Volume 58 - Number 3 - Fall 1992

G. Nuptiality and the Family

Studies that quantitatively analyze aspects of nuptiality and the family. Studies concerned equally with marriage and the family are coded first under G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to G.1. Marriage and Divorce . Methodological studies on nuptiality and the family are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , as appropriate.

G.1. Marriage and Divorce

Studies of trends in marriage and divorce, nuptiality, duration of marriage, age at marriage, and demographic characteristics of marriage partners. Also includes studies of unmarried cohabitation and consensual unions.

58:30362 Axinn, William G.; Thornton, Arland. The relationship between cohabitation and divorce: selectivity or causal influence? Demography, Vol. 29, No. 3, Aug 1992. 357-74 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Recent evidence linking premarital cohabitation to high rates of divorce poses a complex theoretical and empirical puzzle. We develop hypotheses predicting that premarital cohabitation is selective of those who are prone to divorce as well as hypotheses predicting that the experience of premarital cohabitation produces attitudes and values which increase the probability of divorce. Using multiwave panel data from a recent cohort of young men and women in the United States, we specify and test models of these predictions. The results are consistent with hypotheses suggesting that cohabitation is selective of men and women who are less committed to marriage and more approving of divorce. The results are also consistent with the conclusion that cohabiting experiences significantly increase young people's acceptance of divorce."
Correspondence: W. G. Axinn, University of Chicago, Department of Sociology, Chicago, IL 60637-2799. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30363 Billig, Michael S. The marriage squeeze and the rise of groomprice in India's Kerala state. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 23, No. 2, Summer 1992. 197-216 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
Reasons for the change from the giving of a dowry for brides to the giving of a groom-price in Kerala state, India, are analyzed. The author argues that the major cause of this change has been the evolution of the state's marriage market, with rapid population growth in the 1950s and 1960s leading to a shortage of grooms of the appropriate age, educational level, and professional status.
Correspondence: M. S. Billig, Franklin and Marshall College, Department of Anthropology and Asian Studies Program, Lancaster, PA 17604-3003. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

58:30364 Blossfeld, Hans-Peter; Jaenichen, Ursula. Educational expansion and changes in women's entry into marriage and motherhood in the Federal Republic of Germany. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 54, No. 2, May 1992. 302-15 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"This article empirically assesses the question of whether women's growing economic independence, resulting from better education, is a major factor in the rise in delayed marriage and motherhood. New panel data from the (former) Federal Republic of Germany show that women's increasing educational attainment can explain part of the changes in the process of family formation. The delaying effect of educational expansion on the timing of first marriage is, however, limited to the phase of transition from youth to adulthood. Better educated women only marry later, and get their first child later."
Correspondence: H.-P. Blossfeld, European University Institute, Badia Fiesolana, Via dei Roccettini 5, I-50016 San Domenico di Fiesole, Florence, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30365 Bonneuil, Noel. Demography of nuptiality in the nineteenth century. [Demographie de la nuptialite au XIXe siecle.] INED Dossiers et Recherches, No. 32, Sep 1990. 32 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
Changing marriage patterns in France during the nineteenth century are analyzed using data from the 3,000 Families Survey, which includes records of some 46,000 marriages occurring between 1803 and 1902. The impact of urbanization and of changing social and cultural conditions on nuptiality is noted.
Correspondence: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Institut National d'Etudes Economiques, Paris, France.

58:30366 Bozon, Michel. Sociology of the marriage ritual. [Sociologie du rituel du mariage.] Population, Vol. 47, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1992. 409-33 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The author analyzes changes in the type of marriage ceremony chosen by couples in France between the periods 1960-1972 and 1973-1983. Particular attention is given to the influence of cohabitation on the type of marriage ceremony selected.
Correspondence: M. Bozon, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30367 Clark, Roger D. Family structure, liberty and equality, and divorce: a cross-national examination. In: Fertility transitions, family structure, and population policy, edited by Calvin Goldscheider. 1992. 175-96 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This chapter introduces a French structuralist approach to social and demographic change that emphasizes the potential role of purely conceptual (non-materialist) universals in the creation of such change....The purpose of this chapter is to draw...conclusions about what may appropriately be called the world-wide revolution in divorce of the past quarter of a century and to test them using cross-national data on divorce for the period 1966 to 1985."
Correspondence: R. D. Clark, Rhode Island College, 600 Mount Pleasant Avenue, Providence, RI 02908. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30368 Coale, Ansley J. Some relations among cultural traditions, nuptiality and fertility. Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 30, No. 4, Pt. 1, Winter 1991. 397-413 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
"In this lecture, I shall describe typical features of the age of entry into marriage in different populations that are at different points in the demographic transition....One theme of the lecture will be the relation between nuptiality and fertility before and during the demographic transition, and in particular the association between age at marriage and changes in age at marriage and the initiation of the voluntary control of fertility within marriage. A second theme is the role of culture and traditional behaviour in influencing age at marriage and the initiation of the control of marital fertility." Comments by I. Sirageldin and K. J. Krotki are included (pp. 407-13).
Correspondence: A. J. Coale, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30369 Enel, Catherine; Pison, Gilles; Lefebvre, Monique. Migration and nuptiality trends. The example of Mlomp, a Joola village in southern Senegal. [Migrations et evolution de la nuptialite. L'exemple d'un village joola du sud du Senegal, Mlomp.] INED Dossiers et Recherches, No. 28, Nov 1989. 26 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The impact of migration on nuptiality in Senegal is examined using data from the village of Mlomp. The authors note that circular migration is the norm for young people of both sexes, although in the case of women, such migration generally stops when they marry. "The study combines demographic survey and ethnographic work. It shows that the circular migrations have developed since the beginning of this century, mainly under the influence of changes in bridewealth which have increased....Mean age at marriage, defined as age at the beginning of cohabitation in the village, is 24 for girls and 30 for men...."
Correspondence: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Institut National d'Etudes Economiques, Paris, France.

58:30370 Gage-Brandon, Anastasia J. The polygyny-divorce relationship: a case study of Nigeria. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 54, No. 2, May 1992. 285-92 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"While the relationship between polygyny and fertility has drawn the attention of many demographers, little research has been done on the polygyny-divorce relationship. Using data from the Nigeria Fertility Survey of 1981/82 and proportional hazard models, this paper estimates the effect of polygyny on the stability of first unions. The results indicate that a simple dichotomy of polygynous and monogamous unions may be misleading. Two-wife unions are the most stable whereas unions with three or more wives are associated with the highest rates of marital disruption. These effects are independent of childlessness, marriage duration, and other factors."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1991 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: A. J. Gage-Brandon, United Nations, Population Division, Population Trends and Structure Section, DC-2 Room 1984, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30371 Harrell, Stevan. Aspects of marriage in three south-western villages. China Quarterly, No. 130, Jun 1992. 323-37 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The impact of China's post-1978 reforms on rural marriage patterns and the family is explored. The author notes that there are two contradictory pressures involved, namely, a revival of traditional behavior associated with the era before land collectivization begun in 1956, and the growth of behavior associated with modernization and economic growth.
Correspondence: S. Harrell, University of Washington, Arts and Sciences Honor Program, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

58:30372 Hum, Derek P. J.; Choudry, Saud. Income, work and marital dissolution: Canadian experimental evidence. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 23, No. 2, Summer 1992. 249-65 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
Microdata from Canada's test of the guaranteed annual income concept (Mincome) are used to analyze factors affecting family dissolution. The focus is on the effects on dissolution of income and of welfare payments.
Correspondence: D. P. J. Hum, University of Manitoba, St. John's College, Department of Economics, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2M5, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

58:30373 Kojima, Hiroshi. Determinants of first marital formation in Japan: does the sibling configuration matter? Institute of Population Problems Working Paper Series, No. 10, Jan 1992. 43 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"This study attempts to clarify the effects of sib size, birth order and the possession of older brothers, older sisters, younger brothers, and younger sisters on first marriage formation in Japan. Twelve sociological, demographic and psychological hypotheses are presented and examined with regard to their effects on three outcomes in each age segment: getting married through arranged marriage, getting married through love marriage and staying never-married." Data are from a 1982 national fertility survey and cover never-married and first-marriage males and females aged 18-34.
Correspondence: Institute of Population Problems, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-45, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30374 Landale, Nancy S.; Fennelly, Katherine. Informal unions among mainland Puerto Ricans: cohabitation or an alternative to legal marriage? Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 54, No. 2, May 1992. 269-80 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"This paper examines the meaning of informal unions among mainland Puerto Rican women with data from a survey of Puerto Rican women residing in New York City and its surrounding counties in 1985. The primary aims of the analysis are: (a) to compare the characteristics of women in informal unions to those of women who are single and women who are legally married; (b) to assess whether Puerto Rican women define their informal unions as nonmarital cohabitation or a form of marriage; and (c) to examine the predictors of women's definitions of informal unions. Overall, the results show that among Puerto Ricans, informal unions are more akin to marriage than singlehood."
Correspondence: N. S. Landale, Pennsylvania State University, Population Issues Research Center, 22 Burrowes Building, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30375 Latten, J. J. Married without having cohabited. From normal to exceptional? [Trouwen zonder te hebben samengewoond. Van gewoon naar bijzonder?] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 40, No. 6, Jun 1992. 24-30 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Changing marriage patterns in the Netherlands are described. The author notes that although the popularity of marriage at younger ages has declined rapidly in recent years, cohabitation at the same ages has increased significantly. By the end of the 1980s almost one-half of women aged 18-37 with a partner had lived in a consensual union at some time. The author concludes that consensual union before marriage is likely to become the norm during the 1990s.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30376 Limanonda, Bhassorn. Nuptiality patterns in Thailand: their implications for further fertility decline. In: Fertility transitions, family structure, and population policy, edited by Calvin Goldscheider. 1992. 101-20 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In this paper, we consider the role of the nuptiality transition in Thailand during the past three decades. Our objective is to assess both the contribution of nuptiality change to fertility change, and the potential contribution of nuptiality changes to the continuing Thai fertility transition. We first examine nuptiality patterns, and the conventional demographic analyses of the Thai fertility transition. We then turn to sociological and ethnographic analyses of Thai marriage patterns in an effort to understand the forces which will determine future changes in Thai nuptiality."
Correspondence: B. Limanonda, Chulalongkorn University, Institute of Population Studies, Phyathai Road, Bangkok 10330, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30377 Locoh, Therese. Social change and marital status: new forms of marital union in Lome. [Changement social et situations matrimoniales: les nouvelles formes d'union a Lome.] INED Dossiers et Recherches, No. 29, Dec 1989. 44 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
Changes in types of marital unions in Lome, Togo, are explored. The importance of these changes for development and population planning is noted.
Correspondence: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Institut National d'Etudes Economiques, Paris, France.

58:30378 Mauldon, Jane. Children's risks of experiencing divorce and remarriage: do disabled children destabilize marriages? Population Studies, Vol. 46, No. 2, Jul 1992. 349-62 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this paper, U.S. data from the 1981 Child Health Supplement are used to estimate the effect of a child's disability or serious chronic illness on: (1) the risk of the parents' divorcing before the child reaches the age of 11, and (2) the mother's chances of remarriage after divorce. Divorce is significantly more common among the parents of disabled or sickly children than among those of healthy children, and these disruptive effects of a child's frailty are even stronger when children are between six and nine years old than when they are younger....In contrast, a child's health status does not predict the mother's waiting time to remarriage. A range of potentially confounding demographic factors are controlled in the models, and their effects on children's chances of experiencing parental divorce are as expected."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1989 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: J. Mauldon, University of California, Graduate School of Public Policy, 2607 Hearst Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30379 Park, Mee-Hae. Patterns and trends of educational mating in Korea. Korea Journal of Population and Development, Vol. 20, No. 2, Dec 1991. 1-15 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
"This study has examined patterns and trends in the association between wives' and husbands' educational attainment during 1950-79 in Korea by applying log-linear analysis to census data. Findings show that (1) college homogamy as a predominant pattern of educational mating increased during the 1970s, (2) one-level hypergamy was more likely to occur during the 1970s, and (3) during the 1970s, one and two-level hypogamy increased among Korean couples. These findings can be interpreted as showing strata-formation and increased sexual inequality in marriage." Data are from the 1975 and 1980 censuses.
Correspondence: M.-H. Park, Seoul National University, Department of Sociology, Sinlim-dong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30380 Prioux, France. Features of marriage in Austria. [Les accidents de la nuptialite autrichienne.] Population, Vol. 47, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1992. 353-88 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The effect of changes in taxation on the marriage rate in Austria is reviewed. The author finds that marriage levels reached a peak in 1972 and 1987, when tax breaks for newly married couples were introduced. A peak was also seen in 1983, when such a change was rumored. Consideration is given to subsequent effects on fertility, births outside of marriage, and the divorce rate.
Correspondence: F. Prioux, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30381 Rao, K. Vaninadha; Murty, K. S. Predicting first marriage and first birth patterns in Canada: an application of Coale-McNeil model. In: American Statistical Association, 1988 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. 1988. 121-6 pp. American Statistical Association: Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
Data from the Canadian Fertility Survey of 1984 are used to "a) examine the patterns of ages at first marriage and at first birth among various birth cohorts of women; b) estimate the mean, standard deviation (of age at first marriage and at first birth), and the expected proportion ever married and ever having first birth for the incomplete cohorts; and c) estimate the effects of selected covariates (residence, education, religiosity and province) on mean ages of first marriage and first birth."
Correspondence: K. V. Rao, Bowling Green State University, Department of Sociology, Bowling Green, OH 43403. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30382 Saluter, Arlene F. Marital status and living arrangements: March 1991. Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, No. 461, Apr 1992. ii, 76, [33] pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report presents detailed information on the marital status and living arrangements of the noninstitutional population of the United States, based on the results of the March 1991 Current Population Survey." Topics covered in the report include trends in remaining unmarried, age at marriage, interracial marriage, the presence of children and grandchildren, and the living arrangements of the elderly.
Correspondence: U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D.C. 20402. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30383 Schoen, Robert. First unions and the stability of first marriages. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 54, No. 2, May 1992. 281-4 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"The National Survey of Families and Households is used to examine the relationship between premarital cohabitation and marital instability among U.S. women born between 1928 and 1957. As previously observed, cohabitation is generally associated with higher risks of marital dissolution. However, that differential is much smaller (or reversed) in recent cohorts where cohabitation is more common. The association between cohabitation and marital dissolution observed in earlier cohorts may reflect the select nature of those who cohabited, and may largely disappear as cohabitation becomes more common."
Correspondence: R. Schoen, Johns Hopkins University, Department of Population Dynamics, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30384 Sharpe, Pamela. Locating the "missing marryers" in Colyton, 1660-1750. Local Population Studies, No. 48, Spring 1992. 49-59 pp. Matlock, England. In Eng.
Results are presented of a project to find out where marriages that were not recorded in the parish registers of Colyton church, in Colyton, England, between 1650 and 1749 took place. The focus is on those who married elsewhere but continued to use Colyton church for baptisms and burials.
Correspondence: P. Sharpe, University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester, Essex CO4 3SQ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30385 South, Scott J.; Lloyd, Kim M. Marriage opportunities and family formation: further implications of imbalanced sex ratios. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 54, No. 2, May 1992. 440-51 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"Vital statistics data are merged with census data to examine the impact of women's marriage opportunities on family formation and dissolution [in the United States]. Measures of the quantity and quality of potential spouses specific for a woman's age, race, education, and area of residence are linked to rates of marriage, divorce, and nonmarital fertility. Greater marriage opportunities increase rates of marriage and divorce, and decrease illegitimacy ratios. Unemployment among prospective husbands reduces marriage and divorce rates, but increases illegitimacy. Racial differences in marriage opportunities account for a moderate proportion of the racial difference in female marriage....The data for this study come primarily from two sources: the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) data files on annual marriages, divorces, and births in 1980 and 1981...and the 5% A sample of public use microdata (PUMS) from the 1980 U.S. census...."
Correspondence: S. J. South, State University of New York, Department of Sociology, Albany, NY 12222. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30386 Spasovska, Lilyana. Attempts to define and classify unmarried cohabitations and unions. [Opiti za definirane i klasifitsirane na bezbrachnite sazhitelstva i sayuzi.] Naselenie, No. 2, 1992. 77-90 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author reviews the literature to identify the terms and concepts used to define consensual unions. She finds that classifications are based on partners' socioeconomic status, the structure of the union, and its duration. The geographical focus is on Europe.
Correspondence: L. Spasovska, Balgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Institut po Demografiya, ul. Akad. G. Bonchev bl. 6, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30387 Sprague, Alison. The duration to marriage: an empirical analysis. Applied Economics Discussion Paper, No. 104, Nov 1990. [28] pp. University of Oxford, Institute of Economics and Statistics: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper presents a hazard rate analysis of the duration of time from leaving full-time continuous education to marriage [in the United Kingdom]. A brief survey of existing research into marriage is presented. Logistic hazard models are estimated using individual data from the 1980 Women and Employment Survey. Explanatory variables are age, potential earnings on leaving education and social class....Age reduces the duration of marriage. No consistent social class effects are found."
Correspondence: University of Oxford, Institute of Economics and Statistics, St. Cross Building, Manor Road, Oxford OX1 3UL, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30388 Tas, R. F. J. Marriage dissolution table for the Netherlands by duration of marriage, 1986-1990. [Huwelijksontbindingstafel naar duur van het huwelijk, 1986-1990.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 40, No. 6, Jun 1992. 31-7 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Tables enumerating marriage dissolution by separation, divorce, or death of either partner are presented for the Netherlands for the period 1986-1990. Comparisons are made with the period 1981-1985.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30389 Thomson, Elizabeth; Colella, Ugo. Cohabitation and marital stability: quality or commitment? Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 54, No. 2, May 1992. 259-67 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
The authors analyze the effects of cohabitation on couples' perceived marital stability in the United States. "Using data from the 1987-88 National Survey of Families and Households, we found that couples who cohabited before marriage reported lower quality marriages, lower commitment to the institution of marriage, more individualistic views of marriage (wives only), and greater likelihood of divorce than couples who did not cohabit. Effects were generally stronger for those who had cohabited for longer periods before marriage. Social and economic characteristics accounted for the higher perceived likelihood of divorce among those who had cohabited less than a year; differences in marital quality and institutional commitment accounted for remaining effects of longer cohabitation, while marital individualism did not have significant effects on perceived likelihood of divorce."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1990 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: E. Thomson, University of Wisconsin, Department of Sociology, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30390 Trost, Jan. The last decades and matrimonial changes. In: Bevolkerungswissenschaft heute--Kolloquium anlasslich des 10jahrigen Jubilaums des Instituts fur Bevolkerungsforschung und Sozialpolitik, edited by Herwig Birg and Franz-Xaver Kaufmann. IBS-Materialien, No. 33, 1992. 91-106 pp. Universitat Bielefeld, Institut fur Bevolkerungsforschung und Sozialpolitik [IBS]: Bielefeld, Germany. In Eng.
This paper focuses on changes in fertility, marriage patterns, cohabitation, divorce, and separation in Western European countries over the past few decades. Major trends discussed include the decline in fertility and marriage rates and the increase in nonmarital cohabitation, divorce, and separation.
Correspondence: J. Trost, Uppsala University, Department of Sociology, Box 513, 751 20 Uppsala, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30391 van Hoorn, Willem D.; de Graaf, Arie. The impact of parental divorce on young women's demographic behaviour. [1991]. 8, [8] pp. Netherlands Central Bureau of Statistics, Department of Population Statistics: Voorburg, Netherlands. In Eng.
"In this paper the influence of parental divorce on the demographic behaviour of young women is studied together with a few relevant 'social' characteristics (religious affiliation, education and residence). Data of the 1988 Netherlands Fertility Survey are used. In this survey 6,000 women aged 18-37 years were interviewed...." Aspects considered include age at leaving home, age at first union, cohabitation, marriage, divorce, and expected family size.
Correspondence: Netherlands Central Bureau of Statistics, Department of Population Statistics, P.O. Box 959, 2270 AZ Voorburg, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30392 Westoff, Charles F. Age at marriage, age at first birth, and fertility in Africa. World Bank Technical Paper, No. 169, ISBN 0-8213-2102-1. LC 92-10753. Jun 1992. vii, 22, [35] pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report derives estimates from national sample surveys conducted in Africa over the past dozen years of the trends in age at first marriage and age at first birth. By splicing together cohorts from the earlier World Fertility Survey and the more recent Demographic and Health Surveys, a pattern of rapidly increasing age at marriage and at first birth is depicted for some African countries, while for some others there is evidence of the beginnings of such change. The demographic significance of such changes is explained, and a model of fertility is constructed in which the role of these variables in the associations between socioeconomic background factors and reproductive intentions and contraceptive prevalence is described."
Correspondence: World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30393 Wieczorek, Maria. Demographic, social, and economic conditions affecting divorce in Poland. [Demograficzne, spoleczne i ekonomiczne uwarunkowania rozwodow w Polsce.] 1990. 154 pp. Szkola Glowna Planowania i Statystyki, Instytut Statystyki i Demografii: Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Recent trends in divorce in Poland are analyzed for the period 1950-1989. The determinants of divorce are first reviewed, and trends over this period are described. The author then presents a multistate analysis of the process of marriage dissolution, followed by an econometric analysis of causal factors.
Correspondence: Szkola Glowna Planowania i Statystyki, Instytut Statystyki i Demografii, Al. Niepodlegosci 162, 02-544 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Paris, France.

G.2. Family and Household

Studies of household structure and of family composition and size and the factors influencing them. Includes the full range of family concepts from the one-parent to the extended family and includes studies on the life course of the family. Studies on attitudes toward family size are coded under F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control .

58:30394 Ahlburg, Dennis A.; De Vita, Carol J. New realities of the American family. Population Bulletin, Vol. 47, No. 2, Aug 1992. 44 pp. Population Reference Bureau: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This study "explores the social, economic, and demographic trends that have contributed to the changing structure of the American family. It describes the various types of families that are prevalent today and projects their numbers into the future. It traces the paths to family formation (and dissolution) in terms of marriage, divorce, remarriage, widowhood, and childbearing, and explores the implications of these trends for the changing roles of family members. It also provides international comparisons of several key demographic traits that help place U.S. trends in a broad global context."
Correspondence: Population Reference Bureau, 1875 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 520, Washington, D.C. 20009-5728. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30395 Al-Achkar, Ahmad; Sly, David F. The impact of children on the components of parental savings: the case of rural Syria. Population Bulletin of ESCWA, No. 33, Dec 1988. 17-31 pp. Baghdad, Iraq. In Eng.
"This study is based on a survey conducted by the two authors in 1980 on family income and costs in the rural areas of [Syria. It] examines the indirect impact of children on family savings...with the hypothesis that the number of children has a positive effect on parents' income and a negative effect on their costs....The conclusions point out that children play a major role in affecting the types of parents' income and expenditure and that increasing the number of children leads to increasing the time during which the parents undertake productive economic activities...."
Correspondence: A. Al-Achkar, University of Aleppo, Aleppo, Syria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30396 American Demographics (Ithaca, New York). American households. American Demographics Desk Reference Series, No. 3, Jul 1992. 24 pp. Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
This volume "is the third in a series of desk references based on the 1990 [U.S.] census. The series seeks to explain how America changed during the last decade and to provide the benchmark data for consumer research in the next decade....[The present issue outlines] what the census says about married couples with children, married couples without children, single parents, and people who live alone or with nonfamily members."
Correspondence: American Demographics, P.O. Box 68, Ithaca, NY 14851. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30397 Avery, Roger; Goldscheider, Frances; Speare, Alden. Feathered nest/gilded cage: parental income and leaving home in the transition to adulthood. Demography, Vol. 29, No. 3, Aug 1992. 375-88 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The growing study of leaving home in young adulthood in the United States has been hampered by data and measurement problems, which are producing a major theoretical confusion about the role of parental resources in influencing young adults' leaving home. Does high parental income retain young adults in the home or subsidize their leaving (and parental privacy)? This paper uses the 1984 panel of Survey of Income and Program Participation to clarify this issue, and shows that the effects of parental resources differ depending on the route out of the home under consideration (marriage or premarital residential independence). Effects change substantially over the nest-leaving ages, but relatively few differences are found between young men and young women."
Correspondence: R. Avery, Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30398 Bagozzi, Richard P.; Van Loo, M. Frances. A purposeful behaviour theory of work and family size decisions. In: Female labour market behaviour and fertility: a rational-choice approach, edited by Jacques J. Siegers, Jenny de Jong-Gierveld, and Evert van Imhoff. 1991. 101-29 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"Our goal...will be to develop a theory of work and family size decisions at the level of the social psychology of a man and woman in an intimate relationship. Four assumptions shape the form and substance of our theory. Firstly, we assume that work and family size considerations must be integrated in any valid theory and that these considerations function as either simultaneous or sequential criteria....A second assumption we make is that work and family size decisions are both motivated and reasoned....Thirdly, we presume that work and family size decisions are made at least partly in response to the social environment in which they are embedded....Finally, our theory is based on the premise that the fullest explanations of work and family size decisions rest on specification of...elementary psychological processes...and...social psychological processes....To do this, we draw heavily upon basic research in the psychology and social psychology literatures."
Correspondence: R. P. Bagozzi, University of Michigan, Graduate School of Business Administration, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1234. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

58:30399 Bretz, Manfred; Niemeyer, Frank. Private households yesterday and today: a look back at the past 150 years. [Private Haushalte gestern und heute: ein Ruckblick auf die vergangenen 150 Jahre.] Wirtschaft und Statistik, No. 2, Feb 1992. 73-81 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger.
Changes in the demographic and social structure of private households in Germany over the last 150 years are reviewed. Topics covered include household size, fertility and life expectancy, unrelated household members, number of generations living together, households with children, one-parent households, nonmarital cohabitation, and age structure. Statistics for East Germany are included where possible.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

58:30400 Brouillette, Liliane; Felteau, Claude; Lefebvre, Pierre; Pelletier, Alain. Families with and without children: poverty or affluence? Evidence for Canada and Quebec from 1971 to 1987. [Les familles sans enfant ou avec enfants: aisance ou pauvrete? Les faits au Canada et au Quebec de 1971 a 1987.] Actualite Economique, Vol. 67, No. 1, Mar 1991. 80-102 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"This study compares the economic well-being of families with and without children and looks into their place in the size distribution of income, in Canada and Quebec from 1971 to 1987. The evidence presented in the paper suggests that having children reduces the chances of affluence and increases the risk of poverty. Viewed from the perspective of the low levels of fertility in Canada and in Quebec, the evidence casts some doubts on the consistency of recent changes, by the two levels of government, in the fiscal and transfer policies concerning families with children."
Correspondence: L. Brouillette, Universite du Quebec, Departement de Sciences Economiques, CERPE, CP 8888 Succursale, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3P8, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

58:30401 Burch, Thomas K.; McDougall, Janette. Kinship in Canada: an overview with preliminary findings from the 1990 General Social Survey. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 91-11, ISBN 0-7714-1354-8. Dec 1991. 11, [38] pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
"This report consists of three sections: 1) an introduction to the demography of kinship; 2) a review of recent literature on kinship patterns in Canada; [and] 3) a portfolio of graphs with commentary, based on data from the 1990 Canadian General Social Survey....The substantive focus of this report is on the existence or number of kin and on patterns of face-to-face interaction, especially as these are affected by distance...."
Correspondence: University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30402 Chadwick, Bruce A.; Heaton, Tim B. Statistical handbook on the American family. Statistical Handbook Series, No. 4, ISBN 0-89774-687-2. LC 91-44175. 1992. [xvi], 295 pp. Oryx Press: Phoenix, Arizona. In Eng.
This statistical handbook contains tables and charts that illustrate various aspects of family life in the United States. Data are primarily from official sources, supplemented by other published sources. Sections are included on marriage; quality of marriage and family life; divorce; children; sexual attitudes and behavior and contraceptive use; living arrangements and kinship ties; working women, wives, and mothers; family violence; and elderly families.
Correspondence: Oryx Press, 4041 North Central at Indian School Road, Phoenix, AZ 85012-3397. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30403 Chi, Peter S. K. Economic development, women's status, and changing family structure in Taiwan. In: Fertility transitions, family structure, and population policy, edited by Calvin Goldscheider. 1992. 157-74 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/Oxford, England. In Eng.
Ways in which rapid economic development in Taiwan since the 1950s has affected family characteristics are examined. "The present research attempts to determine the types of family structure that prevail in a rapidly changing society. Further, special efforts will be made to identify societal and individual factors that have influenced people's choice of family structure." Data are from the Labor Force Survey of 1985.
Correspondence: P. S. K. Chi, Cornell University, New York State College of Human Ecology, Department of Economics and Housing, Ithaca, NY 14853. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30404 Davidoff, Leonore. The family in Britain. In: People and their environment, edited by F. M. L. Thompson. Cambridge Social History of Britain 1750-1950, Vol. 2, ISBN 0-521-25789-1. LC 89-9840. 1990. 71-129 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
The social aspects of changes in family structure and characteristics in the United Kingdom during the period 1750-1950 are described. Topics covered include differences in family characteristics by social class, political factors, changes in women's status, familial division of labor and resources, and legislation affecting the family.
Correspondence: L. Davidoff, University of Essex, Department of Social History, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester, Essex C04 3SQ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

58:30405 Du, Peng. A preliminary analysis of the family life cycle in China's cities and countryside. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 3, No. 1, 1991. 45-52 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper attempts to measure and analyze changes [from 1957 to 1981] in the family life cycle in China's cities and countryside by computing the nationwide population census data and the 1982 China 1% fertility rate sample survey data...."
Correspondence: P. Du, People's University of China, Population Research Institute, 39 Haidian Road, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30406 Edmonston, Barry; Madan, Ashok. An analytic simulation model of the family. In: American Statistical Association, 1988 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. 1988. 145-50 pp. American Statistical Association: Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"This paper describes current work with developing a microsimulation model of the Canadian family. The microsimulation model, called DEMOFAM (Demographic Model of the Family), represents no particular population and is designed to incorporate processes of fertility, mortality, marriage, divorce, widowhood, and remarriage....This paper describes how DEMOFAM models the various demographic processes and discusses key statistical and simulation issues in the model."
Correspondence: B. Edmonston, LIMRA International, P.O. Box 208, Hartford, CT 06141. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30407 Ekawati, Rindang. The consequences of delayed childbearing on first child's environmental quality. Center for the Study of Population Working Paper, No. WPS 91-80, [1991]. iii, 62, [4] pp. Florida State University, College of Social Sciences, Center for the Study of Population: Tallahassee, Florida. In Eng.
"Using data from the Indonesian Demographic and Health Survey [of] 1987, this research attempts to investigate the consequences of delayed childbearing on [first-born] children's environmental quality. Mother's age at first marriage and first birth are used as the independent variables, and children's social and environmental quality as the dependent variables."
Correspondence: Robert H. Weller, Editor, Working Paper Series, Florida State University, Center for the Study of Population, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4063. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30408 Engstler, Heribert; Luscher, Kurt. Late first motherhood. A new biographical pattern of family formation? [Spate erste Mutterschaft. Ein neues biographisches Muster der Familiengrundung?] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 17, No. 4, 1991. 433-60 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
Trends in delayed motherhood over the past 30 years in West Germany are reviewed. Consideration is given to the effects of women's labor force participation, the need to develop stability within the relationship prior to parenthood, and temporary infertility and subfecundity. "The results of interviews made with 22 mothers in large and small towns as well as in rural areas do imply that in case of late family formation biographical phases of intended and unintended postponement and/or renouncement are juxtaposed and intertwined."
Correspondence: H. Engstler, Universitat Konstanz, Sozialwissenschaftliche Fakultat, Universitatsstrasse 10, 7750 Konstanz 1, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30409 France. Caisse Nationale des Allocations Familiales (Paris, France). Two or three children? The behavior of middle-class people in Ile-de-France. [Deux ou trois enfants? Pratiques des classes moyennes en Ile-de-France.] Espaces et Familles, No. 18, 1991. 105 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
Factors that may affect a couple's decision to have a third child in France are examined. The data are from a survey on the family, undertaken by INSEE in 1982, and involve in-depth interviews with 40 women aged 32 to 47 with high educational status living in the Paris or Lille regions. Separate consideration is given to the data gathered from these women and to the contributions of their spouses.
Correspondence: Caisse Nationale des Allocations Familiales, 23 rue Daviel, 75634 Paris Cedex 13, France. Location: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Paris, France.

58:30410 France. Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques [INSEE] (Paris, France). Proceedings of the meeting: "Beyond national statistics: household and family patterns in comparative perspective" [Actes du colloque: "Beyond national statistics: household and family patterns in comparative perspective"] INSEE Methodes, No. 8, ISBN 2-11-065920-3. Feb 1991. 164 pp. Paris, France. In Eng; Fre.
This publication stems from a meeting of a working group made up of British and French researchers that was held April 17-18, 1989, at the Centre for Economic Policy Research in London. The aim of the meeting was to examine the classifications used in the censuses of the two countries during the 1970s and 1980s and to reclassify certain data to achieve greater comparability. The volume consists of 13 papers in either English or French. The authors present the results of such comparisons and discuss possible problems. General issues concerning the comparative study of families and households across different countries are also raised in papers on Europe as a whole, West Germany, and Canada.
Correspondence: Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, 18 Boulevard Adolphe Pinard, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Paris, France.

58:30411 Glaude, Michel; Moutardier, Mireille. An evaluation of the direct costs of having a child, 1979-1989. [Une evaluation du cout direct de l'enfant de 1979 a 1989.] Economie et Statistique, No. 248, Nov 1991. 33-49, 72-3 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The authors examine some of the factors that need to be considered when estimating the cost of having and raising children in developed societies. The focus is on the situation in France. "In 1989, two children cost less than one child multiplied by two. The cost of a child rises as he grows older....The cost of a child seems to be higher than it was 10 years ago. In 1989, the cost of a child for an average yearly income of 164,000 French francs was thought to be around 4,100 French francs a month."
Correspondence: M. Glaude, Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, Departement des Etudes Economiques d'Ensemble, 18 boulevard A. Pinard, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30412 Grindstaff, Carl F. The Canadian family in transition. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 91-13, ISBN 0-7714-1378-5. Aug 1991. 57 pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
"The purpose of this report is to document both the normative and demographic patterns that have accompanied the on-going revolution in the role of women in Canada over the past few decades....The major issue to be addressed relates to the family in transition....[The author finds that] a new basis for marriage and family continues to evolve and is profoundly affecting the life course paths of women...."
Correspondence: University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30413 Guo, Zhijiang. Projection for household development in China. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 3, No. 2, 1991. 121-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Methods suitable for projecting household composition in China are discussed. The author includes estimates of total households and household size from 1953 to 1989 as well as projections up to 2025.
Correspondence: Z. Guo, China Population Information Research Center, P.O. Box 2444, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30414 Hoddinott, John. Rotten kids or manipulative parents: are children old age security in western Kenya? Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 40, No. 3, Apr 1992. 545-65 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"The article begins with a brief discussion of [a] modified [bargaining model of intergenerational transfers]. This is followed by an examination of demographic and economic characteristics of elderly households residing in a west Kenya sublocation. The types of assistance provided by children are examined, and an econometric model of the determinants of the levels of assistance is developed. Though the smallness of the sample size precludes drawing strong conclusions, three important results emerge: (a) children are indeed a source of old age security...; (b) higher levels of assistance are strongly correlated with larger numbers of children; and (c) parents can use inheritable assets to induce higher levels of care and monetary transfers."
Correspondence: J. Hoddinott, University of Oxford, Trinity College, Centre for the Study of African Economies, Oxford OX1 3BH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

58:30415 Kiernan, Kathleen E. The impact of family disruption in childhood on transitions made in young adult life. Population Studies, Vol. 46, No. 2, Jul 1992. 213-34 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"From the life histories of a British cohort born in 1958 we examine whether the timing of educational, occupational, and demographic transitions differed for children who grew up with both natural parents, and children who experienced the dissolution of their parents' marriage, either through death or divorce, and whose remaining parent did or did not remarry. Bereaved children were no more likely than children brought up with both natural parents to make the transitions at an early age. There was one exception. Young people from step-families formed after death or divorce were most likely to leave home early, and for reasons of friction. The effects of parents' marital disruption [also] differed between the sexes."
Correspondence: K. E. Kiernan, Family Policy Study Centre, 231 Baker Street, London NW1 6XE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30416 Knodel, John; Chayovan, Napaporn; Siriboon, Siriwan. The impact of fertility decline on the familial system of support for the elderly: an illustration from Thailand. Population Council Research Division Working Paper, No. 36, 1992. 38 pp. Population Council, Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors discuss the impact of Thailand's recent fertility decline on future trends in familial support of the elderly. "Our analysis suggests that the impact of fertility decline per se will be relatively moderate with respect to coresidence, the most crucial aspect of the familial support system, despite an impendent radical shift from the present situation, in which most Thai elderly have at least five children, to one where the large majority will have only two or three."
Correspondence: Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30417 Kojima, Hiroshi. Determinants of coresidence of married couples with an older mother in Japan. Institute of Population Problems Working Paper Series, No. 11, Feb 1992. 28 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"This study aims to examine the relative importance of demographic, socioeconomic and cultural determinants of both current and prospective coresidence [in Japan] of married household heads with their mother or mother-in-law both aged 60 and over, applying [a] multinomial logit model to...1985 national household survey data. It also tries to evaluate the relative importance of demographic factors of both the head and the wife as well as his mother and mother-in-law on three kinds of living arrangements: coresidence with own mother, coresidence with mother-in-law, and separate residence from the two mothers."
Correspondence: Institute of Population Problems, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-45, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30418 Kojima, Hiroshi. Sibling configuration and coresidence of married couples with an older mother in Japan. Institute of Population Problems Working Paper Series, No. 12, Feb 1992. 30 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"This study aims to clarify the effects of sibling configuration on both current and prospective coresidence of married male household heads with their older mother or mother-in-law [in Japan]. Multinomial logit analysis is applied to the data from the 1985 national household survey conducted by the Institute of Population Problems in Tokyo. Five hypotheses regarding these effects are presented."
Correspondence: Institute of Population Problems, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-45, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30419 Laslett, Peter. The historical analysis of family change. In: Bevolkerungswissenschaft heute--Kolloquium anlasslich des 10jahrigen Jubilaums des Instituts fur Bevolkerungsforschung und Sozialpolitik, edited by Herwig Birg and Franz-Xaver Kaufmann. IBS-Materialien, No. 33, 1992. 67-90 pp. Universitat Bielefeld, Institut fur Bevolkerungsforschung und Sozialpolitik [IBS]: Bielefeld, Germany. In Eng.
A general classification scheme for families and households in the traditional societies of preindustrial Europe is presented, its implications are discussed, and the work of historical sociologists on the family is examined. Topics covered include a general model of familial change, the situation of the family in contemporary developed countries, and the relationships among economics, demography, and future family change.
Correspondence: P. Laslett, Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure, 27 Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1QA, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30420 Lavely, William; Ren, Xinhua. Patrilocality and early marital co-residence in rural China, 1955-85. China Quarterly, No. 130, Jun 1992. 378-91 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Changes affecting rural family households in China from 1955 to 1985 are examined. "This article is concerned with rural family change in Hebei and Shaanxi, surveyed in 1985, and Shandong and Guangdong, surveyed in 1987, and provides a preliminary analysis of two questions asked of each respondent: whether she lived with her own or husband's parents after marriage, and the length of this co-residence."
Correspondence: W. Lavely, University of Washington, Department of Sociology, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

58:30421 Mahmood, Naushin. The desire for additional children among Pakistani women: the determinants. Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 31, No. 1, Spring 1992. 1-30 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
"This study examines the determinants of the desire for additional children for currently married women in Pakistan, drawing data from the Population, Labour Force and Migration (PLM) Survey of 1979-80. The variations in the patterns of desired fertility and their relationship to...factors of economic and social change--such as education, husband's occupation, household income, child education, and work--are also analyzed. The analysis is conducted using logit regression models." Consideration is given to differences between rural and urban women.
Correspondence: N. Mahmood, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, Post Box 1091, Islamabad, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30422 Mayer, Francine M.; Lavoie, Jacynthe. A methodological contribution to the study of family systems: the island of Saint Barthelemy in the Antilles in the nineteenth century. [Contribution methodologique a l'etude des menages et de la famille: l'Ile de Saint-Barthelemy dans les Antilles au XIXe siecle.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1991. 255-76 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"In order to understand the subtle social mechanisms supporting the endogamous behavior of the population on the island of Saint-Barthelemy [Guadeloupe], a study of families (married or not) was undertaken on the basis of the census lists of the 19th century. This basic source was then refined by linkage with the birth records and the family units classified according to their structure. Grouped genealogically, the birth records make it possible to identify blood relationships both within and among the residential units, and to analyse them in connection with household organization and neighbourhood ties. Laslett's typology was adapted to the study of colonial society, the central element of classification being the line of procreation rather than the conjugal tie. This approach, because it takes into account both the white and colored population, should in principle yield a more dynamic and faithful portrait of the society."
Correspondence: F. M. Mayer, Universite du Quebec, Departement des Sciences Biologiques, CP 8888, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3P8, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30423 Neupert, Ricardo F. Extended households: a survival strategy in poverty. In: Fertility transitions, family structure, and population policy, edited by Calvin Goldscheider. 1992. 197-208 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"General aspects of household arrangements are described in the first part of this chapter, the determinants of non-nuclear households in low-income communities are analyzed and we discuss how these structures help families face the conditions of poverty. In the last part of the chapter, we focus on the implications of household patterns for household policies. Our main objective is...to identify the need to consider the household arrangements most convenient for poor families in the development of housing plans." The geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: R. F. Neupert, United Nations, Ulan Bator, Mongolia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30424 Quale, G. Robina. Families in context: a world history of population. Contributions to the Study of World History, No. 35, ISBN 0-313-27830-X. LC 91-35713. 1992. xiv, 466 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
The author "provides a comprehensive overview of the basic forms of interaction between the family and the societal macrocosm, as both interact with disease, available resources, and current technologies. Her...approach combines a consideration of environmental, technological, and demographic factors to explore the emergence of distinctive regional tendencies in fertility patterns and kinship organization. The book considers these factors within three broad historical periods: forager and preurban agricultural life, the period of regional cities and peasantry from about 3500 B.C. to A.D. 1500, and the age of world cities since 1500. [She] also examines the impact of economic diversification in modern times."
Correspondence: Greenwood Press, 88 Post Road West, Box 5007, Westport, CT 06881. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30425 Rob, A. K. Ubaidur. Socio-economic determinants of desired fertility in Bangladesh. Demography India, Vol. 19, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1990. 251-61 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This article investigates determinants of desired family size in Bangladesh by using multivariate techniques. Findings suggest that female education has a moderate negative effect and male education has a strong positive effect on desired family size. Furthermore, participation in paid employment [has] little effect on desired family size. Ownership of agricultural land has [a] strong positive effect and ownership of valuable household durables has a negative effect on desired family size. The majority of the respondents who desired no additional children at the time of baseline survey become pregnant within three years."
Correspondence: A. K. U. Rob, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30426 Roll, Jo. One in ten: lone parent families in the European Community. In: Social Policy Review 1990-91, edited by Nick Manning. ISBN 0-582-08788-0. 1991. 169-86 pp. Longman: Harlow, England. In Eng.
This article summarizes a report on the situation concerning one-parent families in the countries of the European Community. The emphasis is on the social policies required to alleviate the problems faced by such families.
Correspondence: J. Roll, Family Policy Studies Centre, 231 Baker Street, London, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

58:30427 Roussel, Louis. The family in Western Europe: differences and similarities. [La famille en Europe occidentale: divergences et convergences.] Population, Vol. 47, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1992. 133-52 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
Trends in family formation and fertility in the countries of Western Europe are analyzed and compared. Lowered fertility, marriage postponement, higher divorce rates, and later first births are found to be common to most of the countries, but regional differences remain. Some projections concerning homogeneous trends are included.
Correspondence: L. Roussel, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30428 Schofer, Bernd; Bender, Harald; Utz, Richard. Are singles individualized? The life-style of persons living alone. [Sind Singles individualisiert? Lebenslage und Lebensstil Alleinlebender.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 17, No. 4, 1991. 461-88 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The characteristics and determinants of one-person households in West Germany are examined using data for the period 1978-1979 and for 1987. Consideration is given to the age structure and life-style of the single population. Comparisons are then made between singles and non-singles in terms of professional status, educational level, and leisure activities.
Correspondence: B. Schofer, Universitat Heidelberg, Institut fur Soziologie, Sandgasse 9, 6900 Heidelberg 1, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30429 Sharma, H. L. Family size distributions and correlation between the numbers of male and female offspring. In: American Statistical Association, 1991 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1991]. 431-4 pp. American Statistical Association: Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"The aim of the present paper is to suggest two suitable distributions for...family size [by] deriving an estimator of proportion sterile and [to] compare the observed and expected correlation coefficients between [male and female offspring] including...sterile childless families into the general distribution of...family size." The application of the model uses data for an African district and from the 1911 census of Scotland.
Correspondence: H. L. Sharma, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30430 Song, Ruilai. Risk projection and the fertility of rural families. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 3, No. 2, 1991. 97-106 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author analyzes and compares ideal family sizes for rural and urban families in China, with a focus on the implications for the country's one-child policy. It is found that "most urban families have accepted the single-birth policy, while most rural families have kept their lowest tolerable number of children between 2 and 3." The reasons for this difference are discussed. The value of children in helping the rural family avert certain socioeconomic risks is analyzed, and the types of risk experienced by rural families are explored.
Correspondence: R. Song, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Population Research Institute, 5 Jianguomen Nei Da Jie 5 Hao, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30431 Stark, Oded. Fertility, drought, migration, and risk. In: Essays on population economics in memory of Alfred Sauvy, edited by Giuseppe Gaburro and Dudley L. Poston. 1991. 175-83 pp. Casa Editrice Dott. Antonio Milani [CEDAM]: Padua, Italy. In Eng.
The author reviews literature concerning parental strategies designed to mitigate potential loss due to natural disasters in India. These strategies include sending at least one child away to work in an urban setting. "Once it is realized that children working as urban migrants will not automatically support their rural families in adverse circumstances, parents must behave strategically to procure desirable levels of support. Thus there is an important additional benefit to having additional children. To the extent that strategic behavior shifts the derived demand for surviving adult children, it may have profound positive effects on fertility."
Correspondence: O. Stark, Harvard University, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30432 Tsui, Amy O.; Stupp, Paul; de Silva, Victor; de Silva, Soma. Young women's work and family formation in Sri Lanka. Asian and Pacific Population Forum, Vol. 5, No. 4, Winter 1991. 93-100, 109-16 pp. Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
"Patterns of family formation in Sri Lanka resemble those of wealthier nations, with late marriage, delayed childbearing, and moderately low fertility. This article addresses two questions: How have these family formation patterns emerged in the absence of the normally expected levels of economic development? And what activities have occupied young women in the premarital, prechildbearing period? Answers are suggested by data from three sources: the 1981 census; a set of focus-group discussions on the rights, obligations, and aspirations of young women related to marriage, work, childbearing, and child care; and a sample survey of 1,535 women of ages 15-30 in Kalutara District. The article describes the interplay of socioeconomic and familial forces that have affected the status of young Sri Lankan women."
Correspondence: A. O. Tsui, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square 300A, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30433 Tsuya, Noriko O.; Choe, Minja Kim. Changes in intrafamilial relationships and the roles of women in Japan and Korea. NUPRI Research Paper Series, No. 58, Nov 1991. vi, 52 pp. Nihon University, Population Research Institute: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"This study explores changes in familial relations and the roles of women in Japan and Korea primarily by examining changes in attitudes toward intergenerational and conjugal relations in recent years. We first examine women's roles under the traditional family system based on Confucian ideals; we next present an overview of postwar demographic and socioeconomic changes in Japan and Korea. Using these as the bench mark, we then analyze changes in: (1) intergenerational relations in terms of family-size preferences, attitudes toward coresidence with children in old age, and attitudes toward care and support of the elderly parents; and (2) conjugal relations in terms of attitudes toward marriage and divorce, types of marriage, attitudes toward gender division of labor, and housework-sharing patterns." Data are primarily from census, vital statistics, and survey data.
Correspondence: Nihon University, Population Research Institute, 3-2 Misaki-cho 1-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30434 Voit, Hermann. Household and family types in 1972 and 1990: results of the microcensus. [Haushalts- und Familientypen 1972 und 1990: Ergebnisse des Mikrozensus.] Wirtschaft und Statistik, No. 4, Apr 1992. 223-30 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger.
Changes in household and family types in West Germany are analyzed using data from the 1972 and 1990 microcensuses. Trends discussed include the shifts toward fewer multi-generation households, more elderly persons living alone, fewer families with children, more single-parent families, and smaller families.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

58:30435 Wall, Richard. Intergenerational relationships in Europe in the past. [Les relations entre generations en Europe autrefois.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1991. 133-54 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in family characteristics and relationships in Europe over the past 300 years are analyzed and compared. The effects of socioeconomic factors, including intergenerational transfers and pensions, on family relationships are also considered. The author notes that "it is often supposed that family and kin ties have weakened over the course of time....Yet in reality the contrast between past and present is either not that great or the reverse of what might be expected."
Correspondence: R. Wall, Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure, 27 Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1QA, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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