Volume 58 - Number 4 - Winter 1992

E. Mortality

Studies that treat quantitative mortality data analytically. Methodological studies primarily concerned with mortality are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary. The main references to crude data are in the vital statistics items in S. Official Statistical Publications .

E.1. General Mortality

Studies of overall mortality and comparisons of several types of mortality. Studies dealing with two or more of the topics listed in this division are classified under the major section covered, or, if this is not self-evident, included here under General Mortality.

58:40097 Bhat, P. N. Mari; Navaneetham, K. Recent trends in age-specific mortality in India. Journal of Institute of Economic Research, Vol. 26, No. 1-2, Jan-Jul 1991. 49-69 pp. Dharwad, India. In Eng.
"In this paper we have analyzed the data from the Sample Registration System [SRS] on mortality by age and sex [in India] since 1970. Some of the major conclusions emerging from this analysis are: (i) Mortality has declined more rapidly among infants, children under 15 years and women of reproductive ages....(ii) Among adults, mortality has declined more rapidly among females than among males, the differential gain being largest in the age span 25-49. But in ages under 15, there is no evidence to suggest a gender differential in mortality decline. (iii) Among children and women of reproductive ages, mortality has declined more rapidly in urban areas than in rural areas but the reverse is true in the case of adult men....The paper also analyzes the trends in mortality in major states of India during 1970-86." The authors observe a significant shift in patterns between 1978 and 1979, and conclude that this may be limited to changes in SRS data collection techniques.
Correspondence: P. N. M. Bhat, Institute of Economic Research, Population Research Centre, Vidyagiri, Dharwad 580 004, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40098 Blane, David. Real wages, the economic cycle, and mortality in England and Wales, 1870-1914. International Journal of Health Services, Vol. 20, No. 1, 1990. 43-52 pp. Amityville, New York. In Eng.
"The mortality rates of the various age groups within the population of England and Wales fell dramatically between 1870 and 1914, and this period has been used to examine McKeown's thesis of an inverse relationship between a population's mortality rate and its standard of living. Using real wages as a measure of living standards, McKeown's thesis is found to hold for most age groups for most of the period. Several anomalies are identified, however, and it is argued that these can best be reconciled with the original thesis by taking account of the economic cycle."
Correspondence: D. Blane, Charing Cross and Westminster Medical School, Department of Psychiatry, Behavioural Sciences Unit, London W6 8RP, England. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:40099 Bravo, Jorge; Vargas, Nelson. Trends and fluctuations in morbidity and mortality by selected causes, and economic activity: Costa Rica, Chile, and Guatemala, 1960-1986. [Tendencias y fluctuaciones de la morbilidad y la mortalidad por ciertas causas, y la actividad economica: Costa Rica, Chile y Guatemala, 1960-1986.] Notas de Poblacion, Vol. 19, No. 53, Aug 1991. 117-46 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"The paper examines the relationship between medium and short-term changes in aggregate economic activity, and national morbidity and mortality rates by certain causes. Although overall mortality conditions have continued to improve during the economic crisis of the nineteen-eighties in the three countries studied, mortality by some causes...[has] discontinued [its] decline and [has] even increased [its] rates in some recent years....The short-term changes in mortality in Costa Rica and Chile are generally lower than in Guatemala, but tend to be more systematic in their inverse relationship with economic fluctuations in the former. Many of the causes studied affect young and older adults, which are groups that have so far received little attention in evaluations of the health effects of economic crises in the region."
Correspondence: J. Bravo, U.N. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia, Avenida Dag Hammarskjold, Casilla 91, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40100 Caldwell, John C.; Caldwell, Pat. Famine in Africa: a global perspective. In: Mortality and society in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Etienne van de Walle, Gilles Pison, and Mpembele Sala-Diakanda. 1992. 367-90 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
Levels and trends in famine mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa are analyzed and compared to the situations in Bangladesh; China; Bengal, India; and Sri Lanka. The authors conclude that "there is no evidence of a close association between the frequency of famine and mortality levels in sub-Saharan Africa. Famine-prone areas tend to be poorer because of their lower levels of resources, particularly rainfall. It is this lower level of income, particularly in the relatively low levels of education that have been affordable, which entirely accounts for the fact that mortality is moderately higher in the famine countries."
Correspondence: J. C. Caldwell, Australian National University, GPO 4, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40101 Caselli, Graziella; Egidi, Viviana. A new insight into morbidity and mortality transition in Italy. Genus, Vol. 47, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1991. 1-29 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"Average life expectancy in Italy more than doubled over the last 100 years, rising from 36 years in 1887 for both sexes to 72 and 79 years for men and women, respectively, by 1986....The aim of the present study is to interpret this trend in the light of the mortality dynamic by age and...the health transition which began in Italy at the close of the last century. By reconstructing the annual data necessary for this purpose it will be possible to pin-point how and when changes took place in the cause-specific mortality structure and what impact these changes had in either accelerating or curbing improvements in life expectancy."
Correspondence: G. Caselli, Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche, Via Nomentana 41, Rome 00161, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40102 Chen, Junshi; Campbell, T. Colin; Li, Junyao; Peto, Richard; Boreham, Jillian; Feng, Zulin; Youngman, Linda. Diet, life-style, and mortality in China: a study of the characteristics of 65 Chinese counties. ISBN 0-19-261843-1. LC 89-38882. 1990. xvii, 894 pp. Oxford University Press: Oxford, England; People's Medical Publishing House: Beijing, China. In Eng; Chi.
This report presents data from a number of recent surveys undertaken in China, including the 1983 ecological survey, the 1973-1975 mortality survey, and the 1984 nitrosamine survey. "The chief purpose of the present monograph is simply to describe [population heterogeneity in China], by studying 65 rural counties and providing for each of them information on about 367 characteristics (82 standardized mortality rates from specific diseases, and 285 biochemical and other characteristics chiefly from a special 1983 survey of adult blood, urine, diet and lifestyle in two randomly chosen villages in each of those 65 counties)."
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, Walton Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

58:40103 d'Espaignet, Edouard T.; van Ommeren, Marijke; Taylor, Fred; Briscoe, Norma; Pentony, Patrick. Trends in Australian mortality 1921-1988. Australian Institute of Health: Mortality Series, No. 1, Pub. Order No. 89 1522 3. ISBN 0-644-10695-6. 1991. iii, 230 pp. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra, Australia. Distributed by International Specialized Book Services. In Eng.
"This publication reports sex, age and cause specific death rates in Australia for each year between 1921 and 1988. These rates are summarised by direct age standardisation using the population distribution of people in five year age groups in Australia at 30 June 1988."
Correspondence: International Specialized Book Services, 5804 NE Hassalo Street, Portland, OR 97213-3644. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40104 Foster, Leslie T.; Edgell, Michael C. R. The geography of death: mortality atlas of British Columbia, 1985-1989. Western Geographical Series, Vol. 26, ISBN 0-919838-16-2. 1992. ix, 223 pp. University of Victoria, Department of Geography: Victoria, Canada. In Eng.
"This atlas presents mortality patterns in British Columbia, [Canada,] for selected and leading causes of death, over the five-year period from 1985 to 1989. The information is taken from Vital Statistics death registrations and is, therefore, subject to the limitations of these data."
Correspondence: University of Victoria, Department of Geography, P.O. Box 3050, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 3P5, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40105 Guldvog, Bjorn. The health-for-all strategy: are we reaching our targets to reduce mortality? [Helse for alle-strategien--nar vi malene for redusert dodelighet?] Tidsskrift for den Norske Laegeforening/Journal of the Norwegian Medical Association, Vol. 112, No. 1, 1992. 57-63 pp. Oslo, Norway. In Nor. with sum. in Eng.
The author examines Norway's efforts toward attaining the WHO goal of health for all by the year 2000. "This article presents and discusses the sub-goals for expectation of life and mortality, and analyzes the possibilities of reaching them." Consideration is given to reductions in mortality from accidents, cardiovascular effects, and cancer; age-specific mortality rates; and deaths from suicide and homicide.
Correspondence: B. Guldvog, Statens Institutt for Folkehelse, Avdeling for Samfunnsmedisin, Seksjon for Forebyggende og Helsefremmende Arbeid, 0462 Oslo, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40106 Heilig, Gerhard K. Population-related crises: a typology. IIASA Working Paper, No. WP-92-58, Aug 1992. v, 26 pp. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
"The paper deals with demographic aspects of various [global] crises. In particular it reviews available but scattered information on the death toll of selected famines, epidemics, (civil) wars, genocides, ecological crises, and other catastrophes." The primary objective is to put mortality from such crises into perspective with mortality from intentional human action, such as war, political terror, and genocide, and from human behavior such as cigarette smoking.
Correspondence: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40107 Lew, Edward A.; Gajewski, Jerzy. Medical risks: trends in mortality by age and time elapsed. Volume 1. ISBN 0-275-93787-9. LC 90-7707. 1990. [826] pp. Praeger: New York, New York. In Eng.
This is the first of two volumes sponsored by the Association of Life Insurance Medical Directors of America and the Society of Actuaries. The volumes present data on trends in mortality by age and time elapsed for some major diseases and causes of death. This volume contains chapters on methodology and interpretation; data on life-style hazards such as social class differentials, smoking, alcohol drinking, drug abuse, stress, behavior, social support systems, and physical activity; occupational hazards; and cardiovascular disease. The second volume contains more data on cardiovascular diseases, as well as on respiratory, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and endocrine and metabolic disease systems, neurological and psychiatric diseases, being overweight and underweight, and systemic and miscellaneous diseases. The primary geographical focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: Praeger, One Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10010. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:40108 Lutz, Wolfgang; Scherbov, Sergei. Sensitivity of aggregate period life expectancy to different averaging procedures. Population Bulletin of the United Nations, No. 33, 1992. 32-46 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors evaluate recent changes in the way the U.N. Population Division calculates worldwide life expectancy. This change "results in a life expectancy for the world total which is 2.5 years higher....This article gives special attention to the fact that the joint life expectancy calculated by [the new method of] merging the populations may even be outside the range of life expectancies in the constituent populations. Extensive simulations are performed to estimate the empirical relevance of this seemingly paradoxical phenomenon, using various sets [of] model life-tables. It also shows how the phenomenon depends on the difference between the constituent life expectancies and on the age distributions of the populations concerned."
Correspondence: W. Lutz, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, 2361 Laxenburg, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40109 Nolan, Peter; Sender, John. Death rates, life expectancy and China's economic reforms: a critique of A. K. Sen. World Development, Vol. 20, No. 9, Sep 1992. 1,279-312 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors critique the work of Amartya K. Sen on the consequences of China's rural reforms of the late 1970s and early 1980s, and specifically his contention that these reforms resulted in an increase in mortality. They conclude that the reforms brought substantial gains in welfare for most Chinese citizens in the form of improved diets, better housing, and new items of consumption, and that "post-Mao China saw a geographically widespread decline in death rates, compared to the late Mao years, and little change from the exceptionally low figures achieved in the late 1970s." A reply by Sen is included (pp. 1,305-12).
Correspondence: P. Nolan, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1TN, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

58:40110 Pan American Health Organization [PAHO] (Washington, D.C.). Health statistics from the Americas, 1991 edition. Mortality since 1960. [Estadisticas de salud de las Americas, edicion de 1991. La mortalidad desde 1960.] PAHO Scientific Publication, No. 537, ISBN 92-75-31537-X. 1991. xii, 462 pp. Washington, D.C. In Spa.
This is the first in a planned annual series of publications containing health statistics for the Americas. This edition provides an overview of mortality in the region since 1960. After a brief discussion of their quality, data are presented in tabular format by cause of death, age, sex, country, and year. The publication is also available in English.
Correspondence: Pan American Health Organization, 525 23rd Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40111 Radivojevic, Biljana. An attempted application of the "law of mortality" [Pokusaj primene "zakona mortaliteta"] Stanovnistvo, Vol. 28-29, No. 3-4/1-2, Jul-Dec/Jan-Jun 1990-1991. 189-97 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper demonstrates the use of [the] Heligman-Pollard formula [with] Yugoslav mortality [data] for the following three-year periods 1960-1962, 1970-1972 and 1980-1982. Basic data are the probabilities of dying...which were taken from the official life tables constructed in the [Yugoslav] Federal Bureau of Statistics."
For the article by L. Heligman and J. H. Pollard, published in 1980, see 47:1210.
Correspondence: B. Radivojevic, Univerziteta u Beogradu, Ekonomski Fakultet, Studentski trg 1, 11001 Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40112 Seaman, John. Famine mortality in Ethiopia and Sudan. In: Mortality and society in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Etienne van de Walle, Gilles Pison, and Mpembele Sala-Diakanda. 1992. 349-66 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This chapter describes the economic effects and the population reaction to food shortages in Sudan and Ethiopia from 1980 to 1985 and the impact of this on mortality. The account is limited to the main famine areas of northern Sudan and Ethiopia." Consideration is given to responses to drought-induced food shortages, including the sale of assets to buy food, migration, resource stockpiling, and food aid.
Correspondence: J. Seaman, Save the Children Fund, London, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40113 Taylor, Richard; Lewis, Nancy D.; Sladden, Tim. Mortality in Pacific island countries around 1980: geopolitical, socioeconomic, demographic and health service factors. Australian Journal of Public Health, Vol. 15, No. 3, Sep 1991. 207-21 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
An analysis of mortality in a number of Pacific island countries around 1980 is presented. "Political status was a major correlate, with independence positively associated with mortality. However, the influence of political status was partly accounted for by economic and social variables. Economic indices, particularly imports per capita, were major inverse correlates of mortality. Disparities in life expectancy occurred between malarious and nonmalarious countries, and these were not explicable by other factors. Melanesians, especially women, experienced high mortality rates. Education and doctor availability were both associated with increased life expectancy."
Correspondence: R. Taylor, University of Sydney, Department of Public Health, A-27, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:40114 Vallin, Jacques. Theories of mortality decline and the African situation. In: Mortality and society in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Etienne van de Walle, Gilles Pison, and Mpembele Sala-Diakanda. 1992. 405-36 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author briefly examines theories of mortality decline, then considers "whether there has been or there is now a decline of mortality in Africa. If so, what are the driving forces? Are these factors the same as for Europe or for other developing countries? In the second section I shall hazard some speculations on Africa's chances of rapidly catching up with the levels of life expectancy of industrial countries and an increasing number of developing nations." The lack of a fertility decline in Africa is also assessed.
Correspondence: J. Vallin, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40115 van de Walle, Etienne; Pison, Gilles; Sala-Diakanda, Mpembele. Mortality and society in Sub-Saharan Africa. International Studies in Demography, ISBN 0-19-828372-5. LC 91-26053. 1992. xx, 450 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The chapters in this volume consist of [18] papers presented at an international seminar held in Yaounde, Cameroon, from 19 to 23 October 1987...." Trends in mortality and mortality differentials are examined for Sub-Saharan Africa. Consideration is given to socioeconomic factors, seasonal mortality variations, the impact of health care on infant mortality, morbidity and mortality from diarrheal diseases in children under age five, overcrowding, famine, and AIDS.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
For the French version of this volume, published in 1989, see 56:40130.
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, Walton Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40116 Veselkova, I. Mortality and life expectancy of the population in the active ages. [Smertnost' i prodolzhitel'nost' zhizni naseleniya v trudosposobnom vozraste.] Vestnik Statistiki, No. 7, 1991. 24-9 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
The author analyzes recent mortality trends in the USSR. Differences according to sex, Union republic, and urban or rural area are examined. Reasons for increased mortality rates are considered, and primary causes of death are described.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40117 Virganskaya, I. M.; Dmitriev, V. I. Some problems of medicodemographic development in the former USSR. World Health Statistics Quarterly/Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales, Vol. 45, No. 1, 1992. 4-14 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
Trends in health, mortality, and health care in the republics of the former Soviet Union are analyzed and compared. Data are presented for mortality by cause, age at death, and life expectancy for selected republics. The authors conclude that "the republics of the former USSR show great diversity in life expectancy, and in morbidity and disability prevalence rates....These [rates]...are determined by environmental, climatic and topographic features, as well as by social and economic development and lifestyle, including nutritional habits."
Correspondence: I. M. Virganskaya, Academy of Medical Sciences, Cardiology Research Centre, Medicodemographic and Sociological Studies Laboratory, Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40118 Westerling, Ragnar. Trends in "avoidable" mortality in Sweden, 1974-1985. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 46, No. 5, Oct 1992. 489-93 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The aim was to analyse trends in 'avoidable' mortality in Sweden, and to contribute to the methodology of avoidable mortality as an index of the quality of care....All deaths of Swedish citizens and other residents in Sweden during the period 1974-1985 were analysed as to causes of death between ages 0 and 64 years....The study indicates that the avoidable mortality method is sensitive enough to describe important changes in the mortality pattern. The explicit definition of treatable and preventable causes of death constitutes a methodological development in epidemiological analysis of this type. Further studies on the quality of care should combine this method with other methods examining the structure and process of health care."
Correspondence: R. Westerling, Akademiska Sjukhuset, Department of Social Medicine, S-751 85 Uppsala, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40119 Willekens, Frans; Scherbov, Sergei. Analysis of mortality data from the former USSR: age-period-cohort analysis. World Health Statistics Quarterly/Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales, Vol. 45, No. 1, 1992. 29-49 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This article discusses the method of age-period-cohort [APC] analysis and its application to mortality trends in the former USSR. After a general introduction to APC analysis, the literature on APC analysis of mortality data will be reviewed. The specification and estimation of the APC model will then be discussed, followed by the interpretation of the model parameters, which represent the effects of age, period and cohort. The model will then be applied to unravel age, period and cohort effects in mortality data of the former USSR and its regions. The data consist of age-specific mortality rates of the former USSR from 1958 and of its regions from 1970. The results are compared to those of a recent study of trends in mortality in the former USSR."
Correspondence: F. Willekens, University of Groningen, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, Population Research Centre, 9700 AV Groningen, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40120 Yan, Rui; Chen, Shengli. A study of the mortality rate and life expectancy of the Chinese population over the last forty years. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 3, No. 4, 1991. 259-75 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In order to make up for the incompleteness of data in the last 40 years, this paper will try to make a preliminary study of the age-specific mortality rate and average life expectancy and its changing trends [for] the Chinese population over the last 40 years, based on the relevant data on mortality from sample surveys on fertility and birth control among Chinese women."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.2. Prenatal and Perinatal Mortality

Studies dealing primarily with fetal and neonatal mortality, except those dealing with spontaneous abortions, which are classified under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology , and those studies dealing with induced abortions, which are classified under F.4.5. Induced Abortion . Perinatal mortality is defined as mortality occurring between the twenty-eighth week of gestation and the seventh day of life.

58:40121 Leroy, Odile; Garenne, Michel. The two most dangerous days of life: a study of neonatal tetanus in Senegal (Niakhar). In: Mortality and society in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Etienne van de Walle, Gilles Pison, and Mpembele Sala-Diakanda. 1992. 160-75 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors examine the relationship between childbirth practices and infant mortality due to infection with tetanus. "The results of a careful study of causes of death in Senegal show that ecological factors and personal immunity seem to play an important role in neonatal tetanus. Neonatal tetanus accounts for up to three-quarters of the neonatal deaths on certain days of life, or in certain regions. In Senegal, the mortality due to neonatal tetanus is much higher during the rainy season....Also, mortality from neonatal tetanus is higher for males than females, which suggests an effect due to the immune status." Consideration is given to the epidemiology of the infection, mortality from tetanus by sex, seasonal mortality variations, and the impact of the birth environment.
Correspondence: O. Leroy, Institut Francais de Recherche pour le Developpement en Cooperation, 24 rue Bayard, 75008 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.3. Infant and Childhood Mortality

Studies of infant mortality under one year of age, including neonatal mortality occurring after the seventh day of life, and childhood mortality after one year of age. The subject of infanticide, deliberate or implied, is also classified under this heading.

58:40122 Aaby, Peter. Overcrowding and intensive exposure: major determinants of variations in measles mortality in Africa. In: Mortality and society in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Etienne van de Walle, Gilles Pison, and Mpembele Sala-Diakanda. 1992. 319-48 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
Variations in measles mortality among children in Africa are examined, with a focus on transmission factors as mortality determinants. "The present study has suggested that for measles infection, a disease-transmission perspective accounts for the major variations in mortality better than a host-factor approach....If disease-transmission factors are important, this will give more emphasis to the dimensions of social life that have been summarized under the heading 'overcrowding'. This perspective implies that socio-cultural processes may have a profound impact on health and disease."
Correspondence: P. Aaby, Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Copenhagen, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40123 Ahmed, Tauseef. Factors associated with child mortality in Pakistan and implications for the national health programs. Asian and Pacific Population Forum, Vol. 6, No. 2, Summer 1992. 29-34, 53-8 pp. Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
"This study attempts to establish the levels of infant and child mortality in Pakistan using an indirect estimation technique to analyze data from the 1984-85 Pakistan Contraceptive Prevalence Survey....[Results indicate] that children's survival chances have hardly improved in recent years....Suggestions are offered on ways to improve the effectiveness of rural health programs."
Correspondence: T. Ahmed, National Institute of Population Studies, House No. 8, Street 70, F-8/3, P.O. Box 2197, Islamabad, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40124 Amin, Ruhul; Hill, Robert B.; Horton, S. A. T. P.; Kamara, Clifford; Chowdhury, Jamir. Immunization coverage, infant morbidity and infant mortality in Freetown, Sierra Leone. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 35, No. 7, Oct 1992. 851-6 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The study, which is based on data from a household level health survey conducted in 1990 in Freetown, Sierra Leone, examines the coverage of an Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI), infant mortality, and infant morbidity among children in Greater Freetown, capital of Sierra Leone. The results of the study indicate that there was a decline in infant mortality in the recent period of the survey, 1988-89, compared to earlier periods. This decline seemed to have been the result of immunization coverage....[It is suggested that] the increase in the quality and quantity of basic immunizations, oral therapy for diarrheal disease, and provision of chloroquine and improved drugs for malaria disease could further reduce most of the deaths from these prevailing diseases among children under age 5."
Correspondence: R. Amin, Morgan State University, Institute for Urban Research, Hillen Road and Coldspring Lane, Baltimore, MD 21239-9972. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

58:40125 Andreev, E.; Ksenofontova, N. Appraisal of the reliability of infant mortality data. [Otsenka dostovernosti dannykh o mladencheskoi smertnosti.] Vestnik Statistiki, No. 8, 1991. 21-8 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
The authors evaluate the reliability of infant mortality data in the USSR. Various indirect estimation methods are assessed. The focus is on the Bourgeois-Pichat method, which they apply to available statistics for individual Union republics. They conclude that this method can be used with data sets of varying degrees of reliability.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40126 Ascherio, Alberto; Chase, Robert; Cote, Tim; Dehaes, Godelieave; Hoskins, Eric; Laaouej, Jilali; Passey, Megan; Qaderi, Saleh; Shuqaidef, Saher; Smith, Mary C.; Zaidi, Sarah. Effect of the Gulf War on infant and child mortality in Iraq. New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 327, No. 13, Sep 24, 1992. 931-6 pp. Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The results of a 1991 survey involving over 16,000 children in Iraq are presented. The aim was to establish the effect of the Gulf war on infant and child mortality. The "results provide strong evidence that the Gulf war and trade sanctions [caused] a threefold increase in mortality among Iraqi children under five years of age. We estimate that an excess of more than 46,900 children died between January and August 1991."
Correspondence: S. Zaidi, Harvard University, School of Public Health, Center for Population and Development Studies, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

58:40127 Bang, A. T.; Bang, R. A.; Morankar, V.; Sontakke, P.; Tale, O.; Solanki, J.; Kelzarkar, P.; Dudhbade, A.; Jengathe, D.; Wargantiwar, R. Diagnosis of causes of childhood deaths in developing countries by verbal autopsy: suggested criteria. Bulletin of the World Health Organization/Bulletin de l'Organisation Mondiale de la Sante, Vol. 70, No. 4, 1992. 499-507 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The need for a set of uniform criteria for the diagnosis of causes of childhood deaths using verbal autopsy results is discussed. "This article proposes such a set of criteria for the cause of death among neonates and for those aged 1-59 months. The criteria are based on the findings of earlier validation studies, a Delphi survey and the experience gained from performing 1,000 verbal autopsies in Gadchiroli, India." The goal is to allow comparisons to be made among different studies. The geographical focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: A. T. Bang, Society for Education Action and Research in Community Health, Gadchiroli, 442 605 Maharashtra, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40128 Bermudez, Alicia. Individual and contextual determinants of infant mortality in Costa Rica, 1984. [Determinantes individuales y contextuales de la mortalidad infantil en Costa Rica 1984.] IICE Documento de Trabajo, No. 150, Sep 1991. 28 pp. Universidad de Costa Rica, Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencias Economicas [IICE]: San Jose, Costa Rica. In Spa.
In this second half of a two-part study of infant mortality in Costa Rica as of 1984, the author examines the effect of living conditions on child survival.
For the first part of this study, also published in 1991, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: Universidad de Costa Rica, Facultad de Ciencias Economicas, Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencias Economicas, San Jose 2050, Costa Rica. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40129 Bermudez, Alicia. Infant mortality in Costa Rica: results from matching birth and death registers for 1984. [Mortalidad infantil en Costa Rica: resultados de un pareo entre registros de nacimientos y defunciones 1984.] IICE Documento de Trabajo, No. 146, Sep 1991. 44 pp. Universidad de Costa Rica, Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencias Economicas [IICE]: San Jose, Costa Rica. In Spa.
This is the first half of a two-part study that presents analyses of birth and infant death records in Costa Rica for 1984 to determine levels and trends in infant mortality. Various risk factors are identified, including low birth weight and poor maternal health. Geographic differentials are noted.
For the second part of this study, also published in 1991, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: Universidad de Costa Rica, Facultad de Ciencias Economicas, Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencias Economicas, San Jose 2050, Costa Rica. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40130 Bledsoe, Caroline H.; Brandon, Anastasia. Child fosterage and child mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa: some preliminary questions and answers. In: Mortality and society in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Etienne van de Walle, Gilles Pison, and Mpembele Sala-Diakanda. 1992. 279-302 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"After examining some background African literature on social factors underlying child malnutrition, we turn to data from Sierra Leone to examine different kinds of fosterage and their possible morbidity and mortality consequences. Because fosterage is a relatively unexplored topic for demographers and nutritionists, we highlight a number of methodological problems in data collection and interpretation, in our own study as well as in others, as an aid to future research." Age factors are considered, as are reasons for sending a child into foster care.
Correspondence: C. H. Bledsoe, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60201. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40131 Bobak, Martin; Leon, David A. Air pollution and infant mortality in the Czech Republic, 1986-88. Lancet, Vol. 340, No. 8826, Oct 24, 1992. 1,010-4 pp. Baltimore, Maryland/London, England. In Eng.
"We have studied the strength of any association between air pollution within the Czech Republic and infant mortality, focusing on the extent to which different components of air pollution have independent effects upon mortality in the neonatal and postneonatal periods....The associations between air pollution and infant mortality seen in this study are relatively specific. Although there is a suggestion of weak effects on neonatal mortality and post neonatal non-respiratory mortality, much more substantial effects are observed for postneonatal respiratory mortality."
Correspondence: M. Bobak, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Population Sciences, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

58:40132 Boerma, J. Ties; Bicego, George T. Preceding birth intervals and child survival: searching for pathways of influence. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 23, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1992. 243-56 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this article, data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) Project are used to investigate the pathways through which preceding birth intervals may affect early childhood mortality. Following a review of the possible causal mechanisms, we discuss the methodological approach taken here to evaluate the relative importance of prenatal vs. postnatal, and behavioral vs. biological effects. The approach includes analysis of differential age patterns of mortality, the effects of controlling for the survival status of the previous child and for breastfeeding practices, and analysis of the effects of birth intervals on the current health status of surviving children and on utilization of maternal and child health services. The study aims to discern the common patterns among diverse populations in the relative importance of various factors...." The geographical focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: J. T. Boerma, Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 8850 Stanford Boulevard, Suite 4000, Columbia, MD 21045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40133 Brittain, Ann W. The effect of parental age, birth order and other variables on early childhood mortality: a Caribbean example. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 35, No. 10, Nov 1992. 1,259-71 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The 4,275 births to women of native ancestry that took place on the island of St Barthelemy, French West Indies between 1878 and 1970 were analyzed according to the sex of the child, the year of birth, maternal age, maternal parity, paternal age and the number of children the father already had to determine the effects of these variables on rates of perinatal death, death before age 1 and death before age 5. The year of birth, the number of children the father already had, and maternal parity influenced death before age 1 and death before age 5. The sex of the child also influenced the probability of dying in the first year of life but not the first 5 [years] of life when the other variables were controlled. Perinatal deaths were influenced only by the sex of the child, but even this effect disappeared when the other variables were controlled."
Correspondence: A. W. Brittain, University of Miami, Department of Anthropology, Coral Gables, FL 33124. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

58:40134 Bronfman, Mario. Infant mortality and crisis in Mexico. International Journal of Health Services, Vol. 22, No. 1, 1992. 157-67 pp. Amityville, New York. In Eng.
Recent trends in infant mortality in Mexico are examined. "Data derived from the Encuesta Nacional de Fecundidad y Salud (ENFES) confirm that overall levels of infant mortality in Mexico have been steadily declining....The analytical strategy used in this article leads to three basic conclusions: (1) the impact of the economic crisis on infant mortality is reflected not in a reversal of the declining trend but an increase in social inequalities; (2) certain variables universally accepted as determinants of infant mortality, such as mother's education, seem nonsignificant for some social sectors; and (3) certain biodemographic characteristics assumed to have a uniform mortality-related behavior vary among sectors, suggesting that even these constants are determined by social factors."
Correspondence: M. Bronfman, Colegio de Mexico, Centro de Estudios Sociologicos, Camino al Ajusco 20, Pedregal de Santa Teresa, 01000 Mexico, DF, Mexico. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:40135 Chao, John C.; Merritt, Gary. Seasonality of infant deaths: an assessment of child health in 11 DHS countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. In: Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, August 5-7, 1991, Washington, D.C.: proceedings. Volume 3. 1991. 1,807-31 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
"In this paper we: (1) explore ways in which African DHS data bases might be used to assess the seasonality of infant deaths; (2) speculate on ways the reported timing of infant deaths may serve as indicators of the severity of infectious diseases and malnutrition; and (3) invite a critique of the utility of applying DHS data to programmatic issues based on estimated seasonality of vital events."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40136 Fargues, Philippe; Nassour, Ouaidou. Seasonal variation in urban mortality: the case of Bamako, 1974 to 1985. In: Mortality and society in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Etienne van de Walle, Gilles Pison, and Mpembele Sala-Diakanda. 1992. 99-122 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
Seasonal variations in urban mortality are assessed for Bamako, Mali, with a focus on child deaths during the period 1974-1985. The authors find that "the cycles of crop production have lost their importance....Protected from the uncertainty of local food production, an African capital is, and will always be, protected from the shortages which affect the rural zones. Preventive medicine can take its course in the cities, and mortality will show a rapid but irregular decline. A sudden resurgence in mortality is observed from time to time, however, as a result of epidemics of infectious diseases....These epidemics remain sufficiently frequent, by reason of their perfect seasonal regularity, for the month of birth to constitute an important factor of differential mortality among children."
Correspondence: P. Fargues, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40137 Feyisetan, Bamikale J.; Adeokun, Lawrence A. Impact of child care and disease treatment on infant mortality. In: Mortality and society in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Etienne van de Walle, Gilles Pison, and Mpembele Sala-Diakanda. 1992. 145-59 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This chapter examines the relationship between some child care and disease control variables and the likelihood of infant mortality being experienced by a sample of Yoruba mothers [in Nigeria] of different socio-economic background. The variables of child care considered are the adequacy of antenatal care, the place of confinement, and the adequacy of postnatal care....This study is based on information on live births and deaths collected in a baseline survey carried out in selected towns and villages in...Oyo State, Nigeria....The live births and infant deaths were those that occurred within the six years preceding the survey's date, May 1987."
Correspondence: B. J. Feyisetan, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40138 Foger, M.; Foger, B. Analysis of perinatal, neonatal, and postneonatal mortality rates in Austria and Tyrol, 1979-1988. [Entwicklung der perinatalen, neonatalen und postneonatalen Mortalitat in Osterreich und Tirol, unter besonderer Berucksichtigung der Jahre 1979-1988.] Padiatrie und Padologie, Vol. 26, No. 6, 1991. 257-62 pp. Vienna, Austria. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in neonatal, perinatal, and infant mortality in Austria and its regions are analyzed for the period 1979-1988. The focus is on the effectiveness of health services across the country. Declines in all three parameters are noted.
Correspondence: M. Foger, Universitatsklinik fur Kinderheilkunde, Anichstrasse 35, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:40139 Gbenyon, Kuakuvi; Locoh, Therese. Mortality differences in childhood by sex in Sub-Saharan Africa. In: Mortality and society in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Etienne van de Walle, Gilles Pison, and Mpembele Sala-Diakanda. 1992. 230-52 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
Child mortality differentials by sex are analyzed for Sub-Saharan Africa. The authors conclude that "differences in mortality by sex are linked, on the one hand, to the level of mortality in the region, and on the other hand, to a combination of socio-cultural factors which determine the status of women and, in time, modify the behaviour of adults towards female children. This has been shown for other cultures....There is not one but several child mortality differentials in sub-Saharan Africa." Data are from a variety of published sources for the 1970s and 1980s.
Correspondence: K. Gbenyon, Unite de Recherche Demographique, B.P. 12971, Lome, Togo. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40140 Hahn, Robert A.; Mulinare, Joseph; Teutsch, Steven M. Inconsistencies in coding of race and ethnicity between birth and death in U.S. infants: a new look at infant mortality, 1983 through 1985. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 267, No. 2, Jan 8, 1992. 259-63 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
The consistency of racial and ethnic classification for all U.S. infants dying within one year of birth is examined, and its impact on infant mortality rates is assessed. The results suggest that "the coding of race and ethnicity of infants at birth and death is remarkably inconsistent, with a substantial impact on the estimation of infant mortality rates. A need exists to reconsider the nature and definition of race and ethnicity in public health." Data are from "the newly available National Center for Health Statistics linked birth/infant-death computer data tapes for 1983 through 1985...."
Correspondence: R. A. Hahn, Centers for Disease Control, Epidemiology Program Office, Division of Surveillance and Epidemiology, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:40141 Hao, Hongsheng. An analysis of discrepancies in China's child mortality rate. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 2, No. 4, 1990. 339-49 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article uses the primary data from the Third National Population Census [of China] to make an analysis of discrepancies in the child mortality rate, which includes infants....The examination results show that [the variables with greatest impact are]...mother's age, mother's nationality, geographical area of location of household, mother's educational level, place of household residence..., father's occupation, mother's occupation, [and] father's educational level."
Correspondence: H. Hao, People's University of China, Institute of Population Research, 39 Haidian Road, Haidian District, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40142 Hill, Althea. Trends in childhood mortality in Sub-Saharan mainland Africa. In: Mortality and society in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Etienne van de Walle, Gilles Pison, and Mpembele Sala-Diakanda. 1992. 10-31 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The intention of this chapter is to present a broad, comparative outline of levels, patterns, and trends of childhood mortality in sub-Saharan mainland Africa, over a period stretching roughly from the late 1940s to the late 1970s. The mainstay of the analysis is...information on child survival collected in population censuses and demographic surveys. Methods of analysis have been standardized as much as possible in keeping with the focus on the overall pattern of differentials in mortality levels and trends."
Correspondence: A. Hill, World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40143 Hill, Kenneth. The decline of childhood mortality. Johns Hopkins Population Center Papers on Population, No. WP 90-07, [1990]. 27 pp. Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Population Center: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
The author traces the global decline in child mortality from prehistoric times to the present, with a focus on the developed world. Determinants of this decline are discussed, including the decrease in exposures to pathogens and improvements in public health. Infant and child mortality patterns in the developing world are then reviewed, and the data concerning these trends are assessed.
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Population Center, 615 North Wolfe Street, Room 2300, Baltimore, MD 21205-2179. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40144 Hobcraft, John. Fertility patterns and child survival: a comparative analysis. Population Bulletin of the United Nations, No. 33, 1992. 1-31 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article presents information on the impact of fertility patterns upon child survival for 18 countries from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). Results are also contrasted with those from earlier World Fertility Surveys (WFS). The findings generally serve to confirm that children born to teenage mothers, especially those under age 18, experience considerable excess mortality before age 5. More important at the population level is the deleterious effect of short birth intervals for child survival. Data quality, although a problem, is shown not to have a major distorting impact on these findings....The more important findings to emerge are that the overall impact of poor timing of births on child survival is substantial in many countries but has been improving over time, probably as a result of increased use of family planning....On the other hand, child mortality gains in Senegal are being inhibited by a worsening pattern of timing of births. The policy implications of these findings are briefly assessed."
Correspondence: J. Hobcraft, London School of Economics and Political Science, Houghton Street, London WC2A 2AE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40145 Jimenez Ornelas, Rene. An interdisciplinary investigation of morbidity and mortality in children under five years old (report of the First Seminar in Formal Demography). [Investigacion multidisciplinaria de la mortalidad y morbilidad en ninos menores de cinco anos (memorias del primer Seminario de Demografia Formal).] ISBN 968-36-0751-9. 1989. 184 pp. Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro Regional de Investigaciones Multidisciplinarias: Cuernavaca, Mexico. In Spa.
This volume contains 24 papers presented at the first Seminar in Formal Demography, held in 1988 in Cuernavaca, Mexico, on interdisciplinary studies of morbidity and mortality in children less than five years old. The works are divided into three sections: the first details the conceptual framework and its problems, the second deals with technical aspects and sources of data, and the final part proposes new elements for analysis. The main geographical focus is on Mexico.
Correspondence: Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro Regional de Investigaciones Multidisciplinarias, Avenida Universidad s/n, Segundo Circuito, Col. Chamilpa, Cuernavaca, Estado Morelos, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40146 Kost, Kathryn; Amin, Sajeda. Reproductive and socioeconomic determinants of child survival: confounded, interactive, and age-dependent effects. Social Biology, Vol. 39, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1992. 139-50 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
The authors examine the relationship between reproductive behavior and socioeconomic factors in order to determine their joint effect on infant and child mortality. "We test first for confounded effects by examining socioeconomic effects while excluding and then including reproductive variables in nested multivariate models. Next, we look for age-dependent effects among the explanatory variables and find that reproductive and socioeconomic factors affect mortality at differing ages of children. Finally, we examine interactive effects of the two sets of variables. We conclude that the higher mortality observed among the low status groups is not a result of greater concentration of poor reproductive patterns in those groups. Instead, higher status groups probably have more resources available for combating the negative effects of the same high-risk reproductive patterns." The data concern a rural population in Ludhiana district, Punjab, India, and were collected between 1968 and 1974.
Correspondence: K. Kost, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 111 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40147 Krishnamurthy, Sarala; Dhar, Murali. Cancer and other causes of childhood mortality in Bombay, India. Cancer, Vol. 68, No. 8, Oct 15, 1991. 1,848-53 pp. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
Mortality from cancer and other diseases among children under 15 years of age in Bombay, India, is analyzed for the period 1964-1984. Comparisons are made between differences in causes of death at different ages and by sex. Data are from the Bombay Cancer Registry.
Correspondence: S. Krishnamurthy, D-7, Institute for Research in Medical Statistics Quarters, 25 ARG Thadani Marg, Worli, Bombay 400 025, India. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:40148 Last, Murray. The importance of extremes: the social implications of intra-household variation in child mortality. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 35, No. 6, Sep 1992. 799-810 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The extreme variation in child-rearing among women of the same polygynous household raises questions about the factors involved in child mortality and the social processes that magnify that variation....The purpose of this article is not to explain the intra-household variation...but rather to examine a few of the social processes involved....I have sought to show here not merely that [extreme] disparities in child-rearing are part of people's everyday experience, but how these disparities generate for women important long-term economic and social inequalities which give rise to distinct careers having sharply different cultural meanings." Data are for a farmstead in a rural area of northern Nigeria.
Correspondence: M. Last, University College London, Department of Anthropology, London WC1E 6BT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

58:40149 Leon, D. A.; Vagero, D.; Otterblad Olausson, P. Social class differences in infant mortality in Sweden: comparison with England and Wales. British Medical Journal, Vol. 305, No. 6855, Sep 19, 1992. 687-91 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Social class differences in infant mortality in Sweden are analyzed using official data for all live births in 1985-1986 and are compared with corresponding data for England and Wales for 1983-1985. The results show that "the existence of an equitable health care system and a strong social welfare policy in Sweden has not eliminated inequalities in postneonatal mortality. Furthermore, the very low risk of infant death in the Swedish non-manual group (4.8/1,000 live births) represents a target towards which public health interventions should aim. If this rate prevailed in England and Wales, 63% of postneonatal deaths would be avoided."
Correspondence: D. A. Leon, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Population Sciences, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

58:40150 Lester, David. Infant mortality and illegitimacy. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 35, No. 5, Sep 1992. 739-40 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The changing rate of infant mortality over time in the U.S.A. from 1940 to 1986 and the variation in the infant mortality rate over the states were both found to be associated with the illegitimacy rates."
Correspondence: D. Lester, Center for the Study of Suicide, RR41, 5 Stonegate Court, Blackwood, NJ 08012. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

58:40151 Lusky, A.; Zadka, P.; Chetrit, A.; Barell, V. Mortality among Moslem, Christian and Druze infants. Harefuah, Vol. 122, No. 6, Mar 15, 1992. 349-53, 406 pp. Tel Aviv, Israel. In Heb. with sum. in Eng.
Infant mortality rates among Muslim, Christian, and Druze populations in Israel are compared for the period 1977-1980. Mortality among the Muslim and Druze populations was 26 per 1,000, compared with 17.2 among Christians and 12.7 among Jews. Differences by sex of infant and socioeconomic characteristics of parents are considered.
Correspondence: A. Lusky, Sheba Medical Center, Health Services Research Unit, Tel Hashomer, Israel. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:40152 Masuy-Stroobant, Godelieve. Infant mortality in the East and in the West: similarities and differences. [La mortalite infantile a l'Est et a l'Ouest: similitudes et divergences.] Institut de Demographie Working Paper, No. 165, ISBN 2-87209-187-4. Feb 1992. 19, [2] pp. Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Differences in infant mortality, including stillbirths, early neonatal, late neonatal, and postneonatal mortality, are analyzed among 10 European countries, including three from Eastern Europe and the USSR, over the period 1950-1989. "One of the most striking differences between Eastern and Western infant mortalities is the very low stillbirth rate of the Eastern countries. The first-day mortality rate reveals [significant] differences in birth reporting especially for children dying very shortly after birth: this is probably one of the main causes of death (and birth) underreporting in the U.S.S.R. even in the most recent years and in [Czechoslovakia] before 1965, when the country adopted the WHO definitions."
Correspondence: Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie, Place Montesquieu 1, Boite 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40153 Mbacke, Cheikh; van de Walle, Etienne. Socio-economic factors and use of health services as determinants of child mortality. In: Mortality and society in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Etienne van de Walle, Gilles Pison, and Mpembele Sala-Diakanda. 1992. 123-44 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors examine the impact of socioeconomic factors and usage of health services on infant and child mortality. "Urban surveys of infant and child mortality taken in various cities of francophone Africa using a methodology designed by IFORD, the United Nations Training and Research Center in Yaounde, Cameroon (which are often called IFORD surveys in short), are of particular interest....The analysis which follows is based upon a survey along the IFORD design, executed in the provincial city of Bobo-Dioulasso between April 1981 and March 1984, by the National Institute of Statistics and Demography of Burkina Faso, with the technical assistance and financial support of the Sahel Institute."
Correspondence: C. Mbacke, Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches sur la Population pour le Developpement, B.P. 1530, Bamako, Mali. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40154 Meir, Avinoam; Ben-David, Yosef. Socio-economic development and the dynamics of child mortality among sedentarizing Bedouin in Israel. Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie/Journal of Economic and Social Geography, Vol. 82, No. 2, 1991. 139-47 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
The authors analyze trends in child mortality among the Bedouin in Israel, who are in the process of changing from a nomadic to a sedentary way of life. "At early stages of sedentarization and development, child mortality rates decline, as expected, then rise, only to decline again. The positive relationship that is theoretically assumed to exist in general between declining child mortality and socio-economic development over time and space may thus possibly be refined, to accompany an earlier similar refinement regarding fertility decline. Demographic indicators may consequently respond late to development processes."
Correspondence: A. Meir, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Department of Geography, P.O. Box 653, 84105 Beer-Sheva, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40155 Mohamud, Omar A. Female circumcision and child mortality in urban Somalia. Genus, Vol. 47, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1991. 203-23 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
The author examines the effects of female circumcision on mortality among girls undergoing the operation and among survivors' infants. "The paper provides discussion of different types of circumcision and describes its immediate and long term health hazard consequences and examines its estimated effects in Somalia. The paper explores the mechanism through which female circumcision affects infant and child mortality. It provides some feasible recommendations to policy makers to eradicate the practice and a tool for assessing how much child mortality may decline if circumcision is eliminated."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40156 Mosley, W. Henry; Becker, Stan. Demographic models for child survival and implications for health intervention programmes. Health Policy and Planning, Vol. 6, No. 3, Sep 1991. 218-33 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In this paper we develop an analytical model which demonstrates how multiple disease conditions interact through the mechanisms of competing risks and production of frailty to produce the high mortality levels witnessed among children in developing countries. This model permits an assessment of the demographic impact of different combinations of disease control interventions on reducing infant mortality. In terms of health policy, the analytical model demonstrates that there are multiple routes to improving child survival in developing country populations. Important in this context is the evidence that a modest reduction in several risk factors simultaneously--for example by improving household sanitation and personal hygiene--has the potential for producing substantial improvements in infant and child survival."
Correspondence: W. H. Mosley, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Department of Population Dynamics, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:40157 Ostberg, Viveca. Social class differences in child mortality, Sweden 1981-1986. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 46, No. 5, Oct 1992. 480-4 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The aim was to analyse social class differences in mortality among Swedish children, 1-19 years old, during the period 1981-86. In order to study the development of these differences, mortality differences during the study period were compared with those 20 years earlier, i.e., 1961-66....The study used data from two census linked death registries (CDR80 and CDR60)....During the period 1981-86, children in families of both manual workers and self employed persons had a significantly higher mortality than children in families of non-manual workers....Although there has been a marked decrease in child mortality during the last decades the study shows that social class differences in child mortality still exist and show little tendency to disappear."
Correspondence: V. Ostberg, Stockholm University, Swedish Institute for Social Research, S-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40158 Parazzini, F.; Pirotta, N.; La Vecchia, C.; Bocciolone, L.; Fedele, L. Determinants of perinatal and infant mortality in Italy. Revue d'Epidemiologie et de Sante Publique/Epidemiology and Public Health, Vol. 40, No. 1, 1992. 15-24 pp. Paris, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Determinants of stillbirths, perinatal and infant mortality in Italy have been analyzed using information collected routinely by the Italian Central Institute of Statistics on more than 2,400,000 births and 33,000 infant deaths in the period 1980-1983. Individual records included data on maternal (i.e. age, education, obstetric history) and fetal characteristics (sex, birth weight, gestational week at birth)." The results indicate that socioeconomic factors remain important determinants of such mortality.
Correspondence: F. Parazzini, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via Eritrea 62, 20157 Milan, Italy. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:40159 Poston, D. Infant mortality pattern in China. Population Research, Vol. 8, No. 3, Sep 1991. 11-22 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
"This paper attempts to describe changes in infant mortality of China's counties and cities in 1981 and to examine the impact of five socio-economic and demographic indices....We hold that the official data on infant mortality from 1982's population census showed a poor quality and could not give a proper explanation to changes in infant deaths of China's counties and cities....We suggested three methods of adjustment. The first method excluded 253 counties and cities with an infant mortality lower than 15 per thousand. The second method excluded 861 counties and cities....The third method increased the cities' infant mortality by 4% and counties' by 44%. Of the three methods, the second and third methods made...great [adjustments] but their results are more practical than 1982's census data....According to results of these two methods, the mean infant mortality of China's 2,306 counties and cities is 50 per thousand."
Correspondence: D. Poston, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40160 Sastry, Narayan; Goldman, Noreen; Moreno, Lorenzo. The relationship between place of residence and child survival in Brazil. OPR Working Paper, No. 92-3, Jul 1992. 29, [9] pp. Princeton University, Office of Population Research [OPR]: Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
"In this paper we focus on Brazil and study infant and child survival by place of residence, considering both region and urban-rural location of residence. Previous research has pointed to relatively narrow urban-rural mortality differentials and large, persistent regional differentials between the underdeveloped and poor Northeast region and the rest of Brazil. The purpose of our study is to gain an understanding of the determinants of these differentials. We do this by developing a conceptual framework that highlights the effects of location characteristics on child survival and conducting a multivariate hazard-model analysis using empirical evidence from the 1986 Brazil Demographic and Health Survey, together with Brazilian census data and municipality-level information on health infrastructure."
Correspondence: Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40161 Sow, Boubacar. Ethnic and social stratification, health care, and early childhood mortality in rural Senegal. Pub. Order No. DA9216632. 1992. 238 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Johns Hopkins University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 53(1).

58:40162 Tabutin, Dominique; Akoto, Eliwo. Socio-economic and cultural differentials in the mortality of Sub-Saharan Africa. In: Mortality and society in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Etienne van de Walle, Gilles Pison, and Mpembele Sala-Diakanda. 1992. 32-64 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors examine socioeconomic and cultural differentials in child mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa during the 1980s. "We shall focus on the differentials by level of education (of father and mother), occupation, employment status of women, place of residence, region, religion, and ethnic group. In this comparative review of the whole of sub-Saharan Africa, we bring together results which were published in many different places, and proceed to additional analyses of certain World Fertility Surveys (Ghana, Kenya, and Cameroon), and to one new analysis (Rwanda). We shall first examine inequalities in child mortality at the national level variable by variable, and then use a multivariate approach...to measure the role of each of the socio-economic variables. The dependent variable will be an individual woman's index of child mortality....This analysis will be conducted for Kenya and Cameroon."
Correspondence: D. Tabutin, Catholic University of Louvain, Institute of Demography, Place de l'Universite 1, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40163 Tam, Luis. Intermediate and underlying factors associated with infant mortality in Peru (1984-1986). In: Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, August 5-7, 1991, Washington, D.C.: proceedings. Volume 3. 1991. 1,783-806 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
"The objective of this study is to test the associations of neonatal and postneonatal mortality with the following proximate variables: the use of family planning, the use of modern prenatal care, the use of modern birth delivery care, the duration of the preceding birth interval and the practice of breast-feeding, using data from the 1986 Peru Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). Another objective of the study is to identify the distal or underlying (i.e., socioeconomic, demographic and regional) factors associated with these proximate variables."
Correspondence: L. Tam, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40164 van der Pol, Hendrik. Type of feeding and infant mortality in Yaounde. In: Mortality and society in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Etienne van de Walle, Gilles Pison, and Mpembele Sala-Diakanda. 1992. 303-18 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This chapter deals with the relationship between types of feeding and infant mortality in Yaounde, both for the whole population and for certain sub-populations. The data used here come from an infant and child mortality survey...of a sample of infants who were born in 1978 in the maternity clinics of Yaounde and whose mothers lived in Yaounde." The author finds that "differences in mortality by socio-economic status of the mother are most visible when children are exclusively bottle-fed."
Correspondence: H. van der Pol, Institut de Formation et de Recherche Demographiques, B.P. 1556, Yaounde, Cameroon. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40165 van Ginneken, Jeroen K.; Teunissen, Anton W. Morbidity and mortality from diarrhoeal diseases in children under age five in Sub-Saharan Africa. In: Mortality and society in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Etienne van de Walle, Gilles Pison, and Mpembele Sala-Diakanda. 1992. 176-203 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors examine morbidity and mortality from diarrheal diseases in children under the age of five. "This chapter will summarize research that has been undertaken in sub-Saharan [African] countries on a number of aspects. In the next section clinical and related aspects (i.e. aetiology and transmission) will be described....Sections 3 and 4 will summarize demographic and epidemiological studies on mortality levels and patterns due to diarrhoea and on its incidence and prevalence. In section 5, attention will be paid to seasonal influences on mortality and morbidity. In sections 6 and 7, results of studies on three groups of factors...are summarized: socio-economic factors, environmental hygiene, and nutrition. In section 8 we shall focus on...the beliefs and practices of mothers and indigenous health care providers studied from an anthropological angle."
Correspondence: J. K. van Ginneken, Netherlands Institute of Preventive Health Care, TNO, Wassenaarseweg 56, POB 124, 2300 AC Leiden, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40166 Velkoff, Victoria A. Trends and differentials in infant mortality in the Soviet Union for the years, 1970-1988. Pub. Order No. DA9219842. 1992. 187 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Princeton University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 53(2).

58:40167 Vuorinen, Heikki S. Social variation in infant mortality in a core city of Finland during the 19th and early 20th centuries. Positive effect of industrialization? Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine, Vol. 19, No. 4, Dec 1991. 248-55 pp. Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"The aim of this study was to examine social variation (social class, legitimacy) in infant mortality in a core municipality (Viipuri) in Finland from 1819 to 1918. Data were obtained from the Population Change Tables of Finnish, Swedish and German parishes of the town....Results of the study indicated a clear association between social class and infant mortality in the preindustrial period; in the period of industrialization the association was also clear but smaller. Legitimacy as a determinant of infant mortality became more marked towards the early 20th century."
Correspondence: H. S. Vuorinen, University of Helsinki, Department of Public Health, Haartmaninkatu 3, SF-00290, Helsinki 29, Finland. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:40168 Waldmann, Robert J. Income distribution and infant mortality. Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 107, No. 4, Nov 1992. 1,283-302 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"Comparing two countries in which the poor have equal real incomes, the one in which the rich are wealthier is likely to have a higher infant mortality rate. This anomalous result does not appear to spring from measurement error in estimating the income of the poor, and the association between high infant mortality and income inequality is still present after controlling for other factors such as education, medical personnel, and fertility. The positive association of infant mortality and the income of the rich suggests that measured real incomes may be a poor measure of social welfare....This paper considers and tests several possible explanations, such as the provision of medical services, the degree of urbanization, the extent of female literacy, and differences in the composition of births among different income groups. None of these factors adequately accounts for the positive association between the incomes of the rich and infant mortality." The geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: R. J. Waldmann, European University Institute, Via dei Roccettini 5, 50016 San Domenico di Fiesole, Florence, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

58:40169 Zenger, Elizabeth A. Infant mortality, birth order, and sibship size: the role of heterogeneous risk and the previous-death effect. OPR Working Paper, No. 92-4, Jul 1992. 20, [2] pp. Princeton University, Office of Population Research [OPR]: Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
"This paper derives an analytic model to study biases in infant mortality estimates by birth order and sibship size which occur when the death of an infant tends to shorten the next birth interval and mortality risk varies among families. We find that order-specific and sibship-size-specific estimates are biased by a selection for high-risk women across birth orders, since women with higher risk will tend to have shorter intervals, and more births, within a given period of time. Sibship-size-specific estimates are, in addition, biased by a selection for women who have experienced deaths, even if there is no heterogeneity in risk. Numerical examples based on data from Matlab, Bangladesh, are used to illustrate the magnitude of these biases."
Correspondence: Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.4. Mortality at Other Ages

Studies of age-specific mortality and of mortality in special groups defined by age.

58:40170 Anderson, Barbara A.; Silver, Brian D. Mortality trends in the working ages: Soviet regions in comparative perspective, 1959-1988. Population Studies Center Research Report, No. 91-208, Apr 1991. 26, [15] pp. University of Michigan, Population Studies Center: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This paper examines mortality in the working ages (20-59) in the Soviet Union between 1958 and 1988 and compares mortality levels and trends in the USSR with those of 33 other developed countries....The analysis then focuses on comparisons of mortality within major Soviet regions (groups of union republics)."
Correspondence: University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40171 Bah, Sulaiman M.; Teklu, Tesfay. The evolution of age patterns of mortality in Mauritius, 1969-1986. Population Review, Vol. 36, No. 1-2, Jan-Dec 1992. 50-62 pp. La Jolla, California. In Eng.
"This paper aims to describe the evolution of Mauritian age patterns of mortality over the period 1969-1986. The general level and trend of mortality over the study period, 1969-1986 is studied using age standardized death rates....The second part of the study...[compares] Mauritian age patterns of mortality with those of Coale-Demeny and the new United Nations model life tables. The [aim] is to use the model life tables as a frame of reference to detect changes in the pattern of mortality over time."
Correspondence: S. M. Bah, University of Western Ontario, Department of Sociology, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40172 Flisher, A. J.; Joubert, G.; Yach, D. Mortality from external causes in South African adolescents, 1984-1986. South African Medical Journal/Suid-Afrikaanse Mediese Joernaal, Vol. 81, No. 2, Jan 18, 1992. 77-80 pp. Pinelands, South Africa. In Eng.
Causes of death among South African adolescents are analyzed by race and sex using official data for the period 1984-1986. "The analysis indicated that mortality rates in South African adolescents are high and that many deaths may be the result of risk-taking behaviour. With the increasing urbanisation of blacks, the impact of external causes of death can be expected to increase further."
Correspondence: A. J. Flisher, University of Cape Town, Department of Psychiatry, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7700, South Africa. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:40173 Imaizumi, Yoko. Mortality in the elderly population aged 65 and over in Japan: geographical variations. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 48, No. 1, Apr 1992. 16-31 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
Geographical variations in death rates among those aged 65 and over are examined by cause for Japan. Vital statistics data are used for the period 1985-1990, and comparisons are made with data from the 1970s.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40174 Kestenbaum, Bert. A description of the extreme aged population based on improved Medicare enrollment data. Demography, Vol. 29, No. 4, Nov 1992. 565-80 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The mortality and size of the extreme aged population [in the United States] can be studied most accurately with Medicare enrollment data from the Social Security Administration's Master Beneficiary Record after certain types of questionable records are eliminated. With the improved data base we find that mortality rates at the very old ages are higher than published rates, we are more confident of the reality of the race crossover, and we can estimate the number of centenarians more accurately. Furthermore, a large matched-records study shows close agreement on age at death between the Master Beneficiary Record and the death certificate."
An earlier version of a portion of this paper was presented at the 1989 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: B. Kestenbaum, Social Security Administration, Office of the Actuary, Baltimore, MD 21235. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40175 Krishnan, Parameswara. Predicting old age mortality in Canada. Population Research Laboratory Research Discussion Paper, No. 90, Apr 1992. 12 pp. University of Alberta, Department of Sociology, Population Research Laboratory: Edmonton, Canada. In Eng.
"In this study, we have employed the system of generalized Gompertz curves to approximate the central mortality rates for Canadian males and females by single years of age starting from [age] 65. The data for the years 1980 through 1982 have been averaged to compute the death rates. Similar computations have been done for 1985-87. Thus we have four data sets for old age mortality in Canada. The census age and gender specific populations for 1981 were used as the risk populations. The central death rates have been graduated by the linear and the quadratic Gompertz curves." Comparisons are made with results obtained using the life table method.
Correspondence: University of Alberta, Department of Sociology, Population Research Laboratory, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40176 Nieto, F. Javier; Szklo, Moyses; Comstock, George W. Childhood weight and growth rate as predictors of adult mortality. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 136, No. 2, Jul 15, 1992. 201-13 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"The effect of rate of growth and relative weight in childhood on adult mortality was studied among 13,146 persons whose weights and heights were measured between the ages of 5 and 18 years in Hagerstown, Maryland, during the period 1933-1945." The results "are compatible with the existence of positive associations of overweight in school-age children with long-term mortality and seem to allay fears that harm could come from increased growth rates in childhood. Without jeopardizing growth, the avoidance of overweight in childhood might reduce mortality in middle age."
Correspondence: F. J. Nieto, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

58:40177 Ruzicka, Lado; Kane, Penny. Transition of adult mortality and causes of death in selected countries of Asia. Genus, Vol. 47, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1991. 31-62 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita.
"The path of adult mortality in the...Asian countries that provide adequate data is examined and the diversity of mortality transitions as well as their vulnerability to temporary setbacks is documented....In all the countries reviewed, a 'modernisation' of the cause of death structure occurred with infectious and parasitic diseases receding in importance and chronic and degenerative diseases taking up the leading position. Along with this change, [the authors find that] causes of death are becoming less relevant for the assessment of the health status of a population. The causes and the extent of temporary and permanent health impairments are more informative and appropriate for health policy strategies."
Correspondence: L. Ruzicka, Australian National University, Demography Department, GPO 4, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40178 Saleh, Saneya. Reproductive age mortality survey: Quena governorate, 1989-1990. Dirasat Sukkaniyah/Population Studies, Vol. 14, No. 75, Jul-Sep 1992. 5-53 pp. Cairo, Egypt. In Eng. with sum. in Ara.
Data from a survey of survivors of deceased married women who were between the ages of 15 and 50 when they died in Quena governorate, Egypt, are presented and analyzed for the period 1989-1990. Separate consideration is given to mortality by cause, including diseases of the circulatory system, maternal mortality, and malignant neoplasms. Risk factors associated with maternal mortality are then explored.
Correspondence: S. Saleh, American University, Department of Sociology, POB 2511, 113 Sharia Kasr El-Aini, Cairo, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40179 Seeman, Isadore. National Mortality Followback Survey: 1986 summary, United States. Vital and Health Statistics, Series 20: Data from the 1986 National Mortality Followback Survey, No. 19, Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 92-1856. ISBN 0-8406-0458-0. LC 92-1062d. Sep 1992. iii, 255 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
"Data collected in the 1986 National [Mortality] Followback Survey are presented in 81 tables according to pertinent sets of descriptive variables. The tables are grouped into three categories: care in the last year of life, lifestyle and health, and socioeconomic characteristics of decedents. Data are presented on health services used, disabilities, help with activities of daily living, out-of-pocket expenditures for health care, smoking practices and other lifestyle patterns that affect health and longevity, incidence of disease, and socioeconomic characteristics--including income, education, and employment. The survey covered a representative sample of all adult deaths in the United States."
Correspondence: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40180 Vallin, Jacques. Causes of adult mortality in countries with low mortality rates: a comparison of several industrialized and developing countries. [Causes de mortalite adulte dans les pays a faible mortalite: comparaison entre quelques pays industriels et quelques pays en developpement.] Population, Vol. 47, No. 3, May-Jun 1992. 555-82 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"In a certain number of developing countries, life expectancy levels now approach those of the developed world. But, though life expectancies at birth may be similar, the infant mortality rate in developing countries remains higher, but is compensated by a lower rate of mortality for adults. Is it to [be] expected that as infant mortality rates continue to decline, the developing countries will maintain their advantageous adult mortality rates and that life expectancy will forge ahead of the level achieved in developed countries?...To answer this question, recent trends in adult cause-specific mortality rates in four developing countries (Chile, Hong Kong, Mexico, and Costa Rica) were compared with those in three industrialized countries (France, Germany and Japan). The results were inconclusive. Whilst life expectancies in some of these countries may be expected to forge ahead (Chile, Hong Kong), in others the margin between their life expectancies and those of developed countries have already narrowed."
Correspondence: J. Vallin, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40181 Wolinsky, Fredric D.; Johnson, Robert J. Perceived health status and mortality among older men and women. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, Vol. 47, No. 6, Nov 1992. S304-12 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This article separately examines the relationship of perceived health status and mortality for the 1,599 men and 2,904 women self-respondents in the [U.S.] Longitudinal Study on Aging. Using hierarchical logistic regression, the zero-order relationships are decomposed by the serial introduction of demographic, socioeconomic, health status, and psychosocial factors. For men, only those in poor health are significantly more likely to die than those in excellent health..., all other things being equal. For women, those in fair or poor health are more likely to die than those in excellent health..., all other things being equal."
Correspondence: F. D. Wolinsky, Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, 1001 West Tenth Street, Regenstrief Health Center, 5th floor, Indianapolis, IN 46202-2859. Location: Princeton University Library (SW).

E.5. Life Tables

Studies that present actual life table data and all studies concerned primarily with life tables, including the appropriate methodological studies. Life table studies that are concerned with topics other than mortality are classified under the appropriate heading and cross-referenced to this heading.

58:40182 Dinkel, Reiner H. Cohort life tables for the birth cohorts 1900 to 1962 in the two parts of Germany. [Kohortensterbetafeln fur die Geburtsjahrgange ab 1900 bis 1962 in den beiden Teilen Deutschlands.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 18, No. 1, 1992. 95-116 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"Based on all available (partially unpublished) sources of mortality development in both German states up to the year 1989, for both sexes and for all of the generations from 1900 to 1962, cohort life tables were compiled....The most important single result in the comparative study of the cohort life tables of the same sex and cohorts is that within the last 15 calendar years there has been a clearly different development of values. Whereas the life tables before had shown rather comparable developments, within the last few years the death probabilities of the GDR cohorts were clearly above those of the cohorts of the same age in the Federal Republic of Germany. This applies to the cohorts born prior to 1944 in the same way as to the cohorts born after the war. The mortality difference between East and West Germany therefore had not been caused by a cohort effect."
Correspondence: R. H. Dinkel, Universitat Bamberg, Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Insb. Quantitative Verfahren, Feldkirchenstrasse 21, 8600 Bamberg, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40183 Lu, Lei. Method of life table construction by level and pattern of death. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 3, No. 4, 1991. 277-83 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this paper the author has discussed a method of estimating life tables according to level and pattern of death." The model is then compared to those for calculating life tables developed by Coale and Demeny (1983) and by the United Nations (1982). The author finds that "the model in this paper...has strong applicability [and]...flexibility....It can generate both simple life tables and integrated life tables. Our model can generate correspondingly simple or integrated life tables according to the roughness of the original information supplied by the user." The geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: L. Lu, People's University of China, Population Research Department, 39 Haidian Road, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.6. Differential Mortality

Studies on the ratio of mortality in different subgroups of a population, classified according to certain criteria, such as sex, social class, occupation, and marital status. Also includes studies on excess mortality and comparative mortality.

58:40184 Anson, Jon. Mortality, ethnicity, and the standard of living in Israel. [Smartnost, etnicheska prinadlezhnost i standart na zhivota v Izrael.] Naselenie, No. 4, 1992. 45-54 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
"The present analysis looks at the mortality differences between two major population groups in Israel, the Arabs and the Jews. While the differences in standard of living (SOL) between these two groups may be expected to account for most of the mortality difference between them, we consider whether there is also a qualitative majority-minority group effect....The results indicate that Arab life expectancy is higher than would be expected given the SOL. Unlike Jewish life expectancy, however, which is positively related to the SOL, Arab life expectancy is negatively related for males, and unrelated for females. An explanation is offered in terms of the effects of discrimination on the sense of coherence of those members of the minority group who are the most integrated into the majority society."
Correspondence: J. Anson, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Department of Social Work, Beersheba 84105, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40185 Koblin, Beryl A.; Morrison, John M.; Taylor, Patricia E.; Stoneburner, Rand L.; Stevens, Cladd E. Mortality trends in a cohort of homosexual men in New York City, 1978-1988. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 136, No. 6, Sep 15, 1992. 646-56 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"Trends in mortality related to infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and to other causes were examined from 1978 to 1988 in a cohort of 8,906 homosexual men who participated in studies of hepatitis B virus infection in the late 1970s in New York City. HIV-related mortality rates increased from 1 per 10,000 person-years in 1980 to 181 per 10,000 person-years in 1986, followed by a plateau from 1986 to 1988....Higher HIV-related mortality rates were associated with a higher number of sexual partners, a history of gonorrhea and/or syphilis, and serologic markers of infection with hepatitis B virus....This study illustrates the large excess in mortality among homosexual men over the last decade...."
Correspondence: B. A. Koblin, New York Blood Center, Laboratory of Epidemiology, 310 East 67th Street, New York, NY 10021. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

58:40186 Lopez Rios, O.; Mompart, A.; Wunsch, G. Health care systems and regional mortality: a causal analysis. [Systeme de soins et mortalite regionale: une analyse causale.] Institut de Demographie Working Paper, No. 166, ISBN 2-87209-188-2. Mar 1992. 18, [2] pp. Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"In this paper, we examine the impact of the health care system on regional adult mortality differences in Spain, taking account of the levels of economic development and of social development of the Spanish provinces, as well as of their age structure." A causal model is used to distinguish between demand and supply of health care.
Correspondence: Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie, Place Montesquieu 1, Boite 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40187 Mbacke, Cheikh; LeGrand, Thomas K. Mortality differences by sex and health service use in Mali. [Differences de mortalite selon le sexe et utilisation des services de sante au Mali.] In: Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, August 5-7, 1991, Washington, D.C.: proceedings. Volume 3. 1991. 1,741-57 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Fre.
Trends in mortality by sex and in the use of health services for urban and rural regions of Mali are discussed. The effects of disease, social factors, nutritional status, and preventive measures are considered.
Correspondence: C. Mbacke, Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches sur la Population pour le Developpement, Institut du Sahel, BP 1530, Bamako, Mali. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40188 McDaniel, Antonio. Extreme mortality in nineteenth-century Africa: the case of Liberian immigrants. Demography, Vol. 29, No. 4, Nov 1992. 581-94 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper examines the level of mortality in Liberia of Africans who emigrated there from the United States. A life table is estimated from data collected by the American Colonization Society from 1820 to 1843. The analysis reflects the mortality experience of a population that is transplanted from one disease environment to another, more exacting, disease environment. The results of this analysis show that these Liberian immigrants experienced the highest mortality rates in accurately recorded human history."
Correspondence: A. McDaniel, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40189 Pamuk, Elsie R.; Williamson, David F.; Madans, Jennifer; Serdula, Mary K.; Kleinman, Joel C.; Byers, Tim. Weight loss and mortality in a national cohort of adults, 1971-1987. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 136, No. 6, Sep 15, 1992. 686-97 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"The relation between self-reported previous maximum weight, weight loss, and subsequent mortality was examined in 2,140 men and 2,550 women aged 45-74 years who participated in the [U.S.] First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1971-1975) and survived the next 5 years. Vital status was determined through 1987....Subjects who lost 15% or more of their maximum weight had over twice the mortality risk of those who lost less than 5%....These findings suggest that prevention of severe overweight may be more generally effective than weight loss in reducing obesity-related mortality in the U.S. population."
Correspondence: E. R. Pamuk, Centers for Disease Control, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Nutrition, Mailstop K-26, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

58:40190 Pearce, Neil; Marshall, Stephen; Borman, Barry. Undiminished social class mortality differences in New Zealand men. New Zealand Medical Journal, Vol. 104, No. 910, Apr 24, 1991. 153-6 pp. Wellington, New Zealand. In Eng.
Social class mortality differentials among men aged 15-64 years in New Zealand are analyzed for the period 1985-1987. The results show that such differentials are just as significant as they were in a previous study for the period 1975-1977, although overall mortality has declined some 15 percent since then.
Correspondence: N. Pearce, Wellington School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, P.O. Box 7343, Wellington, New Zealand. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:40191 Rychtarikova, Jitka; Dzurova, Dagmar. Geographical mortality differentials in Czechoslovakia. [Les disparites geographiques de la mortalite en Tchecoslovaquie.] Population, Vol. 47, No. 3, May-Jun 1992. 617-43 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
Mortality rates are examined and compared for the Czech and Slovak republics, with a focus on the 1980s. "Differentials are largest in infant mortality and in mortality rates after the age of 60. In the Czech Republic, infant mortality rates are rather low, and rates over the age of 60 high: the opposite is true of Slovakia. Deaths from circulatory diseases and tumours are more frequent in the Czech Republic than in Slovakia, where there is a relative excess mortality from diseases of the respiratory system and the digestive tract. The influence of social conditions on mortality is clearly apparent, particularly in the significant Gypsy minority, or in cases where divorce rates are high. The part played by ecological variables is less clear."
Correspondence: J. Rychtarikova, Univerzita Karlova, Faculte des Sciences, Ovocny trh 5, 116 36 Prague 1, Czechoslovakia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40192 Sobotik, Zdenek; Rychtarikova, Jitka. Mortality and education in the Czech Republic. [Umrtnost a vzdelani v Ceske Republice.] Demografie, Vol. 34, No. 2, 1992. 97-105 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The effect of educational status on mortality is explored using mortality data for regions in Czechoslovakia from the mid-1970s to the present. The data are analyzed and compared with trends in other European countries.
Correspondence: Z. Sobotik, Ustav Socialniho Lekarstvi a Organizace Zdravotnictvi, Prague, Czechoslovakia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40193 Tan, Joo Ean. Mortality from ischemic heart disease and diabetes mellitus in Bexar County: a comparison of the Mexican origin and Anglo populations. Pub. Order No. DA9212651. 1991. 190 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Texas at Austin.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences (52)12.

58:40194 Timaeus, Ian M. Estimation of adult mortality from paternal orphanhood: a reassessment and a new approach. Population Bulletin of the United Nations, No. 33, 1992. 47-63 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article proposes a new procedure for estimating men's mortality from paternal orphanhood which generally yields more accurate results than the existing approach. A procedure for estimating mortality from maternal orphanhood data based on consistent assumptions is also presented. The theory underlying these methods is outlined....The article also points out an error made in the tabulation of the weighting factors used until now to estimate mortality from paternal orphanhood. Investigations using simulated data are presented which support the theoretical arguments that suggest that the paternal orphanhood method is more robust than has often been assumed and which confirm that the new approach usually produces more accurate estimates than the weighting factors."
Correspondence: I. M. Timaeus, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies, Keppel Street, London WC1E 6HT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40195 Trovato, Frank. Violent and accidental mortality among four immigrant groups in Canada, 1970-1972. Social Biology, Vol. 39, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1992. 82-101 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
The author analyzes immigrant mortality data for the period 1970-1972, taken from Statistics Canada's Mortality Data Base. The aim is to determine the effects of the stress inherent in the migration experience on the risks of death from suicide, homicide, and motor vehicle accidents. "Overall, the results give support for the importance of country-of-origin effects in explaining suicide propensities, but not for homicide and motor vehicle accidents mortality....The strongest net effect on the cause-specific death rate is associated with group membership. This effect likely reflects a number of residual unmeasured sources of variation including the influence of the immigrant ethnic community as a source of social support, and the potential confounding effects of migration selectivity."
Correspondence: F. Trovato, University of Alberta, Department of Sociology, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.7. Mortality by Cause

Studies of demographic relevance on causes of death. Studies of morbidity and of public health measures are included only if they relate specifically to mortality. Also included are maternal mortality and comparisons of causes.

58:40196 Aareleid, Tiiu; Rahu, Mati. Cancer survival in Estonia from 1978 to 1987. Cancer, Vol. 68, No. 9, Nov 1, 1991. 2,088-92 pp. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
Using data from the Estonian Cancer Registry, survival rates by sex were determined for the 25 most common cancer sites. Some 36,000 cancer cases diagnosed from 1978 to 1987 were examined. "The comparison of nationwide survival rates by selected sites in Estonia with those in Finland revealed that Estonian rates were lower."
Correspondence: T. Aareleid, Institute of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Estonian Cancer Registry, Hiiu 42, Tallinn 200107, Estonia. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:40197 Allebeck, Peter; Allgulander, Christer; Henningsohn, Lars; Jakobsson, Sten W. Causes of death in a cohort of 50,465 young men--validity of recorded suicide as underlying cause of death. Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine, Vol. 19, No. 4, Dec 1991. 242-7 pp. Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
Causes of death are analyzed for a cohort of young Swedish men conscripted for military service in 1969-1970, of whom 683 died through 1983. "We conclude that the causes of death in most cases of injury related death in young age are recorded with high accuracy. Reevaluation of recorded deaths from 'undetermined' causes revealed a number of definite suicides, although the 'true' number of suicides is difficult to assess even after close scrutiny of the information available."
Correspondence: P. Allebeck, Department of Community Medicine, Diagnosvagen 8, S-14154 Huddinge, Sweden. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:40198 Boschi, Cynthia; Coleman, Michel P.; de Castilho, Euclides A. Regional differentials in cancer mortality in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1979-1981. [Diferenciais regionais de mortalidade por cancer no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, 1979-1981.] Revista de Saude Publica, Vol. 25, No. 4, Aug 1991. 267-75 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
Cancer mortality trends in Brazil from 1979 to 1981 are analyzed using data for the state of Rio de Janeiro. The data are examined separately for the capital, the metropolitan belt, and the interior. Significant geographical differences in cancer mortality are found among these regions.
Correspondence: C. Boschi, Av. Brasil 4365, Manguinhos 21040, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:40199 Brancker, Anna. Causes of death 1990. [Causes de deces 1990.] Health Reports/Rapports sur la Sante, Vol. 4, No. 2, 1992. 185-9 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
The author provides an overview of causes of death in Canada in 1990. Information is included on age-specific death rates, major causes of death, infant mortality, and potential years of life lost.
Correspondence: A. Brancker, Statistics Canada, Canadian Centre for Health Information, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40200 Cantrelle, Pierre; Thonneau, Patrick; Toure, Boubacar. Maternal mortality: two community-based studies in Guinea. [Mortalite maternelle: deux etudes communautaires en Guinee.] Les Dossiers du CEPED, No. 20, ISBN 2-87762-050-6. Sep 1992. 43 pp. Centre Francais sur la Population et le Developpement [CEPED]: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
These are the results from two community-based studies of maternal mortality in Guinea, one located in the capital, Conakry, the other in a rural region of Moyenne Guinee, Fouta Djallon. "The maternal mortality rate was estimated at 560/100,000 live births in Conakry, and 820/100,000 in Moyenne Guinee. The two surveys enabled us to identify the major cultural, geographic, economic and institutional factors involved, thus providing us with the starting point for a national plan of action in maternal health."
Correspondence: Centre Francais sur la Population et le Developpement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Medecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40201 Carael, Michel; Piot, Peter. The AIDS epidemic in Sub-Saharan Africa. In: Mortality and society in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Etienne van de Walle, Gilles Pison, and Mpembele Sala-Diakanda. 1992. 391-404 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In this chapter, we first examine the seropositivity rates in some cities in Africa, then the modes of transmission of HIV, and finally, the influence of the epidemic on overall mortality rates."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40202 Carmelli, D.; Halpern, J.; Swan, G. E.; Dame, A.; McElroy, M.; Gelb, A. B.; Rosenman, R. H. 27-year mortality in the Western Collaborative Group Study: construction of risk groups by recursive partitioning. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, Vol. 44, No. 12, 1991. 1,341-51 pp. Exeter, England. In Eng.
"The relationship of selected biological and behavioral characteristics measured at baseline examination to 27-year mortality due to coronary heart disease (CHD), cancers of all sites, and total mortality in the 3,154 [U.S.] men that form the Western Collaborative Group Study was investigated using tree-structured survival analysis or recursive partitioning. Intake (1960-61) characteristics included in the present analyses were age, serum cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, cigarette smoking, body mass index, Type A/B behavior, and behavioral hostility."
Correspondence: D. Carmelli, SRI International, Health Sciences Program, 333 Ravenswood Avenue, Menlo Park, CA 94025. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:40203 Charlton, John; Kelly, Sue; Dunnell, Karen; Evans, Barry; Jenkins, Rachel; Wallis, Ruth. Trends in suicide deaths in England and Wales. Population Trends, No. 69, Autumn 1992. 10-6 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This article...describes recent trends in suicide rates and the methods used [in England and Wales]. For the first time since 1911, male suicide rates have been rising at a time when female suicide rates have been falling. The age distribution of suicides has also changed, to the extent that males aged under 45 are now more at risk than older males, whose rates have fallen. There is evidence of both cohort and period effects."
Correspondence: J. Charlton, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, Health Statistics, St. Catherines House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40204 Durkheim, Emile. Suicide and fertility: a study of moral statistics. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 8, No. 3, 1992. 175-97 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
This paper, originally published in French in 1888, was written by the sociologist E. Durkheim. In the forward by John Simons, it is noted that in this article the author "claims to demonstrate an inverse relationship between the suicide rate and the birth rate for the Departements of France, and to explain why this relationship was to be expected." The data concern the period 1801-1869.
Correspondence: J. Simons, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies, 99 Gower Street, London WC1E 6AZ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40205 El-Mouelhy, Mawaheb T. Maternal mortality in the last two decades in Egypt. Saudi Medical Journal, Vol. 13, No. 2, Mar 1992. 132-6 pp. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In Eng. with sum. in Ara.
"A review of the available studies on pregnancy-related mortality in Egypt in the last two decades revealed high rates of maternal mortality. Maternal mortality rates ranged from almost 15 to 45 per 10,000 live births in community studies and from 37 to just under 200 per 10,000 live births in hospital studies. The major causes of maternal deaths were haemorrhage..., pregnancy-induced hypertension..., sepsis..., rupture of the uterus...and abortion....High rates of maternal mortality were found to correlate with maternal age and parity with highest rates among women older than 35 years and women under 20 years and parity of 5 or more. Official rates were found to be much lower than the rates from the studies reviewed."
Correspondence: M. T. El-Mouelhy, P.O. Box 56, Manial El-Roda, Cairo 11553, Egypt. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:40206 Gao, Ersheng. Analysis of accidental death among children and teenagers in Shanghai. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 3, No. 3, 1991. 179-91 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Mortality due to accidents among children and adolescents is examined. "Data collection was restricted to Shanghai's Changning district, Luwan district, Baoshan county and Shanghai county, taking 0-19 year-old children and teenagers who died accidental deaths between 1980 and 1987 as its sample, and a retrospective survey organized taking children and teenagers who did not die of accidental injury of the same sex, same age, and same area as a comparison."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40207 Golemanov, Nikolai T. Maternal mortality in Bulgaria during the period 1964-1990. [Maichinata smartnost v Balgariya prez 1964-1990 g.] Naselenie, No. 3, 1992. 63-77 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng.
"An exhaustive study on...mortality from complications of pregnancy, child birth and puerperium has been conducted. A steady and significant reduction of the maternal mortality in Bulgaria during the period 1964-1990 has been established....The author points out the significant proportion of spontaneous and illegal abortions, relating it to the restrictive regime...abolished only in 1990, as well as to the long lasting minimal availability of contemporary contraceptives in Bulgaria."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40208 Jain, S. K. Recent trends in mortality in Australia--an analysis of the causes of death through the application of life table techniques. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 9, No. 1, May 1992. 1-23 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"The paper examines the post-1971 reduction in Australian mortality in light of data on causes of death. Multiple-decrement life tables for eleven leading causes of death by sex are calculated and the incidence of each cause of death is presented in terms of the values of the life table functions. The study found that in the overall decline in mortality over the last 20 years significant changes occurred in the contribution of the various causes to total mortality....The sex-age-cause-specific incidence of mortality changed and the median age at death increased for all causes except for deaths due to motor-vehicle accidents for both sexes and suicide for males. The paper also deciphers the gains in the expectation of life at birth over various time periods and the sex-differentials in the expectation of life at birth at a point in time in terms of the contributions made by the various sex-age-cause-specific mortality rates."
Correspondence: S. K. Jain, Australian Bureau of Statistics, P.O. Box 10, Belconnen, ACT 2616, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40209 Kampikaho, A.; Irwig, L. M. Incidence and causes of maternal mortality in five Kampala hospitals, 1980-1986. East African Medical Journal, Vol. 68, No. 8, Aug 1991. 624-31 pp. Nairobi, Kenya. In Eng.
Data on maternal mortality from five hospitals in Kampala, Uganda, over the period 1980-1986 are presented. Abortion- and nonabortion-related deaths are analyzed separately. A significant increase in nonabortion-related mortality over the period is noted.
Correspondence: A. Kampikaho, Makerere University, Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 7072, Kampala, Uganda. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:40210 Kuller, Lewis H.; Ockene, Judith K.; Meilahn, Elaine; Wentworth, Deborah N.; Svendsen, Kenneth H.; Neaton, James D. Cigarette smoking and mortality. Preventive Medicine, Vol. 20, No. 5, Sep 1991. 638-54 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The relationships of cigarette smoking and smoking cessation to mortality are examined using data on 361,662 U.S. men screened for the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial. The results confirm that "cigarette smoking was an important risk factor for all-cause, coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and cancer mortality." With regard to smoking cessation, "the data are consistent with results of previous epidemiologic studies indicating that the benefits of smoking cessation on CHD are rapid, while for lung cancer, the benefit is not evident in a 10-year follow-up period."
Correspondence: Coordinating Centers for Biometric Research, 2221 University Avenue SE, Suite 200, Minneapolis, MN 55414-3080. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:40211 Levi, Fabio; La Vecchia, Carlo; Randriamiharisoa, Alex; Boyle, Peter. Cancer mortality in young adults in Switzerland, 1951-1989. Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology, Vol. 117, No. 5, 1991. 497-501 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"Trends in mortality from all neoplasms and major cancer sites in Switzerland among populations aged between 20 and 44 years [for the period 1951-1989] are presented." The analysis examines changes in cancer mortality by cancer site and by sex. In general, there is a decline for both sexes among young adults. Data are from official sources.
Correspondence: F. Levi, Institut Universitaire de Medecine Sociale et Preventive, Registre Vaudois des Tumeurs, CHUV Falaises 1, 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:40212 Levi, Fabio; La Vecchia, Carlo; Lucchini, Franca; Negri, Eva. Trends in cancer mortality sex ratios in Europe, 1950-1989. World Health Statistics Quarterly/Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales, Vol. 45, No. 1, 1992. 117-64 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"A study was carried out to analyse trends in cancer mortality sex differentials. This study compared age-standardized sex ratio values for mortality from 18 cancers (or groups of cancers), and total cancer mortality over the period 1950-1989 in 24 European countries, for 4 age groups...."
Correspondence: F. Levi, Institut Universitaire de Medecine Sociale et Preventive, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Falaises 1, CH-1011 Lausanne, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40213 Li, Lillian M. Life and death in a Chinese famine: infanticide as a demographic consequence of the 1935 Yellow River flood. Comparative Studies in Society and History, Vol. 33, No. 3, Jul 1991. 466-510 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
The demographic consequences of female infanticide, as practiced in China in periods of famine following natural disasters, are examined. The author uses the 1935 Yellow River flood and the resulting famine's effect on refugees in Shandong province to illustrate. She concludes that female infanticide was practiced extensively during such crises, with both short- and long-term demographic consequences.
Correspondence: L. M. Li, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, PA 19081. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

58:40214 Loudon, Irvine. On maternal and infant mortality 1900-1960. Social History of Medicine, Vol. 4, No. 1, Apr 1991. 29-73 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The relationship between maternal and infant mortality is examined using data for the United Kingdom for the period 1900-1960. "It is shown that against expectation the links between maternal mortality and all components of infant mortality, including neonatal mortality, are very slight. The explanation can be found by examining the immediate causes of maternal and neonatal deaths. The advantage of placing these mortalities side by side and comparing their response to various determinants is that it brings to the fore features of maternal and infant mortality which are not obvious if they are examined in isolation."
Correspondence: I. Loudon, Green College, Oxford OX2 6HG, England. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:40215 Manton, Kenneth G.; Stallard, Eric. Demographics (1950-1987) of breast cancer in birth cohorts of older women. Journals of Gerontology, Vol. 47, Special Issue, Nov 1992. 32-42 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The effects of screening on breast cancer mortality, incidence, and prevalence were investigated using a general forecasting and simulation model. First, a biologically motivated model of disease incidence and mortality was fit to the breast cancer mortality experience of 15 U.S. White female birth cohorts followed for a 38-year period." The results suggest that a screening program that reduced late-stage diagnoses by 50 percent could produce large reductions in breast cancer mortality.
Correspondence: K. G. Manton, Duke University, Center for Demographic Studies, 2117 Campus Drive, Durham, NC 27706. Location: Princeton University Library (SW).

58:40216 Maxim, Paul S.; Keane, Carl. Gender, age, and the risk of violent death in Canada, 1950-1986. Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology/Revue Canadienne de Sociologie et d'Anthropologie, Vol. 29, No. 3, Aug 1992. 329-45 pp. Toronto, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This research examines the relationship between gender, age, and four principal causes of violent death--homicide, suicide, motor vehicle accidents, and 'other' accidents [in Canada]....Our findings reveal continuing differences between male and female rates of violent death, and little support for convergence theory. Significant changes are also noted in the pattern of age-specific mortality rates over the period of investigation."
Correspondence: P. S. Maxim, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7, Canada. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:40217 Mesle, France; Vallin, Jacques. Trends in mortality from cancer and from cardiovascular diseases in Europe since 1950. [Evolution de la mortalite par cancer et par maladies cardio-vasculaires en Europe depuis 1950.] INED Dossiers et Recherches, No. 34, Jun 1992. 46 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
Trends in mortality from cancer and from cardiovascular diseases in Europe are analyzed for the period 1950-1990. Data are primarily from the World Health Organization. As far as possible, the analysis is done separately by sex.
Correspondence: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40218 Neaton, James D.; Wentworth, Deborah. Serum cholesterol, blood pressure, cigarette smoking, and death from coronary heart disease: overall findings and differences by age for 316,099 white men. Archives of Internal Medicine, Vol. 152, No. 1, Jan 1992. 56-64 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
The combined influence of blood pressure, serum cholesterol level, and cigarette smoking on death from coronary heart disease (CHD) is examined. The data were collected in 18 U.S. cities between 1973 and 1975 and concern 361,662 white males aged 35 to 57. The results indicate that "systolic and diastolic [blood pressure], serum cholesterol level, and cigarettes per day were significant predictors of death due to CHD in all age groups."
Correspondence: J. D. Neaton, University of Minnesota, School of Public Health, Division of Biostatistics, 2221 University Avenue SE, Suite 200, Minneapolis, MN 55414. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:40219 Nerbrand, Christina; Svardsudd, Kurt; Horte, Lars-Gunnar; Tibblin, Gosta. Are geographical differences in cardiovascular mortality due to morbidity differences or to methodological differences? Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine, Vol. 19, No. 3, Sep 1991. 154-61 pp. Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
Reasons for geographical variations in cardiovascular mortality in central Sweden are explored for the period 1972-1981. The results suggest that some geographical differences persist even when different methods of certifying causes of death are taken into account.
Correspondence: C. Nerbrand, Uppsala University, Department of Family Medicine, Centre for Public Health Research, Landstingets Kansli, S-65182 Karlstad, Sweden. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:40220 Oganov, R. G.; Shestov, D. B.; Deev, A. D.; Zhukovskii, G. S.; Klimov, A. N.; Perova, N. V.; Devis, K. E.; Tiroler, G. A. High risk of death from coronary heart disease in men with low blood concentration of total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol based on a prospective epidemiological Soviet-American cooperative study in Moscow and Leningrad. [Povyshennyi risk smerti ot koronarnoi bolezni serdtsa u muzhchin s nizkoi kontsentratsiei v krovi obshchego kholesterina i kholesterina lipoproteidov nizkoi plotnosti po dannym prospektivnogo epidemiologicheskogo issledovaniya v Moskve i Leningrade v ramkakh Sovetsko-Amerika nskogo sotrudnichestva.] Terapevticheskii Arkhiv, Vol. 63, No. 1, 1991. 6-11 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
"The authors provide the results of a prospective study carried out for almost 10 years among men who underwent screenings in 1975-1977 at an age of 40-59 years in Moscow and Leningrad (overall 6,431 persons) with a purpose of analyzing potential causes of high risk of death from coronary heart disease in a group of subjects with hypocholesterolemia."
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:40221 Pinto, Fabio G.; Curi, Paulo R. Mortality from neoplasms in Brazil (1980, 1983, 1985): grouped by state, behavior, and trends. [Mortalidade por neoplasias no Brasil (1980/1983/1985): agrupamento dos estados, comportamento e tendencias.] Revista de Saude Publica, Vol. 25, No. 4, Aug 1991. 276-81 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
Patterns in cancer mortality in Brazil by state are examined using official Ministry of Health data for the years 1980, 1983, and 1985. Differences in mortality by type of cancer and region are discussed.
Correspondence: P. R. Curi, Servico de Estatisca e Computacao, Campus de Botucatu, Rubiao Junior 18610, Botucatu, SP, Brazil. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:40222 Riggs, Jack E. Longitudinal Gompertzian analysis of lung cancer mortality in the U.S., 1968-1986. Rising lung cancer mortality is the natural consequence of competitive deterministic mortality dynamics. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, Vol. 59, No. 1-2, Jun 14, 1991. 79-93 pp. Limerick, Ireland. In Eng.
"Age-adjusted mortality rates for lung cancer (LC) in the United States from 1968 to 1986 were subjected to longitudinal Gompertzian analysis....[The results suggest that] rising LC mortality rates in the United States are the natural consequence of competitive deterministic mortality dynamics and not a reflection of an environment that is directly more conducive to LC mortality. That is, more people are dying of LC because they are not dying from other diseases such as ischemic heart disease and stroke. Longitudinal Gompertzian analysis demonstrates that single disease mortality should not be studied in isolation, but rather examined in relation to other causes of death. When viewed from this perspective, the basis for the more dramatic rise in LC mortality in women becomes immediately evident."
Correspondence: J. E. Riggs, West Virginia University, Health Sciences Center, Department of Neurology, Morgantown, WV 26506. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:40223 Robinson, A. A. Cancer deaths due to all causes, its relationship with vehicle travel in Australia, Japan and European countries. Medical Hypotheses, Vol. 36, No. 2, Oct 1991. 166-71 pp. Edinburgh, Scotland. In Eng.
"Results of analysis of statistical data gathered and studied over a period from 1968-1989 have led to findings indicating that all cancers have a common cause. A relationship has been studied between the number of deaths due to all types of cancer and road accident deaths in time, by age, sex, and country." The results suggest that traveling in a motor vehicle can cause complex changes in body functions leading to cancer.
Correspondence: A. A. Robinson, 16 Quayle Street, Sandy Bay, Hobart, Tasmania 7005, Australia. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:40224 Rutenberg, Naomi; Sullivan, Jeremiah M. Direct and indirect estimates of maternal mortality from the sisterhood method. In: Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, August 5-7, 1991, Washington, D.C.: proceedings. Volume 3. 1991. 1,669-96 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
"This paper relates the experience of the Demographic and Health Survey Program (DHS) with the collection of maternal mortality data in Bolivia, Sudan, and Egypt using the retrospective survey format...[which entailed asking] adult household members about maternal deaths among their sisters." The data are then used to make direct and indirect estimations of maternal mortality risks, and these techniques are evaluated.
Correspondence: N. Rutenberg, Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 8850 Stanford Boulevard, Columbia, MD 21045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40225 Scholz, Rembrandt D.; Schott, Jurgen. Causes of death and cause-specific mean age at death and their relationship to the mean life expectancy--a methodological contribution. [Todesursachenstruktur und todesursachenspezifische mittlere Sterbealter in ihrer Beziehung zur mittleren Lebenserwartung--ein methodischer Beitrag.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 18, No. 1, 1992. 135-42 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"The relation between the structure of causes of death and life expectancy is described by causes of death life tables." The authors find that "in this century, the gain in life expectancy in the German Reich [especially] in the ex-GDR was 24.6 years, [two-thirds] of which are due to changes in the age structure, and [one-third] to changes in the structure of causes of death...."
Correspondence: R. D. Scholz, Bereich Medizin (Charite) der Humboldt-Universitat, Institut fur Sozialmedizin und Epidemiologie, Otto-Grotewohl-Strasse 1, O-1080 Berlin, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40226 Steenland, Kyle; Nowlin, Sue; Ryan, Brent; Adams, Steven. Use of multiple-cause mortality data in epidemiologic analyses: U.S. rate and proportion files developed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and the National Cancer Institute. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 136, No. 7, Oct 1, 1992. 855-62 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"The authors [calculate] U.S. mortality rates (age, sex, race, and calendar-time specific) and proportions, using multiple cause-of-death data, for the years 1960-1989." They note that the average number of causes and contributory conditions listed on death certificates increased from 2.54 in the 1960s to 2.76 in the 1980s. Use of multiple cause-of-death data is illustrated with two examples concerning granite cutters and workers exposed to dioxin. The authors emphasize the value of such data for analyzing the impact of diseases of long duration that are not necessarily fatal.
Correspondence: K. Steenland, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, R-13, Cincinnati, OH 45226. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

58:40227 Szadkowska-Stanczyk, Irena; Hanke, Wojciech; Gdulewicz, Tadeusz. Study on the mortality rate of the working-age population in Poland: Part 2. Percentage of main causes of death in the increasing mortality rate among men and women. [Analiza umieralnosci populacji w wieku produkcyjnym w Polsce: Cz. II. Udzial glownych przyczyn zgonow w rosnacej umieralnosci mezczyzn i kobiet.] Medycyna Pracy, Vol. 42, No. 1, 1991. 43-9 pp. Lodz, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng.
Mortality rates in Poland for men and women aged 20-64 are analyzed by cause of death and residence characteristics for the period 1951-1985. A significant increase in mortality from cardiovascular diseases, neoplasms, traumas, and poisonings was recorded for this age group. The increase was more significant among men, and most significant for men aged 40-59 living in rural areas.
Correspondence: I. Szadkowska-Stanczyk, Teresy 8, 90-950 Lodz, Poland. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:40228 Toure, B.; Thonneau, P.; Cantrelle, P.; Barry, T. M.; Ngo-Khac, T.; Papiernik, E. Level and causes of maternal mortality in Guinea (West Africa). International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Vol. 37, No. 2, Feb 1992. 89-96 pp. Limerick, Ireland. In Eng.
The authors analyze the causes of 139 maternal deaths registered in Conakry, the capital of Guinea, in 1989-1990. "The main causes of maternal death were abortion, complications linked with hypertension, and postpartum bleeding."
Correspondence: P. Thonneau, Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Unit 292, Hopital Bicetre, 78 rue du General Leclerc, 94275 Le Kremlin Bicetre, France. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:40229 Tracy, R. E. A modified cohort method for secular trend analysis: heart disease mortality in the U.S.A. 1914-1963 and follow-up to 1983. Medical Hypotheses, Vol. 34, No. 3, Mar 1991. 262-71 pp. Edinburgh, Scotland. In Eng.
Methods of analyzing patterns of heart disease mortality by age, race, and sex are examined. The author develops the midpoint method, for which current and cohort methods are special types of limiting cases. The midpoint method is shown to be particularly applicable to the analysis of mortality from cumulative diseases, such as atherosclerosis and hypertension. Secular trends in heart disease mortality are analyzed for the period 1914-1963 and predictions are made up to 1983. The author suggests that the etiologic forces contributing to heart disease mortality probably peaked around 1930, and the subsequent decline has not yet ended.
Correspondence: R. E. Tracy, Louisiana State University, Medical Center, Department of Pathology, 1901 Perdido Street, New Orleans, LA 70112. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:40230 Trovato, Frank. Sex, marital status, and suicide in Canada: 1951-1981. Sociological Perspectives, Vol. 34, No. 4, Winter 1991. 427-45 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut. In Eng.
Data from Canada for the period 1951-1981 are used to analyze the influence of marital status on suicide. "Using a standardization procedure, it was discovered that a transition from single or widowed to married would entail a greater reduction in suicide risk for men than for women. In the case of a transition from divorced to married status, both sexes would benefit equally in reducing suicide potential. The analysis further demonstrates only weak support for the thesis that over time there would be a convergence in sex differences in the potential protective significance of marriage in reducing suicide risk."
Correspondence: F. Trovato, University of Alberta, Sociology Department, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

58:40231 Valkonen, Tapani; Brancker, Anna; Reijo, Marie. Mortality differentials between three populations--residents of Scandinavia, Scandinavian immigrants to Canada and Canadian-born residents of Canada, 1979-1985. [Mortalite differentielle entre trois populations: residents des pays scandinaves, immigrants au Canada d'origine scandinave et residents canadiens nes au Canada, 1979-1985.] Health Reports/Rapports sur la Sante, Vol. 4, No. 2, 1992. 137-59 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
"The purpose of the study was to determine to what extent differences in cause-specific mortality among Scandinavian peoples shift when they immigrate to Canada." The authors compare "the mortality of Canadian residents born in Canada and Scandinavia (Finland, Sweden, Norway, Denmark) to the mortality of the four Scandinavian countries. The study focuses on the mortality experience of anyone who was 35-74 years old during the period 1979-85. Swedish and Norwegian populations both in Scandinavia as well as immigrants to Canada has relatively low mortality from all causes of death. On the other hand, populations in Finland and Denmark had comparatively higher mortality from certain causes of death....The article includes a discussion of possible explanations for these results."
Correspondence: T. Valkonen, University of Helsinki, Department of Sociology, Franzeninkatu 13, 00500 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40232 Vishnevsky, A. G.; Shkolnikov, V.; Vassin, S. A. Epidemiological transition in the USSR as mirrored by regional differences. Genus, Vol. 47, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1991. 79-100 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
The epidemiological transition in the USSR is examined, with a focus on differences among the constituent republics. "Means of comparative analysis of mortality structure by causes of death are proposed and by these means the lag of [the] Soviet Union behind the U.S. and Sweden as well as some Soviet republics behind others is described. It is shown that the main reason [for] this lag is the lower age of death from the causes characteristic of [the] new type of pathology (circulatory diseases, cancer) though in the more backward regions the causes of death which are characteristic of the old type of pathology keep their importance too."
Correspondence: A. G. Vishnevsky, Center of Demography and Human Ecology, Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40233 Watt, Graham C. M.; Ecob, Russell. Mortality in Glasgow and Edinburgh: a paradigm of inequality in health. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 46, No. 5, Oct 1992. 498-505 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In order to assess the prospect of achieving national [health] targets, we have compared trends in all cause and cause specific mortality rates in Glasgow and Edinburgh [Scotland]...." The study is based on "an analysis of all cause and cause specific mortality data for quinquennia based on census years between 1931 and 1981, linking age and sex specific mortality rates by year of birth, for people dying between the ages of 25 and 74 years....Age and sex specific mortality rates declined steadily in Edinburgh and Glasgow during the period 1931-1981, with rates always being lower in Edinburgh than in Glasgow....The current 40% cross sectional difference in mortality rates between the cities is largely determined by levels of mortality in early adulthood which provide a baseline for the subsequent rise in log mortality."
Correspondence: G. C. M. Watt, University of Glasgow, Department of Public Health, 2 Lilybank Gardens, Glasgow G12 8RZ, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40234 Williams, F. L. R.; Lloyd, O. Trends in lung cancer mortality in Scotland and their relation to cigarette smoking and social class. Scottish Medical Journal, Vol. 36, No. 6, Dec 1991. 175-8 pp. Edinburgh, Scotland. In Eng.
"This paper describes the trends in lung cancer rates in Scottish men and women during 1959-85, the relationship between lung cancer and cigarette consumption, and between lung cancer and social class, and the urban-rural gradient of lung cancer. Lung cancer rates in Scottish men have declined in all age groups under the age of 74 for at least the past two decades....In women...lung cancer mortality declined slightly in those between 40-54 years and rose in those over 54 years. Trends in cigarette consumption did not fully explain the decline in lung cancer. Marked urban-rural gradients in the SMRs [standardized mortality ratios] for lung cancer were evident in all periods, and these strengthened over time. Correlations between lung cancer and social class differed markedly from those found in previous studies...."
Correspondence: F. L. R. Williams, University of Dundee, Ninewells Medical School, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Dundee DD1 9SY, Scotland. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:40235 Wolfe, Charles D. A.; Burney, Peter G. J. Is stroke mortality on the decline in England? American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 136, No. 5, Sep 1, 1992. 558-65 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"This paper challenges the assumption that mortality from stroke will remain constant or decline over the next few decades. A decline in stroke mortality could be brought about by changes in factors acting close to the time of death (period effect) or by risk factors determined by the generation into which a person is born (cohort effect). Age-specific death rates for stroke (1931-1985) in England and Wales were analyzed to estimate the influence of these different effects. There were significant effects for age, period, and cohort on mortality from stroke with significantly different age and period effects in each sex."
Correspondence: C. D. A. Wolfe, United Medical and Dental Schools of Guy's and St. Thomas's Hospitals, Division of Community Health, St. Thomas's Campus, London SE1 7EH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).


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