdeen, Department of Land Economy, Aberdeen AB9 1FX, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

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