Volume 58 - Number 4 - Winter 1992

C. Spatial Distribution

Studies with an emphasis on locational patterns and their interpretation.

C.1. General Spatial Distribution

Studies of rural and urban populations considered together. Studies that are concerned primarily with the movement of population are classified under H. Migration . Studies concerned with the definition of urban or rural areas and with boundary changes are classified here or in O.1. Population Statistics, General Aspects .

58:40041 Barke, Michael; Sowden, Clive. Population change in Tanzania, 1978-88: a preliminary analysis. Scottish Geographical Magazine, Vol. 108, No. 1, Apr 1992. 9-16 pp. Edinburgh, Scotland. In Eng.
"Preliminary results from the Tanzanian census of 1988 are examined against the background of two decades of policies attempting to influence the distribution of population within the country. The overall rate of population increase has slowed down, as has the rate of urban population growth....[Apart from the capital, Dar es Salaam,] urban areas continue to grow very rapidly....A degree of population dispersal is also evident, as a number of formerly lightly populated areas have recorded large percentage increases in population. A major cause for concern is that many of these areas have demonstrated various aspects of environmental degradation for some time. It is concluded that spatial planning policies have had only a limited impact upon the regional distribution of population in Tanzania in the 1978-88 period, and that 'spontaneous' processes have been far more significant."
Correspondence: M. Barke, Newcastle upon Tyne Polytechnic, Department of Environment, Lipman Building, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40042 Culliton, Thomas J.; Warren, Maureen A.; Goodspeed, Timothy R.; Remer, Davida G.; Blackwell, Carol M.; McDonough, John J. 50 years of population change along the nation's coasts, 1960-2010. Coastal Trends Series, No. 2, LC 90-601689. Apr 1990. 41 pp. U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Ocean Assessments Division, Strategic Assessment Branch: Rockville, Maryland. In Eng.
This report examines changes and projections in the population of the coastal regions of the United States, including regions bordering the great lakes, over the period 1960-2010 using data from official sources.
Correspondence: U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Ocean Assessments Division, Strategic Assessment Branch, 6001 Executive Boulevard, Rockville, MD 20852. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40043 Friedrich, K. Spatial patterns and planning consequences of the demographic aging process. [Raumliche Muster und regionalplanerische Konsequenzen des demographischen Alternsprozesses.] Zeitschrift fur Gerontologie, Vol. 24, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1991. 257-65 pp. Darmstadt, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
The spatial dimensions of the relationship between the elderly and their environment are examined in urban, suburban, and rural areas of the Rhine-Main agglomeration in Germany, using data from interviews with 750 elderly people. "The majority of the target population and, especially, the rural elderly is characterized by traditional patterns of spatial organization and distribution, mobility, regional attachment, and a concern about preserving the stability of their current residential environment from changes. The suburban and urban seniors, however, exhibit a greater amount of locational flexibility and utility-oriented behavior patterns." The focus is on the implications of the study for regional planning.
Correspondence: K. Friedrich, Technische Hochschule Darmstadt, Geographisches Institut, Schnittspahnstrasse 9, 6100 Darmstadt, Germany. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:40044 Humphrey, Craig R. A regional shift in population: explaining post-World War II trends and projections influencing the industrial belt of the U.S. In: Migration, population structure, and redistribution policies, edited by Calvin Goldscheider. 1992. 281-302 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Broad [U.S.] trends and projections for the regional distribution of population and employment opportunities are identified to show the demographic and economic contexts in which states and local communities in the industrial belt have formulated and will continue to formulate development strategies to cope with challenges posed by regional and international competition for jobs, residents, and capital investment. We draw heavily on recent work on state and regional demographic projections published by the U.S. Bureau of the Census...." Three different patterns are described, and pertinent literature is cited.
Correspondence: C. R. Humphrey, Pennsylvania State University, Department of Sociology, 211 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40045 Morrill, Richard. Population redistribution within metropolitan regions in the 1980s: core, satellite, and exurban growth. Growth and Change, Vol. 23, No. 3, Summer 1992. 277-302 pp. Lexington, Kentucky. In Eng.
"This paper evaluates the hypothesis that the growth experiences of core parts of metropolitan areas [in the United States] tend to predict the growth of satellite, exurban, and even more distant non-metropolitan areas. Particular attention is paid to evidence of spillover of growth into adjacent smaller metropolises and smaller cities, and to the hypothesis that spillover is especially marked in areas of rapid growth, growth restrictions, and housing price inflation. The hypotheses are supported by 1980-1990 patterns of change, as is the continuing attractiveness of exurban and non-metropolitan environmental amenities."
Correspondence: R. Morrill, University of Washington, Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

58:40046 Schuler, Martin; Huissoud, Therese. The 1980s: demographic trends reversed. [Les annees 80: les tendances demographiques inversees.] Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Volkswirtschaft und Statistik/Revue Suisse d'Economie Politique et de Statistique/Swiss Journal of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 128, No. 3, Sep 1992. 383-97 pp. Bern, Switzerland. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Ger.
Some recent changes in the spatial distribution of the population of Switzerland are analyzed. The authors suggest that "a new equilibrium is taking shape within the repartition of the Swiss population....Especially the interregional migration flows do not seem to have spatial preferences any longer, if we consider the total figures and not their demographic and socio-economic structure. The dichotomy center-periphery is slowing down, but the explanation of the pattern of population distribution lies in an analysis of micro-processus which seems to show a deep change; the population segregation within agglomerations is growing."
Correspondence: M. Schuler, IREC, EPFL, CP 555, CH-1001 Lausanne, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

C.2. Urban Spatial Distribution

Studies of urban populations, including those of metropolitan areas and suburban and semi-urban zones. Also includes studies on urbanization insofar as they relate to the effects of migration on urban areas or the socioeconomic and demographic structure of urban populations. Studies on the actual process of rural-urban migration are coded under H.6. Rural-Urban Migration .

58:40047 Becker, Charles M.; Williamson, Jeffrey G.; Mills, Edwin S. Indian urbanization and economic growth since 1960. Johns Hopkins Studies in Development, ISBN 0-8018-4179-8. LC 90-28392. 1992. xiv, 328 pp. Johns Hopkins University Press: Baltimore, Maryland/London, England. In Eng.
Trends in urbanization in India and their relationship to economic growth since 1960 are analyzed. The authors use the technique of general equilibrium analysis to identify the interactions among cities and rural areas in India, and between India and the rest of the world. Specifically, they develop a model of the Indian experience since 1960 that estimates the economy as it was and allows for the production of different scenarios. The results indicate that although rapid urban population growth occurred during that decade, there has been a decline in urban labor force growth rates since then. India's relatively slow urban growth can be explained partly by unfavorable economic and demographic conditions, but is primarily attributed "to structural and institutional arrangements that make city growth less responsive to favorable conditions than is true of the rest of the Third World." The authors suggest that the slowdown in the rate of urban growth will continue into the 1990s.
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins University Press, 701 West 40th Street, Baltimore, MD 21211-2190. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

58:40048 Chen, Jinyong. The distinguishing features of urbanization in socialist countries. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 3, No. 3, 1991. 167-78 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Urbanization in developing socialist countries (DSC) is described and compared with urban growth in market-economy countries. The author finds that "the common characteristics of DSC urbanization are mainly composed of two...factors: firstly, they all use a similar set of economic development models. This set of models is different from the development models of capitalist countries. Secondly, compared with population movement in a so-called 'state of anarchy' in an urban economy, socialist countries stress that population movement, just like the deployment of other productive force elements, must submit to central economic planning, and population movement should occur in a 'planned' way."
Correspondence: J. Chen, University of Hong Kong, Department of Geography and Geology, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40049 Firman, Tommy. The spatial pattern of urban population growth in Java, 1980-1990. Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, Vol. 28, No. 2, Aug 1992. 95-109 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"The emergence of fast-growing peri-urban regions and corridors joining large cities has been a feature of rapid urban growth in Asia in the last fifty years. These areas have been characterised by a mixture of urban and rural activities and by strong rural-urban linkages. This paper uses data from the 1980 and 1990 Indonesian Censuses to measure the extent to which this process has been occurring on Java in the intervening decade. It calculates and categorises the absolute and proportional increase in the urban populations of each kabupaten in Java, and examines some of the reasons for the emerging patterns. The paper concludes with a discussion of the policy implications of the findings."
Correspondence: T. Firman, Bandung Institute of Technology, Jalan Tamansari 64, Bandung 40132, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

58:40050 Frey, William H.; Speare, Alden. The revival of metropolitan population growth in the United States: an assessment of findings from the 1990 census. Population and Development Review, Vol. 18, No. 1, Mar 1992. 129-46, 206, 208 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"In this article we assess metropolitan-area growth patterns in the United States during the 1980s as revealed by 1990 census data. We evaluate these patterns against various explanations that were proposed to account for the altered developed-world redistribution tendencies of the 1970s....Urbanization reasserted itself after the 'rural renaissance' of the 1970s....U.S. metropolitan areas once again grew faster than nonmetropolitan areas, and the geography of metropolitan growth displayed some rearrangement. Rapid growth in the South and West continued, but its pace slowed considerably in the interior parts of these regions. Large coastal metropolitan areas showed the steadiest gains."
Correspondence: W. H. Frey, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40051 Frey, William H.; Speare, Alden. U.S. metropolitan area population growth 1960-1990: census trends and explanations. Population Studies Center Research Report, No. 91-212, May 1991. 30, [14] pp. University of Michigan, Population Studies Center: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This paper presents an assessment of 1980-90 [U.S.] metropolitan area growth patterns and their explanations, based on the analysis of recently released 1990 Census data. It contrasts the 1980s growth experiences of the nation's 284 metropolitan areas (CMSAs and MSAs) with their experiences over two previous decades. It also compares their growth experiences between 1980-85 and 1985-90."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1991 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40052 Gugler, Josef. The urbanization of the Third World. ISBN 0-19-823260-8. LC 87-31385. 1988. xi, 421 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This is a collection of seven interdisciplinary studies by various authors on aspects of urbanization in developing countries. The studies cover "the distinctive characteristics of rapid urban growth in the Third World; the relationship between the urban and the rural sector; rural-urban migration as it relates to the urban labour market; the housing question; survival strategies in the city; forms of integration and social control; and the politics played out in the urban arena."
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, Walton Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

58:40053 Kasarda, John D.; Crenshaw, Edward M. Third World urbanization: dimensions, theories, and determinants. Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 17, 1991. 467-501 pp. Palo Alto, California. In Eng.
"Few aspects of international social change have generated as much scholarship as patterns of urbanization in the Third World. In this review of interdisciplinary research, we first trace the trends and dimensions of urbanization in developing countries and then discuss major theories guiding global urban studies. Second, we review and critique recent cross-national investigations of the determinants of urbanization and its dimensions, concluding that severe underspecification, the dearth of comparative statistics on critical dimensions, and the ambiguity of proxy variables hinder research in this area. Finally, we discuss issues that warrant additional investigation in the near future."
Correspondence: J. D. Kasarda, University of North Carolina, Department of Sociology, Chapel Hill, NC 27599. Location: Princeton University Library (SSRC).

58:40054 Lappo, G. M. Urban policy in Russia: a geographic perspective. Post-Soviet Geography, Vol. 33, No. 8, Oct 1992. 516-32 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
The author "describes current features of the Russian urban settlement system, recounts erroneous planning practices of the past, and prescribes changes for the improvement of settlement planning in the future. [Included] are tables, disaggregated to the economic regional level, showing spatial variations in the number of new cities registered over the period 1927-1989. In [a] modification of conventional former Soviet thinking, a case is made in favor of such processes as polarization of space, agglomeration, spontaneous transformation of urban economic profiles, and place-based rather than norm-based planning."
Correspondence: G. M. Lappo, Institute of Geography, Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

58:40055 May, Richard. The urbanization revolution: planning a new agenda for human settlements. Urban Innovation Abroad, ISBN 0-306-43222-6. LC 89-3861. 1989. xv, 271 pp. Plenum Press: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
This is a selection of articles by various authors on aspects of urbanization in developing countries. A common theme linking the 21 papers is current thought about the best ways development aid agencies can help governments tackle the problems caused by rapid urbanization. The main topics under which the papers are organized are: new commitments to shelter and national development policies; mobilizing resources for urban housing, infrastructure, and finance; small towns in the development process; changing priorities for consultants, donors, clients, and counterparts; and new roles for communities, organizations, and planning educators.
Correspondence: Plenum Press, 233 Spring Street, New York, NY 10013. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

58:40056 Mazur, Robert E. Challenges confronting South Africa's separate development: the legacy of segregation and displaced urbanization. In: Migration, population structure, and redistribution policies, edited by Calvin Goldscheider. 1992. 181-205 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This research has two...goals. The first is to identify the magnitude and variability of the dimensions of institutionalized segregation [in South Africa]. This involves describing patterns of urbanization at the national and regional levels, particularly the degree of suppressed or 'displaced' urbanization among the African population. We can then evaluate the effects of apartheid's urbanization and related policies on the socioeconomic development of the African population....The second goal is to outline the principal implications of these findings for South Africa in which the possible political configurations range from democratic non-racialism with a mixed economy to a decentralized federal structure with a capitalist economy in which existing privileges are maintained."
Correspondence: R. E. Mazur, Iowa State University, Department of Sociology, Ames, IA 50011. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40057 Mills, Edwin S.; McDonald, John F.; McLean, Mary L. Sources of metropolitan growth. ISBN 0-88285-135-7. LC 91-8650. 1992. xxvii, 307 pp. Rutgers University, Center for Urban Policy Research: New Brunswick, New Jersey. In Eng.
This book is based on papers delivered at a symposium on determinants of metropolitan growth and development, held in Evanston, Illinois, November 13-14, 1989. The approach is interdisciplinary, with emphasis on geography and regional economics. The geographical focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: Rutgers University, Center for Urban Policy Research, Building 4051, Kilmer Campus, New Brunswick, NJ 08903. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

58:40058 Oberai, A. S. Urban population growth, employment and poverty in developing countries: a conceptual framework for policy analysis. In: Consequences of rapid population growth in developing countries. 1991. 191-218 pp. Taylor and Francis: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to provide a conceptual framework for the analysis of the main policy issues in the context of available theoretical and empirical studies on urbanization, employment, and poverty in developing countries. The paper is divided into five sections. After a brief introduction, [the] second section discusses the structural features of urbanization in relation to economic development. It also examines the major sources of urban growth and spatial concentration and analyses the conflict between economic efficiency and decentralization. The third section assesses the implications of rapid urban growth for employment generation and poverty alleviation. In particular, it examines the effects of labour force growth on labour market structure and assesses the role of the informal sector in employment promotion. The fourth section discusses the relationship between urban low productivity and poverty. And finally, the last section summarizes the main conclusions and suggests priority areas for further policy research."
Correspondence: A. S. Oberai, International Labour Office, Employment Planning and Population Branch, CH-1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40059 Pushka, Asllan. Population growth in the cities of Kosovo. [Porast stanovnistva kosovskih gradova.] Stanovnistvo, Vol. 28-29, No. 3-4/1-2, Jul-Dec/Jan-Jun 1990-1991. 117-87 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
Population growth in the cities of Kosovo, Yugoslovia, from 1950 to the present is examined. The author finds that "the main factors behind the increase in population in the cities of Kosovo are: industrial growth, cultural improvement and educational attainments of its population."
Correspondence: A. Pushka, Univerziteta u Pristini, Prirodno-matematicki Fakultet, M. Tito 53, 38000 Pristini, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40060 Samuel, M. Johnson. Some aspects of Bangalore's growth 1941-1991. Journal of Institute of Economic Research, Vol. 26, No. 1-2, Jan-Jul 1991. 1-16 pp. Dharwad, India. In Eng.
"Relying on census data from 1941 to 1991, the study examines the patterns of population growth in Bangalore city [India] and its extensions. To the extent possible, data have been adjusted for boundary shifts and changes in the definition of workers. After assessing the contribution of migration to the growth of Bangalore, the paper reviews the changes that have taken place in the economic base of Bangalore. The paper notes that urban infrastructure development has not kept pace with population growth."
Correspondence: M. J. Samuel, Institute for Social and Economic Change, Bangalore 560 072, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40061 Schaeffer, Peter. The consequences of demographic trends for urban growth. [Auswirkungen demographischer Entwicklung auf das Stadtewachstum.] Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Volkswirtschaft und Statistik/Revue Suisse d'Economie Politique et de Statistique/Swiss Journal of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 128, No. 3, Sep 1992. 369-81 pp. Bern, Switzerland. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"The large cities of Switzerland have lost population for the last twenty to thirty years. Now it appears that the number of employers and jobs may also start to stagnate, or even decline. At the present time the large Swiss cities have a population with an unbalanced demographic and economic structure....It is important that the cities remember that their inhabitants are part of the tax base and try to achieve a population structure that will not burden them in the effort to compete in a changing economic environment. Failure to do so could result in long-term economic decline for some core cities."
Correspondence: P. Schaeffer, University of Colorado, Urban and Regional Planning Program, Campus Box 126, P.O. Box 173364, Denver, CO 80217-3364. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

58:40062 Sokolov, Andrei K. From the countryside to the cities: a comparative historical analysis of rural-urban migration in Russia and in the Soviet Union during the industrialization drive. Historical Social Research/Historische Sozialforschung, Vol. 16, No. 2; 58, 1991. 110-27 pp. Cologne, Germany. In Eng.
The author analyzes the rapid process of urbanization (which involved large-scale rural-urban migration) that occurred in the USSR during its industrialization during the 1930s. Data are from official Soviet sources, including the censuses of 1918, 1926, and 1939. The author examines factors that attracted migrants to cities as well as those that drove them from the countryside. The system of internal passports and residence stamps that was developed to control internal migration is described.
Correspondence: A. K. Sokolov, Institute of History of the USSR, 117036 Dm. Uljanova 19, Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

C.3. Rural Spatial Distribution

Studies of agricultural and farming populations.

58:40063 Berlan-Darque, Martine; Collomb, Philippe. Rural population--rural vitality. Sociologia Ruralis, Vol. 31, No. 4, 1991. 252-61 pp. Assen, Netherlands. In Eng.
The state of rural demography is explored, with a focus on the general lack of interest among demographers in studying rural populations. Consideration is given to problems in constructing standard definitions of rural populations, given the great geographical diversity of rural ares around the world. Recent trends in rural-urban migration are also examined.
Correspondence: M. Berlan-Darque, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, 147 rue de l'Universite, 75007 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

58:40064 Lenain, Jacques. The future of rural societies. [Le devenir du monde rural.] ISBN 2-11-052779-X. 1991. 238 pp. Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques [INSEE], Direction Regionale du Limousin: Paris, France. In Fre.
This study is concerned with demographic trends in rural France, based on data from the 1982 census, with particular reference to the region of Limousin and the district of Aubusson. The author looks at the causes of rural depopulation and the steps that can be taken to slow or reverse this process.
Correspondence: Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, 18 Adolphe Pinard, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40065 Stockdale, Aileen. Residential mobility in rural areas of population growth. Pub. Order No. BRDX96513. 1991. 639 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study examines the impact of turnaround migration to rural Northern Ireland on its spatial distribution. It was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Ulster, Northern Ireland.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1364. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 53(3).

58:40066 Zhai, Zhenwu. A historical review of China's rural economic development and population growth. Population Research, Vol. 8, No. 3, Sep 1991. 1-10 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
Population growth trends in rural China since 1949 and the effects of economic development during this period are discussed. Consideration is given to agricultural outputs, investments in agricultural capital consumption, and rural economic reforms. Some policy implications are described.
Correspondence: Z. Zhai, People's University of China, Institute of Population Research, 39 Haidian Road, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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