Volume 58 - Number 4 - Winter 1992

G. Nuptiality and the Family

Studies that quantitatively analyze aspects of nuptiality and the family. Studies concerned equally with marriage and the family are coded first under G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to G.1. Marriage and Divorce . Methodological studies on nuptiality and the family are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , as appropriate.

G.1. Marriage and Divorce

Studies of trends in marriage and divorce, nuptiality, duration of marriage, age at marriage, and demographic characteristics of marriage partners. Also includes studies of unmarried cohabitation and consensual unions.

58:40440 Axinn, William G.; Thornton, Arland. The influence of parental resources on the timing of the transition to marriage. Social Science Research, Vol. 21, No. 3, Sep 1992. 261-85 pp. Orlando, Florida. In Eng.
"It is the aim of this paper to establish the overall effects of parental resources and marital timing preferences on the actual timing of the transition to first marriage. Toward this end, we test the effects of parents' incomes, assets, educations, and preferences on the timing of marriage....The data used here come from a systematic probability sample of 1961 birth records chosen to represent white families who had just given birth to a first, second, or fourth child in the Detroit, Michigan, metropolitan area....An initial personal interview was conducted with the mothers in the winter of 1962, and telephone interviews were conducted in the fall of 1962 and in 1963, 1966, 1977, 1980, and 1985." The results show that "both parental financial resources and parental education influence children's marital behavior. Our analysis also demonstrates that parental preferences for their children's age at marriage do matter, but that this influence weakens as the children grow older. Finally, the analysis indicates that the effects of parents' financial resources interact with parents' preferences to affect the timing of their children's transitions to marriage."
Correspondence: W. G. Axinn, University of Chicago/NORC, Population Research Center, 1155 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637-2799. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

58:40441 Bittles, Alan H. Consanguineous marriage: current global incidence and its relevance to demographic research. Population Studies Center Research Report, No. 90-186, Aug 1990. 11 pp. University of Michigan, Population Studies Center: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"To determine the current global incidence of consanguineous unions, data on marriages between second cousins or closer have been compiled from a variety of published and unpublished sources and are presented in detailed, tabular form....The specific impact of consanguinity on parameters including age at marriage and first livebirth, gross and net fertility, and pre- and postnatal mortality is considered and assessed."
Correspondence: University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40442 Burch, Thomas K. Modeling remarriage: a simple modification of Hernes' model of first marriage. Studia Demograficzne, No. 4/106, 1991. 27-33 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Eng.
"The model of remarriage presented in the paper is a modification of the Hernes model of entry into first marriage in which social pressure to remarry is assumed to decline linearly until the members in the cohort reach approximate age 75, n years after the average age at divorce for the cohort. Application of the model to the Canadian data of 1984 shows that males have greater remarriageability than females which is independent of cohort whereas older females had very low potential for remarriage. The results suggest different social pressures to remarry among men and women of various ages."
Correspondence: T. K. Burch, University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40443 Calzola, Luca; Tittarelli, Luigi. Marriage and the family in Perugia and its surrounding area in the middle of the nineteenth century. [Matrimonio e famiglia a Perugia e nelle sue campagne alla meta dell'ottocento.] Studi Storici, No. 2, 1991. 365-82 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita.
Marriage patterns and family formation in the Italian region of Perugia are analyzed using data on marriages performed between 1838 and 1842 in the city and between 1835 and 1860 in some surrounding areas. The various types of families that developed in urban and rural areas are identified.
Correspondence: L. Tittarelli, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, Dipartimento di Scienze Statistiche, Via A. Pascoli, C.P. 65/Succ. 1, 06100 Perugia, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40444 Cohen, Blair A. Using age at first union to explain the relationship between cohabitation and divorce. Population Studies Center Research Report, No. 91-209, Apr 1991. [25] pp. University of Michigan, Population Studies Center: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This study examines the effect of age at first union on subsequent marital stability [in the United States]....Data used for this analysis come from the 1987-1988 National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH)."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1991 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40445 Csernak, Magdolna. Patterns of first marriage in Finland and Hungary: a comparative study. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 30, 1992. 18-32 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the nature and background of the difference between the nuptiality pattern in Finland and Hungary....The emphasis is on the first marriage....The author presents the marriage trends by using both period and cohort measures. In order to analyze the changes in the age structure and the intensity of the first marriage, the classical life table method was applied to cohorts born between 1945 and 1970."
Correspondence: M. Csernak, Central Statistical Office, Demographic Research Institute, Budapest, Hungary. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40446 Durdev, Branislav S. Nuptiality in the village of Vilovo. [Nupcijalitet u selu Vilovu.] Stanovnistvo, Vol. 28-29, No. 3-4/1-2, Jul-Dec/Jan-Jun 1990-1991. 219-26 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
The author reviews two nuptiality models and their implications. "The case study on nuptiality in the village of Vilovo, [Yugoslavia] disputes the existence of only two contrasting nuptiality models and points to the need to analyze this phenomenon from both the regional and historical point of view."
Correspondence: B. S. Durdev, Univerziteta u Novom Sadu, Prirodno-matematicki Fakultet, Institut za Geografiju, Veljka Vlahovica 3, Post. fah 7, 21000 Novi Sad, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40447 Fratczak, Ewa. Marital status life table for selected female cohorts--evidence from Polish retrospective survey 1988 "Life Course--Family, Occupational and Migratory Biography" Studia Demograficzne, No. 3/105, 1991. 99-110 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Eng.
This paper presents estimated marital-status life tables for selected female cohorts in Poland. The period covered is from 1909 to 1943. The tables were constructed using data from a 1988 retrospective survey.
Correspondence: E. Fratczak, Szkola Glowna Handlowa, Al. Niepodleglosci 162, 02-554 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40448 Fresel-Lozey, Michel. New living arrangements: methodological problems. [Les nouvelles formes de conjugalite: problemes methodologiques.] Population, Vol. 47, No. 3, May-Jun 1992. 737-43 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The author discusses new forms of nonmarital living arrangements in France and the methodological problems they pose for researchers.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40449 Gu, Jiantang. The marital status of aged population in Beijing. Population Research, Vol. 8, No. 2, Jun 1991. 27-34 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
"This article is intended to make a preliminary analysis of the marital status of the aged population according [to] data obtained from the 2.15 Per-Thousand Sampling Survey of the Aged Population in Beijing in 1987." Comparisons are made with trends among younger age groups.
Correspondence: J. Gu, Beijing College of Economics, Institute of Population, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40450 Haskey, John. Patterns of marriage, divorce, and cohabitation in the different countries of Europe. Population Trends, No. 69, Autumn 1992. 27-36 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This article considers the available data on first marriages, divorces, remarriages, and cohabitation in the different countries of Europe. It traces the trends since 1950 in first marriages and divorces--the most important ways in which partnerships are formed and terminated--and concludes that distinctive patterns of marriage and divorce have emerged in the different regions of Europe. Derived from the limited information which is available, a similar conclusion is drawn concerning cohabitation, prevalence being highest in the Nordic countries of Northern Europe, and lowest--virtually non-existent--in Southern Europe. Possible links between the patterns of marriage, divorce, and cohabitation are investigated and discussed."
Correspondence: J. Haskey, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, Population Statistics Division, St. Catherines House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40451 Haskey, John. Pre-marital cohabitation and the probability of subsequent divorce: analyses using new data from the General Household Survey. Population Trends, No. 68, Summer 1992. 10-9 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This article traces the trends in pre-marital cohabitation [in Great Britain] by birth cohort and age at marriage, and examines these trends for first and second marriages separately. [It] also investigates the relationship between pre-marital cohabitation and the probability of divorce. Results indicate that the prevalence of cohabitation before second marriages is higher than that before first marriages, and that couples who cohabit before marriage have higher rates of divorce and marital breakdown than those who do not."
Correspondence: J. Haskey, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, Population Statistics Division, St. Catherines House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40452 Hirosima, Kiyosi; Yamamoto, Chizuko. Divorce rate in Japan: 1989, 1990. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 48, No. 1, Apr 1992. 66-75 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
The authors examine levels and trends in divorce in Japan for the years 1989 and 1990. In addition to data on age-specific divorce rates by sex, data are provided on marriage and divorce by nationality of husband and wife, total divorce rate, and mean age at divorce.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40453 Hobart, Charles; Grigel, Frank. Cohabitation among Canadian students at the end of the eighties. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 23, No. 3, Autumn 1992. 311-37 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This paper begins by comparing the responses of never-married Anglophone and Francophone students [in Canada], surveyed in 1968, 1977 and 1988 to questions dealing with attitudes toward and experience of cohabitation. The 1988 data show that Francophone women are most favorable, and Anglophone women are least favorable toward cohabitation....Analyses show that quite different combinations of independent variables are predictive of the attitude and experience criteria for the four language-sex subsamples, with that for Francophone males the most distinctive."
Correspondence: C. Hobart, University of Alberta, Department of Sociology, Edmonton, Alberta T5G 1S1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

58:40454 Hoem, Britta; Hoem, Jan M. The disruption of marital and non-marital unions in contemporary Sweden. In: Demographic applications of event history analysis, edited by James Trussell, Richard Hankinson, and Judith Tilton. 1992. 61-93 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In this chapter, we study the extent and structure of the general decline in the stability of marital and non-marital unions in Sweden over the quarter-century between the 1950s and the late 1970s....We focus on the event that a conjugal union breaks up and the partners stop living together and use hazard regression techniques to analyse dissolutions among a reasonably large number of Swedish women from all walks of life, taken from the 1981 Swedish Fertility Survey."
For a related study by James Trussell et al., see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: B. Hoem, Statistics Sweden, S-115 81 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40455 Holden, Karen C.; Smock, Pamela J. The economic costs of marital dissolution: why do women bear a disproportionate cost? Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 17, 1991. 51-78 pp. Palo Alto, California. In Eng.
"We review the literature on the economic consequences of marital dissolution for women. Longitudinal studies of the effects of divorce and widowhood indicate that both types of dissolutions have negative and prolonged consequences for women's economic well-being. This is not the case for men, where marital dissolution often leads to an improved economic standard of living. Following an examination of empirical studies and measurement issues in the divorce and widowhood literatures, we describe preexisting and direct sources of women's postdissolution economic insecurity." The primary geographical focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: K. C. Holden, University of Wisconsin, Department of Consumer Science, 1225 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SSRC).

58:40456 Huang, Rongqing; Kai, Xin. A study of China's models for first marriage and primiparity. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 2, No. 4, 1990. 361-73 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article begins with an introduction of Coale's first marriage model, proceeds to propose another, improved model, and uses actual data to make a comparison of these two models. In the second section, this article distinguishes between time of first marriage and time that regular sexual activity commences, as well as analyzing the time distribution of the commencement of regular sexual activity for women in China. Lastly, a set of measurement methods from first marriage to primiparity have been provided."
Correspondence: R. Huang, Beijing School of Economics, Institute of Population Economics, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40457 Ignatczyk, Walentyna. Future Polish family in the light of family attitudes of single young people. Studia Demograficzne, No. 3/105, 1991. 43-61 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Eng.
"The article is a presentation of selected results of research conducted among Polish single young people (aged 18-34). The research concerned: (a) the pattern of marital attitudes and values of marital life; (b) the pattern of reproduction attitudes and parental values. The results of the research confirmed the claim that Polish young people are anxious to get married...[and] that Polish young people demonstrate a strong need for having a child in their marriage despite [the] difficult social and economic situation of the country and difficult living conditions of Polish families...."
Correspondence: W. Ignatczyk, Akademia Ekonomiczna w Poznaniu, al. Niepodleglosci 10, 60-967 Poznan, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40458 Jones, Gavin W. Divorce in Islamic Southeast Asia. Working Papers in Demography, No. 36, 1992. 59 pp. Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper examines the levels and trends in divorce rates [in Islamic Southeast Asia] and their regional variation over...time. It examines reasons why divorce rates were so high up to the 1950s, and why they have declined so rapidly since then. The explanation is multifaceted and includes rapid socio-economic change, including rapidly rising levels of education for females and increased participation of women in the market economy."
Correspondence: Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, P.O. Box 4, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40459 Kiefl, Walter; Kummer, Ingeborg. Couples in crisis: results of an evaluation study with special reference to the effects of the birth of children. [Paare in der Krise: Ergebnisse einer Evaluationsstudie unter besonderer Berucksichtigung der Auswirkungen der Geburt von Kindern.] Materialien zur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, No. 74, 1992. 141 pp. Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung: Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger.
Findings are presented from a study of the process of marital separation. The data are from interviews with 123 persons seeking family counseling in 1987-1988 in Munich, West Germany. Special attention is given to the impact of the birth of the first child on marital relationships.
Correspondence: Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung, Gustav-Stresemann-Ring 6, Postfach 5528, D-6200 Wiesbaden, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40460 Levy, Michel L. The bicentenary of civil marriage. [Le bicentenaire du mariage civil.] Population et Societes, No. 271, Sep 1992. [1-3] pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The author reviews the institution of marriage in France since the setting up of civil marriage in 1792.
Correspondence: M. L. Levy, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40461 Liao, Cailian; Heaton, Tim B. Divorce trends and differentials in China. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 23, No. 3, Autumn 1992. 413-29 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This study examines divorce differentials using the China In-Depth Fertility Survey conducted in 1985. Divorce is more common among urban residents, those with more education, those who are still young, and those whose marriages are arranged....Divorce remains an unusual occurrence in China, but important sociodemographic differentials are evident."
Correspondence: C. Liao, P.O. Box 12654, San Diego, CA 92112. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

58:40462 Lindgren, Jarl; Ritamies, Marketta; Miettinen, Anneli. Consensual unions and their dissolution among Finnish women born in 1938-1969. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 30, 1992. 33-43 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"The article presents some empirical data on the development of consensual unions in Finland, with emphasis on [the] pattern of entering these unions as well as their dissolution. The main source has been a survey conducted in 1989....In the survey about 4,000 women aged 22-51 years were interviewed. The article starts with an overview on the development and the present situation of consensual union as a form of cohabiting. Then it deals with the age at entering first consensual union and with the frequency of consensual unions ending in marriage....Data on the children born in consensual unions [are included]."
Correspondence: J. Lindgren, Population Research Institute, Kalevankatu 16, SF-00100 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40463 Manting, Dorien. The break-up of unions; the role of cohabitation. PDOD Paper, No. 11, Aug 1992. 19, [6] pp. Universiteit van Amsterdam, Postdoctorale Onderzoekersopleiding Demografie [PDOD]: Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This study reports on the role of cohabitation in the break-up of marital and non-marital unions of Dutch women, born between 1950 and 1969....It has been argued in this paper that the diverse ways of defining the relationship between cohabitation and marriage have consequences for the research on the separation of couples; they have impact on the formulation of the process of separation itself, as well as on the hypotheses formulated. By documenting the rates of disruption of unions, several hypotheses are tested. The data for the analyses have been derived from The Netherlands Fertility Survey (1988)...."
Correspondence: Universiteit van Amsterdam, Planologisch en Demografisch Instituut, Postdoctorale Onderzoekersopleiding Demografie, Nieuwe Prinsengracht 130, 1018 VZ Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40464 Meekers, Dominique. The process of marriage in African societies: a multiple indicator approach. Population and Development Review, Vol. 18, No. 1, Mar 1992. 61-78, 205, 207 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article demonstrates the use of multiple indicators of union formation to study marriage customs in African societies. While previous studies of African marriage generally provide information only on type of union as self-reported, this study uses information from the 1980-81 Cote d'Ivoire Fertility Survey to develop a more detailed typology of marital unions based on the sequence of events in the union formation process. This new classification incorporates information on the processual nature of Ivorian unions and more adequately reflects the diversity of marital systems practiced in Cote d'Ivoire."
Correspondence: D. Meekers, Pennsylvania State University, Department of Sociology, Population Research Institute, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40465 Okonjo, Kamene. Aspects of continuity and change in mate-selection among the Ibgo west of the River Niger. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 23, No. 3, Autumn 1992. 339-60 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Using participant observation and the results of an interview of 250 women repeated in two other [Nigerian] surveys, the attitudes of Western Igbo women to the variables parental and self-selection of mates, arranged marriages, the payment of bridewealth, polygyny, woman to woman marriage, levirate marriage, father to daughter marriage (Idegbe), pre-marital chastity and the influence of religion, education and age on these variables are explored. It is found that certain aspects of the Western Igbo marriage system and practice have been modified by Western practice, while others are now disapproved of and can be assumed to be in decline. The central core of the marriage system and practice has however proved stable and remained virtually unchanged and great stock is still laid on affinal relationship."
Correspondence: K. Okonjo, University of Nigeria, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Nsukka, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

58:40466 Rao, K. V.; DeMaris, Alfred. Proportional hazards vs logistic regression approaches to assessing the risk of marriage dissolution. In: American Statistical Association, 1989 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1989]. 438-43 pp. American Statistical Association: Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"In this paper, our objective is to analyze marital dissolution in the United States and identify some important socio-economic and demographic covariates of marital breakdown....[We] explore the similarities and dissimilarities in the outcomes obtained from (i) proportional hazards model and (ii) logistic regression....The data for this study come from the [1987-1988] National Survey of Families and Households...."
Correspondence: K. V. Rao, Bowling Green State University, Department of Sociology, Bowling Green, OH 43403-0231. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40467 Sander, William. Unobserved variables and marital status: the schooling connection. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 5, No. 3, Aug 1992. 217-28 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"This study focuses on the effect of schooling on marital status. A Hausman-type test shows that schooling cannot be legitimately treated as an exogenous determinant of marriage and divorce. It is shown that if schooling is treated as an exogenous variable, the negative effect of schooling on the odds of marriage is underestimated. Further, the results indicate that schooling has a significant negative effect on divorce if it is treated as an exogenous variable; the coefficient for schooling is positive if it is treated as an endogenous variable." The data, which concern the United States, are from the General Social Survey and cover the period 1986-1990.
Correspondence: W. Sander, DePaul University, Department of Economics, 25 East Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, IL 60604. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40468 Schoen, Robert; Owens, Dawn. A further look at first unions and first marriages. Johns Hopkins Population Center Papers on Population, No. WP 90-02, [1990]. 12, [8] pp. Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Population Center: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"The retreat from marriage and the rapid rise in cohabitation are examined using data from the National Survey of Families and Households. A multistate approach is used to follow the experience of U.S. females born between 1928 and 1967. In recent cohorts, both the average duration of a first cohabitation and the likelihood that a first cohabitation leads to marriage declined. Moreover, the probability of ever marrying is greater for women who never cohabited than for women who did. These findings suggest that cohabitation is not simply a prelude to marriage, but rather another kind of relationship."
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Population Center, 615 North Wolfe Street, Room 2300, Baltimore, MD 21205-2179. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40469 Schoen, Robert. Intermarriage as a dimension of marriage choice. Johns Hopkins Population Center Papers on Population, No. WP 91-07, [1991]. 14, [2] pp. Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Population Center: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
Using data for the United States, the author focuses on "analyses of marriage behavior based on marriage propensities in order to examine marriage choice independent of compositional effects....[He notes that the] propensity to marry has fallen substantially for persons in virtually all age, sex, race, and education categories...[and that] 25% or more of women now in their 20's may never have children."
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Population Center, 615 North Wolfe Street, Room 2300, Baltimore, MD 21205-2179. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40470 Sinel'nikov, A. B. Socially approved reasons for divorce in the past and present. [Sotsial'no odobryaemye prichiny razvoda v proshlom i nastoyashchem.] Sotsiologicheskie Issledovaniya, No. 2, 1992. 27-38 pp. Moscow, Russia. In Rus.
Laws concerning divorce in different cultures around the world are first reviewed. The author then summarizes results of a newspaper survey conducted in the USSR in 1988, and concludes that divorce is currently a phenomenon affected by individual preferences rather than by the needs of society as a whole.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

58:40471 Stone, Lawrence. Uncertain unions: marriage in England 1660-1753. ISBN 0-19-820253-9. LC 91-33370. 1992. xiii, 281 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This book consists of a series of case-studies about the ambiguities and uncertainties surrounding the making of marriage in early modern England. The stories range in date from the Restoration of the authority of the church and its courts in 1660 to the passage of the Marriage Act of 1753. They illustrate the extraordinary variety of legal but hard to prove, quasi-legal, and illegal ways of making a marriage, ranging from customary concubinage to verbal marriage contracts to clandestine marriages to bigamous or incestuous marriages. As a result of glaring defects in the laws of marriage, very large numbers of perfectly respectable people in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries could never be quite sure whether they were married or not."
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, Walton Street, Oxford 0X2 6DP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40472 Sugareva, Marta. Cohabitation--a rejection of the family or a new family model. [Sazhitelstvata--nova forma na semeistvoto ili kriza na semeistvoto.] Naselenie, No. 3, 1992. 78-90 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng.
The author examines and compares recent trends in unmarried cohabitation in Western Europe and the United States with those in Eastern Europe.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40473 Trussell, James; Rodriguez, German; Vaughan, Barbara. Union dissolution in Sweden. In: Demographic applications of event history analysis, edited by James Trussell, Richard Hankinson, and Judith Tilton. 1992. 38-60 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The goal of the present inquiry is to examine the covariates of union dissolution in Sweden, the only population with data suited for such an analysis. The remaining part of the chapter is divided into four sections. The first describes the data available for analysis and presents preliminary analyses of these data. The second discusses the hazard model, the statistical model (equivalent to a multivariate life table) that we use in the subsequent analyses, and the process of selecting variables for inclusion in this model. The third presents the final results and a discussion thereof. The chapter concludes with a summary."
For a related study by Britta Hoem and Jan M. Hoem, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: J. Trussell, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40474 Tzeng, Meei-Shenn. The effects of socioeconomic heterogamy and changes on marital dissolution for first marriages. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 54, No. 3, Aug 1992. 609-19 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"National Longitudinal Surveys are used to investigate the patterns and determinants of marital dissolution for first marriages [in the United States]. The focus of this paper is to examine the associations between socioeconomic status differences and changes within marriage of marital partners and marital instability. Based on a discrete hazard model, the results indicate the risk of marital instability is highest among couples who have heterogamous education and who do not follow the most traditional working arrangement where only the husband is employed full-time in the labor market. Those couples who do equalize their original education and conventionalize employment status enjoy higher marital stability. However, marriages in which couples change to educational heterogamy and unconventional employment statuses are less likely to survive."
Correspondence: M.-S. Tzeng, University of Wisconsin, Department of Sociology, Center for Demography and Ecology, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40475 Wadhera, Surinder; Strachan, Jill. Historical publication highlights: selected marriage statistics, Canada, 1921-1990. [Faits saillants de la publication chronologique: certains renseignements sur les mariages contractes de 1921 a 1990.] Health Reports/Rapports sur la Sante, Vol. 4, No. 1, 1992. 78-83 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
The authors provide selected data from the first in a series of publications describing the history of fertility and marriage data for Canada. In this article, data concerning total and age-specific marriage rates and number of marriages for the period 1921-1990 are presented and briefly described.
Correspondence: S. Wadhera, Statistics Canada, Canadian Centre for Health Information, Ottawa, Ontario K1A OT6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40476 Wang, Zhigang. A preliminary study of the rate of women married in China. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 3, No. 4, 1991. 341-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author uses recent census data for China to examine changes in the rate of never-married women. Consideration is given to regional differences, educational and occupational status, and ethnic group. Some comparisons are made with selected other countries.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40477 Zhu, Nong. A review of the historical relationship between migration and marriage. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 3, No. 4, 1991. 327-39 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Daniel Courgeau of the National Institute of Population of France...has proposed a set of theories on the data analysis of life history in his recently published book Analyse Demographique des Biographies. His basic approach is to use mathematical models in the study of the probability of the occurrence of various events under different circumstances in the life history and demonstrate the interplay between various events, such as marriage and migration, childbirth and migration and the effect of socioeconomic factors on these events. It is the purpose of this paper to apply Courgeau's non-parameter model and semi-parameter model to the study of our survey data and to briefly explain how we can use this data processing method to analyze the mutual effects of marriage and migration and the effect of other socioeconomic features." Data are from a 1988 survey conducted in Hubei Province, China.
For the book by Courgeau, published in 1989, see 55:30727.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

G.2. Family and Household

Studies of household structure and of family composition and size and the factors influencing them. Includes the full range of family concepts from the one-parent to the extended family and includes studies on the life course of the family. Studies on attitudes toward family size are coded under F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control .

58:40478 Altmeyer-Baumann, Sabine; Herzer, Manfred. Change in family transitions: models and services for dealing with family crises. [Familiale Ubergange im Wandel: Modelle und Hilfsangebote zur Bewaltigung familialer Krisen.] Materialien zur Bevolkerungswissenschaft: Sonderheft, No. 19, 1992. 240 pp. Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung: Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger.
This publication deals with transitions from one stage of the family life cycle to another. Theories and sociological models of family life cycle transitions are first reviewed. Organized services for assisting with family crises in Germany are then examined, with special reference to divorce and widowhood.
Correspondence: Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung, Gustav-Stresemann-Ring 6, Postfach 5528, D-6200 Wiesbaden, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40479 Armstrong, Alice. Maintenance payments for child support in southern Africa: using law to promote family planning. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 23, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1992. 217-28 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article presents some of the legal, social, cultural, and practical constraints facing women who attempt to enforce their right to maintenance (child support) payments in southern Africa....The social and cultural constraints that influence the enforcement of maintenance laws include women's lack of knowledge of the law, attitudes toward child support influenced by customary law, allegations of women's abuse of maintenance payments, financial and practical problems, and fear of physical violence or other forms of retribution. Maintenance laws are relevant to family planning in that if such laws were more effectively enforced, so that the financial burden of children were more equally shared between women and men, men would have a financial stake in controlling their fertility." The geographical focus is on Botswana, Lesotho, Mozambique, Swaziland, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.
Correspondence: A. Armstrong, Women and Law in Southern Africa Trust, P.O. Box UA 171, Union Avenue, Harare, Zimbabwe. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40480 Browning, Martin. Children and household economic behavior. Journal of Economic Literature, Vol. 30, No. 3, Sep 1992. 1,434-75 pp. Nashville, Tennessee. In Eng.
"This paper looks at some of the methodological issues that arise in modeling the effects of children on household behavior and presents some estimates for selected areas. For our purposes household behavior will be taken to refer to household decisions on labor supply, the allocation of expenditure to different periods..., and the decision as to what to do with the difference between income and expenditure....I shall be concerned mainly with the effects of dependent children...[and] I restrict attention largely to Western societies."
Correspondence: M. Browning, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L8, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

58:40481 Canova, Eliska. A historical study of the family. [Studium historicke rodiny.] Demografie, Vol. 34, No. 2, 1992. 131-6 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author analyzes the history of changes in family characteristics using data from parish registers from the seventeenth century.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40482 de Jong Gierveld, Jenny; Liefbroer, Aart C.; Beekink, Erik. The effect of parental resources on patterns of leaving home among young adults in the Netherlands. Studia Demograficzne, No. 3/105, 1991. 19-42 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Eng.
"In this paper the process of leaving the parental home among young adults is studied. After a brief historical overview, three main reasons for leaving home are distinguished, viz. leaving home to complete an education, leaving home to start living with a partner, and leaving home to gain more autonomy and independence. Both the timing and the main reason for leaving the parental home is expected to depend on the resources of the young adults' parents. Four classes of parental resources are distinguished, viz. material and non-material resources that can be transferred to young adults, and material and non-material resources that cannot be transferred to young adults. It is hypothesized that high levels of transferable parental resources facilitate the process of leaving home, whereas high levels of non-transferable resources slow down this process. The hypotheses are tested using data from a survey among 583 young adults born in 1961 in the Netherlands."
Correspondence: J. de Jong Gierveld, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1083, 1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40483 Echarri Canovas, Carlos J. Family, household, and health service use: the case of Mexico. [Familia, hogar y utilizacion de servicios de salud: el caso de Mexico.] In: Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, August 5-7, 1991, Washington, D.C.: proceedings. Volume 3. 1991. 1,759-81 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Spa.
Health service use in Mexico is examined by household type. Consideration is given to age and sex composition of households, nuclear and extended families, and accessibility of health care. Characteristics of household heads are also described.
Correspondence: C. J. Echarri Canovas, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Place de l'Universite 1, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40484 Eggebeen, David J. Changes in sibling configurations for American preschool children. Social Biology, Vol. 39, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1992. 27-44 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"This paper uses data drawn from the 1940 through 1980 Public Use Microdata Samples of the U.S. Census of Population to document sibling configurations from the child's perspective. Changes in four aspects of siblings are examined for five cohorts of white and black preschool-aged children: number, birth order distributions, spacing intervals, and sex composition. Changes in fertility behavior of adults in the post-war era had a profound effect on the structure of sibling systems experienced by children....These shifts in size of sibling sets are reflected in changes in the proportion of each [cohort] who are first born and only children, both of which have increased substantially by the 1980 cohort....Substantial shifts across cohorts in several measures of sex composition of children are observed. Most significantly, there is a marked decline in the proportion of children experiencing an opposite-sex older sibling."
Correspondence: D. J. Eggebeen, Pennsylvania State University, Department of Human Development and Family Studies, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40485 Ekouevi, Koffi; Ayad, Mohamed; Barrere, Bernard; Cantor, David C. Household structure from a comparative perspective. In: Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, August 5-7, 1991, Washington, D.C.: proceedings. Volume 3. 1991. 1,547-77 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
"This research focuses on household demographic characteristics such as age and sex structure, headship of households and size composition of households. Patterns of age-sex specific headship rates are also examined." Data are from the Demographic and Health Surveys and the World Fertility Survey and concern developing countries.
Correspondence: K. Ekouevi, Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 8850 Stanford Boulevard, Suite 4000, Columbia, MD 21045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40486 El-Khorazaty, M. Nabil; Horne, Amelia D. A new approach to measuring selected events of the family life cycle. In: American Statistical Association, 1989 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1989]. 426-31 pp. American Statistical Association: Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"This paper is concerned with the estimation of some of the indices of the first stage of the family life cycle which follows the marriage event, namely, family formation patterns....The present paper...presents a new methodology which requires only data on fertility rates specific for the ages of the mother and the father, which are usually available on an annual basis from vital registration data....Family life cycle indices were calculated for 26 developing and 17 developed countries...for the period of the two decades from the mid sixties to the mid eighties whenever data permitted."
Correspondence: M. N. El-Khorazaty, Central Statistics Organization, P.O. Box 5835, Manama, Bahrain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40487 Finland. Tilastokeskus (Helsinki, Finland). Families, 1990. [Perheet 1990/Familjer 1990.] Vaesto/Befolkning/Population 1992, No. 7, 1992. 76 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Fin; Swe. with sum. in Eng.
This publication presents data on families in Finland in 1990. For the first time, consensual unions without children are treated as families. The focus is on family type and number of children.
Correspondence: Tilastokeskus, PL 504, 00101 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40488 Guinnane, Timothy W. Age at leaving home in rural Ireland, 1901-1911. Journal of Economic History, Vol. 52, No. 3, Sep 1992. 651-74 pp. New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Economic historians have stressed the importance of households and household formation but have devoted little attention to the process of leaving home. Leaving home in Ireland is important because of households' role in post-Famine demographic patterns. A matched Irish manuscript census sample for 1901 and 1911 shows that Irish males left home later than females. Statistical tests show that much of this reflects an Irish inheritance system that led many males never to leave home. Other economic forces, such as labor market opportunities, often had opposite impacts on males and females."
Correspondence: T. W. Guinnane, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Princeton, NJ 08544-1021. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

58:40489 Guinnane, Timothy W. Intergenerational transfers, emigration, and the rural Irish household system. Explorations in Economic History, Vol. 29, No. 4, Oct 1992. 456-76 pp. Orlando, Florida. In Eng.
The author examines the unique characteristics of Ireland's rural household structure and its impact on demographic behavior in the period after the famine of the mid-nineteenth century. Data from the Irish censuses of 1901 and 1911 are used to examine the relationship between inheritance practices and household economic circumstances at the turn of the century. "These results demonstrate the reflection of household strategies in household morphology and illustrate the relationship between economic circumstances, life-cycle strategies, and household dynamics."
Correspondence: T. W. Guinnane, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Princeton, NJ 08544-1021. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

58:40490 Hammel, E. A.; Mason, C.; Wachter, K.; Wang, F.; Yang, H. Rapid population change and kinship: the effects of unstable demographic changes on Chinese kinship networks, 1750-2250. In: Consequences of rapid population growth in developing countries. 1991. 243-71 pp. Taylor and Francis: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
The effect of rapid change in the rate of population growth on kinship networks is examined using the example of China. The authors show how expectations of having kin are determined by shifting patterns of nuptiality, fertility, and mortality. Particular attention is given to future prospects of individuals having surviving relatives to support them in their old age.
Correspondence: E. A. Hammel, University of California, Graduate Group in Demography, 2232 Piedmont Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40491 Hernandez, Donald J. Specifying family relationships in the decennial census and Census Bureau surveys. In: American Statistical Association, 1989 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1989]. 21-5 pp. American Statistical Association: Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"With the enormous changes in American family life that have occurred during the twentieth century, the Census Bureau has initiated important innovations in data collection on family relationships in the decennial census, the CPS, and the SIPP. These innovations include developing questionnaire techniques for identifying family relationships within households, for identifying the marital status of persons, and for obtaining detailed information about the marital histories of persons." The author describes and critically examines these innovations.
Correspondence: D. J. Hernandez, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Population Division, FB-3, Room 2381, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40492 Hohn, Charlotte. Some methodological and substantive options with demographic life course data--examples from the retrospective survey of the Federal Institute for Population Research (FRG). Studia Demograficzne, No. 3/105, 1991. 91-7 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Eng.
"In the paper results of [a] retrospective survey on [the] life course of women which was conducted in [West Germany] in 1987 are presented. Approximately 600 women aged 35 to 60 years from 5 birth cohorts were interviewed. The interview was focused on partnership, birth and work histories of women." Trends in marital status, family formation, and economic activity are examined, and the methodology used is described.
Correspondence: C. Hohn, Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung, Gustav-Stresemann-Ring 6, Postfach 5528, D-6200 Wiesbaden, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40493 Japan. Institute of Population Problems (Tokyo, Japan). A study of family function and its change: a review of the existing literature in Japan on the structure and function of the family. Institute of Population Problems Survey Series, No. 5, Mar 31, 1992. 106 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
The existing literature in Japan on the structure and function of the family is reviewed.
Correspondence: Ministry of Health and Welfare, Institute of Population Problems, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-45, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40494 Keilman, Nico; Kuijsten, Anton; Vossen, Ad. Modelling household formation and dissolution. ISBN 0-19-829500-6. 1988. xxii, 298 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
This selection of papers was presented at an international workshop on changing households, held in the Netherlands on December 12-14, 1984. Three additional papers, prepared specifically for this volume, are included. The studies examine various aspects of household modeling, including social and economic theories, data problems, model-building issues, and the application of household models. The focus is on the dynamics of household formation and dissolution, with a primary geographical focus on Europe.
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, Walton Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

58:40495 Knodel, John; Chayovan, Napaporn; Siriboon, Siriwan. The impact of fertility decline on familial support for the elderly: an illustration from Thailand. Population and Development Review, Vol. 18, No. 1, Mar 1992. 79-103, 205, 207 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The recent and substantial reduction in the number of children among couples in Thailand is commonly perceived to be one of the most important social changes likely to reduce the extent to which future generations of Thai elderly will be supported by their families. This analysis suggests that the impact of fertility decline per se will be relatively moderate with respect to coresidence, the most crucial aspect of familial support....Notwithstanding the very substantial fertility decline, few elderly are likely to be childless or to have only one child, and elderly parents with at least two children are still quite likely to live with one of them. An important implication of the study is that, in settings similar to Thailand, the negative effect of lower fertility on familial support for the elderly need not be an overriding concern when deciding whether or not to implement policies to reduce fertility."
Correspondence: J. Knodel, University of Michigan, Department of Sociology, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40496 Kuijsten, Anton. The study of family and household: from description to explanation. Studia Demograficzne, No. 3/105, 1991. 5-17 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Eng.
"In the paper recent changes in family and household structures, which have been observed in Western countries, are presented as well as factors affecting these changes. New patterns in family and household formation and dissolution require new directions in research in this field. These directions are discussed and emphasis is given to [the] necessity of a multi-level research strategy. Also, a focus on decision-making at the micro level is required. Current and planned research projects on family and household in the Netherlands are described."
Correspondence: A. Kuijsten, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Nieuwe Prinsengracht 130, 1018 VZ Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40497 Kytir, Josef. Between "pre-modern" and "post-modern"--formation of families in Austria, 1984 to 1990. [Zwischen "vormodern" und "postmodern"--Familiengrundungen in Osterreich 1984 bis 1990.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 18, No. 1, 1992. 117-33 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"This analysis provides an overview [of] forms of family formation behavior in Austria in the years 1984 to 1990. Using vital statistics data all women with a first birth in the years 1984 to 1990 were classified into three distinct groups according to their form of family formation behavior....The analysis indicates the highest proportions of unmarried mothers among young and poorly educated women. Moreover, the highest illegitimacy ratios are not found in urban areas. This type of family formation is particularly common in those alpine areas of Austria where having an illegitimate birth can be linked to a long standing practice. The high percentage of women who remain unmarried although they have a child, is therefore not a phenomenon of postmodernism, but a result of local tradition."
Correspondence: J. Kytir, Osterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Institut fur Demographie, Hintere Zollamtsstrasse 2b, A-1033 Vienna, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40498 Lloyd, Cynthia B.; Desai, Sonalde. Children's living arrangements in comparative perspective. In: Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, August 5-7, 1991, Washington, D.C.: proceedings. Volume 3. 1991. 1,623-43 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
"In this paper, we will examine various aspects of children's living arrangements that have been hypothesized to affect child welfare using the data from 18 Demographic and Health Surveys. We begin the paper with a discussion of the ways in which living arrangements might affect child welfare in various developing country settings....We give particular emphasis to mother/child co-residence because of mothers' central importance in care and nurturing of young children and their strategic potential as agents of change in enhancing their children's development."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40499 Malacic, Janez. Probability of family growth in fertility analysis. [Verovatnoca povecanja porodice u analizi fertiliteta.] Stanovnistvo, Vol. 28-29, No. 3-4/1-2, Jul-Dec/Jan-Jun 1990-1991. 125-35 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
Family size data for Slovenia, Croatia, Vojvodina, and Serbia, Yugoslavia, and for Italy are analyzed and compared to determine the probability of family growth. "The regions chosen serve to illustrate the modern reproduction environment....All examples...show concentration of children in one child and two-child families as well as a strong decline in the number and share of families with three and more children."
Correspondence: J. Malacic, Univerziteta u Ljubljani, Ekonomski Fakultet, Trg Osvoboditve 11, Ljubljana, Slovenia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40500 Marsh, Catherine; Arber, Sara. Families and households: divisions and change. ISBN 0-312-06872-7. LC 91-22449. 1992. xi, 217 pp. St. Martin's Press: New York, New York. In Eng.
This is a selection of 10 papers by various authors on aspects of recent research into the changing structure of the family and of living arrangements. Most of the papers were originally presented at the 1990 British Sociological Association Annual Conference; the primary geographical focus is on the United Kingdom, although one paper is concerned with West Germany.
Correspondence: St. Martin's Press, 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10010. Location: Rutgers University Library, New Brunswick, NJ.

58:40501 Mason, Karen O.; Kuhlthau, Karen. The perceived impact of child care costs on women's labor supply and fertility. Demography, Vol. 29, No. 4, Nov 1992. 523-43 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"In this paper we [examine] social and economic variation in reported child care constraints on both employment and fertility behavior. Using a probability sample of mothers of preschool-aged children living in the Detroit metropolitan area in spring 1986, we investigate the correlates of women's statements that their current or past employment and childbearing have been affected by problems with child care. We also analyze which women are most likely to perceive nearby child care facilities as inadequate." The authors suggest that "policies to increase the supply of child care or to lower its cost could increase female labor supply by a substantial fraction, with an even greater rise among women most at risk of poverty and reliance on public assistance, but probably would not raise fertility significantly."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1987 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: K. O. Mason, East-West Center, Program on Population, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40502 Ndiaye, Salif; Thiongane, Awa; Sarr, Ibrahima; Charbit, Yves. Family structure in Senegal. [Structures familiales au Senegal.] In: Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, August 5-7, 1991, Washington, D.C.: proceedings. Volume 3. 1991. 1,579-602 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Fre.
Family characteristics and formation in Senegal are reviewed. Consideration is given to endogamy and polygamy, marriage age, cohabitation of spouses and children, and the effect of Western family models on Senegalese family structure.
Correspondence: S. Ndiaye, Direction de la Prevision et de la Statistique, Dakar, Senegal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40503 Ono-Osaki, Keiko. Female headed households in developing countries: by choice or by circumstances? In: Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, August 5-7, 1991, Washington, D.C.: proceedings. Volume 3. 1991. 1,603-21 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
"The primary objective of this paper is to provide a more refined picture of female headed households in developing countries....The paper begins with a review of the previous findings on female headship, followed by a description of the data and methodology. The empirical results consist of a global overview of the prevalence of female headed households, and a descriptive comparison of the socio-demographic profile of female and male heads. Then, the determinants of headship will be explored by applying multivariate techniques in order to gain a better understanding of the factors affecting headship. Lastly, the characteristics of households will be summarized in terms of size, composition, and structure."
Correspondence: K. Ono-Osaki, United Nations Population Division, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40504 Saari, Matti. The development of family structure in Finland in 1960-1987. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 30, 1992. 5-17 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"The purpose of the article is to study the development of family structure in Finland in 1960-1987....The article describes changes in the numbers of families of different types, families with young children and families of different sizes, as well as developments in the regional family structure during the 1960-1987 period. In addition, developments in the prevalence of living in a family and living in a family with young children are studied with reference to the 1981-1987 period."
Correspondence: M. Saari, Statistics Finland, Population Statistics Division, Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40505 Sittitrai, Werasit; Wolff, Brent; Knodel, John; Havanon, Napaporn; Podhisita, Chai. Family size and family well-being: the views of Thai villagers. Population Studies Center Research Report, No. 90-191, Aug 1990. 47 pp. University of Michigan, Population Studies Center: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This report is the last in a series that examines the relationship between family size and family well-being in rural Thailand....This report provides a comprehensive analysis of the qualitative data gathered through the focus groups component of the study."
Correspondence: University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40506 Speare, Alden; Avery, Roger. Measuring exits and entries of young adults from their parents' households. In: American Statistical Association, 1989 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1989]. 369-74 pp. American Statistical Association: Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"Rates of exit and reentry of persons aged 15 to 29 from their parent's household are calculated using data from the 1984 panel of the [U.S.] Survey of Income and Program Participation. Returning to the nest is shown to be much more likely during the first year away, and such returns are missed if measures are based only on annual observations. Logistic regression models of nestleaving and returning as a function of personal and household characteristics are tested."
Correspondence: A. Speare, Brown University, Sociology Department, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40507 Tastsoglou, E.; Stubos, G. The Greek immigrant family in the United States and Canada: the transition from an "institutional" to a "relational" form (1945-1970). International Migration, Vol. 30, No. 2, Jun 1992. 155-74 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This paper attempts to provide a...comprehensive understanding of changes in the form, practices and values that took place in the Greek immigrant family in North America after World War II. Selected theoretical presuppositions will be followed by a discussion of the form and intra-family relations in the Greek immigrant family from 1945 to 1970. Finally,...the characteristics of Greek immigrants from the 1880s to the end of the Great Depression...will be offered."
Correspondence: E. Tastsoglou, Ryerson Polytechnical Institute, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40508 Todorova, Elka. The child in the incomplete family (results of a study). [Deteto v nepalnoto semeistvo (rezultati ot esi).] Naselenie, No. 3, 1992. 90-102 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng.
"Children aged 13-14 from single-parent families (mother-headed and father-headed households) and intact families are compared....The main hypothesis states that slight differences may be expected on the happiness scale....Similarities and dissimilarities of children's psycho-social image in both settings (mother-headed and father-headed households) as well as differences between intact-family children and single-parent children are discussed [in light of] recent findings about gender socialization, self-identity and single-parent family dynamics." The geographical scope is worldwide.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40509 USSR. Gosudarstvennyi Komitet SSSR po Statistike (Moscow, USSR). Family size and composition in the USSR. [Chislo i sostav semei v SSSR.] Vestnik Statistiki, No. 8, 1991. 52-5 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
Trends in family size and composition in the USSR over the past 30 years are analyzed, based on data from censuses conducted since 1959. Trends are examined according to territory and urban or rural area. Aspects considered include changes in the number of families, family size, incidence of divorce, single-parent families, and ethnic composition.
Correspondence: Gosudarstvennyi Komitet SSSR po Statistike, ul. Kirova 39, 103450 Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40510 van de Walle, Etienne. Fertility transition, conscious choice, and numeracy. Demography, Vol. 29, No. 4, Nov 1992. 487-502 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The article explores the hypothesis that numeracy about children appeared historically in various times and places, and that the conceptualization of family size was a necessary condition for adopting family limitation....We will begin by drawing on information from several contemporary African societies to show that in the recent past substantial proportions of women would not give a numerical answer to questions on desired family size, even with strenuous probing by aggressive interviewers. We then look for evidence of numeracy in the western European past, surveying memoirs, autobiographies, novels, and paintings from England and France. These materials are unconventional sources for demographers, but they are the only available means to tell us about the mentalities of western European pretransition populations."
Correspondence: E. van de Walle, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40511 Volkov, A. Family and household. [Sem'ya i domokhozyaistvo.] Vestnik Statistiki, No. 7, 1991. 40-6 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
The author discusses the importance of family and household statistics for analyzing and understanding trends in population growth and other demographic processes. Problems with methods currently used to collect and organize data on families are described, with a focus on the need to change some of the methodology and terminology used in population censuses and surveys. The geographical focus is on the USSR.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40512 Wang, Jichuan. A method for measuring desired number of children. Population Studies Center Research Report, No. 90-181, Jun 1990. 18 pp. University of Michigan, Population Studies Center: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"The method introduced in the present paper proposes a new approach to estimate desired number of children. It can be used not only to estimate fertility preference, but also to model the effect of fertility preference on fertility-related behavior at [the] individual level." The method is applied to data collected in 1987 in Shifang county, Sichuan, China.
Correspondence: University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40513 Ye, Xiaoye; Huang, Ying. Household population multiple-condition development equations and their application. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 2, No. 3, 1990. 219-27 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Using the principle of parity progression of women's fertility and the concept of 'family marker', this essay establishes a household population multiple-condition development equation set....The household's female demographic conditions described by the equations include the women's marriages, parity, the number of surviving children, and family markers. The evolution of the demographic conditions of Chinese families in the next 50 years is predicted and analyzed using these equations and data obtained in the country's 1987 sample survey of 1% of the population."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40514 Zeng, Yi; Li, Xiaoli; Ma, Zhongdong. A Chinese female postnuptial leaving home model--a procedure for analyzing main parameters alpha and beta in the setting up, testing and estimation of the model. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 3, No. 3, 1991. 205-18 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The first section of this article...sets up a model for leaving home after marriage that is suited to China's situation. The second section performs a statistical test and verification of the formulated model for leaving home after marriage. The third section...proposes a method for analyzing the main parameters...in the model...." The model is set up along the lines of the Brass-Gompertz relational fertility model.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40515 Zeng, Yi. An analysis of changing trends in China's urban and rural households. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 2, No. 3, 1990. 187-99 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Data for rural and urban households in China for 1986 are analyzed and compared. After an overview of household characteristics and analysis methods, the author presents data concerning marital status, parity, dependency burdens, and household size and composition.
Correspondence: Y. Zeng, Beijing University, Institution of Population Studies, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40516 Zhang, Kaidi. Family marriage and fertility in a matriarchal society--social survey of the Naxi nationality in Ninglang County, Yunnan Province. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 2, No. 3, 1990. 247-56 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Family characteristics and fertility trends in 1990 among the Mosuo of Ninglang County, China, are described. Among the findings the author notes that "the Mosuo people...still remain in a...matrilineal clan society of 'two-spouse' marriages. In the family, all activities and production are presided over by the female elder....The Mosuo mostly practice a style of 'visiting marriage' where the woman does not take up permanent residence in the man's home....The two partners belong to two different economic units, as a result of which union and disunion are an easy matter, and are unrestricted. From beginning to end they are both members of their own mother's family or sister's family, and take part in its productive activities."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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