Volume 58 - Number 4 - Winter 1992

F. Fertility

Studies that treat quantitative fertility data analytically. References to crude data are coded under S. Official Statistical Publications . Methodological studies specifically concerned with fertility are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary.

F.1. General Fertility

Analytical studies of quantitative birth data and reproduction rates and studies of fertility and its concomitants. Studies of age at marriage, divorce, and factors influencing family size are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

58:40236 Adamchak, Donald J.; Ntseane, Peggy G. Gender, education, and fertility: a cross-national analysis of Sub-Saharan African nations. Sociological Spectrum, Vol. 12, No. 2, Apr-Jun 1992. 167-82 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Controlling for socioeconomic development as measured by per capita energy consumption and percentage of labor force in agriculture, this article examines the relationship between education and fertility for men and women in 37 sub-Saharan nations. Results indicate that primary school enrollment in 1960 and 1980 for both males and females had a weak negative and nonsignificant relationship with the total fertility rate 15 to 30 years later. Secondary school enrollment in 1960 for both males and females had weak relationships with the total fertility rate. However, secondary school enrollment for males in 1980 had a significant negative effect on the total fertility rate 10 to 25 years later. Implications are discussed."
Correspondence: D. J. Adamchak, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

58:40237 Aghajanian, Akbar. Status of women and fertility in Iran. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 23, No. 3, Autumn 1992. 361-74 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relations between development, women's relative access to valued resources, and fertility levels across communities in Iran....The empirical analysis is based on aggregate data from 162 districts (Shahrestans) in Iran in 1976....The results suggest fertility decline is associated with improvement in the relative status of women in accessing the valued resources and improvement in the position of women is an important path through which development policies can reduce fertility. It is concluded that development policies that exclude women and benefit men, do not have declining effect on fertility levels and ideals."
Correspondence: A. Aghajanian, Fayetteville State University, Department of Sociology, Fayetteville, NC 28301. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

58:40238 Al-Said, Abdullah. Women's status and fertility in Egypt and Bangladesh. Pub. Order No. DA9216272. 1991. 125 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Michigan State University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 53(1).

58:40239 Asociacion Dominicana Pro-Bienestar de la Familia [PROFAMILIA]. Instituto de Estudios de Poblacion y Desarrollo [IEPD] (Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic); Dominican Republic. Oficina Nacional de Planificacion [ONAPLAN] (Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic); Institute for Resource Development/Macro International. Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS] (Columbia, Maryland). Dominican Republic. Demographic and Health Survey, 1991. [Republica Dominicana. Encuesta Demografica y de Salud, 1991.] Sep 1992. xxvi, 284 pp. Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. In Spa.
Results from the 1991 Demographic and Health Survey of the Dominican Republic are presented. The survey included just over 7,100 households in both rural and urban areas and involved about 7,300 women of reproductive age. Chapters are included on the characteristics of the survey population, fertility, knowledge and use of contraception, other proximate determinants of fertility, fertility preferences, infant and child mortality, maternal and child health, breast-feeding and nutrition, and the availability of maternal and child health and family planning services.
Correspondence: Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 8850 Stanford Boulevard, Suite 4000, Columbia, MD 21045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40240 Basha, Tefik. Characteristics of the fertility decline in Kosovo. [Osnovna obelezja fertilnosti stanovnistva Kosova.] Stanovnistvo, Vol. 28-29, No. 3-4/1-2, Jul-Dec/Jan-Jun 1990-1991. 89-98 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Fre.
The author examines causes and consequences of the recent fertility decline in Kosovo autonomous region, Yugoslavia. The effect of improvements in living standards is noted.
Correspondence: T. Basha, Univerziteta u Pristini, Prirodno-matematicki Fakultet, M. Tito 53, 38000 Pristini, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40241 Becker, Gary S. Fertility and the economy. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 5, No. 3, Aug 1992. 185-201 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"This essay will discuss the analysis of fertility mainly in the context of the Malthusian question: what are the links between family choices--in particular, fertility behavior--and long-term economic growth?" The author relates "the demand for children to parental incomes and the cost of rearing children--especially to the value of the time spent on child care and to public policies that change the cost of children. This paper also links the demand for children to investments in their human capital and other dimensions of the so-called quality of children. Fertility is shown to depend...on child and adult mortality, uncertainty about the sex of children..., uncertainty about how long it takes to produce a conception, and other variables."
Correspondence: G. S. Becker, University of Chicago, Departments of Economics and Sociology, 1126 East 59th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40242 Benhabib, Jess; Nishimura, Kazuo. Endogenous fertility and growth. Working Papers in Economics and Econometrics, No. 201, ISBN 0-86831-201-0. May 1990. 16 pp. Australian National University, Faculty of Economics: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
The authors study the implications of introducing technological progress and human capital into the Barro-Becker model of endogenous fertility. They show that "the dynamic behavior of physical capital will be monotonic or oscillatory, depending on the elasticity of a certain 'altruism' function which may also be viewed as the elasticity of an inverse demand curve for children. This elasticity, which is equal to unity in the Barro and Becker model, also plays a major role in determining the existence of multiple steady states. From an empirical perspective multiple steady states may be useful to explain persistent differentials between growth rates of some poor and rich countries."
Correspondence: Australian National University, Faculty of Economics, GPO Box 4, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

58:40243 Bernhardt, Eva M. Working parents in Sweden: an example for Europe? Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 66, ISBN 91-7153-025-8. Apr 1992. 35 pp. Stockholm University, Section of Demography: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"This paper describes some of the features of the comparatively high fertility level in Sweden and discusses to what extent it is possible to interpret the demographic situation in Sweden as an effect of public policies that encourage childbearing by lessening the role conflict between work and parenthood, for example through a comprehensive system of subsidized child care. Swedish parenting policies are presented, pointing to particular responses that can be observed in fertility behaviour in recent years. It is argued that the growing involvement of Swedish men both in household chores and child care is of crucial importance for recent developments." Some comparisons are made with the fertility rates and child care policies of other European countries.
Correspondence: Stockholm University, Demography Unit, S-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40244 Bethune, Ann; Filakti, Haroulla; Harding, Seeromanie; Davies, Isobel M. Fertility and infant mortality in the OPCS Longitudinal Study. Population Trends, No. 68, Summer 1992. 24-9 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This article describes the information within the OPCS Longitudinal Study on fertility, stillbirths, and infant deaths. It describes data [concerning England and Wales] newly available for analysis, gives baseline information, and includes examples of the types of analyses that can be carried out."
Correspondence: A. Bethune, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, Health Statistics Division, LS Medical Analysis Section, St. Catherines House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40245 Botev, Nikolai. Approaches and methods of fertility estimation in demographic projections. [Podkhodi i metodi za otsenyavane na plodovitostta v demografskite prognozi.] Naselenie, No. 4, 1992. 12-24 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author describes methods of fertility estimation within demographic projections. He concludes that both period analysis and cohort follow-up are important to a thorough study of the birth rate of a population. "The second part of the article is dedicated to the procedures used for disaggregating the integral [of] full fertility, and extrapolating the incompleted fertility of a given cohort when formulating birthrate hypotheses." The geographical scope is worldwide.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40246 Castro Martin, Teresa. Delayed childbearing in contemporary Spain: trends and differentials. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 8, No. 3, 1992. 217-46 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This study focuses on the first stage of family formation: the transition to motherhood....The paper is organized as follows: first, we will document the recent trend towards delayed motherhood in Spain; next, we will identify some of the sociodemographic factors that are associated with the current pattern of postponed childbearing. The role of premarital pregnancies and contraceptive practice on first interval dynamics will be also discussed." Data are from the 1985 Spanish Survey of Fertility.
Correspondence: T. Castro Martin, United Nations, Population Division, DC2-2056, 2 United Nations Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40247 Chahnazarian, Anouch. The recent rise in birth rates in Haiti: new trends in favor of cohabitation? [Hausse recente de la fecondite en Haiti: un nouvel engouement pour la vie en union?] Population, Vol. 47, No. 3, May-Jun 1992. 583-616 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
Haiti's rising birthrate is examined using data from three retrospective surveys for 1977, 1983, and 1987. The author finds that "the principal reasons for the rising birth rates are the reduction in the age of first entering a sexual union, and the increasing importance of cohabitation. This phenomenon affects less educated women more often no doubt because it is they who need the financial security provided by living as a couple at this particularly difficult time for the Haitian economy." A comment is included by Youssef Courbage (pp. 610-3) together with a response from the author (pp. 613-5).
Correspondence: A. Chahnazarian, Institut Francais de Recherche Scientifique pour le Developpement en Cooperation, BP 1386, Dakar, Senegal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40248 Chen, Ping. Changes in fertility in rural China: a simulated micro-analysis of the interactions between the demand and supply of children, and the family planning policy. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 2, No. 3, 1990. 207-18 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"On the basis of Easterlin's theory, which is modified according to the situation in rural China and the country's population policy, this essay surveys the changes in fertility in rural China under the joint impact of the demand and supply of children and the fertility policy, through a simulated micro systems analysis."
Correspondence: P. Chen, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Institute of Population Studies, 5 Jianguomen Nei Da Jie 5 Hao, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40249 Chen, Ping. The transition from natural to controlled fertility in rural China: a micro-simulation analysis of the interaction between demand, supply and policy factors. Population Research, Vol. 8, No. 2, Jun 1991. 16-26 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
"Based on sample survey data..., this study attempts to find out the interactions between demand for children, supply of children, and policy factors in rural China. We first define the measures of demand, supply, and policy, and then create different types of simulation models to study the effects of these factors during the childbearing period of married women."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40250 Cheng, Chaoze; Rajulton Fernando. Determinants of fertility decline in China, 1981: analysis of intermediate variables. Social Biology, Vol. 39, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1992. 15-26 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"This study examines the proximate determinants of fertility in China by making use of the data collected by the One-per-Thousand Sample Fertility Survey of 1982. The results indicate that the most important inhibitor of potential fertility is deliberate control....The marital structure of the population is also an important factor....Data [are compared with results] from the In-depth Fertility Survey conducted in Shanghai Municipality, Hebei and Shaanxi Provinces in April 1985....The findings point to successful family planning program and government population policies, which propelled the fertility transition to a substantial degree."
Correspondence: C. Cheng, University of Western Ontario, Department of Sociology, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40251 Cheng, Chaoze; Maxim, Paul. Socioeconomic determinants of China's urban fertility. Population and Environment, Vol. 14, No. 2, Nov 1992. 133-57 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper examines socioeconomic forces other than population policies and family planning programs that have affected the fertility transition in urban China. The authors argue that before and since the intensification of population planning activities, the government influenced fertility directly and indirectly through socialization of the economy, the transformation of the Chinese family, and the provision of education, employment, health, medical, welfare, cultural, and related services in urban areas. The various social institutions and subsystems of society have greatly weakened the motivation for large families. The by-products of the slow urbanization process in urban China including housing shortages, unemployment, rising living standards, changes in the cost of raising a child, and urban-rural downward mobility have affected the social and economic costs of childbearing, which in turn have affected the postponement of childbearing."
Correspondence: C. Cheng, 986 Western Road, London, Ontario N6G 1G4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40252 Craig, John. Recent fertility trends in Europe. Population Trends, No. 68, Summer 1992. 20-3 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Fertility trends in the United Kingdom over the past 20 years are analyzed and compared with those in other European countries. The author notes that the United Kingdom was one of the first countries in which the post-1970 fertility decline ceased; except for Ireland, the United Kingdom and France have the highest total period fertility rates in the European Community. Differences in age-specific fertility are also analyzed.
Correspondence: J. Craig, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, Population Statistics Division, St. Catherines House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40253 Cuba. Comite Estatal de Estadisticas. Instituto de Investigaciones Estadisticas (Havana, Cuba). National Fertility Survey, 1987, Cuba. [Encuesta Nacional de Fecundidad, 1987, Cuba.] Mar 1991. 415 pp. Havana, Cuba. In Spa.
These are results of the first national survey of fertility in Cuba. The 1987 survey involved a nationally representative sample of 3,260 urban and 1,281 rural women of reproductive age. Following chapters on the demographic background and survey methodology, chapters are included on characteristics of respondents, nuptiality and exposure to risk of pregnancy, fertility and reproductive intentions, and family planning. Statistics are presented in tabular format in the appendix.
Correspondence: Comite Estatal de Estadisticas, Instituto de Investigaciones Estadisticas, Almendares No. 156, esquina a Desague, Gaveta Postal 6016, Havana, Cuba. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40254 Curciev, Aleksandar. Fertility, reproduction, and population policy in Macedonia. [Natalitet, reprodukcija stanovnistva i populaciona politika u Republici Makedoniji.] Stanovnistvo, Vol. 28-29, No. 3-4/1-2, Jul-Dec/Jan-Jun 1990-1991. 113-24 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper treats primarily the changes in the fertility level in...Macedonia [Yugoslavia] from 1950 to 1990 giving special attention to tendencies prevailing in recent years. Second, it presents the differences in...fertility by communes and their urban and rural settlements....Finally, the population policy, as a factor of society's influence on fertility and reproduction, is considered."
Correspondence: A. Curciev, Univerziteta Kiril i Metodije vo Skoplje, Ekonomski Fakultet, POB 576, Bulevar Krste Misirkov b.b., 91000 Skopje, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40255 De Simoni, Alessandro. Recent fertility trends in Italy and in its two major regional divisions: fertility tables by birth order, 1980-1982 and 1985-1987. [La recente evoluzione della fecondita in Italia e nelle due grandi ripartizioni: tavole di fecondita per ordine di nascita, 1980-82 e 1985-87.] 1990. 133 pp. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione [IRP]: Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
Fertility tables are presented for Italy and its two major geographic divisions, the North-Central and the South, for two three-year periods, 1980-1982 and 1985-1987. The tables are structured according to two variables, the woman's age and her parity, and thus represent the yearly probabilities of giving birth to a child taking these two factors into account.
Correspondence: Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione, Viale Beethoven 56, 00144 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40256 de Vries, Rina F. The importance of education for differences in female labour force participation and fertility behaviour. PDOD Paper, No. 13, Oct 1992. 20 pp. Universiteit van Amsterdam, Postdoctorale Onderzoekersopleiding Demografie [PDOD]: Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"In this article we wish to clarify why and how differences in level of education, in particular within cohorts, [contribute to] differences in [women's] employment and fertility behaviour. Proceeding from a process approach, we will argue that the influence of education on female labour force participation and fertility runs mainly through its contribution to personal development."
Correspondence: Universiteit van Amsterdam, Postdoctorale Onderzoekersopleiding Demografie, Planologisch en Demografisch Instituut, Nieuwe Prinsengracht 130, 1018 VZ Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40257 De Wit, Margaret L.; Rajulton, Fernando. Education and timing of parenthood among Canadian women: a cohort analysis. Social Biology, Vol. 39, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1992. 109-22 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"This research examines factors associated with the timing of first birth in Canada, focusing primarily on the role of women's educational attainment. Proportional hazards modelling techniques are applied to data from the 1984 Canadian Fertility Survey (CFS)....The results suggest that among a number of variables useful for distinguishing different levels of risk, educational attainment proves to be the most important predictor in the model. Education exerts a substantial positive influence on birth timing for women of all age groups....Significant cohort differences are also evident, with the greatest to the smallest impact on the risk from the youngest to the oldest cohorts."
Correspondence: M. L. De Wit, University of Western Ontario, Department of Sociology, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40258 Dumont, Gerard-Francois. The feast of Kronos: what is at stake in current socio-demographic trends in Europe. [Le festin de Kronos: realites et enjeux des evolutions socio-demographiques en Europe.] ISBN 2-215-01776-7. 1991. 203 pp. Fleurus Essais: Paris, France. In Fre.
This study is concerned with the implications of current demographic trends in Europe, particularly with the decline of fertility to below-replacement levels. The first three chapters examine historical demographic trends that led to the present situation. Similarities and differences between Eastern and Western Europe are then reviewed. The author looks at the causes of low fertility and locates them in the desire to satisfy individual short-term needs rather than the longer-term needs of society as a whole. The study concludes by examining the prospects for developing social policy involving intergenerational solidarity that would change current demographic trends and lead to an increase in fertility, which would in turn ensure a future for European society.
Correspondence: Fleurus Essais, 11 rue Duguay-Trouin, 75006 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40259 Dworak, Nick; Kirmeyer, Sharon. Calculating cohort TFR from truncated distributions by completed parity. Studia Demograficzne, No. 4/106, 1991. 35-43 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Eng.
"This paper suggests a simple nonparametric formula for calculating TFR [total fertility rate]. The formula is then tested statistically and possible bias is discussed. The approach is finally extended for numerically evaluating second-order measures of heterogeneity like mean number of siblings and Gini coefficient from truncated distributions by parity....The tail estimators are applied to a data base which includes empirical distributions of female cohorts by children ever born at age 45-49 and their respective TFRs...for various countries." Data are from official published sources.
Correspondence: N. Dworak, Futures Group, 1104 14th Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40260 Edmonson, Janet C. Fertility decline in a Balinese village. Pub. Order No. DA9221145. 1989. 227 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study examines the determinants of fertility decline in a Balinese village in Indonesia. It was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Columbia University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1364. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 53(3).

58:40261 El-Khorazaty, M. Nabil. Time series analysis of three centuries of the childbearing and fertility process in Finland. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 30, 1992. 44-67 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
A time series data set of childbearing and fertility indexes for Finland since 1722 is presented. "The results depict that Finland passed through various childbearing patterns. These patterns are characterized by increasing ages at first and last birth in the eighteenth century to stabilization in the following century at high levels. Since the beginning of the twentieth century, ages at last birth declined dramatically while ages at first birth first increased, then declined in the 1940s and stayed at that low level later on. Increases in both indices have been witnessed since the mid-1970s."
Correspondence: M. N. El-Khorazaty, Cairo University, Department of Statistics, POB 1055, Khartoum, Sudan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40262 Freitez, Anitza; Romero, Dalia; Casique, Irene; Gonzalez, Lissette; De Andrade, Carmen. Results of the Survey of Fertility. Capital region 1991. [Presentacion de resultados de la Encuesta de Fecundidad. Region capital 1991.] IIES Documento de Trabajo, No. 37, Mar 1992. 106 pp. Universidad Catolica Andres Bello, Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas y Sociales [IIES], Departamento de Estudios Demograficos: Caracas, Venezuela. In Spa.
Results are presented from the 1991 Survey of Fertility conducted in Venezuela's capital district. The report is divided into three parts, the first of which outlines the methodology used. Part 2 contains data on the general characteristics of the population, with a focus on standard of living indicators. Part 3 details specific socioeconomic characteristics of the region's women, with a focus on those aged 25-29 and 45-54.
Correspondence: Universidad Catolica Andres Bello, Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas y Sociales, Departamento de Estudios Demograficos, Urb. Montalban, La Vega, Apartado 29068, Caracas, Venezuela. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40263 Furugori, Tomoko. Work behavior of youth and recent changes in the fertility rate in Japan. Jinkogaku Kenkyu/Journal of Population Studies, No. 15, May 1992. 45-55 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper observes and analyzes labor supply behavior and work attitude of...youth and discusses the impact they may have had on the recent change in [the] fertility rate in Japan." The author observes trends toward later marriage and a leisure-oriented life-style, and concludes that these shifts have helped to lower the fertility rate to 1.53 as of 1991.
Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

58:40264 Gillis, John R.; Tilly, Louise A.; Levine, David. The European experience of declining fertility, 1850-1970: the quiet revolution. Studies in Social Discontinuity, ISBN 1-55786-122-6. LC 91-37246. 1992. xiii, 385 pp. Blackwell: Cambridge, Massachusetts/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This is a selection of papers by various authors on aspects of the fertility decline that has occurred in modern Europe. "These 15 chapters discuss not only abortion, contraception, sexual practices, marriage, husband-wife relations, and parenthood, but also war, state policy, social class, occupations, and long-distance migration. A reader can find in this study, for example, evidence that advocates of voluntary contraception frequently sought to discourage previously widespread abortion, that whole populations practiced coitus interruptus quite effectively, that total war moved governments toward vigorous promotion of rewards for childbearing." The primary focus linking the various studies is a search for the cultural factors associated with fertility decline.
Correspondence: Blackwell Publishers, Three Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40265 Gomez, Victor M. Reproductive experiences of women under 25 in Costa Rica. [Experiencia reproductiva de las mujeres menores de 25 anos en Costa Rica.] May 1992. iii, 17, [3] pp. Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social, Departamento de Medicina Preventiva, Programa Salud Reproductiva: San Jose, Costa Rica. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The author describes the reproductive behavior of women under the age of 25 in Costa Rica. Levels of undesired fertility, determinants of contraceptive use and nonuse, the prevalence of breast-feeding, women's labor force participation before and after motherhood, and family support systems for young mothers are considered. Data are from the 1991 National Survey of Reproductive Health in Young Adults.
Correspondence: Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social, Departamento de Medicina Preventiva, Programa Salud Reproductiva, Apartado 1434-1011 Y-Griega, San Jose, Costa Rica. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40266 Gu, Baochang; Yang, Shuzhang. Fertility trends of rural China in the 80s: evidence from the 1988 Two Per Thousand Fertility Survey. Population Research, Vol. 8, No. 3, Sep 1991. 23-36, 22 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
Data from China's 1988 Two Per Thousand Fertility Survey are analyzed in order to identify fertility trends in China during the 1980s. Patterns are analyzed and compared by region and year, and some projections are made. The focus is on the rural population.
Correspondence: B. Gu, China Population Information and Research Centre, P.O. Box 2444, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40267 Guzman, Jose M.; Torrez, Hugo; Schkolnik, Susana. Fertility change in Bolivia. [Cambios de la fecundidad en Bolivia.] Notas de Poblacion, Vol. 19, No. 53, Aug 1991. 47-78 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper has two main objectives. The first is to determine levels and trends of fertility from 1965 to the present for Bolivia, its regions, and its rural and urban areas....Secondly, it examines the relationship between the level of fertility and its proximate determinants: nuptiality, lactation, postpartum abstinence and contraception. The relative weight of each of these factors will be assessed through the application of the Bongaarts model. This analysis attempts to disentangle the reproductive behaviour of the different social and ethnic groups in three regions of Bolivia, in order to contribute to the design of future population policies."
Correspondence: J. M. Guzman, U.N. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia, Avenida Dag Hammarskjold, Casilla 91, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40268 Handwerker, W. Penn. West Indian gender relations, family planning programs and fertility decline. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 35, No. 10, Nov 1992. 1,245-57 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author discusses determinants of the fertility declines that began on many Caribbean islands between 1960 and 1970. It is found that "family planning programs have not played an important role in these declines. Neither have other variables that conventional social theory tells us should promote reduced family sizes, like education and rising standards of living. The historical experience of Barbados and Antigua, which reached replacement-level fertility in the 1980s, suggests that West Indian fertility declines reflect structural changes in national economies that created job opportunities for women....Data reported here come primarily from field studies on Barbados in 1985, 1986 and 1990 and Antigua in 1988 and 1989."
Correspondence: W. P. Handwerker, Humboldt State University, Program in Anthropology, Arcata, CA 95521. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

58:40269 Hari, M. Modernization and population change. ISBN 81-7141-157-6. 1991. xiv, 168 pp. Discovery Publishing House: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
This study examines the effect of various aspects of modernization on fertility behavior in India. The main objectives are to determine the dimensions of individual modernity, to study the interrelationships between those dimensions and fertility, and to measure the specific contribution of each toward explaining total fertility variation. Topics considered include value of children, parents' educational aspirations for children, perceptions of infant mortality, women's status, and contraceptive behavior. The data are from a survey of 600 households in the town of Nellore, Andhra Pradesh.
Correspondence: Discovery Publishing House, 4594/9 Darya Ganj, New Delhi 110 002, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40270 Heckman, James J.; Walker, James R. Understanding third births in Sweden. In: Demographic applications of event history analysis, edited by James Trussell, Richard Hankinson, and Judith Tilton. 1992. 157-208 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The determinants of third births in Sweden are explored using data from the 1981 Swedish Fertility Survey. The authors first "discuss the formulation, estimation, and evaluation of multi-state duration models with time-varying regressors and unobservables that are correlated across spells." They then discuss the data and present results of an analysis. The models contain explicit controls for unobserved heterogeneity.
For a related study by Michael Murphy, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: J. J. Heckman, University of Chicago, Department of Economics, 1126 East 59th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40271 Hirosima, Kiyosi; Yamamoto, Chizuko. Fertility in Japan: 1990. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 48, No. 1, Apr 1992. 58-65 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
The authors examine fertility patterns in Japan for 1990. Consideration is given to births by nationality, total fertility rate, total first marriage fertility rate, and total ever-married fertility. Most of the data are presented by age and sex.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40272 Hong Kong. Census and Statistics Department (Hong Kong). Past and future trends of fertility in Hong Kong. Hong Kong Monthly Digest of Statistics, May 1992. 107-13 pp. Hong Kong. In Eng.
Fertility trends in Hong Kong are summarized for the period 1971-1991, then projections are made to the year 2011. The data are presented in tabular format.
Correspondence: Census and Statistics Department, 19/F Wanchai Tower I, 12 Harbour Road, Wan Chai, Hong Kong. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40273 Horne, Amelia D.; El-Khorazaty, M. Nabil. Bongaarts and childbearing indices for Coale-Trussell's model fertility schedules. In: American Statistical Association, 1989 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1989]. 432-7 pp. American Statistical Association: Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
The authors first evaluate various fertility and childbearing indexes used to calculate model fertility schedules, with a focus on the methods proposed by John Bongaarts (1978) and by Ansley Coale and James Trussell (1974). They then apply these methods and their modifications to model childbearing and fertility-inhibiting indexes to arrive at a set of model fertility schedules.
Correspondence: M. N. El-Khorazaty, Central Statistics Organization, P.O. Box 5835, Manama, Bahrain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40274 Huang, Dexing; Xie, Zhenming. An analysis of parity progressive ratio in China from 1985 to 1987. Population Research, Vol. 8, No. 2, Jun 1991. 35-43 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
The authors examine parity progression ratios for women in China to determine the impact of family planning programs on fertility. "Based on data from China's population censuses and sampling surveys, parity progressive ratios during different periods can be calculated. These estimates can show changes and trends of reproductive women's fertility in terms of parity progressive ratio and provide [a] basis for formulation and implementation of population plans."
Correspondence: D. Huang, Anhui Family Planning Committee, Comprehensive Division, Anhui, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40275 Huang, Rongqing. An age-parity-specific fertility model under the effects of control factors. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 3, No. 3, 1991. 219-30 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author first examines three commonly used fertility models, then designs his own age-specific model. "In order to construct a fertility rate model, the author considers that it is first necessary to understand the fertility occurrence process, to extract from it changes in its determining effect on the fertility rate and turn it into a model. The fertility rate model under the effects of control factors referred to in this article is based on an attempt to construct a model along these lines."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40276 Hussain, Fayyaz. Landholding and human fertility in Rwanda. Pub. Order No. DA9216313. 1991. 195 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Michigan State University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 53(1).

58:40277 Instituto Nacional de Estadistica e Informatica [INEI] (Lima, Peru); Asociacion Benefica PRISMA (Lima, Peru); Macro International. Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS] (Columbia, Maryland). Peru: Demographic and Family Health Survey, 1991-1992. [Peru: Encuesta Demografica y de Salud Familiar, 1991/1992.] 1992. xxx, 254 pp. Lima, Peru. In Spa.
Results of the second Demographic and Family Health Survey, conducted from June 1991 to August 1992 in Peru, are presented. Data are included on population characteristics for the country as a whole and on regional differences. The focus is on women of reproductive age. Their fertility levels and preferences, contraceptive usage, and marital tendencies are described, as are infant and child mortality levels, maternal and child health, and nutrition. Some comparisons are made with the previous survey, which was conducted in 1986.
Correspondence: Instituto Nacional de Estadistica e Informatica, Avenida 28 de Julio 1056, Lima 1, Peru. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40278 Jayachandran, John. Determinants of fertility in Canada: a causal modelling. Pub. Order No. DANN60201. ISBN 0-315-60201-5. 1990. 344 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Alberta, Canada.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences (52)11.

58:40279 Jia, Zhongke. A study of the relationship between socioeconomic development at the provincial level, fertility planning, and changes in the fertility rate in China: 1981-1985. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 3, No. 3, 1991. 231-40 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article will...test and verify the relationship between socioeconomic development, planned fertility, and the general fertility rate in each province, autonomous region, and municipality directly under the Central Government [of China]. Based on the above variables, this article will deal mainly with the following topics: (1) Socioeconomic development directly affects changes in the fertility rate; (2) Fertility planning directly affects changes in the fertility rate; [and] (3) Socioeconomic development through fertility planning indirectly affects changes in the fertility rate."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40280 Khan, M. Firoz. Human fertility in northern India. ISBN 81-85445-11-7. 1991. [ix], 215 pp. Manak Publications: Delhi, India. In Eng.
This study is concerned with the influence of the city on fertility in neighboring rural areas in northern India. This data concern 2,651 married women surveyed in the tahsil of Koil, Aligarh district, Uttar Pradesh, in 1987. Consideration is given to fertility differentials by caste and religion and their determinants.
Correspondence: Manak Publications, Flat Number 211, 3A Veer Savarkar Block, Madhuvan Road, Shakar Pur, Delhi 110 092, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40281 Kravdal, Oystein. The weak impact of female labour force participation on Norwegian third-birth rates. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 8, No. 3, 1992. 247-63 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Individual-level retrospective data from the [Norwegian] Family and Occupation Survey of 1988 are used to estimate the effects of various employment variables on the third-birth rates among post-war Norwegian birth cohorts. Women who appear to have a strong work orientation, and may face relatively high opportunity costs of childbearing, do not have particularly low probability of advancing to parity three. This is consistent with previous Swedish and British studies, and lends some support to the view that other factors than stronger employment preferences and increased job opportunities have been largely responsible for the 'second demographic transition' in Europe."
Correspondence: O. Kravdal, Central Bureau of Statistics, Section for Demography and Analysis of Living Conditions, P.O. Box 8131, Dep. 0033, Oslo 1, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40282 Lakshmanasamy, T. Economic contribution of rural children and the family fertility behavior: a rationale for high fertility in India. Asian Economic Review, Vol. 31, No. 1, Apr 1989. 51-78 pp. Hyderabad, India. In Eng.
"This paper aims at analysing the economic contribution of children and its effect on parental decisions. It is shown that, under conditions of [India's agricultural structure,] the children's contribution towards family resources is highly valued by parents, and this acts as an incentive to raise more...children. Thus, high fertility in rural areas of India can be justified in so far as the positive net economic contribution of children is highly valued by parents."
Correspondence: T. Lakshmanasamy, Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics, Pune 411 004, India. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

58:40283 Lee, R.; Cohen, N. Evaluating externalities to child-bearing in developing countries: the case of India. In: Consequences of rapid population growth in developing countries. 1991. 297-342 pp. Taylor and Francis: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
Reasons why people in developing countries often have more children than they say they want are explored using data for India. Particular attention is given to how externalities may arise in which some of the costs or benefits of children are passed to others rather than accruing to the parents. A model is developed to examine whether such externalities arise from "(a) public goods, the per capita cost of which is lower in a larger population; (b) commonly owned resources and public wealth, for which incremental births dilute the per capita value; (c) the effect of population size on technological progress; and (d) the age distribution of public taxes and transfers."
Correspondence: R. Lee, University of California, Graduate Group in Demography, 2232 Piedmont Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40284 Legrand, Jean. Fertility in the departments of metropolitan France during 1989-1990 compared with fertility in the early 1980s (1981-1982). [La fecondite des departements de la France metropolitaine en 1989-1990 comparee a celle du debut de la decennie 80 (1981-1982).] Population, Vol. 47, No. 3, May-Jun 1992. 762-71 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
Fertility levels and trends in 1989 and 1990 are described, using 1990 census data for France's metropolitan departments. The author then makes comparisons with the 1981-1982 period. Consideration is given to demographic aging and the fertility decline.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40285 Li, Tianlin; Wu, Ming. The impact of child mortality and disability rate on the intention to have more births in China's rural area. Population Research, Vol. 8, No. 1, Mar 1991. 14-7 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
"In this article we studied the impact of child mortality and disability...on the number [of] births and on the intention to have more births in China's rural area, using China's 1987 1% population sampling survey data and data of tabulation of the national sample survey on the handicapped. Also, the impact of the difference between the number of births and number of children people have on family planning work was studied...."
Correspondence: T. Li, Beijing Medical University, Department of Social Medicine, Beijing 100871, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40286 Locoh, Therese. Families in crisis and population policies in Sub-Saharan Africa. [Familles dans la crise et politiques de population en Afrique subsaharienne.] Politique Africaine, No. 44, Dec 1991. 78-90 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The author examines the socioeconomic and fertility behavior of the contemporary African family. She suggests that families have little interest in reducing their fertility because of the lack of economic and social progress at national levels. She concludes that the scope for developing family planning programs in the absence of economic and social development is minimal.
Correspondence: T. Locoh, Centre Francais sur la Population et le Developpement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Medecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

58:40287 Maani, Moh'd K. M. Recent changes in family structure and fertility in Jordan. Pub. Order No. BRDX96280. 1990. 350 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Glasgow, Scotland.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1364. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 53(3).

58:40288 Madulu, N. F. Changing socio-economic conditions and family fertility response: reflections from the HADO areas in Kondoa District. Institute of Resource Assessment Research Paper, No. 21, ISBN 9976-69-010-X. Nov 1989. iii, 37 pp. University of Dar es Salaam, Institute of Resource Assessment: Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. In Eng.
"This paper attempts to analyse the impact of changing socio-economic conditions from agro-pastoral to pure crop cultivation on fertility performance at a household level. The data used in the analysis were collected from the HADO Project operation areas in Kondoa District [Tanzania]." The results suggest that a change from agro-pastoralism to pure crop cultivation increases the labor value of children, and that continued high rates of population growth create an increased demand for land that puts pressure on the available supply.
Correspondence: University of Dar es Salaam, Institute of Resource Assessment, POB 35091, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:40289 McNicoll, Geoffrey. Changing fertility patterns and policies in the third world. Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 18, 1992. 85-108 pp. Palo Alto, California. In Eng.
"Average fertility in the third world has fallen from 6 children per woman in the 1960s to about 4 in the 1980s....Fertility trends in the main third world regions and in selected countries are described. Differences in social and political organization, economic conditions, cultural orientations, and policy directions yield distinctive paths of fertility decline. Explanations of them exhibit the range and variety of theories of social change in general." The author concludes that "much fertility research has been concerned with issues in technical demography such as birth interval dynamics or, in the case of policy, with the operational problems of family planning programs. A redressing of this imbalance is needed, making for a less microanalytic theoretical stance and greater attention to the public choice dimensions of fertility policy."
Correspondence: G. McNicoll, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SSRC).

58:40290 Meekers, Dominique. Report on the IUSSP Seminar on the Course of Fertility Transition in Sub Saharan Africa. IUSSP Paper, No. 31, 1992. 50 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"This paper reviews the articles presented and discussed at the seminar on the Course of Fertility Transition in Sub-Saharan Africa, held in Harare, Zimbabwe, November 19-22, 1991....The authors and titles of the papers presented at the seminar, as well as the discussants, are listed in [the] Appendix....Each section summarizes the important theoretical arguments and empirical findings from the papers presented, and is followed by the comments from the discussant of the session, and the highlights of the discussion from the floor...."
Correspondence: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, 34 rue des Augustins, 4000 Liege, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40291 Mostafavi, Seyed F. Fertility regimes and the determinants of birth intervals. Pub. Order No. DA9135482. 1991. 139 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study, which uses data from Pakistan and Costa Rica, was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Wisconsin at Madison.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences (52)11.

58:40292 Murphy, Michael. The progression to the third birth in Sweden. In: Demographic applications of event history analysis, edited by James Trussell, Richard Hankinson, and Judith Tilton. 1992. 141-56 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This chapter is concerned with the patterns of progression from second to third birth in Sweden during the period 1960 to 1980 from analysis of data from the 1981...Swedish Fertility Survey. The approach adopted is the widely used one of hazard regression, which attempts to explain (at least in a statistical sense) patterns of differential progression to the third birth. Within this framework, a number of social, demographic, and economic factors that obtained prior to the third conception are included in a formal regression-type model that quantifies their relative and joint importance."
For a related study by James J. Heckman and James R. Walker, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: M. Murphy, London School of Economics and Political Science, Department of Population Studies, Houghton Street, London WC2A 2AE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40293 Njogu, Wamucii; Castro Martin, Teresa. Fertility decline in Kenya: the role of timing and spacing of births. In: Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, August 5-7, 1991, Washington, D.C.: proceedings. Volume 3. 1991. 1,883-901 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
"This paper...[examines] fertility change in Kenya between 1977-1978 and 1989. Two objectives are pursued. The first one is to translate the recent fertility [decline] into birth interval dynamics. We will begin by decomposing the total fertility rate into parity-specific rates in order to disaggregate the reproductive process into its basic components. Next, we will describe how the timing schedule of each birth transition has changed in the period between surveys. Our second objective is to explore differentials in the pace of childbearing among sociodemographic groups. We will focus on the effect of parity as an indicator of a woman's stage in her reproductive career. Also, we will examine the variation in the pace and level of birth transition, according to women's age, education, residence and region....[Data are from] the 1977-1978 Kenya Fertility Survey (KFS) and the 1989 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS)."
Correspondence: W. Njogu, Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 8850 Stanford Boulevard, Suite 4000, Columbia, MD 21045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40294 Onuoha, Nelson. Contributions of the proximate determinants to fertility change in Senegal. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 35, No. 10, Nov 1992. 1,317-20 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The 1978 World Fertility Survey (WFS) and the 1986 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS)...are used to examine the relative contributions of three proximate determinants (nuptiality or marriage, contraception and post-partum infecundability) to fertility change in Senegal. The aim is to identify the important variables...for policy towards fertility reduction. Analysis shows that there are increases in the absolute measures of all three determinants. The magnitude of change is greatest in contraceptive use, moderate in marriage but least in duration of breast-feeding. However, the index of contraceptive use exerts the least impact on fertility reduction while that of post-partum infecundability makes the strongest impact on fertility."
Correspondence: N. Onuoha, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies, 99 Gower Street, London WC1E 6AZ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

58:40295 Palma Cabrera, Yolanda; Suarez Morales, Javier. Fertility decline in Mexico. [El descenso de la fecundidad en Mexico.] In: Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, August 5-7, 1991, Washington, D.C.: proceedings. Volume 3. 1991. 1,833-64 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Spa.
Results from a 1987 national fertility survey conducted in Mexico are analyzed and compared with data from national surveys for 1976 and 1982. Topics covered include changes in fertility patterns, including a decline in fertility; contraceptive prevalence; survey questions; and characteristics of respondents.
Correspondence: Y. Palma Cabrera, Direccion General de Planificacion Familiar, Secretaria de Salud, Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40296 Pathak, K. B.; Murthy, P. K. On estimating fertility using first and second order births. Janasamkhya, Vol. 8, No. 1, Jun 1990. 73-9 pp. Kerala, India. In Eng.
"An attempt has been made to present two regression equations for estimating total fertility rate from the birth order data. While one of the equations has been derived from the longitudinal data of Malaysia another has been obtained from cross sectional data on Mother's total fertility rate...and births of orders one and two. These equations are used to estimate the [total fertility rate] for the districts of [Uttar Pradesh, India,] which are quite close to the estimates obtained by using other methods."
Correspondence: K. B. Pathak, International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Bombay 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40297 Petrovic, Ruza. Parents' education and number of children. [Obrazovanje roditelja i broj dece u porodici.] Stanovnistvo, Vol. 28-29, No. 3-4/1-2, Jul-Dec/Jan-Jun 1990-1991. 137-45 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
"The influence of the parents' education on the number of children is observed, for the year 1981 (census year), in all complete families (marital partners with children) in Yugoslavia." The results indicate that where educational levels are low, educational status affects fertility within specific families without affecting fertility much as a whole. In societies where education is widespread, education has both direct and indirect effects on fertility.
Correspondence: R. Petrovic, Univerziteta u Beogradu, Filozofski Fakultet, Studentski trg 1, 11001 Belgrade 6, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40298 Pillai, Vijayan K.; Omari, C. K. Fertility and social development in Africa. Population Review, Vol. 36, No. 1-2, Jan-Dec 1992. 15-28 pp. La Jolla, California. In Eng.
"In this article, we intend to show that fertility control and management should not be separated from general social development. To achieve this goal, we divide our paper into three sections. The first section deals with some theoretical statements that seek to identify the immediate causes of [the] African high fertility level and the transition to low fertility. The second section deals with the broad societal level research on fertility and examines the contributions at an empirical level, and lastly we look into the policy implications. At times we will be critical of the already existing works on the issue, and...we will bring in some new insights and examples based on our research and experiences in Africa."
Correspondence: V. K. Pillai, University of North Texas, Department of Sociology and Social Work, Denton, TX 76203. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40299 Planck, Ulrich. Female reproductive behavior in rural Turkey. [Das generative Verhalten der Landfrauen in der Turkei.] Orient, Vol. 32, No. 3, 1991. 449-63 pp. Leverkusen, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
Fertility trends among women in rural Turkey are analyzed using data from the 1989 census. The results show that the desire to have children is almost universal, with total fertility being 6.5 children per woman and only three percent of married women having no children. The increased practice of birth control in recent years combined with declining infant mortality suggests that fertility rates will decline in the near future.
Location: Princeton University Library (SY).

58:40300 Poedjastoeti, Sri; Hatmadji, Sri H. Fertility decline in Indonesia: an analysis of fertility intentions. In: Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, August 5-7, 1991, Washington, D.C.: proceedings. Volume 3. 1991. 1,865-81 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
"This analysis begins with a discussion of recent fertility trends in Indonesia [including] current levels and regional variations....Particular emphasis is given to women's fertility preferences, and the course of future fertility....Fieldwork for the survey was conducted from September through December 1987, covering 11,884 ever-married women aged 15 to 49." A decline in fertility is noted, and reasons for this decline are described, including government population control programs and increases in women's educational status.
Correspondence: S. Poedjastoeti, Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 8850 Stanford Boulevard, Suite 4000, Columbia, MD 21045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40301 Ren, Xinhua. The familial context of fertility behavior in rural China. 1992. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Washington.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1364. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 53(3).

58:40302 Robichaux, David L. Determinants of a 20th-century population explosion in the Malinche region of Tlaxcala, Mexico. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, Vol. 6, No. 3, Sep 1992. 195-215 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The population dynamics of a rural Mexican community during the twentieth century are examined using data from the 1929 and 1976 censuses and other field and archival data. The results show a decline in the age at marriage coinciding with increased wage labor and leading to an increase in fertility. The author concludes that industrialization, together with improved health care and declining infant mortality, are major causes of Mexico's rapid rate of population growth.
Correspondence: D. L. Robichaux, Universidad Iberoamericana, Departamento de Ciencias Sociales y Politicas, Prolongacion Paseo de la Reforma 880, Col. Lomas de Santa Fe, 01210 Mexico, DF, Mexico. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:40303 Shah, K. S. The distribution of number of births. Janasamkhya, Vol. 8, No. 1, Jun 1990. 81-8 pp. Kerala, India. In Eng.
"In this note a probability model for the number of births during a given marital duration of a woman is derived assuming the risk of conception to follow a gamma distribution." The model is applied to recent data for India.
Correspondence: K. S. Shah, Anand Arts College, Department of Statistics, Anand 388 001, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40304 Shariff, Abusaleh. Fertility transition in rural south India. ISBN 81-212-0268-X. LC 89-904873. 1989. xii, 340 pp. Gian Publishing House: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
This is a study of the causes of fertility decline in rural south India, using a combination of demographic and anthropological approaches including those advocated by John C. Caldwell and others. The fieldwork on which the study was based was undertaken in four villages near Bangalore during the period 1980-1984. Topics covered include differential fertility, the relationship between family type and fertility, family planning decision-making, a comparison of acceptors and nonacceptors, and the value of children and education.
Correspondence: Gian Publishing House, 4348 Madan Mohan Street, 4-C Ansari Road, Daryaganj, New Delhi 110 002, India. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:40305 Shi, Anqing. The process of fertility transition in China: fertility differentials in Shanghai, 1950-85. Pub. Order No. DA9222160. 1992. 153 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the Catholic University of America.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1364. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 53(3).

58:40306 Singh, Kaushalendra K.; Srivastava, Usha. A probability distribution for time of first conception. Genus, Vol. 47, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1991. 159-70 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"This paper is concerned with the derivation of a model for first birth interval with the consideration that females may not be susceptible to conception at the time of marriage for a random interval of time because of certain social and biological constraints....The model has been applied to different sets of observed data [for India]."
Correspondence: K. K. Singh, Banaras Hindu University, Faculty of Science, Department of Statistics, Varanasi 221 005, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40307 Skretowicz, Biruta. The conditions affecting rural women's reproductive behavior. [Uwarunkowania zachowan prokreacyjnych kobiet wiejskich.] Monografie i Opracowania, 1991. 288 pp. Szkola Glowna Handlowa, Instytut Statystyki i Demografii: Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
A series of models is developed based on the concepts of the life cycle and proximate determinants to analyze rural fertility trends in Poland since World War II. Path analysis is used to verify the cause-and-effect relationships of the selected variables on fertility. Separate consideration is given to prenuptial conception, age at marriage, intervals between marriage and first birth and between subsequent births, the length of the effective reproductive period, contraception, and induced abortion. A final chapter presents a selection of models examining the relationships among actual, ideal, and desired number of children.
Correspondence: Szkola Glowna Handlowa, Instytut Statystyki i Demografii, Al. Niepodlegosci 162, 02-554 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40308 Song, Jian; Yu, Jingyuan. Double-edged limit of total fertility rates. Population Research, Vol. 8, No. 1, Mar 1991. 7-13 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
Possible upper and lower bounds of total world fertility rates are calculated, with a focus on totals for China. Consideration is given to current rates of increase and to zero population growth.
Correspondence: J. Song, Beijing Institute of Information and Control, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40309 Sud, S. L. Marital power structure, fertility and family planning in India. Women in the Third World, ISBN 81-7027-165-9. 1991. xi, 174 pp. Radiant Publishers: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
This study examines the relationship between fertility and the type of marital power structure in the family. It is based on data concerning 291 currently married women of reproductive age attending a primary health center in Manimajra, a satellite town of Chandigarh, India. Attention is given to communication between spouses on family planning and desired family size. The relative impact of socioeconomic, demographic, and psychological factors such as the power structure within marriages on decisions regarding family composition is also examined.
Correspondence: Radiant Publishers, E-155 Kalkaji, New Delhi 110 019, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40310 Sundstrom, Marianne; Stafford, Frank P. Female labour force participation, fertility and public policy in Sweden. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 8, No. 3, 1992. 199-215 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper analyzes the role of public policy for Sweden's combination of high female labour force participation and high levels of fertility in the late 1980s and early 1990s. We present the central elements in the tax and family policies and use a disaggregated approach to assess their impact on Swedish fertility and female labour force participation. We show that these policies stimulate both fertility and women's paid work by reducing the costs of having children while requiring parents to be employed to collect full benefits."
Correspondence: M. Sundstrom, Stockholm University, Demography Unit, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40311 Todorovic, Gordana. Reproduction and fertility in Serbia. [Reprodukcija i plodnost stanovnistva Srbije.] Stanovnistvo, Vol. 28-29, No. 3-4/1-2, Jul-Dec/Jan-Jun 1990-1991. 57-87 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
Fertility trends in Serbia are analyzed and compared by region. Consideration is given to the impact of recently implemented pronatalist policies.
Correspondence: G. Todorovic, Univerziteta u Beogradu, Centar za Demografska Istrazivanja, Instituta Drustvenih Stanovnistvo, 11000 Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40312 Vossen, Ad. Scenario based fertility forecasts: conceptualization of a frame of reference. Genus, Vol. 47, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1991. 119-31 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
In this paper "it is postulated that [the] predictive power, as well as [the] utility of population projections can be increased by applying a scenario method, based on modelling behavioural concepts. In this paper this...viewpoint has been roughly worked out on the level of conceptualization, for reproductive behaviour only....A theoretical frame of reference for the fertility subscenario is proposed, resulting in sets of hypotheses which explicitly state relations between parameters of the reproduction process and their non demographic determinants."
Correspondence: A. Vossen, Tilburg University, Department of Social Science, Demography Section, P.O. 90153, 5000 LE Tilburg, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40313 Wadhera, Surinder; Strachan, Jill. Births and birth rates, Canada, 1990. [Naissances et taux de natalite, Canada, 1990.] Health Reports/Rapports sur la Sante, Vol. 4, No. 1, 1992. 73-7 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
Trends in birth rates and fertility in Canada for 1990 are reviewed. Tabular data are presented for total and age-specific fertility rates, percentage of births by birth order and maternal age, and crude live birth rates by province. Some consideration of selected demographic characteristics is also provided.
Correspondence: S. Wadhera, Statistics Canada, Canadian Centre for Health Information, Ottawa, Ontario K1A OT6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40314 Wadhera, Surinder; Strachan, Jill. Historical publication highlights: selected birth and fertility statistics, Canada, 1921-1990. [Faits saillants de la publication historique: statistiques choisies sur la natalite et la fecondite, Canada, 1921-1990.] Health Reports/Rapports sur la Sante, Vol. 4, No. 2, 1992. 190-4 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
Selected birth and fertility statistics for the period 1921-1990 are presented for Canada. Information is provided on the number of live births and birth rates for Canada, the provinces, and the territories; total and age-specific fertility rates; and median age of females at first, second, and total live births.
Correspondence: S. Wadhera, Statistics Canada, Canadian Centre for Health Information, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40315 Wang, Jichuan. Influence of family planning programs on transition to motherhood among women in Shifang county, Sichuan, China. Population Studies Center Research Report, No. 91-203, Mar 1991. 21 pp. University of Michigan, Population Studies Center: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The author investigates "how the process of transition to motherhood changed with the development of China's family planning programs....I have conducted dynamic studies at [the] individual level...in a...local population of Shifang County in Sichuan Province, China....I have first tested the determinants of transition to marriage, then shifted to see how explanatory variables influence overall transition to motherhood after age of sexual maturity."
Correspondence: University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40316 Xie, Yu; Efron, Ellen. Revising the Coale-Trussell method for analyzing age-specific marital fertility schedules. Population Studies Center Research Report, No. 91-207, Apr 1991. 21, [7] pp. University of Michigan, Population Studies Center: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This paper revises the traditional Coale-Trussell method for analyzing age-specific marital fertility schedules in three ways. First, it uses more recent and more reliable data from the World Fertility Survey. Second, it tests alternative loglinear and log-multiplicative models....Third, it incorporates natural fertility into the analysis of controlled fertility...."
Correspondence: University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40317 Yamaguchi, Kazuo; Ferguson, Linda R. The occurrence and timing of third child birth and their life-history predictors: an analysis based on accelerated failure-time regression models with a regression model of surviving fraction. Population Research Center Discussion Paper Series, No. OSC (PRC-92-8), Sep 1992. 34, [9] pp. University of Chicago, National Opinion Research Center [NORC], Population Research Center: Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"Accelerated failure-time regression models combined with a regression model of surviving fraction are used in this paper to clarify the effects of selected life-history characteristics on the stopping and spacing of third child birth. The effects of covariates on birth stopping are parametrically separated from the effects on birth spacing, through their simultaneous inclusion in a single model. The analysis employs women's data from the 1985 [U.S.] Current Population Survey."
Correspondence: University of Chicago, National Opinion Research Center, Population Research Center, 1155 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40318 Zaky, Hassan; Wong, Rebeca; Sirageldin, Ismail. Testing for the onset of fertility decline: the case of Egypt. Johns Hopkins Population Center Papers on Population, No. WP 91-06, [1991]. 22, [10] pp. Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Population Center: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"This paper describes and illustrates how the economic household production model can be taken as a frame of reference to test the stage of the fertility transition for a given society. Egypt during the 1970's and early 1980's is taken as the setting to illustrate the test....The results show that the Egyptian household fertility behavior during this period fits poorly with the model specification corresponding to a post-transition society. We find that fertility by the end of the 1970's was not endogenous to other household decisions. We conclude that a sustained decline in fertility is unlikely without this endogeneity."
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Population Center, 615 North Wolfe Street, Room 2300, Baltimore, MD 21205-2179. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40319 Zha, Rui-chuan. Level and change of fertility in China. Population Research, Vol. 8, No. 2, Jun 1991. 1-15 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
"This paper attempts to give an analysis and discussion of China's fertility level, its evolution and affecting factors on the basis of data from...China's 1982 census, the [one per thousand] fertility sampling survey and the demographic data of different years and economic indices of different areas, contained in the 'Statistical Yearbook of China (1983)'."
Correspondence: R.-c. Zha, People's University of China, Institute of Population Research, 39 Haidian Road, Haidian District, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40320 Zhang, Junsen; Sturm, Roland. Estimating heterogeneity of fecundity among Chinese couples. Working Papers in Economics and Econometrics, No. 208, ISBN 0-86831-208-8. Jun 1990. 19 pp. Australian National University, Faculty of Economics: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper presents estimates of the heterogeneity of fecundity among Chinese couples using parametric and nonparametric discrete duration models. The variable of interest is the time span between a couple's decision to have a child and the achievement of pregnancy. It is found that heterogeneity is lower in more rural and more traditional areas. Positive duration dependence is found to exist in every cohort except the youngest cohort in a modernized area, Shanghai. The interpretation is that social norms regarding premarital relations between spouses have been changing with the development of Chinese society."
Correspondence: Australian National University, Faculty of Economics, P.O. Box 4, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

58:40321 Zimmermann, Klaus F.; De New, John. Unemployment and fertility. [Arbeitslosigkeit und Fertilitat.] Munchner Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Beitrage Discussion Paper, No. 90-03, Jan 1990. 17 pp. Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitat Munchen, Volkswirtschaftliche Fakultat: Munich, Germany. In Ger.
An economic model of the family is developed. The model is then used to simulate the impact of unemployment on fertility.
Correspondence: Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitat Munchen, Volkswirtschaftliche Fakultat, Ludwigstrasse 28, D-8000 Munich 22, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40322 Zou'bi, Abdallah A. A.; Poedjastoeti, Sri; Ayad, Mohamed. Jordan Population and Family Health Survey, 1990. Aug 1992. xviii, 225 pp. Department of Statistics: Amman, Jordan; Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
This is the principal report from the 1990 Jordan Population and Family Health Survey, which covered a national sample of about 16,300 households. "This sample was used to collect information on households, including basic demographic characteristics, education, health insurance, and basic information to measure unemployment. Half of the sample (also nationally representative and covering all sample clusters) was used to identify ever-married women of childbearing age for the individual interview. Information collected from these women covered the areas of fertility and fertility preference, family planning, breastfeeding and nutrition, child health, immunization, morbidity and mortality."
Correspondence: Department of Statistics, P.O. Box 2015, Jubhaiha Street, Amman, Jordan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40323 Zuleta, Gustavo. Economic decisions within the family and key demographic variables: a simultaneous equations model for Chile. [Decisiones economicas en la familia y variables demograficas claves: un modelo de ecuaciones simultaneas para Chile.] Cuadernos de Economia, Vol. 28, No. 84, Aug 1991. 307-28 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The extent to which a theory of family decisions (in which fertility behavior and family size are based on family's economic interests) can be applied to data for Chile is examined. Data for the period 1960-1985 concerning fertility and infant mortality are used. "The structure is a four equation relation: one for the birth rate, one for infant mortality rate, one for the rate of the participation of women in the labor market, and the last one, used as auxiliary for the per capita income." The results confirm the validity of the theory.
Correspondence: G. Zuleta, Ministerio de Hacienda, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

F.2. Differential Fertility

Studies on differences in fertility patterns and levels in subgroups of a population. Also included are studies on age-specific fertility, such as teenage pregnancy.

58:40324 Alan Guttmacher Institute (New York, New York). Readings on teenage pregnancy from Family Planning Perspectives: 1985 through 1989. ISBN 0-939253-16-X. 1990. 352 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This is a collection of articles on teenage pregnancy that have been published in the journal Family Planning Perspectives from 1985 to 1989. They are grouped under eight subject headings, entitled overview, sexual activity, contraceptive use, sex education, school-based health clinics, teenage mothers, teenage fathers and adolescent males, and programs and evaluation. The primary geographical focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: Alan Guttmacher Institute, 111 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40325 Bailey, Mohamed; Serow, William J. Fertility differentials in rural Sierra Leone: demographic and socioeconomic effects. Genus, Vol. 47, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1991. 171-82 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"The demographic and socioeconomic influences on fertility in Sierra Leone are examined using data from a sample of 2,000 currently married rural women aged 15-49. The analysis considers background (husband's tribal and religious affiliations, and current place of residence), demographic (wife's age at first marriage, desired family size, and infant-child mortality), and socioeconomic (wife's education and occupation, husband's education and household annual income) variables....The results indicate that the demographic variables, current place of residence, wife's occupation and education affect fertility significantly. The overall structure of the effects of demographic and socioeconomic variables on fertility show clear differentation between larger and smaller rural places."
Correspondence: W. J. Serow, Florida State University, Center for the Study of Population, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4063. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40326 Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Hirschman, Charles; Guest, Philip. A multi-level analysis of the determinants of fertility in the four regions of Thailand. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 7, No. 1, Mar 1992. 51-64 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
The authors investigate determinants of regional fertility differences in Thailand. They find that "the level and pace of Thailand's fertility decline have varied across regions of the country. Both socio-economic and demographic factors are very significant. For example, the status of women has an important influence on the family formation process in all regions, but in others there are aspects such as the value of children and the impact of the family planning programme. Thus policies need to take into account the particular social and cultural environment in which fertility decisions are made. Decentralization of population programmes should be encouraged."
Correspondence: A. Chamratrithirong, Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research, 2 Prannock Road, Bangkok, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40327 Geronimus, Arline T.; Korenman, Sanders. The socioeconomic consequences of teen childbearing reconsidered. OPR Working Paper, No. 92-1, Jan 1992. 21, [36] pp. Princeton University, Office of Population Research [OPR]: Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
"Teen childbearing is commonly believed to cause long-term socioeconomic disadvantages for mothers and their children. However, earlier cross-sectional studies may have inadequately accounted for marked differences in family background among women who have first births at different ages. We present new estimates that take into account unmeasured family background heterogeneity by comparing sisters who timed their first births at different ages. In two of the three [U.S.] data sets we examine, sister comparisons suggest that biases from family background heterogeneity are important, and, therefore, that earlier studies may have overstated the consequences of teen childbearing."
Correspondence: Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40328 Geronimus, Arline T.; Korenman, Sanders. The socioeconomic consequences of teen childbearing reconsidered. Population Studies Center Research Report, No. 90-190, Sep 1990. 15, [8] pp. University of Michigan, Population Studies Center: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"We present new estimates of the consequences of teen childbearing that take into account observed and unobserved family background heterogeneity, comparing sisters who have timed their first births at different ages....The estimation is conducted using data from the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women...."
Correspondence: University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40329 Geronimus, Arline T.; Korenman, Sanders. The socioeconomic consequences of teen childbearing reconsidered. Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 107, No. 4, Nov 1992. 1,187-214 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The socioeconomic effects of adolescent childbearing in the United States are estimated. "We present new estimates that take into account unmeasured family background heterogeneity by comparing sisters who timed their first births at different ages....[The authors find that] when we control for race, age, and urban/rural status only, we find substantial differences between teen and older mothers in nearly all indicators of socioeconomic status in later life. When, in addition, we control for a standard set of family background characteristics..., the estimated effects of a teen birth decline substantially but remain sizable....Our findings raise concerns about previous estimates of the effects of teen childbearing, suggesting that failure to control adequately for family background differences among women who have births at different ages may lead to overstated estimates of the long-term socioeconomic consequences of teen childbearing." Data are from "the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience, Young Women's Cohort (NLSYW), the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience of Youth (NLSY)..., and the [1989] Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID)...."
Correspondence: A. T. Geronimus, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

58:40330 Govindasamy, Pavalavalli. Ethnic fertility differentials in Peninsular Malaysia: the impact of government policies. Pub. Order No. DA9208780. 1991. 220 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study examines the impact of economic and population policies on ethnic fertility differentials. It was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Michigan State University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences (52)10.

58:40331 Henshaw, Stanley K.; Kenney, Asta M.; Somberg, Debra; Van Vort, Jennifer. Teenage pregnancy in the United States: the scope of the problem and state responses. ISBN 0-939253-12-7. 1989. 72 pp. Alan Guttmacher Institute: New York, New York. In Eng.
This monograph is in two parts. The first part documents the number of births, legal abortions, and miscarriages among teenage women in the United States from 1972 to 1985 by state. The second part reviews the initiatives proposed by states concerning teenage pregnancy between 1982 and 1988, focusing on the content of the proposals and the extent to which they conform to recommendations developed in 1987 by the National Research Council.
Correspondence: Alan Guttmacher Institute, 111 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40332 Hollos, Marida; Larsen, Ulla. Fertility differentials among the Ijo in Southern Nigeria: does urban residence make a difference? Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 35, No. 9, Nov 1992. 1,199-210 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to examine the fertility levels of women--living either in urban centers or in the rural home community--in one ethnic group in Southern Nigeria. Some of the women are educated, others are not. By comparing the fertility levels of the urban residents to those who remained in the rural areas and by taking a closer look at the conditions under which the urban women live, we intended to investigate just how much difference moving to or residing in an urban center makes in this West African context. This framework also enables us to disentangle the effects of education and place of residence on fertility, while holding cultural background constant." The data were collected during the 1980s.
Correspondence: M. Hollos, Brown University, Department of Anthropology, Providence, RI 02915. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

58:40333 Iglicka, Krystyna. Analysis of fertility levels in selected territories of Poland in 1931. [Analiza poziomow plodnosci na wybranym obszarze ziem Polski w 1931 roku.] Studia Demograficzne, No. 4/106, 1991. 65-78 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng.
The author applies the Coale fertility model to data from 1931 on 178 districts of Poland. "The aim of the study was to show the strong spatial differentiation of fertility in Poland during the demographic transition as well as...its determinants. [The] influence of mother's religion on fertility level in specified regions of Poland [is also] described."
Correspondence: K. Iglicka, Szkola Glowna Planowania i Statystyki, Instytut Statystyki i Demografii, Al. Niepodleglosci 162, Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40334 Mookherjee, Harsha N. Fertility patterns of migrant and non-migrant populations in Papua New Guinea. Population Review, Vol. 36, No. 1-2, Jan-Dec 1992. 40-9 pp. La Jolla, California. In Eng.
"This study intends to ascertain whether the fertility pattern of migrant populations found in earlier studies is also present for urban areas in Papua New Guinea. Data for this study were gathered from a probability sample of 425 married women, between the ages of 15-44 years from one coastal city and one highland city in Papua New Guinea....The results indicated that...even though the partial effects of migration were non-significant when controlling for other variables, such as education and occupation, the joint effects of various components were as large as the partial effects together. Duration of marriage, city of residence, husband's age, and woman's occupation were found to be significant variables in explaining the number of children born to a woman in this sample."
Correspondence: H. N. Mookherjee, Tennessee Technological University, Department of Sociology, Cookeville, TN 38505. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40335 Pandit, Kavita. Regional fertility differentials and the effect of migration: an analysis of U.S. state-level data. Geographical Analysis, Vol. 24, No. 4, Oct 1992. 352-64 pp. Columbus, Ohio. In Eng.
"This paper explores, theoretically and empirically, the influence of interregional migration on regional fertility differentials. Specifically, it tests the hypothesis that regions that are closely linked through migration have, all else held constant, a lower differential in fertility than regions that are relatively isolated from one another. A model linking the fertility differential between two states to migration as well as a number of socioeconomic variables is articulated. The model is tested by means of a randomization procedure using U.S. state-level data for 1980. Results support the hypothesis that an increasing volume of interregional migration tends to lower regional fertility differentials."
Correspondence: K. Pandit, University of Georgia, Department of Geography, Athens, GA 30602. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

58:40336 Singh, Susheela; Wulf, Deirdre. Today's adolescents, tomorrow's parents: a portrait of the Americas. ISBN 0-939253-19-4. 1990. 96 pp. Alan Guttmacher Institute: New York, New York. In Eng.
This publication summarizes findings from three previous studies concerning adolescent fertility in Brazil, Colombia, and Peru, then extends the analysis to six other countries in the region: the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, and Trinidad and Tobago. Relevant data from the United States and Canada are also referred to. Chapters are included on education and employment; marriage, consensual union, and sexual activity; contraceptive knowledge and use; childbearing; and the consequences of teenage childbearing.
Correspondence: Alan Guttmacher Institute, 111 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40337 Thornton, Russell; Sandefur, Gary D.; Snipp, C. Matthew. American Indian fertility patterns: 1910 and 1940 to 1980. American Indian Quarterly, Vol. 15, No. 3, Summer 1991. 359-67 pp. Berkeley, California. In Eng.
"In this research note, we present data attesting to changes in American Indian fertility during the twentieth century." Data are primarily from U.S. censuses from 1910 to 1980. The results "show a decrease in American Indian fertility during the past four decades of the twentieth century....Our data also show consistent variations in fertility within the American Indian population, defined either by type of marriage, as for 1910, 1940, 1950, 1960, 1970, and 1980, or by identified race and ethnic ancestry, as for 1980."
Correspondence: R. Thornton, University of California, Department of Sociology, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

58:40338 United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs (New York, New York). Adolescent reproductive behaviour: evidence from developing countries. Volume II. Population Studies, No. 109/Add.1, Pub. Order No. E.89.XIII.10. ISBN 92-1-151184-5. 1989. xi, 128 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This report presents information on aspects of adolescent fertility in developing countries. "Differences in observed levels of adolescent birth rates in developing countries are discussed and explained in terms of proximate determinants of teen-age fertility, such as exposure to sexual intercourse, prevalance of marriage, contraceptive use and abortion. Policy initiatives relating to these factors are discussed in the conclusions."
For Volume 1, which concerned developed countries and was published in 1988, see 55:10327.
Correspondence: U.N. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations Secretariat, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40339 Upchurch, Dawn M.; Astone, Nan M.; McCarthy, James. Influences of family background on adolescent childbearing: from the 1940's to the 1980's. Johns Hopkins Population Center Papers on Population, No. WP 90-06, [1990]. 26, [7] pp. Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Population Center: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
Using data from three longitudinal studies conducted in the United States, the authors examine determinants of adolescent childbearing for the period 1940-1990. "First we will identify those factors which past research suggests are determinants of an early transition to parenthood for women. Second, we will investigate whether the effects of these factors exhibit temporal variation. Specifically, 1) we use a set of variables which measure the socioeconomic characteristics of a young woman's family of origin; 2) we compare the effects of these variables on whether or not a young woman has an adolescent birth across three cohorts; and 3) we compare the effects of these variables on whether or not a young woman gives birth in early adolescence to whether or not she gives birth in late adolescence, within each of our three cohorts."
This paper was originally presented at the 1990 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Population Center, 615 North Wolfe Street, Room 2300, Baltimore, MD 21205-2179. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40340 USSR. Gosudarstvennyi Komitet SSSR po Statistike (Moscow, USSR). Territorial-ethnic differentials in fertility and mortality in the USSR. [Territorial'no-etnicheskaya differentsiatsiya rozhdaemosti i smertnosti v SSSR.] Vestnik Statistiki, No. 8, 1991. 67-9 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
Geographic and ethnic differences in fertility and mortality in the USSR are analyzed. Trends within individual Union republics are explored according to sex, age, cause of death, and ethnic group.
Correspondence: Gosudarstvennyi Komitet SSSR po Statistike, ul. Kirova 39, 103450 Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology

Studies on infertility, as well as studies of spontaneous abortion, prematurity, and other relevant pathologies of pregnancy.

58:40341 Brewis, Alexandra A. Age and infertility: an ethnodemographic study from Butaritari Atoll, Kiribati. Pub. Order No. DA9223564. 1992. 434 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Arizona.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1364. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 53(3).

F.4. Actions and Activities Directly Affecting Fertility

Studies concerning activities, including family planning programs, that are primarily designed to influence fertility.

F.4.1. General Fertility Control and Contraception

General aspects of fertility control, primarily those concerned with family planning and family planning programs.

58:40342 Aka, Kouame. Toward a new approach in population in Africa: the integration of family planning programs in rural development programs. [Vers une nouvelle approche d'intervention en matiere de population en Afrique: l'integration des programmes de planning familial dans les programmes de developpement rural.] Pop Sahel, No. 17, Jun 1992. 43-8 pp. Bamako, Mali. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The author examines the benefits of integrating family planning into rural development programs in Africa, and the practicalities of so doing.
Correspondence: K. Aka, Universite de Montreal, Departement de Demographie, CP 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40343 Arruda, Jose M. The impact of the DHS survey on Brazil. [Impacto de la Pesquisa DHS en el Brasil.] In: Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, August 5-7, 1991, Washington, D.C.: proceedings. Volume 3. 1991. 1,903-31 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Spa.
The author examines the impact of the national demographic and health survey on family planning services in Brazil by comparing it with other small ongoing surveys.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40344 Axinn, William G. Family organization and fertility limitation in Nepal. Demography, Vol. 29, No. 4, Nov 1992. 503-21 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper uses the family mode of organization framework to link together hypotheses relating social change to fertility limitation. Experiences in nonfamily activities are predicted to affect fertility behavior, with the outcome depending on the social, economic, and cultural context. To provide individual-level tests of hypotheses, the paper uses data from a Nepalese community which recently began dramatic family and fertility transitions. The findings show that experiences in nonfamily activities before marriage increase the odds of subsequently adopting fertility limitation in this setting. The evidence also demonstrates the importance of including measures of husbands' experiences in models of fertility decisions."
Correspondence: W. G. Axinn, University of Chicago, Department of Sociology, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40345 Ayad, Mohamed; Sayed, Hussein A.-A.; Way, Ann A. Policy implications of the DHS findings for Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia. In: Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, August 5-7, 1991, Washington, D.C.: proceedings. Volume 3. 1991. 2,037-51 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
"This paper examines key findings on fertility regulation from the DHS [Demographic and Health Surveys] and...two earlier survey programs for Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia. Progress made in the last ten years in addressing the population problem in each country is highlighted, and continuing challenges faced by their family planning programs are identified."
Correspondence: M. Ayad, Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 8850 Stanford Boulevard, Suite 4000, Columbia, MD 21045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40346 Bamgboye, E. Afolabi; Ladipo, O. A. Oral contraceptive marketing in Ibadan, Nigeria. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 35, No. 7, Oct 1992. 903-6 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper describes the result of a study of chemist shops in Ibadan, the largest city in Southern Nigeria, on the sale of oral contraceptives. The objectives were to find out the types of contraceptive available, the number of chemist shops stocking them, the volume of sales and the costs of the different contraceptives." It is found that "people are aware of modern oral contraceptives as they purchase them freely at chemist shops. But effective distribution is hampered by existing channels and high costs."
Correspondence: E. A. Bamgboye, Department of Family and Community Medicine (34), P.O. Box 7805, Riyadh 11472, Saudi Arabia. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

58:40347 Bhat, P. N. Mari. ORG surveys of family planning practices in India: a statistical review. Journal of Institute of Economic Research, Vol. 26, No. 1-2, Jan-Jul 1991. 71-88 pp. Dharwad, India. In Eng.
Results obtained by the Operations Research Group (ORG) from its government-sponsored national surveys on family planning practices in India are reviewed. The surveys were conducted in 1970, 1980, and 1988, and the results were published in condensed form in 1971, 1983, and 1990. Data are included on socioeconomic characteristics, age-specific marital fertility rates, child mortality, knowledge and attitudes about contraception, contraceptive prevalence rates, and desired family size.
Correspondence: P. N. M. Bhat, Institute of Economic Research, Population Research Centre, Vidyagiri, Dharwad 580 004, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40348 Bolivia. Ministerio de Planeamiento y Coordinacion. Unidad de Politica de Poblacion (La Paz, Bolivia); United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA] (New York, New York). Family planning in Bolivia: from talk to action. [Planificacion familiar en Bolivia: del debate a la accion.] 1992. 169 pp. La Paz, Bolivia. In Spa.
This document presents a summary of the discussions and conclusions from two seminars held in La Paz, Bolivia, in 1991 on aspects of family planning. Groups represented in the discussion in Part 1 include the church, the state, nongovernmental organizations, unions, and municipal authorities. Part 2 concerns the debate on family planning in Bolivia and concludes with recommendations on what needs to be done by the participating groups.
Correspondence: Ministerio de Planeamiento y Coordinacion, Unidad de Politica de Poblacion, La Paz, Bolivia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40349 Bollinger, Lori. Diffusion, fertility, and female labor force participation. Pub. Order No. DA9211909. 1991. 168 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study, which uses data from the 1976-1977 Malaysian Family Life Survey to examine the factors affecting contraceptive usage among migrants, was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Pennsylvania.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences (52)11.

58:40350 Brewster, Karin L. Community influences on the transition to sexual activity. Pub. Order No. DA9211547. 1991. 239 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study uses U.S. data from the National Survey of Family Growth to examine community influences on the risk of nonmarital first intercourse and contraceptive usage among adolescent women. It was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Washington.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences (52)11.

58:40351 Briend, Andre; Fauveau, Vincent; Chakraborty, J. Contraceptive use and breast-feeding duration in rural Bangladesh. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 45, No. 7, Jul 1991. 341-6 pp. Basingstoke, England. In Eng.
"The association between contraceptive use and breast-feeding duration was investigated in 2,380 women in rural Bangladesh where women usually stop breast-feeding once pregnant....[The results suggest that] in communities where prolonged breast-feeding is associated with improved child survival, non-hormonal contraceptive methods, or injectable DMPA [depo medroxyprogesterone acetate], should be preferred for lactating women to oestrogen-containing oral contraceptives."
Correspondence: A. Briend, Institut Francais de Recherche pour le Developpement en Cooperation, 2051 Avenue du Val de Montferrand, BP 5045, 34032 Montpellier Cedex, France. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:40352 Chen, Ping; Guo, Hanying. An analysis of the correlation between the fertility rate and the demand for contraceptives. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 3, No. 4, 1991. 307-14 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this paper we attempt to explore the question of how many contraceptive services must be provided for a real population [in China] if [in] the following year the fertility rate is constant, by analyzing the existing models for contraceptive usage. This paper divides contraceptive methods into three categories: the first category is single-type methods...i.e. methods which only require a single operation; the second category is oral contraceptive types...[and] the third category is externally applied medication and devices, such as the condom...."
Correspondence: P. Chen, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Population Institute, 5 Jianguomen Nei Da Jie 5 Hao, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40353 DaVanzo, Julie; Parnell, Allan M.; Foege, William H. Health consequences of contraceptive use and reproductive patterns: summary of a report from the U.S. National Research Council. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 265, No. 20, May 22-29, 1991. 2,692-6 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
This is a summary of a report on the safety of contraceptive methods used in developing countries. The focus of this article is on the major finding of the report, that "while a reduction in infant mortality rates may reduce future birth rates, a reduction in birth rates may also lead to reduced infant mortality. These findings encourage simultaneous maximum effort in the development of both health and family planning programs."
Correspondence: Linda Martin, National Research Council, Committee on Population, 2101 Constitution Avenue, Washington, D.C. 20418. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:40354 Dwiyanto, Agus. The demand for family planning in Indonesia 1976 to 1987: a supply-demand analysis. In: Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, August 5-7, 1991, Washington, D.C.: proceedings. Volume 3. 1991. 2,135-54 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
The author "aims at studying the demand for family planning in Indonesia by using a supply-demand approach. The study estimates the total and the unmet demand for family planning during the last decade. The study selects women aged 35-44, who have been married only once, whose husbands are still living and who have had at least two live births and no births prior to their married life....[Data from the] Indonesia Fertility Survey 1976, Contraceptive Prevalence Survey 1983, and Indonesia National Contraceptive Prevalence Survey 1987, will be employed to study the trends of the demand for family planning."
Correspondence: A. Dwiyanto, Gadjah Mada University, Bulaksumur G-7, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40355 Elder, John P.; Estey, Jacqueline D. Behavior change strategies for family planning. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 35, No. 8, Oct 1992. 1,065-76 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This study is concerned with the issue of how to make family planning programs in developing countries more effective. "Behavior modification is presented here [as] an appropriate technology through which current efforts in family planning could be expanded, diversified, and made ultimately more effective in reducing fertility and improving maternal and child health in developing nations." The emphasis is on the use of incentives to increase family planning usage and achieve reduced fertility.
Correspondence: J. P. Elder, San Diego State University, Graduate School of Public Health, San Diego, CA 92182. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

58:40356 Esseghairi, Kamel; Hinde, P. R. A.; McDonald, John W.; Meddeb, S. IUD and pill use dynamics in Tunisia and Morocco. In: Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, August 5-7, 1991, Washington, D.C.: proceedings. Volume 3. 1991. 2,119-34 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
"Our aim in this paper is to study the correlates of IUD and pill use discontinuation using the 1987 and 1988 Morocco and Tunisia DHSs. We use a descriptive and exploratory approach [and] mostly deal with the measurement of crude and specific prevalence and discontinuation rates, and their distribution amongst women with different characteristics. For each of the two countries, we: 1) measure crude and specific contraceptive use prevalence rates, 2) determine the sources of supply of the IUD and pill, 3) measure crude and specific discontinuation and failure rates over the first year of use, [and] 4) recommend actions to be taken in order to improve the 'quality' and duration of IUD and pill use."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40357 Family Planning and Protection Association (West Bank) (Jerusalem, Israel). Mothers and the IUDs. 1989. 63 pp. Jerusalem, Israel. In Eng.
This study concerns 214 women who are listed as IUD users in the 1985 Jerusalem family planning center register, but who have not attended any follow-up clinics since insertion. Both acceptor characteristics and reasons for IUD removal are examined, with a focus on the importance of this type of contraception for birth spacing.
Correspondence: Family Planning and Protection Association, P.O.B. 19999, Jerusalem, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40358 Ferguson, Alan G. Fertility and contraceptive adoption and discontinuation in rural Kenya. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 23, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1992. 257-67 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This report describes adoption of a [contraceptive] method and method switching and discontinuation among a cohort of married women aged 25-34 in two contrasting rural areas [of Kenya]. A retrospective 'fertility diary' completed by each woman provided information on spousal separation, reproductive status, and contraceptive use over a period of 46-48 months. Contraceptive prevalence rose rapidly over the period in both areas, with significant net adoption of injectables in both areas and of IUDs in one....The wide differences between the two rural areas in contraceptive prevalence were not totally reflected in recent fertility levels, and the contribution of other proximate determinants of fertility, particularly postpartum amenorrhea and spousal separation, are discussed."
Correspondence: A. G. Ferguson, Ministry of Health, Division of Family Health, GTZ Family Planning Support Unit, P.O. Box 41607, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40359 Frank, Margaret L.; Poindexter, Alfred N.; Johnson, Michael L.; Bateman, Louise. Characteristics and attitudes of early contraceptive implant acceptors in Texas. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 24, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1992. 208-13 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article describes the first group of women who elected to try the contraceptive implant [Norplant] following its approval and general availability in the United States. It examines their reasons for selecting the implant and their experience with other methods. Because many women may use the implant to replace barrier methods such as the condom, which reduce the risk of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), we also explored users' plans for subsequent condom use." Data are for 678 women who received Norplant from 17 providers in Texas in 1991. "The majority (56%) had tried the implant because they were dissatisfied with their previous contraceptive method. Forty-four percent of the sample indicated that the implant was one of the first contraceptive methods they had used and that they had only recently decided to prevent unplanned pregnancy....The reasons for choosing the implant and concerns about it varied according to the user's age, educational level and race or ethnic group."
Correspondence: M. L. Frank, Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Houston, TX. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40360 Freundl, G.; Baur, S.; Bremme, M.; Frank-Herrmann, P.; Godehardt, E.; Kunert, J.; Sottong, U. Has family planning behavior changed in the Federal Republic of Germany since 1985? [Hat sich das Familienplanungsverhalten in der BRD seit 1985 verandert?] Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde, Vol. 51, No. 2, Feb 1991. 127-34 pp. Stuttgart, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
Results are presented from two family planning surveys carried out in West Germany in 1985 and 1989, involving 1,267 and 950 women aged 15-45, respectively. The results indicate an increase in contraceptive usage over this four-year period. Information is provided on changes in methods used and on the impact of increased AIDS awareness on contraceptive behavior.
Correspondence: G. Freundl, Urdenbacher Allee 38, W-4000 Dusseldorf 13, Germany. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:40361 Hardy, Ellen E.; de Moraes, Teresinha; Faundes, Anibal; Vera, Sergio; Pinotti, Jose A. Adequacy of oral contraceptive usage among women in marital unions. [Adequacao do uso de pilula anticoncepcional entre mulheres unidas.] Revista de Saude Publica, Vol. 25, No. 2, Apr 1991. 96-102 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
Use of oral contraceptives in Brazil is examined, based on data concerning 2,364 married women aged 15-49 living in poor neighborhoods in Sao Paulo state. Over one-quarter of the women studied were currently using oral contraceptives. Factors affecting use are investigated, including age, parity, and educational status. The results indicate that the state health system has had no impact on use levels.
Correspondence: E. E. Hardy, Caixa Postal 6181, Campinas 13081, SP, Brazil. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:40362 Herlitz, Claes. Condom use due to the risk of AIDS. Trends in the general population of Sweden. Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine, Vol. 20, No. 2, Jun 1992. 102-9 pp. Oslo, Norway. In Eng.
"This study examines the use of condoms due to the risk of AIDS in the general population of Sweden during 1986-1989. The study is based on annual mail surveys (1986-1989) of random population samples aged 16-44 years--4,000 individuals in each sample. The response rate was 71%. The study indicates that the use of condoms increased significantly during the first years of the study period, particularly among 18-24-year-olds."
Correspondence: C. Herlitz, University of Uppsala, Department of Social Medicine, S-75185 Uppsala, Sweden. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:40363 Jamieson, Denise J.; Buescher, Paul A. The effect of family planning participation on prenatal care use and low birth weight. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 24, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1992. 214-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Data on approximately 45,000 North Carolina women who gave birth in 1989 and 1990 and received prenatal care in public health facilities were studied to assess the effects in a low-income population of prior family planning services on low birth weight and adequacy of prenatal care. Women who had used family planning services in the two years before conception were significantly more likely than those who had not used such services to have a birth-to-conception interval of greater than six months. They were also more likely to receive early and adequate prenatal care and to be involved in a food supplement program and maternity care coordination. In addition, the family planning participants were less likely than the nonparticipants to be younger than 18 and were somewhat less likely to deliver a low-birth-weight infant."
Correspondence: D. J. Jamieson, Duke University, School of Medicine, Durham, NC 27706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40364 Kjaer, Susanne K.; Svare, Edith I.; Haugaard, Birthe J.; Teisen, Chantal; Christensen, Rene B.; Lynge, Elsebeth; Jensen, Ole M. Contraceptive use in random samples of Greenlandic and Danish women--changes from 1986 to 1988. Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine, Vol. 19, No. 1, Mar 1991. 39-43 pp. Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
Changes in condom use following an AIDS information campaign in Greenland and Denmark are assessed. "From 1986 to 1988 the prevalence of ever having used condoms increased significantly among Greenlandic women aged 20-29, whereas no statistically significant changes were observed in Denmark. This pattern was independent of the lifetime number of sexual partners. Neither in Greenland nor in Denmark did the mean lifetime number of sexual partners change from 1986 to 1988."
Correspondence: S. K. Kjaer, Danish Cancer Society, Institute of Cancer Epidemiology, Danish Cancer Registry, Rosenvaengets Hovedvej 35, Box 839, Copenhagen, Denmark. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:40365 Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs [KIHASA] (Seoul, Korea, Republic of); China (Taiwan). Provincial Institute of Family Planning (Taipei, Taiwan). Fertility control experiences in the Republics of Korea and China. Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Comparative Study of Population and Family Planning in ROK and ROC, July 9-17, 1991, Taiwan, Republic of China. Feb 1992. vi, 274 pp. Maternal and Child Health Association: Taipei, Taiwan. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of a workshop held in Taiwan in July 1991, in which participants from South Korea and Taiwan exchanged experiences on various aspects of their work in family planning. The following topics were addressed at the meeting: "1. recent changes in the national family planning program and its future directions; 2. policy implications of family planning integration; 3. health and living status of the elderly population; 4. changes in marriage, household and family structure; and 5. impact of the family planning program on population quality."
Correspondence: Maternal and Child Health Association, Taipei, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40366 Kraft, P.; Rise, J. Contraceptive behaviour of Norwegian adolescents. Health Education Research, Vol. 6, No. 4, Dec 1991. 431-41 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
Contraceptive practice among Norwegian adolescents is examined using data from a survey of some 3,000 adolescents aged 17-19. The results suggest that, although contraceptive practice among adolescents is widespread, "a substantial proportion of adolescents indulge in high-risk practices both for unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases."
Correspondence: P. Kraft, National Institute of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, Oslo, Norway. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:40367 Makinwa-Adebusoye, Paulina. Contraception among urban youth in Nigeria. In: Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, August 5-7, 1991, Washington, D.C.: proceedings. Volume 3. 1991. 2,155-71 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
Contraceptive use among urban Nigerian youth is analyzed. "This paper addresses five related questions; (i) is the national trend in low contraceptive prevalence observed among young, relatively better educated, urban population? (ii) what are the preferred methods of contraception? (iii) what are the constraints to contraceptive use? (iv) what are the characteristics of contraceptive users? and (v) what are the future contraceptive and fertility intentions of young urban population?" Data are from a 1988 survey of urban youth and the 1990 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40368 Makkonen, Katri; Hemminki, Elina. Different contraceptive practices: use of contraceptives in Finland and other Nordic countries in the 1970s and 1980s. Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine, Vol. 19, No. 1, Mar 1991. 32-8 pp. Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"Contraceptive practices, especially oral contraceptive and intrauterine device use, were studied in four Nordic countries by recalculating published and unpublished data from previous surveys and statistics and by collecting new data from Finland....We found clear differences in contraceptive practices. Oral contraceptive use was most prevalent in Sweden and Denmark, and, especially at the end of the 1970s, Finnish intrauterine device use was very high. In the 1980s the differences diminished somewhat."
Correspondence: K. Makkonen, University of Helsinki, Department of Public Health, Haartmaninkatu 3, SF-00290 Helsinki 29, Finland. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:40369 Petric, Nevenka. Social preconditions of founding and developing the family planning movement. [Drustveni preduslovi osnivanja i razvoja pokreta planiranja porodice u svetu.] Stanovnistvo, Vol. 28-29, No. 3-4/1-2, Jul-Dec/Jan-Jun 1990-1991. 245-67 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
The author examines the social conditions within countries that acted as catalysts for the implementation of government family planning programs, beginning with the formation of the international Malthusian League in 1877.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40370 Popov, Andrei; Papkova, Olga. The right to plan one's family, 20 years later. [Le droit de planifier la famille, vingt ans apres.] Autre Europe, No. 23, 1990. 107-16 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The situation concerning family planning in the USSR in 1990 is examined. The authors maintain that the right to control fertility, defined in 1971 by WHO as the right to avoid unwanted pregnancy, to have children that are wanted, to choose when to have them, and to control the intervals between children, is almost totally lacking. Instead, fertility control is achieved through legal abortion, which is practiced more frequently than in any other country. The social and health problems associated with frequent abortion are discussed. The need for improved health and family planning services in the USSR is stressed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40371 Pradekso, Tandiyo. Media exposure and family planning practices in Indonesia. Center for the Study of Population Working Paper, No. WPS 92-98, Spring 1992. 27 pp. Florida State University, College of Social Sciences, Center for the Study of Population: Tallahassee, Florida. In Eng.
"This study [examines]...the relative impacts of media exposure on family planning practices in Indonesia. Based on data from the 1987 National Indonesia Contraceptive Prevalence Survey (NICPS), the analysis will be focused on exposure to mass media and family planning practice among a sample of 11,884 women aged 15 to 49."
Correspondence: Robert Weller, Editor, Working Paper Series, Florida State University, Center for the Study of Population, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4063. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40372 Queenan, John T.; Jennings, Victoria H.; Spieler, Jeffrey M.; von Hertzen, Helena. Natural family planning: current knowledge and new strategies for the 1990s. Proceedings of a conference. Dec 1991. 8, [100]; 15, 152 pp. Mosby-Year Book: St. Louis, Missouri; Georgetown University Medical Center, Institute for Reproductive Health: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of a conference on natural family planning, held at Georgetown University, Washington, D.C., December 10-14, 1990. The first volume, which is published as a supplement to the American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, presents 26 papers by various authors on the current status of natural family planning; ovulation prediction; the interface of breast-feeding, natural family planning, and the lactational amenorrhea method; and the use-effectiveness and continuation of natural family planning. The second volume contains additional papers on topics such as training, education, service delivery, policy, social science issues, and operations research.
Correspondence: Georgetown University Medical Center, Institute for Reproductive Health, 3800 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, D.C. 20007. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40373 Ramirez, Nelson. Dominican Republic: the implications of DHS-86 findings for politics and health and family planning programs. [Republica Dominicana: implicaciones de los hallazgos de la DHS-86 para las politicas y programas de salud y planificacion familiar.] In: Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, August 5-7, 1991, Washington, D.C.: proceedings. Volume 3. 1991. 1,933-55 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Spa.
Results of the 1986 Demographic and Health Survey conducted in the Dominican Republic are examined. The focus is on the implications of those results for policy as well as for family planning and health program implementation.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40374 Rao, Sumathy S. Family planning in urban slum--its analysis and implications. ISBN 81-7035-103-0. 1991. xvi, 141 pp. Daya Publishing House: Delhi, India. In Eng.
Contraceptive use in a poor urban district of Madras City, India, is examined using data from a 1987 retrospective survey of 300 female acceptors. Chapters are included on the relationship between cultural background and contraceptive use, socioeconomic characteristics of family planning behavior, modernization and the status of women, family planning program components and their effect on contraceptive practice, communication issues, and demographic characteristics and family planning status.
Correspondence: Daya Publishing House, 1302 Vaid Wara, Nai Sarak, Delhi 110 006, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40375 Reilly, Philip R. The surgical solution: a history of involuntary sterilization in the United States. ISBN 0-8018-4096-1. LC 90-5090. 1991. xvi, 190 pp. Johns Hopkins University Press: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
The author attempts to reconstruct and document the rise and subsequent decline of eugenic sterilization programs in the United States. He notes that during the first six decades of the twentieth century, more than 60,000 mentally retarded or mentally ill individuals, mostly residents of large state institutions, were sterilized for eugenic reasons. These programs reached their zenith in the late 1930s and then entered a long, slow decline. The causes of the decline and the persistence of sterilization programs after World War II are examined.
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins University Press, 701 West 40th Street, Baltimore, MD 21211. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:40376 Rimpela, Arja H.; Rimpela, Matti K.; Kosunen, Elise A.-L. Use of oral contraceptives by adolescents and its consequences in Finland 1981-91. British Medical Journal, Vol. 305, No. 6861, Oct 31, 1992. 1,053-7 pp. London, England. In Eng.
This study examines oral contraceptive use among adolescents in Finland from 1981 to 1991, as well as changes in abortion, childbirth, and sexually transmitted and cardiovascular diseases. The results show a steady increase in oral contraceptive usage and declines in rates of induced abortion and fertility. The authors suggest that a switch from oral contraceptives to condoms because of the threat of AIDS may lead to an increase in unwanted pregnancies.
Correspondence: A. H. Rimpela, University of Oulu, Department of Public Health, Aapistiez, SF-90220 Oulu, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

58:40377 Salvo, Joseph J.; Powers, Mary G.; Cooney, Rosemary S. Contraceptive use and sterilization among Puerto Rican women. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 24, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1992. 219-23 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The purpose of our study was to describe the contraceptive practices of Puerto Rican women living in the New York City area and to compare them with those of women living on the Island of Puerto Rico and those of all women in the United States. Specifically, we sought to answer this question: Are the contraceptive practices of Puerto Rican women in the New York City area more similar to those of all women in the United States or to those of women residing on the Island of Puerto Rico?" Data are from the 1985 New York Fertility, Employment, and Migration Survey, the 1982 Puerto Rico Family Planning Assessment Survey, and the 1982 National Survey of Family Growth.
Correspondence: J. J. Salvo, Fordham University, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, New York, NY 10458. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40378 Santow, Gigi. Trends in contraception and sterilization in Australia. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Vol. 31, No. 3, Aug 1991. 201-8 pp. Melbourne, Australia. In Eng.
"Life-history data collected in a national survey of women in 1986 are used to derive the first national estimates of trends in contraception and sterilization in Australia over the last 30 years. The pill rapidly became the method of choice after its release in 1961. The intrauterine device, the other truly modern method, has never attained the same popularity. The move toward sterilization dates from the early 1970s and has been so complete that women of 35 or older are now more likely to be protected by a ligation or laparoscopic sterilization than by the pill or, indeed, by all other methods combined. Unmarried women are now indistinguishable from married women on the basis of their use of contraception, and childless married women are now more likely to be using a reversible method than married women with children."
Correspondence: G. Santow, Australian National University, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Health Transition Centre, GPO Box 4, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:40379 Siedlecky, Stefania; Wyndham, Diana. Populate and perish: Australian women's fight for birth control. ISBN 0-04-442220-2. 1990. x, 244 pp. Allen and Unwin: Sydney, Australia. In Eng.
This study describes the struggle of women in Australia to obtain access to safe methods of birth control in a generally pronatalist environment. It includes chapters on contraceptive methods, induced abortion, the birth control movement, and family planning associations.
Correspondence: Allen and Unwin Australia, 8 Napier Street, North Sydney, NSW 2059, Australia. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:40380 Sonenstein, Freya L.; Pleck, Joseph H.; Ku, Leighton C. Missing data on the missing male: measuring fertility and paternity. In: American Statistical Association, 1989 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1989]. 26-34 pp. American Statistical Association: Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
The authors describe the National Survey of Adolescent Males, which was "designed to address some of the major gaps in our knowledge about patterns of sexual activity and condom use among U.S. teenage males....Its objectives were to gather this information for a nationally representative sample of U.S. males ages 15-19 years of age; to assess knowledge, attitudes and risk behaviors relative to AIDS; and to conduct analyses which would identify some of the determinants of contraceptive use among teenage males."
Correspondence: F. L. Sonenstein, Urban Institute, 2100 M Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40381 Sumarsono; Alimoeso, Sudibyo; Pandi, Srihartati P.; Kantner, Andrew. Analysis of the 1987 National Indonesian Contraceptive Prevalence Survey: implications for program evaluation and policy formulation. In: Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, August 5-7, 1991, Washington, D.C.: proceedings. Volume 3. 1991. 2,065-92 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
"Results from the 1987 NICPS [National Indonesia Contraceptive Prevalence Survey are presented. The findings] have important implications for the evaluation of family planning program performance and the formulation of future policies. While it is beyond the scope of this presentation to summarize all research findings, it is possible to highlight policy issues that can be addressed from analysis of the 1987 NICPS."
Correspondence: Sumarsono, Badan Koordinasi Keluarga Berencana Nasional, Jalan Letjen, Haryono M.T., Jakarta 13630, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40382 Yoddumnern-Attig, Bencha; Podhisita, Chai; Vong-Ek, Panee. Community-based factors affecting contraceptive discontinuation: an anthropological study. IPSR Publication, ISBN 974-587-432-9. 1992. xi, 105 pp. Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research [IPSR]: Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. In Eng.
"This report identifies factors associated with community structure and organization which affect contraceptive use, continuation and discontinuation among married Southern and Northeastern Thai women of reproductive age. In particular, it examines the roles of different interpersonal networks, as well as identified community leaders, in women's and couples' contraceptive use decision-making. The discussion also focuses on when and in what ways both of these groups...affect the transmission of community and family norms and beliefs about family planning as well as contraceptive information which affects fertility." Data are from a project conducted from June 1987 to April 1988.
Correspondence: Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research, 25/25 Puthamonthon 4 Road, Salaya, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40383 Zaki, Khalida P. The rural-urban difference in contraceptive use in Pakistan: the effects of women's literacy and desired fertility. Pub. Order No. DA9208869. 1991. 181 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Michigan State University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences (52)10.

F.4.2. Clinical Aspects & Use-Effectiveness Studies

Selected studies on the medical aspects of fertility control methods, including studies on side effects and use-effectiveness.

58:40384 Hardon, Anita P. The needs of women versus the interests of family planning personnel, policy-makers and researchers: conflicting views on safety and acceptability of contraceptives. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 35, No. 6, Sep 1992. 753-66 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In this paper I wish to contribute to the debate on technologies by discussing the nature of the contraceptive development and evaluation process. I will show that much of the criticisms of women's health advocates concerning the safety and acceptability of the methods and their potential for abuse, is in fact a critique of the development and evaluation process that is standard medical practice in most countries. In this analysis I pay special attention to the studies that have been done to assess acceptability of one of the new contraceptive technologies, Norplant. In the concluding section, I give suggestions for the manner in which a Reproductive Health Approach could shape the development and evaluation of more appropriate contraceptive technologies, more in line with the needs of women in different societal and cultural contexts."
Correspondence: A. P. Hardon, University of Amsterdam, Anthropological Sociological Center, Medical Anthropology Unit, Oudezijds Achterburgwal 185, 1012 DK Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

58:40385 Makkonen, Katri; Hemminki, Elina; Uutela, Antti. Is users' knowledge about contraceptives adequate? A case study of Finnish IUD users. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 35, No. 9, Nov 1992. 1,131-6 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"We studied Finnish women's knowledge about contraindications for and side-effects of IUD use, with emphasis on current users. In December 1987-January 1988, a postal questionnaire was sent to a random sample of 1,000 women of childbearing age, in Uusimaa province, which includes the capital, Helsinki....We compared the answers of current and past users and nonusers of IUDs, and analyzed the associations between IUD use, education, age, and knowledge about side-effects. In contrast to the recommendations for use and information to be given to the contraceptive users, a substantial proportion of current IUD users assumed there are few limitations for IUD use. Some side-effects possibly leading to severe consequences were not considered to be connected with IUD use, not even by users....The results thus suggest that contraceptive counseling is not fully adequate and should receive more attention."
Correspondence: K. Makkonen, University of Helsinki, Department of Public Health, Haartmaninkatu 3, SF-00290 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

58:40386 Society for the Advancement of Contraception (Manchester, England). Abstracts, Eighth Annual Meeting, Barcelona, Spain, October 28-31, 1992. Advances in Contraception, Vol. 8, No. 3, Sep 1992. 167-272 pp. Kluwer Academic: Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
This volume contains abstracts from papers presented at the Eighth Annual Meeting of the Society for the Advancement of Contraception, held in Barcelona, Spain, in 1992. The sessions concerned oral contraceptives, IUDs, natural family planning, Norplant, AIDS, women's perspectives on the technologies of fertility regulation, postcoital contraception, contraceptive practice and controversies in the United States, long-acting contraception, sterilization, a comparison of acceptance and effectiveness of modern contraception in Western and Central Europe, quality of care in family planning services, and fertility regulation training, education, and attitudes.
Correspondence: Kluwer Academic Publishers Group, P.O. Box 322, 3300 AH Dordrecht, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40387 Society for the Advancement of Contraception (Manchester, England). Enhancing oral contraceptive compliance and efficacy. Proceedings of a symposium held at the European Society of Contraception Congress, Athens, Greece, 6-9 May 1992. Advances in Contraception, Vol. 8, Suppl. 1, Oct 1992. 73 pp. Kluwer Academic: Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of a symposium on enhancing oral contraceptive compliance and efficacy. The eight papers focus on problems associated with the noncompliance with medication schedules for oral contraceptives that results in contraceptive failure. Topics covered include the identification of physician and patient educational needs and the development of guidelines for identifying and addressing noncompliance in clinical practice.
Correspondence: Kluwer Academic Publishers Group, P.O. Box 322, 3300 AH Dordrecht, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40388 Stewart, M. Katherine; Riley, Ann P.; Chakraborty, J.; Cartwright, Kimberly. A study of the relationship between menstrual disturbances and continuation of DMPA in rural Bangladesh. Population Studies Center Research Report, No. 91-205, Apr 1991. 19, [11] pp. University of Michigan, Population Studies Center: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This study examines the importance of injectable Depo-Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (DMPA) related side effects in the context of rural Bangladesh and assesses their effect on duration of use. Our focus is on changes in menstrual bleeding and why these changes result in discontinuation of DMPA or method switching....In-depth interviews were conducted on 200 women who began using DMPA for the first time in 1988."
This paper was originally presented at the 1991 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.3. Evaluation of Programs

Studies evaluating either the demographic impact or other criteria of effectiveness of family planning programs.

58:40389 Chaudhry, Mahinder. Role of incentive and compensation payments in family planning programs in Southern Asian countries: a background note. Janasamkhya, Vol. 8, No. 1, Jun 1990. 55-71 pp. Kerala, India. In Eng.
The author reviews incentive schemes used as part of the family planning programs in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Consideration is given to socioeconomic factors, service providers, acceptor characteristics, and funding sources.
This paper was originally presented at the 1989 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: M. Chaudhry, Royal Military College of Canada, Department of Political and Economic Science, Kingston, Ontario K7K 5LO, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40390 Conly, Shanti R.; Camp, Sharon L. China's family planning program: challenging the myths. Country Study Series, No. 1, 1992. vii, 52 pp. Population Crisis Committee: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This is the first in a series of reports assessing family planning programs in the countries that contribute the most to world population growth. In this report, the authors evaluate China's family planning program. Separate sections cover the consequences of future population growth in China, current fertility trends, and cultural influences on fertility. The country's family planning strategy is then assessed, including political leadership and commitment, population policy, the family planning infrastructure, contraceptive technology, and public education. Some projections and policy implications are also discussed.
Correspondence: Population Crisis Committee, 1120 19th Street NW, Suite 550, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40391 Conly, Shanti R.; Camp, Sharon L. India's family planning challenge: from rhetoric to action. Country Study Series, No. 2, 1992. vii, 63 pp. Population Crisis Committee: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors evaluate India's family planning program by "exploring the constraints to making critical changes in the program and highlighting the current thinking of experts on appropriate policy choices...[in order to] promote a better understanding of the challenges and options facing Indian leaders today." The importance of improving family planning program effectiveness in order to meet the need for high-quality contraceptive services is stressed.
Correspondence: Population Crisis Committee, 1120 19th Street NW, Suite 550, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40392 Garcia-Nunez, Jose. Improving family planning evaluation: a step-by-step guide for managers and evaluators. Kumarian Press Library of Management for Development, ISBN 1-56549-015-0. LC 92-8193. 1992. xvii, 187 pp. Kumarian Press: West Hartford, Connecticut. In Eng.
This manual is designed to help the managers of family planning programs evaluate and improve the services they provide. "The twelve chapters contained in this manual are designed to provide the reader with a summary of the basic principles of project evaluation as they apply to today's issues. The manual is divided into two sections: Part I focuses on the concepts and practices that define evaluation, and Part II addresses the evaluation process."
Correspondence: Kumarian Press, 630 Oakwood Avenue, Suite 119, West Hartford, CT 06110-1529. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40393 Jensen, Eric R. Use of survey data to estimate type, duration and effectiveness of contraceptive use. In: Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, August 5-7, 1991, Washington, D.C.: proceedings. Volume 3. 1991. 2,099-117 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
"The goal of the present paper is the development of an estimator which will allow analysis of the determinants of the three elements (method, duration and use-efficacy) which underlie the theoretical construct 'births averted'....A much more limited goal, projecting contraceptive failure rates comparable to existing results in the literature, is another indirect output of the estimator....Another result of this model will be estimates of the parameters of a model of contraceptive choice. An important contribution of the present work will be to extend this analysis to the realm of births averted."
Correspondence: E. R. Jensen, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23185. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40394 Maganu, E. T.; Khulumani, P. The utilization of Demographic and Health Survey data for planning in Botswana. In: Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, August 5-7, 1991, Washington, D.C.: proceedings. Volume 3. 1991. 2,093-8 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
The 1984 and 1988 Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in Botswana are described. "It is recommended that Demographic and Health Surveys continue to be used as instruments of monitoring and evaluation for Mother and Child Health Services and their attainments, as well as for family planning and population programmes. They provide data complementary to that generated by censuses, which are far [apart] at 10 year intervals. They also provide excellent baseline data for target setting."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40395 Morocco. Direction de la Statistique. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques [CERED] (Rabat, Morocco). The impact of contraception on fertility. [L'effet de la contraception sur la fecondite.] Oct 1992. 42 pp. Rabat, Morocco. In Fre.
The impact of current levels of contraceptive practice on fertility in Morocco is analyzed using methods developed by John Bongaarts and data from recent fertility surveys, including the 1979-1980 National Fertility and Family Planning Survey, the 1983-1984 Contraceptive Prevalence Survey, and the 1987 National Survey on Family Planning, Fertility, and Health. The report examines fertility trends over the period 1966-1987 and fertility determinants, the development of organized family planning activities in the country, and the demographic impact of family planning programs. The report concludes that the total fertility rate declined from 5.91 in 1980 to 4.46 in 1987 and that organized family planning efforts have made a major contribution to this decline.
Correspondence: Direction de la Statistique, Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques, B.P. 178, Charii Maa El Ainain, Rabat, Morocco. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40396 Population Research Centre (Dharwad, India). Bottlenecks in the promotion of IUD usage among rural women: insights from evaluation studies conducted in Northern Karnataka. Journal of Institute of Economic Research, Vol. 26, No. 1-2, Jan-Jul 1991. 17-28 pp. Dharwad, India. In Eng.
"This paper explores the reasons for the not-so-impressive performance of [the] IUD in Northern Karnataka, and more generally that of non-terminal methods of family planning in India." Methods are proposed for improving acceptance rates and length-of-use times.
Correspondence: Institute of Economic Research, Population Research Centre, Vidyagiri, Dharwad 580 004, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40397 Rajaretnam, T.; Deshpande, R. V. Information, education and communication on family planning and maternal and child health care: an evaluation of a special action programme in northern Karnataka. Journal of Institute of Economic Research, Vol. 26, No. 1-2, Jan-Jul 1991. 29-48 pp. Dharwad, India. In Eng.
This paper presents the results of an evaluation undertaken by the Population Research Centre of the India Population Project-III in two districts of Karnataka state in late 1990. "The evaluation study revealed that mass media type...programmes such as...films...were carried out satisfactorily. But inter-[personal] communication type...programmes such as group meetings...were rarely conducted and people's participation was not sufficiently ensured." Recommendations for improvements are included.
Correspondence: T. Rajaretnam, Institute of Economic Research, Population Research Centre, Vidyagiri, Dharwad 580 004, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40398 Ravindrakumar, V. K. Indian population control: a study of crucial aspects. ISBN 81-7041-135-1. LC 89-902963. 1989. xxiii, 229 pp. Anmol Publications: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author assesses the performance of male Multiple Health Workers, who are responsible for the delivery of health and family planning services to rural areas in India. The objectives of the study are "(1) to know the extent of understanding of [their] roles and responsibilities; (2) to study the performance in terms of type and quantum of services provided by them; (3) to study the relationship between the 'bio-social factors, professional characteristics', and their family planning performance; (4) to measure the level of job satisfaction; (5) to identify the difficulties faced by the workers in performing their job functions."
Correspondence: Anmol Publications, 4378/4B Gali Murari Lal, Ansari Road, New Delhi 110 002, India. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:40399 Wang, Jichuan. Time varying period codings: a method of assessing the effect of family planning programs on fertility. Population Studies Center Research Report, No. 90-176, Aug 1990. 20 pp. University of Michigan, Population Studies Center: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"In the present study new period codings in time continuous event history analysis are introduced....The coding technique provides a possibility to indirectly assess the effect of family planning programs on fertility in a country or region where the program inputs and efforts are difficult to [measure]." The method is tested using data for women in Shifang county, Sichuan, China, from 1971 to 1986.
Correspondence: University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.4. Attitudes Toward Fertility & Fertility Control

Studies concerned with the interrelations between fertility control and attitudinal variables, including studies on wanted and unwanted pregnancy and children, motivation for parenthood, sex preference, and voluntary childlessness. Studies on knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of family planning and attitudes toward family size are classified under this heading.

58:40400 Alihonou, Eusebe; Gandaho, Timothy. Family planning in Benin--knowledge, attitudes and practice. IPPF Medical Bulletin, Vol. 26, No. 4, Aug 1992. 3-4 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This article will deal with the family planning situation in Benin, more precisely [with] the level of knowledge, attitudes and practice (KAP) concerning modern contraceptive methods, and the hope for a successful family planning programme in Benin. We will look at studies which have already been done and we will also present some promising results of an experimental study which we carried out [in 1990]...." The period studied is from 1979 to 1991.
Correspondence: E. Alihonou, Centre for Research in Human Reproduction and Demography, B.P. 1822, Cotonou, Benin. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40401 Cigno, Alessandro. Children and pensions. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 5, No. 3, Aug 1992. 175-83 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"Recent economic explanations of changes in fertility behaviour have focussed on the effects of labour-market-related incentives. The present paper draws attention to another set of incentives, those connected with the transfer of resources over time. The theoretical implications of intergenerational altruism as a possible motive for having children and making transfers to them are considered, and contrasted with those arising from the competing hypothesis that such actions are motivated by old-age-security considerations. From a comparison of these theoretical predictions with the findings of a number of empirical studies, it would appear that self-interested concern for one's old age, rather than any great love for future members of one's dynasty, is or has been so far the dominant force driving fertility and intergenerational transfers worldwide."
Correspondence: A. Cigno, University of Pisa, Faculty of Political Sciences, Via Serafini 3, I-56126 Pisa, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40402 De Silva, W. Indralal. Achievement of reproductive intentions in Sri Lanka, 1982-1985: a longitudinal study. Social Biology, Vol. 39, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1992. 123-38 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"This paper has described the reproductive intentions of and their achievement by Sri Lankan women, using a longitudinal data base for the period 1982-85. Findings support the usefulness of reproductive intentions to examine actual behavior. Almost perfect aggregate agreement was observed between 1982 intentions and 1982-85 behavior, although this close correspondence was partly the result of the counterbalancing effect of individual level inconsistency. Comparison of earlier with later survey data showed Sri Lankan women's increasing ability to avoid undesired fertility over time." Data are from the 1982 Sri Lanka Contraceptive Prevalence Survey and its 1985 follow-up survey.
Correspondence: W. I. De Silva, University of Colombo, Demographic Training and Research Unit, Colombo 8, Sri Lanka. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40403 Dodoo, F. Nii-Amoo. Female education, age, parity, and reproduction cessation in Ghana. Social Biology, Vol. 39, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1992. 102-8 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"Data from the 1988 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey is employed to determine the existence of a relationship between the amount of education a woman has and her intent to cease childbearing. The findings are that with increasing levels of education, a female's desire to cease reproduction also increases. However, this relationship is obscured if parity is not controlled." A sample of 2,490 women aged 20-49 was analyzed.
Correspondence: F. N.-A. Dodoo, Tulane University, Department of Sociology, New Orleans, LA 70188. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40404 Ford, Nicholas. The sexual and contraceptive lifestyles of young people: Part I. British Journal of Family Planning, Vol. 18, No. 2, Jul 1992. 52-5 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This is the first of two linked papers which describe survey findings concerning the sexual and contraceptive lifestyles of young people. The findings are drawn from a programme of surveys undertaken among 3,777 16 to 24 year olds in households throughout the South West of England in 1989-90. The pattern of behaviour is described in terms of the age of first intercourse, frequency of intercourse and oral sex, numbers of sexual partners and their relative ages. Reference is made to the relationship context of intercourse and attitudes to sexual activity. The overall sexual culture is seen to be one in which premarital sexual intercourse is virtually universally condoned and practised."
Correspondence: N. Ford, University of Exeter, Institute of Population Studies, Hoopern House, 101 Pennsylvania Road, Exeter, Devon EX4 6DT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40405 Gearing, Jean. Family planning in St. Vincent, West Indies: a population history perspective. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 35, No. 10, Nov 1992. 1,273-82 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper assesses historical and contemporary factors influencing population dynamics in St. Vincent, West Indies, and Vincentians' reactions to programs developed to curb population growth. The efforts of private and government programs to introduce family planning and change pronatalist attitudes are evaluated for their cultural appropriateness." The author finds that "despite the recent surge in population growth due to falling mortality rates, the long struggle against poverty and reliance on wage labor migration has left Vincentians with strong pronatalist attitudes. Vincentian policy makers must contend with this legacy in their efforts to change attitudes towards sexuality and fertility."
Correspondence: J. Gearing, 2210 Southwest 28 Street, Miami, Fl 33133. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

58:40406 Kojima, Hiroshi. Attitudes toward fertility trends and policy in Japan. Jinkogaku Kenkyu/Journal of Population Studies, No. 15, May 1992. 19-30 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng. with sum. in Jpn.
"This study aims to clarify the determinants of Japanese attitudes toward fertility trends and policy for the possible input into the family policy [using]...data from [a] 1985 national household survey....This study analyzes the determinants of...positive, negative and neutral attitudes toward four kinds of statements: (a) antinatalist..., (b) pronatalist..., (c) that Japanese couples attain their fertility goals and (d) that fertility policy is desirable. The results largely confirm the hypotheses: being female, young age, high income and rural residence have negative effects on antinatalism while old age, low income and metropolitan residence have positive effects;...and being divorced or widowed, small sib size, low education, and farming are often associated with neutral attitudes."
Correspondence: H. Kojima, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Institute of Population Problems, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-45, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

58:40407 Muthal, Sudha. Attitudes towards fertility control. Man in India, Vol. 72, No. 1, Mar 1992. 97-103 pp. Ranchi, India. In Eng.
"The present work aims to determine...the effectiveness of traditional mixed and modern attitudes towards fertility. Here fertility refers to the number of children actually born to a woman. Randomly chosen 400 women belonging to different ethnic strains from Sagar town [India] constitute the data for the present study. The scaling technique is devised to obtain accurate values for fertility noticed among different populations. Thus an attempt has been made to study whether education, income, caste, age and age at marriage have direct association with fertility."
Correspondence: S. Muthal, Dr. Harisingh Gour Vishwavidyalaya, Department of Anthropology, Sagar, Madhya Pradesh, India. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

58:40408 Otani, Kenji. Locus of control, premarital sexual exposure, marriage and conception among Japanese women. Jinkogaku Kenkyu/Journal of Population Studies, No. 15, May 1992. 31-43 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng. with sum. in Jpn.
"This paper examined the relationship between locus of control and such variables as unmarried woman's sexual activity, wife's experience of premarital conception, female marriage probability, post marital contraception and first-conception probability in present-day Japan...[using data from the 1987] Ninth Japanese National Fertility Survey....[The findings] contradict the general prediction that the internal locus of control is associated with well-planned behaviours...."
Correspondence: K. Otani, Kansai University, 3-35 Yamate-cho 3-chome, Suitashi, Osaka 564, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

58:40409 Rahman, Mizanur; Akbar, Jalaluddin; Phillips, James F.; Becker, Stan. Contraceptive use in Matlab, Bangladesh: the role of gender preference. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 23, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1992. 229-42 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This analysis examines the effect of the sex composition of surviving children on the acceptance and discontinuation of contraception in a sample of 3,145 women in Matlab, Bangladesh, who were observed for 60 months. Hazards regression analyses are employed in the analysis. Strong and highly significant effects of gender preference on contraceptive use are observed. The preference is not monotonically son-biased but is moderated toward a balanced composition, because parents desire to have several sons and at least one daughter. These findings suggest that gender preferences, particularly a preference for sons, represent a significant barrier to fertility regulation in rural Bangladesh."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1990 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: M. Rahman, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, G.P.O. Box 128, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40410 Raitis, Riikka; Saarinen, Riitta. Fertility and family planning in India and Kenya. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 30, 1992. 95-103 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"This article deals with attitudes towards family planning and the fertility pattern in two culturally and geographically different societies in developing countries: in a fast growing slum area in Calcutta, India and in an agricultural area under great population pressure in Kenya. The aim of the article is to compare attitudes and ideas about family planning and the factors affecting family planning in the two localities as well as estimate what changes in fertility the current trends in family planning will entail."
Correspondence: R. Raitis, University of Helsinki, Research Group for Comparative Sociology, Hallituskatu 8, 00100 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40411 Westoff, Charles F. Measuring the unmet need for contraception: comment on Bongaarts. Population and Development Review, Vol. 18, No. 1, Mar 1992. 123-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author critically examines an article by John Bongaarts in which Bongaarts proposed "a modification in the measurement of unmet need [for contraception] that [Westoff] and others have developed. My aim here is not to review his criticisms in detail nor to discuss their technical aspects, but rather to summarize the differences in the major concepts and arguments and to highlight their policy and programmatic implications." A reply by Bongaarts is included (pp. 126-7).
For the article by Bongaarts, published in 1991, see 57:40328.
Correspondence: C. F. Westoff, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40412 Zhang, Junsen; Spencer, Byron G. Who signs China's one-child certificate, and why? Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 5, No. 3, Aug 1992. 203-15 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
The authors examine compliance with China's one-child policy and reasons for that compliance. "Using micro-data available from the 1985 Chinese In-Depth Fertility Survey, a multinomial logit model of family choice with respect to policy compliance is estimated. The results indicate that even after area of residence is taken into account, woman's education, husband's occupation, marriage duration, presence of a son, family structure, and house size significantly influence compliance, while age, child mortality experience, husband's education and woman's occupation apparently do not."
Correspondence: J. Zhang, University of Western Ontario, Department of Economics, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.5. Induced Abortion

Studies on induced abortion, including those on attitudes, with the exception of studies primarily concerned with government regulation of abortion, which are coded under M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility . Studies of spontaneous abortion appear under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology .

58:40413 Anderson, Barbara A. The role of abortion in fertility decisions in the Soviet Union: results from analysis of data from Soviet emigres. Population Studies Center Research Report, No. 91-231, Dec 1991. 14 pp. University of Michigan, Population Studies Center: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This paper examines data on the use of abortion in two surveys of emigrants from the Soviet Union [to the United States]. The evidence suggests that the average number of abortions to Soviet women over the course of their lives is far fewer than has been reported in Western media." The two surveys were conducted in the periods 1979-1982 and 1982-1985.
Correspondence: University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40414 Andolsek, Lidija; Obersnel-Kveder, Dunja. Abortion in the world and in Slovenia. [Splav po svetu in pri nas.] Medicinski Razgledi, Vol. 29, No. 4, 1990. 527-35 pp. Ljubljana, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
Global abortion trends are reviewed, with some reference to the abortion situation in Slovenia.
Correspondence: L. Andolsek, Katedra za Ginekologijo in Porodnistvo, Medicinska Fakulteta, Slajmerjeva 3, 61000 Ljubljana, Yugoslavia. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:40415 Bengtsson Agostino, M.; Wahlberg, V. Interruption of pregnancy: motives, attitudes and contraceptive use. Interviews before abortion, at a family planning clinic, Rome. Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation, Vol. 32, No. 3, 1991. 139-43 pp. Basel, Switzerland. In Eng.
This study examines motives for seeking an abortion, contraceptive habits, attitudes toward abortion, and male partners' participation. Data concerning 65 women visiting a family planning clinic in Rome, Italy, to arrange for an abortion are analyzed.
Correspondence: V. Wahlberg, Nordic School of Public Health, S-402 42 Goteberg, Sweden. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:40416 Cook, Elizabeth A.; Jelen, Ted G.; Wilcox, Clyde. Between two absolutes: public opinion and the politics of abortion. ISBN 0-8133-8286-6. LC 92-25268. 1992. xvii, 236 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors examine changes in public attitudes toward abortion in the United States. They suggest that control of abortion is being removed from the federal courts and put into the hands of elected officials at both federal and state levels, and that public opinion on abortion will therefore come to play an increasing role in the molding of abortion policy. They examine the factors that influence people's abortion attitudes, the role of religion in shaping those attitudes, and the consequences of abortion attitudes for electoral politics.
Correspondence: Westview Press, 5500 Central Avenue, Boulder, CO 80301-2877. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40417 Gold, Rachel B. Abortion and women's health: a turning point for America? ISBN 0-939253-15-1. 1990. vi, 74 pp. Alan Guttmacher Institute: New York, New York. In Eng.
This report examines trends in induced abortion in the United States before and after 1973, the year that Roe vs. Wade legalized abortion. The author first describes the characteristics of those having abortions and their reasons for having an abortion. She then examines abortion safety. Finally, she looks at the health implications of the various restrictions on abortion that are currently under consideration. She concludes that "deaths from illegal abortion have all but disappeared in the United States, and deaths from legal abortion are rare. Since 1973, as abortion services have become increasingly available in all states, American women have been able to obtain an abortion earlier and earlier in pregnancy, when the procedure is safest. Complications from legal abortion, either physical or emotional, are now very infrequent occurrences. In addition, legal abortion has been associated with important declines in U.S. maternal and infant mortality rates. These significant individual and public health benefits of the availability of legal abortion are now threatened."
Correspondence: Alan Guttmacher Institute, 111 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40418 Henshaw, Stanley K.; Kost, Kathryn. Parental involvement in minors' abortion decisions. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 24, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1992. 196-207, 213 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The purpose of this study is to obtain a deeper understanding of how unmarried minors who have induced abortions [in the United States] initially react to their pregnancy and how they arrive at the decision to have an abortion. The study focuses on the following topics: the minors' initial feelings about their pregnancy; the proportion who, in the absence of legal requirements, consult their parents, and the proportion of parents who find out about the pregnancy in other ways; the reasons minors do or do not consult their parents; the reactions of parents when they discover their daughter is pregnant and the consequences of this discovery; parental and other pressures to continue or terminate the pregnancy; the characteristics of minors who choose not to involve their parents; and other aspects of the process by which pregnant minors choose abortion and carry out that decision....We used a self-administered questionnaire distributed in abortion facilities to collect data on minors having an abortion in states without parental notification requirements."
Correspondence: S. K. Henshaw, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 111 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40419 Kang, Xiaoping. Dynamics of abortion among married women in China and the main causes. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 3, No. 4, 1991. 315-25 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"By comparing the induced live birth ratios for different areas, ethnic groups, cultures and occupations, our study found that the distribution of the abortion level in China and the distribution of the fertility rate level are directly opposite, producing China's unique dual patterns of family planning, one being an urban-type family planning pattern...; the other is a rural-type family planning pattern taking interior and border areas as its core....In this study we also made an analysis of the relation between induced abortion and the previous number of live births and the four main types of contraception. The results found that the lower the number of previous live births the higher the occurrence of abortion, which may be related to age....By comparing the effectiveness of the main contraceptive methods and the abortion occurrence rate, this study found that IUD had the highest results, with the lowest abortion occurrence rate; the effectiveness of the condom was the lowest...."
Correspondence: X. Kang, Beijing Medical University, Health Statistics and Medicine Demographic Research Bureau, Xue Yuan Lu, Northern Suburb, Beijing 100083, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40420 Klitsch, Michael. RU 486: the science and the politics. 1989. 21 pp. Alan Guttmacher Institute: New York, New York. In Eng.
The author describes the development of the abortion pill, RU 486. Clinical uses of the drug as an abortifacient, a contraceptive, and for other purposes are reviewed. The author then outlines the various factors that have prevented availability of the drug outside France and discusses the political situation that has served as a barrier to the marketing of RU 486 in the United States.
Correspondence: Allan Guttmacher Institute, 111 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10013. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40421 le Grand, Amanda. The abortion pill: a solution for unsafe abortions in developing countries? Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 35, No. 6, Sep 1992. 767-76 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This article discusses medical and users' aspects of the abortion pill, with particular emphasis on its use in developing countries, and questions the usefulness of the abortion pill in areas where health care facilities are in short supply. It stresses the need to consider the social, cultural and health care context in which the abortion pill will be used before it is sold on the world market. The safety and efficacy of the abortion pill could be adversely affected by the way women perceive its effectiveness, women's beliefs about conception and pregnancy, and their health status. In the present two-phase administration form the abortion pill is not likely to be appropriate for use in developing countries with a shortage of health care facilities."
Correspondence: A. le Grand, Women's Health Action Foundation/WEMOS, P.O. Box 4263, 1009 AG Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

58:40422 Maloy, Kate; Patterson, Maggie J. Birth or abortion? Private struggles in a political world. ISBN 0-306-44327-9. LC 92-18442. 1992. vii, 344 pp. Plenum Press: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
This book "is a collection of almost fifty stories about [U.S.] women and men who have had to decide whether to continue or end an unplanned or medically troubled pregnancy." Consideration is given to such questions as, "How does a person's decision emerge from the beliefs and priorities communicated by parents, religion, peers, the law? How are women, children, men, the family, and work regarded in each time and place? What are the social realities and economic conditions surrounding each choice, and how do these--overtly or in unnoticed ways--affect the outcome?" The period covered is from the 1950s to the present.
Correspondence: Plenum Press, 233 Spring Street, New York, NY 10013. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40423 North, Diana A.; Sparrow, Margaret J. Trends in the contraceptive practices of women seeking abortions in the 1980s. New Zealand Medical Journal, Vol. 104, No. 910, Apr 24, 1991. 156-8 pp. Wellington, New Zealand. In Eng.
"The demographic features and contraceptive practices of 1,000 women attending Parkview clinic of Wellington Hospital [New Zealand] for termination of pregnancy were studied over an eight month period in 1988-9. Comparisons were made with a previous study at the same clinic in 1980-1." The results show that, although contraceptive practice increased among abortion seekers from 50 percent in 1981 to 68.5 percent in 1989, the overall abortion rate in the Wellington area increased from 6.8 to 9.8 per 1,000 over the same period. Increases in abortions for Pacific Island and Asian women and for lower socioeconomic groups are noted.
Correspondence: M. J. Sparrow, P.O. Box 574, Wellington, New Zealand. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:40424 Russo, Nancy F.; Horn, Jody D.; Schwartz, Robert. U.S. abortion in context: selected characteristics and motivations of women seeking abortions. Journal of Social Issues, Vol. 48, No. 3, 1992. 183-202 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article provides descriptive analyses of selected demographic and social characteristics of abortion patients, separately for critical subpopulations of women: unmarried minors (never-married women under 18 years of age), unmarried adults (never-married, divorced, separated, or widowed women 18 years of age and over), and married adults (married women 18 years of age and older)....In addition, the article compares the responses of women with one or more children (mothers) to women with no children (nonmothers) in each of the two categories of adults." The focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: N. F. Russo, Arizona State University, Department of Psychology, Tempe, AZ 85287-1104. Location: Princeton University Library (SW).

58:40425 Sabatello, Eitan F. Estimates of demand for abortion among Soviet immigrants in Israel. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 23, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1992. 268-73 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In 1990, more than 185,000 Soviet Jews emigrated to Israel, increasing Israel's population by 4 percent; 148,000 more arrived in 1991. Given the fertility and abortion patterns prevailing among Soviet women in their native country, this article inquires about the short-range expected increase in abortion demand in Israel engendered by this large migratory inflow. Estimation techniques based on the abortion experience of an earlier wave of Soviet-born immigrants in Israel reveal that the increase in requests for abortion brought about by the 1990 immigrants may reach up to 14 percent, and as high as 24 percent for the combined immigration waves of 1990 and 1991. The expanded demand for abortions in Israel engendered by the new Soviet immigrants necessitates an expansion of both family planning services and of the medical committees entitled to grant a legal abortion. A failure in these fields would benefit illegal abortion."
Correspondence: E. F. Sabatello, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, 91120 Jerusalem, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40426 Skjeldestad, Finn E.; Borgan, Jens-Kristian. Induced abortion on demand: the experience of Norway, 1979-1989. [Sjolvbestemt abort 1979-89--kva viser aborttala.] Tidsskrift for den Norske Laegeforening/Journal of the Norwegian Medical Association, Vol. 111, No. 20, 1991. 2,559-62 pp. Oslo, Norway. In Nor. with sum. in Eng.
The authors examine levels and trends in induced abortion in Norway over the period 1979-1989. "Adjusting for...demographic changes, the general rate of induced abortion among married women decreased by 17% from 1979 to 1989, while there was no change in the rate of induced abortion among unmarried women....When adjusted for age and marital status, there have been no major changes in the general rate of induced abortion in Norway after introduction of self-determined termination of pregnancy in 1979."
Correspondence: F. E. Skjeldestad, Kvinneklinikken, Regionsykehuset i Trondheim, 7006 Trondheim, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40427 Stephenson, Patricia; Wagner, Marsden; Badea, Mihaela; Serbanescu, Florina. Commentary: the public health consequences of restricted induced abortion--lessons from Romania. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 82, No. 10, Oct 1992. 1,328-31 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The public health consequences of restricting induced abortion are illustrated using data from Romania for the period 1965-1991. "The pronatalist policies of the Ceaucescu regime resulted in the highest maternal mortality rate in Europe (approximately 150 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births) and in thousands of unwanted children in institutions."
Correspondence: P. Stephenson, Centrum for Folkhalsoforskning, Landstinget i Varmland, 651 82 Karlstad, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

58:40428 United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Development (New York, New York). Abortion policies: a global review. Volume 1: Afghanistan to France. No. ST/ESA/SER.A/129, Pub. Order No. E.92.XIII.8. ISBN 92-1-151246-8. 1992. vii, 158 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This is the first of three volumes presenting a country-by-country examination of national policies concerning abortion. This first volume, which is arranged alphabetically, covers countries from Afghanistan to France. The information is provided for each country on abortion policy, the context of fertility and mortality in which abortion policy has been developed, and statistics on induced abortion.
Correspondence: U.N. Department of Economic and Social Development, Population Division, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40429 Uzel, R. Induced abortion--history, present status, and perspectives. [Umele preruseni tehotenstvi--historie, soucasnost a perspektivy.] Ceskoslovenska Gynekologie, Vol. 56, No. 4, May 1991. 290-5 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze.
This is a general review of global trends in abortion. It includes a historical survey, an overview of the present situation, and a discussion of possible future trends.
Correspondence: R. Uzel, Podolske Nabr. 157, 147 10 Prague 4-Podoli, Czechoslovakia. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:40430 Wadhera, Surinder; Strachan, Jill. Therapeutic abortions, Canada and the provinces, 1990. [Avortements therapeutiques, Canada et provinces, 1990.] Health Reports/Rapports sur la Sante, Vol. 4, No. 2, 1992. 210-7 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
The authors provide statistics on therapeutic abortion in Canada and the provinces in 1990. Information is included on number and rates of therapeutic abortions performed in hospitals, 1970-1990; provincial rates; abortions performed in clinics or in the United States; abortions by age; and teenage abortion rates.
Correspondence: S. Wadhera, Statistics Canada, Canadian Centre for Health Information, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40431 Wilmoth, Gregory H. Psychological perspectives on abortion and its alternatives: research and policy. Journal of Social Issues, Vol. 48, No. 3, 1992. [iv], 216 pp. Plenum Publishing Corporation: New York, New York. In Eng.
This special issue contains a selection of articles on the psychological consequences of legal induced abortion in the United States. "It begins with methodological articles which critique the past research in the area and show the limits of its applicability. Then it turns to examples of important research on the consequences of abortion for those experiencing it, and to reviews of the factors that influence both short-term and long-term responses to abortion. Two other articles present summaries of social science evidence on two of the main alternatives to having an abortion--placing the baby for adoption, or rearing an originally unwanted child....Finally, several of the articles discuss public policy aspects of the abortion debate and legal problems...."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Plenum Publishing Corporation, 233 Spring Street, New York, NY 10013. Location: Princeton University Library (SW).

F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility

Studies on lactation, nutrition, fecundability, sex behavior, menarche and menopause, and other biological factors or social customs as they affect fertility directly. Factors affecting contraceptive practice and factors affecting fertility indirectly are not included here.

58:40432 Benefo, Kofi D.; Tsui, Amy O.; De Graft Johnson, Joseph. Ethnic differentials in the ideal and practice of child-spacing in Ghana. PSTC Working Paper Series, No. 92-05, Oct 1992. 19, [6] pp. Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center [PSTC]: Providence, Rhode Island. In Eng.
The authors examine ethnic differences in child-spacing practices in Ghana. "We investigate the response of abstinence to factors associated with social change, the impact of abstinence on the length of the birth interval and thereby on fertility and child health, and attitudes about the adequacy of abstinence behavior. We use data from the [1988] Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS)."
Correspondence: Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40433 Benefo, Kofi D. The determinants of the duration of postpartum sexual abstinence in West Africa: a multilevel analysis. PSTC Working Paper Series, No. 92-04, Oct 1992. 24, [13] pp. Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center [PSTC]: Providence, Rhode Island. In Eng.
"In this study, I examine the determinants of the duration of postpartum sexual abstinence with a multilevel framework that combines information about individuals and their ethnic groups. The data are from the World Fertility surveys conducted in the late 1970s in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Cameroon."
Correspondence: Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40434 Brunham, R. C.; Garnett, G. P.; Swinton, J.; Anderson, R. M. Gonococcal infection and human fertility in sub-Saharan Africa. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences, Vol. 246, No. 1316, Nov 22, 1991. 173-7 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"An analysis is presented of the influence of Neisseria gonorrhoea on human population growth in regions of sub-Saharan Africa where gonococcal infections are prevalent in sexually active adults. Combining epidemiological and demographic data within the framework of a mathematical model, we show that gonorrhoea has a major impact on fertility and, concomitantly, on net population growth in areas with a high prevalence of untreated infections. Specifically, a 20% prevalence in sexually active adults is predicted to induce a 50% reduction in net population growth. The analysis suggests that the predicted increase in fertility arising from expanded sexually transmitted disease (STD) control programmes in Africa to help combat the spread of human immunodeficiency viruses...will help to offset the predicted demographic impact of AIDS in the worst afflicted areas. In other areas the rise in fertility associated with effective STD control will need to be countered by the linkage of STD control programmes with family planning initiatives."
Correspondence: R. C. Brunham, University of Manitoba, Department of Medical Microbiology, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 0W3, Canada. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:40435 Chayovan, Napaporn; Knodel, John. Coital activity among married Thai women: evidence from the 1987 Thailand Demographic and Health Survey. Population Studies Center Research Report, No. 91-221, Jul 1991. 18, [23] pp. University of Michigan, Population Studies Center: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"The present study examines marital sexual activity among reproductive-age women in Thailand based on a survey conducted as part of the DHS program....[The objectives of this analysis are] to evaluate the quality of data on coital activity and to provide a descriptive analysis of coital activity."
Correspondence: University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40436 Choudhury, Jaya. Marriage conception interval. Man in India, Vol. 72, No. 1, Mar 1992. 91-5 pp. Ranchi, India. In Eng.
The relationship between length of menstrual cycle and first birth interval is explored using data for 400 urban and 190 rural women in Lodha, India. The women were divided into three groups: urban women married before menarche, urban women married after menarche, and rural women married before menarche. The results indicate that "marriage-conception is delayed with longer menstrual cycles. Thus the females with longer menstrual cycle lengths appear to have a lesser chance of reproductive performances during the span of their reproductive life than those who are with shorter cycle lengths."
Correspondence: J. Choudhury, UGC Research Associate, Department of Anthropology, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Calcutta 700 019, India. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

58:40437 Feichtinger, W. Environmental factors and fertility. Human Reproduction, Vol. 6, No. 8, Sep 1991. 1,170-5 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This review deals with the decrease of male and female fertility during the last few decades which might [be] due to harmful environmental influences, stress and pollutants. Particular attention is drawn to the extent to which alcohol, coffee drinking, cigarette smoking and environmental pollutants may influence human fertility. Possible influences of increased radiation exposure after the nuclear accident of Chernobyl and possible hazards of electromagnetic fields are also discussed."
Correspondence: W. Feichtinger, Institut fur Sterilitatsbetreung, Trauttmansdorffgasse 3a, A1130 Vienna, Austria. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:40438 Fitzgerald, Maureen H. Is lactation nature's contraceptive? Data from Samoa. Social Biology, Vol. 39, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1992. 55-64 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"Data from a Samoan menstruation study suggest that lactation, even intensive on-demand lactation, does not inhibit menstruation or conception. This paper explores the applied and theoretical implications of continuing to accept lactation as a universally effective fertility control mechanism. Such thinking can have disastrous implications for family planning programs, and it keeps us from challenging long-held assumptions about lactation's role in population growth in early populations."
Correspondence: M. H. Fitzgerald, University of Hawaii at Manoa, John A. Burns School of Medicine, Pacific Basin Rehabilitation Research and Training Center, Honolulu, HI 96822. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40439 Singh, S. N.; Singh, K. K.; Singh, Kiran; Singh, Shrikant. Socio-economic development and transition in the duration of post-partum amenorrhoea: survival function analysis of data. Janasamkhya, Vol. 8, No. 1, Jun 1990. 41-54 pp. Kerala, India. In Eng.
The impact of improved maternal socioeconomic status in the form of nutritious food on length of postpartum amenorrhea (PPA) is assessed using data for Varanasi city, India, for the period 1987-1990. "Estimates of survival functions corresponding to data relating to mothers of different social status groups, assumed to represent health condition of mothers, are obtained and compared. Finally, it is concluded that the distribution of duration of PPA is a mixture of two distributions and it differs from one social status group to [the] other."
Correspondence: K. K. Singh, Banaras Hindu University, Department of Statistics, Varanasi 221 005, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.6. Fertility Outside Marriage

Studies on nonmarital fertility, including illegitimacy. Studies of common-law marriage and other forms of cohabitation or voluntary single parenthood are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

No citations in this issue.


Copyright © 1992-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.