Volume 58 - Number 3 - Fall 1992

F. Fertility

Studies that treat quantitative fertility data analytically. References to crude data are coded under S. Official Statistical Publications . Methodological studies specifically concerned with fertility are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary.

F.1. General Fertility

Analytical studies of quantitative birth data and reproduction rates and studies of fertility and its concomitants. Studies of age at marriage, divorce, and factors influencing family size are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

58:30189 Abeysinghe, Tilak. A seasonal analysis of Chinese births. Journal of Applied Statistics, Vol. 18, No. 2, 1991. 275-86 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"Investigation of monthly Chinese births in Singapore, Malaysia, Hong Kong and Taiwan shows a very similar seasonal pattern. The strong influence of Chinese culture appears to be the cause of the seasonality and similarity. Economic development has not altered this seasonal pattern significantly. The statistical methods presented in this paper to analyze Chinese births are readily applicable to many other areas."
Correspondence: T. Abeysinghe, National University of Singapore, Department of Economics and Statistics, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore 0511. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30190 Adlakha, Arjun; Ayad, Mohamed; Kumar, Sushil. The role of nuptiality in fertility decline: a comparative analysis. In: Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, August 5-7, 1991, Washington, D.C.: proceedings. Volume 2. 1991. 947-64 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
"In this paper, we have focused on the analysis of levels and trends of age at first marriage and the impact of nuptiality on fertility decline in the DHS countries. Comparisons of DHS data with data from the WFS have been attempted where possible....In conclusion we would like to make two points. First, importance of nuptiality in achieving reduction in fertility is clear from the results in the North African countries; therefore population policies aimed at reducing fertility should include marriage as an element of change. Second, in many Asian and North African countries, decline in fertility started because of delaying age at marriage, followed by an increase in use of birth control, while age at marriage continued to increase."
Correspondence: A. Adlakha, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30191 Aghajanian, Akbar. Socioeconomic modernization, status of women and fertility decline in Iran. In: Essays on population economics in memory of Alfred Sauvy, edited by Giuseppe Gaburro and Dudley L. Poston. 1991. 333-51 pp. Casa Editrice Dott. Antonio Milani [CEDAM]: Padua, Italy. In Eng.
"This paper uses available data to examine the impact of socioeconomic development and modernization on fertility decline in Iran during 1966-1976. Data from 1966 and 1976 censuses are used to test some of the hypotheses about the relation between development and fertility....The paths that link development to fertility are explained theoretically and examined empirically with intercensus data. It is suggested that the minimal effect of modernization and socioeconomic development on fertility in Iran is due to the fact that the process of economic development and modernization has been biased by class and gender."
Correspondence: A. Aghajanian, University of Washington, Department of Sociology, Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30192 Anderson, Barbara A.; Silver, Brian D. A simple measure of fertility control. Demography, Vol. 29, No. 3, Aug 1992. 343-56 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"We describe a simple measure of fertility control: the proportion of all births from the age-specific fertility schedule that occurs among women by age 35. This measure has broad applicability because it does not require information on marital fertility rates. When both the proportion of births by age 35 and the most commonly used measure of fertility control, m, are calculated for a population over time, they are correlated very highly. Because of increasing levels of nonmarital fertility in several developed countries, measures of fertility control that are based on marital fertility are less appropriate now than in the past." Data for Japan, Sweden, and Taiwan are used as illustrations.
Correspondence: B. A. Anderson, University of Michigan, Department of Sociology, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48104. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30193 Anderson, Barbara A.; Silver, Brian D. A simple measure of fertility control: illustrations from the Soviet Union. Population Studies Center Research Report, No. 91-214, May 1991. 27 pp. University of Michigan, Population Studies Center: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"In this paper we describe a simple measure of fertility control: the proportion of all births from the age-specific fertility schedule that occurs to women by age 35. This proportion generally increases over time in a given population, even when there are large fluctuations in the total fertility rate. It allows detection of increased fertility control in populations sometimes before any substantial decline in the total fertility rate has occurred. Unlike most alternative measures of fertility control, this one does not require information on the marital status of the population or on marital fertility rates. We examine properties of the measure using data from the Soviet Union as well as several developed and developing countries."
Correspondence: University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30194 Behar, C. L.; Dupaquier, J. The invention of the marital fertility rate: J. Matthews Duncan. [L'invention des taux de fecondite legitime: J. Matthews Duncan.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1991. 297-335 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The authors review the work of the nineteenth-century Scottish gynecologist J. Matthews Duncan, who is credited with the development of the marital fertility rate for use in demographic analysis. Appendixes include a bibliography of Duncan's published works, which cover primarily fertility, sterility, and problems related to pregnancy, including infant and maternal mortality.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30195 Birg, Herwig. A biographic/demographic analysis of the relationship between fertility and occupational activity for women and married couples. In: Female labour market behaviour and fertility: a rational-choice approach, edited by Jacques J. Siegers, Jenny de Jong-Gierveld, and Evert van Imhoff. 1991. 133-57 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"In this paper the analytical tools of the biographic theory of fertility are applied to the analysis of interdependencies of life course events....First it will be shown that the relation between decisions concerning fertility and decisions concerning occupation describes a dynamic decision process (section 2)....Section 3 outlines the main theoretical elements of the biographic approach....Section 4 contains the empirical results obtained from a biographic survey. Finally, the main conclusions...are outlined in section 5." Data are from a survey of West German men and women born in 1950 and 1955.
Correspondence: H. Birg, Universitat Bielefeld, Institut fur Bevolkerungsforschung und Sozialpolitik, Postfach 8640, 4800 Bielefeld 1, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

58:30196 Blanchet, Didier. Interpreting trends in women's labor force participation and fertility. [Interpreter les evolutions temporelles de l'activite feminine et de la fecondite.] Population, Vol. 47, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1992. 389-408 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The relationship between women's labor force participation and fertility is examined. "We consider French data between 1968 and 1982 which suggest that...fertility has little changed when activity is controlled for. We try to interpret this with a small model of behaviour whose three parameters are: the average value attributed to work, the value attributed to large families, and an index of incompatibility between activity and childbearing. It is concluded that it is variations of the first of these parameters which provide the best explanation for the joint trend in activity and fertility."
Correspondence: D. Blanchet, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30197 Cliquet, Robert; Deven, Freddy; Corijn, Martine; Callens, Marc; Lodewijckx, Edith. The fifth Fertility and Family Survey in Flanders, 1991: conceptual and analytical framework. [De 5e Enquete Gezinsontwikkeling Vlaanderen, 1991: conceptueel en analytisch referentiekader.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 3, 1991. 21-49 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
This is a general outline of the methodological and conceptual backgrounds of the fifth Fertility and Family Survey (NEGO V) conducted in Belgium in 1991 as part of the European Community's Fertility and Family Surveys project. The survey concerns the indigenous Flemish population as well as Dutch-speaking residents of Brussels.
Correspondence: R. Cliquet, Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudien, Markiesstraat 1, 1000 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30198 Coale, Ansley J. Age of entry into marriage and the date of the initiation of voluntary birth control. Demography, Vol. 29, No. 3, Aug 1992. 333-41 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"It is widely known that modern economic development has been accompanied by the initiation and spread of effective limitation of fertility, and that generally the populations which experienced development at a late date also had a belated reduction in childbearing. Here a surprising relation is found between (and within) broad regions: the areas in which traditional age of entry into marriage was late were the areas in which marital fertility was reduced first....Our theme is not that late marriage itself leads to the early institution of reduced fertility among married couples, but rather that the entrenched social customs which lead to a high mean age at marriage are more conducive to the initiation of voluntary control of marital fertility than are the social customs which promote early marriage....We have examined nuptiality and the control of marital fertility in Europe, where the transition in fertility first occurred; in the former Soviet Union, where the transition began about a century ago in some republics, and in others began only within the recent past; and in India, where in 1980 marital fertility was little removed from 'natural' fertility in some states, and in others was restricted severely by contraception."
Correspondence: A. J. Coale, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30199 De Koninck, Maria; Gauvreau, Danielle. Reflections, assessments, and perspectives: results of a roundtable discussion. [Reflexions, bilan et prospective: compte rendu d'une table ronde.] Recherches Sociographiques, Vol. 32, No. 3, Sep-Dec 1991. 427-40, 484 pp. Quebec, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The text of an interdisciplinary roundtable discussion on observed and predicted changes in reproductive behavior is presented. The participants discuss the effects of social change, women's labor force participation, and government policy on fertility decisions. The roundtable was held in 1990; the geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: M. De Koninck, Universite Laval, Departement de Medecine Sociale et Preventive, Cite Universitaire, Quebec, Quebec G1K 7P4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30200 Decroly, Jean-Michel; Grasland, Claude. Frontiers, political systems, and fertility in Europe. [Frontieres, systemes politiques et fecondite en Europe.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 2, 1992. 135-52 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The effects of political systems on regional fertility levels in Europe are examined. The various methods of measuring such effects are first described. "In the case of fertility in Europe, the analysis reveals strong interdependencies between regional or local behaviours and the adherence to political systems. The interpretation of these interdependencies is based on three families of assumptions connected with political systems organization."
Correspondence: J.-M. Decroly, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Laboratoire de Geographie Humaine, Campus de la Plaine, CP 246, Boulevard du Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30201 Delgado Perez, Margarita; Livi-Bacci, Massimo. Fertility in Italy and Spain: the lowest in the world. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 24, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1992. 162-7, 171 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This article "describes and compares fertility trends in Italy and Spain and speculates on the causes of the exceptionally low fertility in these two countries, which have been known for the central role children play in family and society." A comparison is made with other European countries; consideration is then given to abortion, contraceptive usage, and ideal family size in Spain and Italy. Data are from a variety of published sources and concern trends since the 1960s.
Correspondence: M. Delgado Perez, Centro de Investigaciones Sociologicas, Departamento de Banco de Datos, Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30202 El-Khorazaty, M. Nabil. The correspondence between Bongaarts and childbearing models. In: American Statistical Association, 1988 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. 1988. 133-8 pp. American Statistical Association: Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"The present paper discusses the correspondence between Bongaarts indices for marriage, contraception, and infecundability, and the childbearing indices for ages at first and last birth and reproductive span." Data from developed and developing countries are used as illustrations. The author concludes that "the convenience of estimating time series of Bongaarts and childbearing indices can help detect changes in fertility behavior and responses to policy actions and measures, especially in developing countries."
Correspondence: M. N. El-Khorazaty, Central Statistics Organization, P.O. Box 5835, Manama, Bahrain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30203 El-Khorazaty, M. Nabil. Time series analysis of three centuries of the childbearing and fertility process in Finland. In: American Statistical Association, 1991 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1991]. 452-7 pp. American Statistical Association: Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
Models that use age-specific fertility rates (ASFR) to estimate temporal childbearing and fertility-inhibiting indices are analyzed using data for Finland. "First, the two sets of indices will be calculated for the period (1776-1987) for which ASFRs are available. Second, applying the Box-Jenkins (1976) time series technique, future and reverse forecasts of the two sets of indices will be computed."
Correspondence: M. N. El-Khorazaty, 14000 Cove Lane, #103, Rockville, MD 20851-1236. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30204 Ermisch, John F. Economic models of women's employment and fertility. In: Female labour market behaviour and fertility: a rational-choice approach, edited by Jacques J. Siegers, Jenny de Jong-Gierveld, and Evert van Imhoff. 1991. 175-90 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"The paper...is a review of economic studies of women's labour supply and fertility. The author concludes that there have been relatively few contributions of new models to guide the empirical analysis since the classic study of Willis (1974); the primary contribution of recent studies is the model's econometric estimation." The geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: J. F. Ermisch, National Institute of Economic and Social Research, 2 Dean Trench Street, London SW1P 3HE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

58:30205 European Communities. Statistical Office [EUROSTAT] (Brussels, Belgium). Study on the relationship between female activity and fertility. 1991. x, 193; 291 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
This two-volume report presents the results of a study on the relationship between female economic activity and fertility in Europe. The first volume concerns Europe as a whole. The second presents national reports for France, Italy, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and West Germany.
Correspondence: European Communities, Statistical Office, P.O. Box 1907, Luxembourg. Location: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Paris, France.

58:30206 Filipov, Dimitar. Fertility trends in Bulgaria (1960-1990). [Dinamika na plodovitostta v Balgariya (1960-1990 g.).] Naselenie, No. 1, 1992. 72-84 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
"This paper reports an analysis of fertility in Bulgaria during the period 1960-1990. Alternative demographic indicators are used, such as period and cohort total fertility rates...[and] mean age [at] childbearing, marriage, and divorce. The analysis includes distribution by order of births. Two age patterns of fertility behaviour are distinguished, one for females aged below 22, and the other for females above that age. The report notes the different impact of pronatal policy actions undertaken in 1968 and in 1973...."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30207 Ford, Kathleen; Huffman, Sandra. Relationships between maternal nutrition and fertility in developing countries. In: Fertility transitions, family structure, and population policy, edited by Calvin Goldscheider. 1992. 121-35 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The objective of this paper is to evaluate the effect of maternal nutrition on fertility in developing countries through a review of recent studies, with a focus on results from a study of chronically malnourished women in a rural area of Bangladesh."
Correspondence: K. Ford, University of Michigan, School of Public Health, Department of Population Planning and International Health, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30208 Fortin, Andree. Choice and constraints: women, demography, and work. [Choix et contraintes: femmes, demographie et travail.] Recherches Sociographiques, Vol. 32, No. 3, Sep-Dec 1991. 441-53, 484 pp. Quebec, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The author reviews papers presented at a symposium held in 1990 in Quebec, Canada, entitled Women and Demographic Questions. The focus of the symposium was on women's roles in the relationship between productivity and reproduction. The geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: A. Fortin, Universite Laval, Departement de Sociologie, Cite Universitaire, Quebec, Quebec G1K 7P4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30209 Freedman, Ronald; Blanc, Ann K. Fertility transition: an update. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 18, No. 2, Jun 1992. 44-50, 72 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article uses United Nations (UN) data to review the course of the fertility transition since the mid-1960s for less developed countries as a whole, for major regions and individual large countries. We then examine some specific contributions of the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) toward defining and understanding the recent path of fertility decline." The authors conclude that "fertility in the developing world declined by almost one-third between the period 1965-1970 and the period 1980-1985. This decline represents close to one-half the difference between the fertility rate in 1965-1970 and replacement-level fertility....As fertility has decreased, declines have also occurred in the number of years between a woman's first birth and her last birth and in the number of years the average woman spends caring for small children."
Correspondence: R. Freedman, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30210 Galloway, Patrick R.; Hammel, Eugene A.; Lee, Ronald D. Fertility decline in Prussia 1875 to 1910: a pooled cross-section time-series analysis. Program in Population Research Working Paper, No. 33, Jun 1992. 36 pp. University of California, Institute of International Studies, Program in Population Research: Berkeley, California. In Eng.
The authors examine the fertility decline in Germany using data for 407 Kreis, or small local areas, in Prussia from 1875 to 1910. Data are from the Prussian Statistical Bureau, and the analytic method involved uses a pooled cross-section time-series approach with fixed effects. "Our analysis suggests that inferences drawn from previous research have resulted in an unwarranted rejection of the importance of economic factors, and over-emphasis of cultural or traditional factors. While cultural proxies may be associated with fertility level, they contribute little to the explanation of fertility decline. Economic factors, especially the increase in females employed in non-traditional occupations, the growth of financial institutions, the development of transportation-communications infrastructure, and improvements in education, are the forces which drove fertility decline in 19th century Prussia."
Correspondence: University of California, Department of Demography, 2232 Piedmont Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30211 Goldscheider, Calvin. Fertility transitions, family structure, and population policy. Brown University Studies in Population and Development, ISBN 0-8133-8535-0. LC 92-19. 1992. xix, 283, [2] pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This volume focuses on fertility and family transitions in selected Third World countries, exploring critical aspects of the relationship between population and development. The essays examine population processes as they unfold and develop over time, highlighting the need to go beyond economic explanations and identifying the priorities among social, structural and cultural factors." Sections are included on historical fertility transitions, transitions in Asia, women and family structure, and population policy and development planning.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Westview Press, 5500 Central Avenue, Boulder, CO 80301-2847. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30212 Greene, Margaret E. Marriage choice and fertility in Brazil. In: Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, August 5-7, 1991, Washington, D.C.: proceedings. Volume 2. 1991. 965-79 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
"This paper attempts a descriptive characterization of formal and informal marriage in Brazil with regard to fertility....Combining the findings from Brazil's 1986 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) and the 1984 National Household Survey (PNAD), I look at the complementary factors these sources cover (marital instability, preferences, birth control use, and other factors). This research also refers to fieldwork to augment the evidence from survey data on the relationship of type of marriage to fertility." Among the findings the author notes that "the overall level of fertility within informal marriages is lower than in formal marriages...."
Correspondence: M. E. Greene, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30213 Greenough, Paul. Inhibited conception and women's agency: a comment on one aspect of Dyson's "On the demography of South Asian famines" Health Transition Review, Vol. 2, No. 1, Apr 1992. 101-5 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
The author comments on Dyson's review of the demography of nineteenth- and twentieth-century South Asian famines, with a focus on the lowered fertility during those periods. He critically examines Dyson's view that "altered reproductive behaviour during famine may be something that women help make happen instead of having forced upon them."
For the work by T. Dyson, published in 1991, see 57:20657 and 30667.
Correspondence: P. Greenough, Heidelberg University, South Asia Institute, 6900 Heidelberg 1, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30214 Guest, Philip; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat. The social context of fertility decline in Thailand. In: Fertility transitions, family structure, and population policy, edited by Calvin Goldscheider. 1992. 67-99 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The primary task of this paper is to formulate models of fertility decline which incorporate measures of the decision making environment as well as the characteristics of individuals or couples. The paper starts with a description of the fertility transition and then tests multilevel models of fertility levels and fertility decline." Data are from the 1970 and 1980 censuses of Thailand.
Correspondence: P. Guest, Australian National University, Department of Demography, GPO 4, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30215 Hailemariam, Assefa. Fertility levels and trends in Arsi and Shoa regions of Central Ethiopia. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 23, No. 4, Oct 1991. 387-400 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Levels and trends of fertility in the Arsi and Shoa regions of Central Ethiopia are examined, using data from the 1986 Population, Health and Nutrition baseline survey of the Ministry of Health of Ethiopia....Total fertility of six children per woman in the late 1960s increased to eight children per woman in the early 1980s, then declined to seven children per woman in the mid-1980s. Urban fertility declined by a substantial amount during the 15 years before the survey while rural fertility increased during the same period. The implications of high fertility are considered."
Correspondence: A. Hailemariam, London School of Economics and Political Science, Department of Population Studies, Houghton Street, Aldwych, London WC2A 2AE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30216 Inaba, Hisashi. A dynamic model for populations reproduced by first marriage. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 47, No. 4, Jan 1992. 15-34 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
Using data for Japan, the author analyzes "the effect of nuptiality and of marital fertility [on population trends and constructs] a population model in which childbearing occurs only within first marriage....First, we can prove that...we can construct a stable population theory based on nuptiality and marital fertility....Next..., we investigate the effect of [the age shift in first marriage patterns on total fertility rates], since delay of marriage has been thought to be one of [the] major causes for long-term fertility decline in Japan. We conclude that although [the age shift in first marriage patterns] could decrease Japanese fertility, its effect seems to be insufficient to induce such rapid fertility decline as is observed recently in Japan."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30217 Jozwiak, Janina. Modelling demographic and socio-economic determinants of fertility in Poland. In: Essays on population economics in memory of Alfred Sauvy, edited by Giuseppe Gaburro and Dudley L. Poston. 1991. 35-48 pp. Casa Editrice Dott. Antonio Milani [CEDAM]: Padua, Italy. In Eng.
"The paper presents models which are aimed at determining demographic, economic and social factors influencing fertility of the female population in Poland. Two approaches from macro and micro [perspectives] have been discussed. Analysis from the macro perspective...[reveals] factors explaining fertility level and distribution for the aggregate female population. [The] micro approach enables analyzing determinants of individual women's decision for bearing children....The analysis of determinants of timing of births confirmed [the] adequacy of the outcomes which resulted from the macro-level approach." Data are for a sample of women surveyed in the Maternity Inquiry '84 who had given birth that year.
Correspondence: J. Jozwiak, Central School of Planning and Statistics, Institute of Statistics and Demography, Al. Niepodlegosci 162, 02-554 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30218 Kaloyanov, Todor. Fertility determinants. [Faktorna obuslovenost na plodovitostta.] Naselenie, No. 2, 1992. 39-48 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Factors affecting fertility in Bulgaria are analyzed using data from the 1965, 1975, and 1985 censuses. Some consideration is also given to the methodologies used in the analysis.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30219 Kim, Doo-Sub. Sociodemographic determinants of the fertility transition in Korea. In: Fertility transitions, family structure, and population policy, edited by Calvin Goldscheider. 1992. 45-66 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In this paper, the Korean demographic transition is divided into five stages according to the level of fertility, mortality and migration [beginning in 1910]. The main objective is to develop explanations of why and how Korea passed through the fertility transition....Major factors which influenced the components of population growth are explored. The analysis of the inter-relationship between mortality and fertility in the process of the transition is provided. Attention is also focused on whether migration can be incorporated into the demographic transition." The geographical focus is on Korea as a whole up to 1945, and on South Korea from 1945 to the present.
Correspondence: D.-S. Kim, Hanyang University, Department of Sociology, 17 Haengdang-dong, Sungdong-gu, Seoul 133, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30220 Kouaouci, Ali. Trends and factors affecting Algerian birth rates between 1970 and 1986. [Tendances et facteurs de la natalite algerienne entre 1970 et 1986.] Population, Vol. 47, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1992. 327-51 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The rate of natural increase is reviewed for Algeria. "Based on data from 1970...and 1986 [surveys], this article attempts to emphasize the impact of various factors on birth rates (structure, proportions of marriages and legitimate births) and intermediate fertility variables (breast-feeding, contraception, abortion and sterility) on the differences in the levels and trends observed both in space (rural/urban) and time (1970/1986)."
Correspondence: A. Kouaouci, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30221 Leasure, J. William. The historical decline of fertility in Eastern Europe. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 8, No. 1, 1992. 47-75 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"I test the hypothesis that the growth of autonomy was the factor responsible for the decline of marital fertility in eight Eastern European countries. By growth of autonomy I mean increased control over one's political, personal, religious, economic and reproductive life. This increased control was manifested in revolutions, democratic political reforms, nationalist movements and declining marital fertility. The political reforms were the result of the growth of autonomy but they also accelerated the dissemination of these new ideas among the populace contributing to further growth of autonomy. My hypothesis is generally supported by the historical data." The countries included in the analysis are Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Greece, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Yugoslavia.
Correspondence: J. W. Leasure, San Diego State University, Department of Economics, San Diego, CA 92182-0379. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30222 Leete, Richard. Fertility trends and prospects in East and South-east Asian countries and implications for policies and programmes. Population Research Leads, No. 39, 1991. 17 pp. U.N. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]: Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
Fertility patterns and projections in selected countries in eastern and southeastern Asia are examined and compared. The impact of political and socioeconomic changes is assessed. Topics covered include marriage patterns, female labor force participation and its effect on fertility, and social policy development. Population policies, family planning programs, and contraception and their roles in the fertility transition in Asia are discussed. Data are from official sources.
Correspondence: U.N. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Population Division, Population Information Section, United Nations Building, Rajdamnern Nok Avenue, Bangkok 10200, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30223 Lesthaeghe, R. Beyond economic reductionism: the transformation of the reproductive regimes in France and Belgium in the 18th and 19th centuries. In: Fertility transitions, family structure, and population policy, edited by Calvin Goldscheider. 1992. 1-44 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author describes social and political changes in France and Belgium during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and their effects on nuptiality and marital fertility trends. The need to incorporate sociopolitical factors into analyses that emphasize the economic determinants of fertility and nuptiality is stressed.
Correspondence: R. Lesthaeghe, Vrije Universitet Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30224 Lindenberg, Siegwart. Social approval, fertility and female labour market. In: Female labour market behaviour and fertility: a rational-choice approach, edited by Jacques J. Siegers, Jenny de Jong-Gierveld, and Evert van Imhoff. 1991. 32-58 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"In this paper, an attempt was made to introduce some traditional sociological insights, especially about the importance of social approval, into the discussion of fertility and female labour market behaviour in such a way, that the translation to the economic model building approach would be possible...." The author presents "arguments for the reorientation of some bridge assumptions found in the economic approach to fertility and female labour market behaviour, especially the one about quantity and quality. The emphasis is on 'reorientation' rather than on presenting a fully-fledged theory of fertility and female labour market behaviour....Work organization will have to attract an increasing part of the labour force by offering the opportunity for behavioural confirmation. If governance structures adapt to provide just that, they in turn will increase female labour market participation and lower fertility."
Correspondence: S. Lindenberg, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, Vakgroep Sociologie/ICS, Grote Rozenstraat 31, 9712 TG Groningen, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

58:30225 Lucas, David. Fertility and family planning in southern and central Africa. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 23, No. 3, May-Jun 1992. 145-58 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Southern Africa comprises a zone where the total fertility rate is below 6 births per woman. To the north is a ring of countries with higher fertility and relatively low contraceptive prevalence rates....This article attempts to identify some reasons why southern Africa has begun its fertility transition while central Africa has not."
Correspondence: D. Lucas, Australian National University, National Centre for Development Studies, Graduate Studies in Demography, GPO Box 4, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30226 McNicoll, Geoffrey. Changing fertility patterns and fertility policies in the third world. Working Papers in Demography, No. 32, 1991. 37 pp. Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Division of Demography and Sociology: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
The author analyzes changes in fertility trends and policies in developing countries. Factors considered include data collection, regional fertility patterns, explanations and interpretations, and the efficacy of fertility policies.
Correspondence: Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Division of Demography and Sociology, P.O. Box 4, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30227 Menahem, Georges; Le Bras, Herve; Leridon, Henri; Vallin, Jacques; Langaney, Andre. What are current population trends in France? [Comment evolue la population francaise?] Recherche, Vol. 21, No. 224, 1990. 1,106-15 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
This selection of short articles by individual authors is devoted to the debate that took place in France in 1990 concerning future population trends. Specifically, it was about whether researchers at the Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques (INED) were, for ideological reasons, concentrating too much on the threat to the country posed by a hypothesized decline in fertility.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

58:30228 Morocco. Direction de la Statistique. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques [CERED] (Rabat, Morocco). Fertility and household standard of living: a new look. [Fecondite et niveau de vie des menages: un nouveau regard.] Mar 1992. 50 pp. Rabat, Morocco. In Fre.
The relationship between household expenditure and fertility in Morocco is examined using data from the 1984-1985 National Survey on Consumption and Household Expenditure (ENCDM). The results indicate that fertility declines as household expenditure increases. Female education and economic activity appear to be the primary determinants associated with lower fertility.
Correspondence: Direction de la Statistique, Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques, B.P. 178, Charii Maa El Ainain, Rabat, Morocco. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30229 Murphy, M. Economic models of fertility in post-war Britain--a conceptual and statistical re-interpretation. Population Studies, Vol. 46, No. 2, Jul 1992. 235-58 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The author evaluates economic models of fertility in Great Britain since World War II. "The 'New Home Economics' theory is described briefly, and Leibenstein's conclusion in 1974 that empirical tests of the model have been unsuccessful is re-assessed and found to be confirmed for the case of some widely cited econometric studies in which macrolevel time-series data are used. The pitfalls in formulating, fitting and interpreting such models are examined, and it is argued that the sorts of explanations which have been used to dismiss alternative explanations of post-war fertility trends are simplistic and invalid....It is concluded that progress will only be made by a fruitful dialogue between various social science disciplines, together with improved data sources and careful empirical studies."
Correspondence: M. Murphy, London School of Economics and Political Science, Population Studies Department, Houghton Street, Aldwych, London WC2A 2AE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30230 Norden, R. H. Population growth with variable family size. Mathematical Population Studies, Vol. 3, No. 4, 1992. 233-58 pp. Reading, England. In Eng.
"The Sharpe-Lotka continuous time deterministic model of population growth is developed to take account of some possible forms of mother-daughter fertility association....Model specific results relating the intergenerational fertility effect to the long term population growth rate and magnitude are established. The quantitative implications of the theory are illustrated by a consideration of a general bilinear form of A and in this context numerical results illustrating the finite time growth and also the long term distribution of fertility levels in the stable female population are obtained. In particular, it is shown that different fertility specific subpopulations can coexist indefinitely."
Correspondence: R. H. Norden, St. Wulstans, Abbey Road, Chilcompton, Bath BA3 4HY, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30231 Odedokun, M. O. Fertility-infant mortality interrelationships and the quality of life: an empirical study. Development Policy Review, Vol. 9, No. 4, Dec 1991. 391-412 pp. Newbury Park, California/London, England. In Eng.
The author applies a simultaneous equations model to data from 40 developed and developing countries to determine the interrelationships between fertility and infant mortality and their combined effect on quality of life. "The following empirical results can be summarized: There is overwhelming evidence that the fertility rate has a positive effect on the infant mortality rate in most of the countries, slightly more so in the developing countries. While there is a positive causation running from infant mortality to fertility rates in most of the countries, this phenomenon is more pronounced in the developed...countries. Mutual causation between the fertility and infant mortality rates characterizes most of the countries...[and] the replacement effect of a lost child or infant is greater if the loss affects a male than if it affects a female...."
Correspondence: M. O. Odedokun, University of Ilorin, Department of Economics, PMB 1515, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

58:30232 Pakistan. National Institute of Population Studies [NIPS] (Islamabad, Pakistan); Institute for Resource Development/Macro International. Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS] (Columbia, Maryland). Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 1990/1991. Jul 1992. xxiv, 292 pp. Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
This is the final report from the 1990-1991 Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, which covered a nationally representative sample of 7,193 households and was carried out as part of the DHS program. In addition to chapters on the survey and its methodology, the report includes sections on fertility, knowledge and use of family planning, family planning attitudes, proximate determinants of fertility, family size preferences, infant and child mortality, maternal and child health, and infant nutrition. Results of a survey of 1,350 husbands are also presented.
Correspondence: Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 8850 Stanford Boulevard, Suite 4000, Columbia, MD 21045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30233 Palmore, James A.; Singarimbun, Masri. The conflicting effects of delayed marriage and declining divorce rates on cumulative fertility in Indonesia. Asian and Pacific Population Forum, Vol. 6, No. 1, Spring 1992. 5-14, 25-6 pp. Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
"In this study we first review recent marriage patterns and trends [including age at marriage and the divorce rate] in Indonesia and consider the effects of the marriage variables on fertility. Next, we look at the relationship between the marriage variables and a variety of socioeconomic factors that influence marriage behavior and also consider the net effects of the marriage variables on fertility, controlling for appropriate socioeconomic factors. Finally, we discuss the interrelationships between marriage patterns and contraceptive use....[Data are from] the 1987 National Indonesia Contraceptive Prevalence Survey...."
Correspondence: J. A. Palmore, University of Hawaii, Department of Sociology, 2444 Dole Street, Honolulu, HI 96822. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30234 Pan, Xiqun; Wang, Ruiyu; Zhang, Pu. Analysis of the marriage and fertility survey of Yi minority women in the fringe areas of Liangshan mountain. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 3, No. 2, 1991. 157-66 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Results and analysis of a 1987 survey of the minority Yi populations of two townships that were recently incorporated into the city of Panzhihua, China, are presented. The authors compare the 1987 survey with one undertaken in 1982 to determine the influence of urbanization on traditional marriage and fertility patterns.
Correspondence: X. Pan, Sichuan University, Minority Research Institute, Jiuyanqiao, Chengdu, Sichuan Province, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30235 Paradysz, Jan. Female fertility in Poland: a methodological and cognitive study. [Reprodukcja ludnosci w Polsce: studium metodologiczno-poznawcze.] Monografie i Opracowania, No. 312, 1990. 284 pp. Szkola Glowna Planowania i Statystyki, Instytut Statystyki i Demografii: Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Some methodological issues concerning the study of fertility in Poland are addressed. Separate consideration is given to longitudinal, cross-sectional, and cohort analyses. The availability and quality of the data sources are also discussed. Some comparisons are made with fertility patterns in Czechoslovakia and France.
Correspondence: Szkola Glowna Planowania i Statystyki, Institut Statystyki i Demografii, Al. Niepodlegosci 162, 02-554 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Paris, France.

58:30236 Pathak, K. B.; Pandey, Arvind. Application of a stochastic model to ascertain the truncation bias and systematic component of variation in closed birth interval. Sankhya: Indian Journal of Statistics, Series B, Vol. 52, No. 3, 1990. 261-70 pp. Calcutta, India. In Eng.
"In this paper an attempt is made to estimate the truncation bias in the mean length of closed birth interval caused by the termination of observations after [a] certain time, through the application of a stochastic model based on certain simplified assumptions. The approach is further evolved to determine the relative contributions of...chance and systematic components to the variance of closed birth interval when the fecundability parameter follows a priori distribution. Some numerical results have also been presented for the purpose of illustration."
Correspondence: K. B. Pathak, International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Bombay 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30237 Poedjastoeti, Sri; Hatmadji, Sri H. Fertility trends in Indonesia: an analysis of preferences. [Penurunan fertilitas di Indonesia: suatu analisis preferensi fertilitas.] Majalah Demografi Indonesia/Indonesian Journal of Demography, Vol. 18, No. 36, Dec 1991. 103-23 pp. Jakarta, Indonesia. In Ind. with sum. in Eng.
"This analysis begins with a presentation of a summary of levels and trends of fertility. Selected factors affecting fertility are also addressed. Then data from the National Indonesia Contraceptive Prevalence Survey (NICPS) carried out as part of the Demographic and Health Surveys program in 1987 are used to investigate the extent of fertility planning among Indonesian women, and the extent to which the plan is being implemented. Differentials in fertility intentions are also studied."
Correspondence: S. Poedjastoeti, Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 8850 Stanford Boulevard, Suite 4000, Columbia, MD 21045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30238 Rao, K. Vaninadha; Murty, K. S. Covariates of progression to third birth in Canada. In: American Statistical Association, 1991 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1991]. 435-40 pp. American Statistical Association: Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
Data from the 1984 Canadian Fertility Survey are analyzed for determinants of third births. A model to estimate the progression to such births is then applied.
Correspondence: K. V. Rao, Bowling Green State University, Department of Sociology, Bowling Green, OH 43403. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30239 Reinis, Kia I. The impact of the proximate determinants of fertility: evaluating Bongaarts's and Hobcraft and Little's methods of estimation. Population Studies, Vol. 46, No. 2, Jul 1992. 309-26 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The author evaluates Bongaarts's and Hobcraft and Little's methods of estimating the impact of the proximate determinants of fertility. "Since we cannot observe what the methods estimate (i.e. fertility in the absence of the inhibiting factors), reproductive histories of a population of women are simulated to learn what the quantities are that the methods can only estimate....When fertility behaviour is random, both methods work well; however, under more realistic conditions the methods go awry. Neither method works well when women employ stopping behaviour once they have achieved their desired family size. While the simulations do not attempt to incorporate the innumerable complexities of fertility behaviours, the incorporation of the simplest family-building strategy leads to the unambiguous conclusion that the methods yield poor estimates of the fertility-reducing impacts of marriage delay, contraceptive use, and induced abortions." The author uses the methods to estimate the fertility-reducing impact of induced abortion in Shanghai, China, and tests the methods using simulated populations based on data for the United States, Bangladesh, and China.
For the works by Bongaarts (1978) and by Hobcraft and Little (1984), see 44:4265 and 50:20261.
Correspondence: K. I. Reinis, Demographic and Health Surveys, 8850 Stanford Boulevard, Suite 4000, Columbia, MD 21045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30240 Sardon, Jean-Paul. Fertility trends in France over the last 50 years. [L'evolution de la fecondite en France depuis un demi-siecle.] INED Dossiers et Recherches, No. 31, Jun 1990. 98 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
The author analyzes fertility trends and their determinants in France over the last 50 years. He notes that France is unique both in the timing of its demographic transition and in its efforts to develop a pronatalist family policy in response to the decline in fertility.
Correspondence: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Institut National d'Etudes Economiques, Paris, France.

58:30241 Siegers, Jacques J.; de Jong-Gierveld, Jenny; van Imhoff, Evert. Female labour market behaviour and fertility: a rational-choice approach. ISBN 3-540-53896-8. 1991. viii, 301 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"This volume contains the papers presented at the conference 'Female Labour Market Behaviour and Fertility: Preferences, Restrictions, Behaviour,' held in April 1989 at the Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute in The Hague....It was the purpose of the workshop to use the rational-choice framework as an engine to integrate the contributions of the participants who represented the fields of demography, econometrics, economics, psychology and sociology. In line with this purpose, the participants were asked to approach the subject from their own discipline in such a way that the different elements of the 'preferences-restrictions-behaviour' scheme were filled. The aim was to contribute to the construction of a sound foundation for empirical analyses with the aid of surveys, to the further development of theories and empirical analytical methods, and to the evaluation of policy measures." The geographical scope is worldwide, with a focus on developed countries.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Springer-Verlag, 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10010. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

58:30242 Siegers, Jacques J. Towards a better understanding of the relationship between female labour market behaviour and fertility. In: Female labour market behaviour and fertility: a rational-choice approach, edited by Jacques J. Siegers, Jenny de Jong-Gierveld, and Evert van Imhoff. 1991. 265-74 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
The author "presents concise evaluations of the economic approaches to labour supply and fertility, respectively. He also sketches how within the rational-choice framework, the 'preferences-restrictions-behaviour' scheme can be used as a basis for an interdisciplinary analysis of the relationship between female labour market behaviour and fertility." The geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: J. J. Siegers, Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht, Economisch Instituut/CIAV, Domplein 24, 3512 JE Utrecht, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

58:30243 Singh, K. K.; Bhattacharya, B. N.; Suchindran, C. M. A probability distribution for last closed birth interval. In: American Statistical Association, 1991 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1991]. 441-6 pp. American Statistical Association: Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"We attempt to derive a distribution of last closed birth interval occurring during a specific period. The model is not parity dependent....[It] is illustrated with the data collected from two Indian fertility surveys." The surveys were conducted in 1978 and 1987-1988 among rural populations in eastern Uttar Pradesh.
Correspondence: K. K. Singh, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, Chapel Hill, NC 27516. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30244 Slablab, Ali; Belloumi, Ahmed; Seklani, Mahmoud; Moreland, Scott. The determinants of fertility in Tunisia, 1966-1975-1984-1988. [Les determinants de la fecondite en Tunisie 1966-1975-1984-1988.] 1990. 120 pp. Office National de la Famille et de la Population: Tunis, Tunisia; Research Triangle Institute: Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. In Fre.
This report uses the RAPID III model to analyze changes in fertility determinants in Tunisia over the period 1966-1988. Factors considered include geographic, economic, demographic, and sociocultural variables. Data are from a number of surveys conducted during this period and from the census. The results indicate that the extent of salaried employment for women, which is in turn linked to women's educational status, is a critical factor affecting fertility.
Correspondence: Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Paris, France.

58:30245 Somawat, G. S. The estimation of fertility from incomplete birth registration data for Indian towns and cities. Demography India, Vol. 19, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1990. 279-87 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The main objective of this paper is to make an attempt to derive fertility measures as well as trends from incomplete birth registration data [for India] especially for the period 1961-1970 for which we have very little knowledge about the Indian towns and cities and the period 1970-1981 for which estimates are available from Sample Registration system....The first section of the paper provides a methodology for estimation of fertility, data requirements and illustration of the application of the method. The second section deals with the derivation of fertility measures for the period 1961-1981 as well as trends in towns and cities. The final section gives discussion on the results obtained by the method...."
Correspondence: G. S. Somawat, Ministry of Agriculture, Directorate of Extension, Extension Education Institute, Nilokheri 132 117, Haryana, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30246 Sprague, Alison. An empirical analysis of birth spacing. Applied Economics Discussion Paper, No. 103, Nov 1990. 46 pp. University of Oxford, Institute of Economics and Statistics: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author examines the effect of earnings potential on fertility. "Retrospective information on married women [in the United Kingdom] from the 1980 Women and Employment Survey is transformed into duration data for first, second and third births. Logistic hazard models are estimated for the full sample and cohort groups. Covariates entered are age, potential earnings and social class variables. The results suggest that high potential earnings delay childbirth, shorten the interval between first and second birth but have no effect on the risk of a third birth. Age effects are positive for all durations but social class effects are found for the second birth model only."
Correspondence: University of Oxford, Institute of Economics and Statistics, St. Cross Building, Manor Road, Oxford OX1 3UL, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30247 Stocklin, Daniel. A note on birth statistics for China. [Note sur la statistique des naissances en Chine.] Population, Vol. 47, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1992. 223-33 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The author uses newly available data and other official published sources to reexamine the birth rate in China in the 1980s and compare it with previous levels.
Correspondence: D. Stocklin, Universite de Fribourg, 1700 Fribourg, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30248 Sugareva, Marta. Fertility in Bulgaria--recent trends and estimates. [Razhdaemostta v Balgariya--savremenni tendentsii i otsenki.] Naselenie, No. 1, 1992. 56-72 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Results are presented from an analysis of fertility trends in Bulgaria, jointly carried out by the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and the Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques. For women born between 1945 and 1970, fertility remained constant at just fewer than two children per woman. The impact of pronatalist policies enacted in 1968 and 1973 is discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30249 Szukicsne Serfozo, Klara. Fertility and family size in Hungary in the twentieth century. [A termekenyseg koncentraciojanak alakulasa Magyarorszagon a XX. szazadban.] Demografia, Vol. 35, No. 1, 1992. 73-100 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng.
"The study analyzes the concentration of fertility [in Hungary], based on the completed fertility of female birth cohorts. The basis of the calculations was the distribution by number of children of women aged 40-44 and 45-49 at the date of the [1980 and 1990] population censuses....The results show that the distribution of women by number of children and the proportions of children born in families of various sizes have both changed significantly with the decrease of fertility...[and that] the level of concentration has also decreased."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30250 Turchi, Boone A. How economics, psychology, and sociology might produce a unified theory of fertility and labour force participation. In: Female labour market behaviour and fertility: a rational-choice approach, edited by Jacques J. Siegers, Jenny de Jong-Gierveld, and Evert van Imhoff. 1991. 237-62 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
The author finds that "the microeconomic model as usually employed can serve a potentially valuable role as an integrating framework for the interdisciplinary study of fertility and [female] labour force participation behaviour, by integrating economic as well as psychological and sociological variables to produce a comprehensive model. The model presented...reflects the author's conviction that the fertility-labour force participation relationship must be treated as short run behaviour conditioned by long run plans."
Correspondence: B. A. Turchi, University of North Carolina, Department of Economics, CB# 3305, Gardner Hall, Chapel Hill, NC 27599. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

58:30251 Vlassoff, Carol. Progress and stagnation: changes in fertility and women's position in an Indian village. Population Studies, Vol. 46, No. 2, Jul 1992. 195-212 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper compares women's status, fertility, and contraceptive use in 1975 and 1987 among married women aged 15-26 in a Maharashtra village [in India]. Changes in women's position over the 12 years were both positive and negative. Although education and age at marriage had increased, the 1987 cohort was more conservative in many respects. Fertility appeared to be declining, and women were increasingly completing their families quickly and then undergoing sterilization. However, the decline in fertility goals was not primarily due to changes in women's status but to the active sterilization campaign in the community. The one constraint on fertility limitation was the need for sons, and in this some indicators of women's status...made a significant difference."
Correspondence: C. Vlassoff, World Health Organization, Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30252 Werschler, Timothy; Halli, Shiva. The seasonality of births in Canada: a comparison with the northern United States. Population and Environment, Vol. 14, No. 1, Sep 1992. 85-94 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper presents evidence that there are substantial differences in the seasonal birth patterns of Canada and the northern United States. The seasonal birth pattern in Canada is characterized by a birth peak in April-May, and a trough in December-January. The birth pattern in the northern U.S. is characterized by a trough in April-May, and a peak in August-September. The influence of climate on the birth patterns is explored in an attempt to explain the discrepancies. In both Canada and the United States, there is an inverse relationship between temperature and conceptions during the summer months. The study concludes that variation in temperature alone cannot explain the discrepancy between the birth patterns of southern Canada and the northern United States."
Correspondence: S. Halli, University of Manitoba, Department of Sociology, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30253 Willekens, Frans J. Understanding the interdependence between parallel careers. In: Female labour market behaviour and fertility: a rational-choice approach, edited by Jacques J. Siegers, Jenny de Jong-Gierveld, and Evert van Imhoff. 1991. 11-31 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
The author examines the relationship between fertility and female labor force participation. "The aim is to explore the nature of the interdependencies between parallel careers....Recent research findings on the interdependence between fertility and labour force participation are reviewed....In order to integrate the various research findings in a common framework we suggest a process approach....A main thesis [of this paper] is that relations between variables pertaining to fertility and employment are mediated by personality traits, in particular the career orientations. The theory is applied to the study of the fertility-employment interaction...." The geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: F. J. Willekens, Nederlands Interdisciplinair Demografisch Instituut, P.O. Box 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

58:30254 Yadava, R. C.; Pandey, A.; Saxena, N. C. Estimation of parity progression ratios from the truncated distribution of closed and open birth intervals. Mathematical Biosciences, Vol. 110, No. 2, Jul 1992. 181-90 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A procedure to estimate parity progression ratios in a population from the truncated distribution of open and closed birth intervals is presented. The approach is quite simple in computation and data needs. It does not require any separate data on age at last birth to the women of completed fertility as in earlier methods. The procedure is illustrated with an observed set of data [for India]."
Correspondence: R. C. Yadava, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SM).

58:30255 Zabin, Laurie S.; Hirsch, Marilyn B.; Emerson, Mark R.; Raymond, Elizabeth. To whom do inner-city minors talk about their pregnancies? Adolescents' communication with parents and parent surrogates. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 24, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1992. 148-54, 173 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A study of 334 black, urban teenagers who sought pregnancy tests in two Baltimore [Maryland] clinics in 1985-1986 explored communication between the teenagers and their parents or parent surrogates before the pregnancy test visit and, among those whose test results were positive, before the final pregnancy outcome decision. Of these young women, 66% had discussed the possibility that they were pregnant with a parent (usually the mother) or parent surrogate before the test; an additional 6% had turned to another adult. At a follow-up interview a year later, 91% of those whose test results had been positive reported that they had consulted a parent or parent surrogate before deciding what to do about the pregnancy, and 4% had confided in another adult. The probability that an adolescent would consult a parent before deciding what to do about her pregnancy was higher if she was younger, if she lived with the parent and if she found the parent easy to talk to."
Correspondence: L. S. Zabin, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Department of Population Dynamics, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30256 Zachariah, K. C. Some comments on the demographic transition in Kerala. Demography India, Vol. 19, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1990. 183-8 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"These comments on the present stage of demographic transition in Kerala [India] are based on a general evaluation of the official demographic and family planning statistics of the state and on the basis of my involvement in two special studies on the determinants of fertility decline in the state." The first study was conducted in 1980; the second is still under way. Aspects discussed include regional differences in population growth, family planning, immunization, social and economic differences in fertility, and education.
Correspondence: K. C. Zachariah, Centre for Development Studies, Prasantanagar Road, Ulloor, Trivandrum 695 011, Kerala State, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30257 Zhang, Rui; Ren, Lizhong; Zhao, Xiaomao. The states of marriage and fertility of women born in the reign of Guangxu of the Qing: a retrospective survey of the states of marriage and fertility of 90-94-year old women in Hebei province. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 3, No. 1, 1991. 1-10 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Results are presented from a retrospective survey conducted among 4,000 women aged 90-94 years who were living in Hebei province, China, in 1980. The survey concerned marriage patterns, including age at marriage; fertility, including maternal age, birth intervals, parity, and age at final parity; and infant mortality. Political and socioeconomic factors affecting these patterns are briefly considered.
Correspondence: R. Zhang, Hebei Normal University, Population Research Institute, Hebei, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30258 Zimmermann, Klaus F.; De New, John P. Labour market restrictions and the role of preferences in family economics. In: Female labour market behaviour and fertility: a rational-choice approach, edited by Jacques J. Siegers, Jenny de Jong-Gierveld, and Evert van Imhoff. 1991. 158-72 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
The authors present "a simple economic model in which labour supply and fertility are jointly determined. They show that labour market conditions are decisive in determining fertility. Using starting values that are rationed with respect to labour, preferences even prove to play no role in determining fertility whatsoever. Furthermore, the authors conjecture that fertility decline is a more likely event in the process of economic growth if labour supply is rationed." The geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: K. F. Zimmermann, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitat Munchen, Seminar fur Arbeits- und Bevolkerungsokonomie, Ludwigstrasse 28 RG, 8000 Munich 40, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

F.2. Differential Fertility

Studies on differences in fertility patterns and levels in subgroups of a population. Also included are studies on age-specific fertility, such as teenage pregnancy.

58:30259 Barrere-Maurisson, Marie-Agnes; Marchand, Olivier. Family sociology and statistics. [Sociologie familiale et statistiques.] Population et Societes, No. 269, Jun 1992. [1-3] pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
Results of a 1990 survey of French military personnel are presented. The focus is on differential fertility by social class and profession.
Correspondence: M.-A. Barrere-Maurisson, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 15 quai Anatole France, 75700 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30260 Bideau, Alain; Nadalin, Sergio O. Life histories and the demographic analysis of fertility: complementary approaches for a history of social behavior. The example of the Evangelical Lutheran community of Curitiba (1866-1939). ["Histoires de vie" et analyse demographique de la fecondite: approches complementaires pour une histoire du comportement social. L'exemple de la communaute Evangelique Lutherienne de Curitiba (1866-1939).] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1991. 157-71 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Fertility and marriage patterns of Lutheran European settlers in Brazil in the nineteenth century are described using data for two immigrant women and their progeny. "Three groups of marriages were studied (1866-1894, 1895-1919, 1920-1939), showing the changing attitudes toward sex and procreation....The first group...has a high rate of premarital conceptions and births. A decline in this behavior pattern runs parallel to the assimilation of the immigrants and their descendants into the surrounding Catholic society of Brazil. The second group of marriages reveals a lower rate of fecundity than the first; once the desired number of children was achieved, contraception intervened to prevent further births. And the third group evidently practiced family planning from the earliest years of marriage."
Correspondence: A. Bideau, Universite Lumiere Lyon 2, MRASH, Centre Pierre Leon, URA 223, 86 rue Pasteur, 69365 Lyon Cedex 07, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30261 Billy, John O. G.; Moore, David E. A multilevel analysis of marital and nonmarital fertility in the U.S. Social Forces, Vol. 70, No. 4, Jun 1992. 977-1,011 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"This study examines the role of a wide range of community characteristics in determining the risk of married and nonmarried nonblack women having a live birth. We find that context affects the risk of both a marital and nonmarital birth, although the number of contextual influences is greater for nonmarried women. For married women, the factors that affect the likelihood of a birth are: the extent of full-time female labor-force participation, percent white-collar workers, and percent females in the community who are separated or divorced. Contextual factors affecting the risk of an out-of-wedlock birth include: the female unemployment rate; median housing value; percent females separated or divorced; percent females of childbearing age; the sex ratio of the never married population; and the child/woman ratio for women aged 15-24. Almost all these community characteristics operate independently of individual-level characteristics of the woman." Data are from the 1982 U.S. National Survey of Family Growth, Cycle III.
Correspondence: J. O. G. Billy, Battelle-HARC, 4000 N.E. 41st Street, Seattle, WA 98105. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30262 Bouchard, Gerard; Roy, Raymond. Fertility and literacy in the Saguenay and in Quebec in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. [Fecondite et alphabetisation au Saguenay et au Quebec (XIXe-XXe siecles).] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1991. 173-201 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper draws on a data set of 6,623 'completed' reconstituted families relating to the Saguenay (Quebec) population. It aims primarily at measuring the impact of literacy on fertility through the analysis of 16 cohorts of individuals married between 1840 and 1940. The findings clearly establish the need to study separately the pre-transitional period (I) and the transition period...(II). In period I, the most literate couples are more fertile than the less literate. While the latter introduce the first contraceptive behaviors, the former are those who generalize them among the population (period II). Thus, literacy seems to impact in opposite ways, whether period I or period II is considered."
Correspondence: G. Bouchard, Universite du Quebec, Centre Interuniversitaire SOREP, 555 Boulevard de l'Universite, Chicoutimi, Quebec G7H 2B1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30263 Center for Population Options (Washington, D.C.). Teenage pregnancy and too-early childbearing: public costs, personal consequences. 1992. 45 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study estimates the economic impact of teen parenting [in the United States]: what it costs America's taxpayers to support families begun when the mother was a teenager. More specifically, it estimates the cost to the federal and selected state and local governments of three major family support programs: Medicaid, AFDC and Food Stamps....Along with calculating the federal costs, we have calculated similar costs for seven states--Florida, Kansas, New Mexico, Ohio, Oregon, Vermont and Wyoming--and two cities--Baltimore and San Francisco." This is the sixth annual study on adolescent pregnancy conducted by the Center for Population Options.
Correspondence: Center for Population Options, 1025 Vermont Avenue NW, Suite 210, Washington, D.C. 20005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30264 Fennelly, Katherine; Cornwell, Gretchen; Casper, Lynne. A comparison of the fertility of Dominican, Puerto Rican and mainland Puerto Rican adolescents. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 24, No. 3, May-Jun 1992. 107-10, 134 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this analysis, we use data from surveys of Puerto Rican women living in the continental United States and on the Island of Puerto Rico, and from a survey of women living in the Dominican Republic...to address the following research questions: 1) What is the extent of early childbearing and how does it vary by age? 2) What are the probabilities of early premarital births? and 3) Which factors distinguish women who give birth as adolescents from those who postpone childbearing?...The cumulative hazard rates show that the probability of an early first birth is highest for 15-24-year-old women in the least developed settings--the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico. However, Puerto Rican women in New York are the most likely to experience early premarital births. We speculate that for these young women...the probability of a premarital birth is higher because the stigma of premarital sex is reduced in this setting."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1991 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: K. Fennelly, Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30265 Johnson, Nan E.; Zhang, Kai-Ti. Matriarchy, polyandry, and fertility amongst the Mosuos in China. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 23, No. 4, Oct 1991. 499-505 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"A survey of 232 households of the Mosuo minority group in Yunnan Province, People's Republic of China, suggested that polyandrous matriarchy did not raise the birth rate per household, but lowered the community birth rate by restricting many women's chances of marrying. The results imply that tolerance by the National government of polyandry within certain minority groups (e.g. Mosuos and Tibetans) will not prevent but may aid the attainment of zero population growth by China in the twenty-first century."
Correspondence: N. E. Johnson, Michigan State University, Department of Sociology, East Lansing, MI 48824. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30266 Pennington, Renee. Did food increase fertility? Evaluation of !Kung and Herero history. Human Biology, Vol. 64, No. 4, Aug 1992. 497-521 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
The effect of food supply on fertility is analyzed using data for the nomadic !Kung foragers of Botswana, a low-fertility population that has recently experienced an increase in fertility rates. "A comparison of !Kung fertility before and after a transition to a more sedentary lifestyle indicates that more food did not increase fertility. An examination of the fertility of neighboring sedentary Bantu-speaking Herero pastoralists during the same period also indicates that...Herero fertility has increased dramatically in recent decades, probably in response to the control of sexually transmitted diseases in northwestern Botswana....The findings presented here suggest that the !Kung benefitted from the transition to a sedentary lifestyle through increases in survivorship of offspring. Substantial decreases in early childhood mortality may have increased !Kung reproductive success by more than 25%."
Correspondence: R. Pennington, University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30267 Plotnick, Robert D. The effect of attitudes on teenage premarital pregnancy and its resolution. Seattle Population Research Center Working Paper, No. 2, Nov 1991. 42, [10] pp. Seattle, Washington. In Eng.
"This study examines the influence of self-esteem, locus of control, and attitudes towards women's family roles and school on the probability of teenage premarital pregnancy and, given a pregnancy, whether it is resolved by abortion, having the birth premaritally or marrying before the birth. The data are drawn from the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Survey of Youth...."
Correspondence: Seattle Population Research Center, c/o University of Washington, Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology, Department of Sociology DK-40, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30268 Preston-Whyte, Eleanor; Zondi, Maria; Mavundla, Gladys; Gumede, Hilda. Teenage pregnancy, whose problem? Realities and prospects for action in KwaZulu/Natal. Southern African Journal of Demography/Suidelike Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Demografie, Vol. 3, Jul 1990. 11-20 pp. Pretoria, South Africa. In Eng.
Determinants of teenage pregnancy among black Africans in Natal Province, South Africa, are examined, with a focus on adolescents' perceptions of the effects of pregnancy. "It will be argued...that there are positive dimensions to early pregnancy which are either neglected, or not fully recognized by the older generation....Notwithstanding the overly critical opinion of their elders, pregnancy seems to many black teenagers an entirely rational strategy to achieve one set of important goals." Consideration is given to cultural influences and to the repercussions of early pregnancy, including the impact on chances of marriage.
Correspondence: E. Preston-Whyte, University of Natal, George V Avenue, Durban 4001, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30269 Quilodran, Julieta. Fertility levels and marriage registers in Mexico. [Niveles de fecundidad y patrones de nupcialidad en Mexico.] ISBN 968-12-0473-5. 1991. 244 pp. El Colegio de Mexico, Centro de Estudios Demograficos y de Desarrollo Urbano: Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
This is an analysis of the relationship between fertility and nuptiality in Mexico using data from the World Fertility Survey and from marriage registers. Topics covered include fertility differentials by place size, regional fertility differentials, differences in type of marital union, and fertility differences by type of union.
Correspondence: Colegio de Mexico, Centro de Estudios Demograficos y de Desarrollo Urbano, Camino al Ajusco 20, Pedregal de Santa Teresa, 10740 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Paris, France.

58:30270 Wadhera, Surinder; Strachan, Jill. Teenage pregnancies, Canada, 1975-1989. [La grossesse a l'adolescence, Canada, 1975-1989.] Health Reports/Rapports sur la Sante, Vol. 3, No. 4, 1991. 327-37 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
Adolescent pregnancy rates in Canada are analyzed and compared by region and pregnancy outcome for the period 1975-1989. The authors also compare adolescent pregnancy and abortion rates with those in other developed countries, including the United States. They find that "the teenage pregnancy rate...declined 17.4% to 44.1 in 1989 from 53.4 in 1975....In 1985, there were 37 pregnancies per 1,000 Canadian females aged 15-19 compared with 95 pregnancies per 1,000 females of the same age in the United States....In 1985, the abortion rate for Canadian teenagers was 14 per 1,000, one-third the U.S. rate of 42 per 1,000."
Correspondence: S. Wadhera, Statistics Canada, Canadian Centre for Health Information, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology

Studies on infertility, as well as studies of spontaneous abortion, prematurity, and other relevant pathologies of pregnancy.

58:30271 Feaganes, John R. Sterility in early 20th century U.S. population, an application of the beta-geometric distribution. In: American Statistical Association, 1988 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. 1988. 139-44 pp. American Statistical Association: Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"There are two goals of this analysis. First to investigate sterility in the United States in the early twentieth century. Second to apply the methodology described by Weinberg and Gladen (1986) in a demographic setting. The data is from the 1985 current population survey conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau. The analysis will focus on ever married women married between 1920 and 1944 inclusive." The EM algorithm method proposed by Weinberg and Gladen is then compared to their adaptation of a beta-geometric model. "In conclusion the EM algorithm methodology to determine sterility rate in a demographic setting does not work. The beta-geometric model however provides a good fit for the fertility experience, even when the population contains a large sterile subpopulation."
For the article on the beta-geometric model by Clarice R. Weinberg and Beth C. Gladen, published in 1986, see 54:10293.
Correspondence: J. R. Feaganes, University of North Carolina, Department of Biostatistics, CB#7400, Chapel Hill, NC 27514. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30272 Hammerslough, Charles R. Estimating the probability of spontaneous abortion in the presence of induced abortion and vice versa. Public Health Reports, Vol. 107, No. 3, May-Jun 1992. 269-77 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"An integrated approach to estimate the total number of pregnancies that begin in a [U.S.] population during one calendar year and the probability of spontaneous abortion is described. This includes an indirect estimate of the number of pregnancies that result in spontaneous abortions. The method simultaneously takes into account the proportion of induced abortions that are censored by spontaneous abortions and vice versa in order to estimate the true annual number of spontaneous and induced abortions for a population. It also estimates the proportion of pregnancies that women intended to allow to continue to a live birth. The proposed indirect approach derives adjustment factors to make indirect estimates by combining vital statistics information on gestational age at induced abortion (from the 12 States that report to the National Center for Health Statistics) with a life table of spontaneous abortion probabilities."
Correspondence: C. R. Hammerslough, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30273 Morocco. Direction de la Statistique. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques [CERED] (Rabat, Morocco). Infertility: levels and trends. [Infecondite: niveaux et evolution.] Apr 1992. 42 pp. Rabat, Morocco. In Fre.
This study analyzes levels and trends in fertility in Morocco using data from official sources, including the 1982 census and the 1987 national survey of family planning, fertility, and health. It also examines reasons for variations in infertility levels by region, residential characteristics, educational status, and female occupation.
Correspondence: Direction de la Statistique, Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques, B.P. 178, Charii Maa El Ainain, Rabat, Morocco. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30274 Tesfaghiorghis, Habtemariam. Infecundity and subfertility among the rural population of Ethiopia. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 23, No. 4, Oct 1991. 461-75 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This study uses demographic survey data on the distribution of children ever born by age group of women to examine the incidence and geographical extent of infecundity and subfertility among the rural population of Ethiopia." Survey data were collected during 1980-1981. The author finds "high levels of infecundity and subfertility, although there was considerable variation by region, ethnicity and age of women. Higher levels of infecundity were geographically concentrated in a broad belt that ran from the south and south-west of the country, across to the north-east. The analyses suggest that infecundity is influenced by ecological factors, more than by ethnicity."
Correspondence: H. Tesfaghiorghis, Australian National University, Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4. Actions and Activities Directly Affecting Fertility

Studies concerning activities, including family planning programs, that are primarily designed to influence fertility.

F.4.1. General Fertility Control and Contraception

General aspects of fertility control, primarily those concerned with family planning and family planning programs.

58:30275 Agung, Igusti N.; Lim, Tjen Sien; Samosir, Omas B. Contraceptive effectiveness in Indonesia. [Dampak relatif pemakaian kontrasepsi.] Majalah Demografi Indonesia/Indonesian Journal of Demography, Vol. 18, No. 36, Dec 1991. 43-61 pp. Jakarta, Indonesia. In Ind. with sum. in Eng.
"Using data from the 1987 National Indonesia Contraceptive Prevalence Survey this paper tries to analyze the impact of using contraception on [the] probability of having a birth relative to not using any contraception. Particular methods of contraception analyzed are Pill, IUD, and Injection. Employing logistic regression, [the] probability of not having a birth can be computed for any method of contraception after adjusting for social, economic, and cultural factors."
Correspondence: I. N. Agung, Universitas Indonesia, Fakultas Ekonomi, Lembaga Demografi, Salemba Raya 4, Jakarta, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30276 Asari, V. Gopalakrishnan. Determinants of family planning acceptance and fertility change in Kerala: a study on inter-district variations. Population Research Centre Report Series, No. 91-3, 1991. [35] pp. University of Kerala, Population Research Centre: Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
The impact of various developmental factors on contraceptive acceptance and fertility in Kerala state, India, is explored. Factors examined include infrastructure developments such as the expansion of medical and family planning services and improved roads and transport facilities. Socioeconomic factors including income, occupation, educational status, religion, women's age at marriage, infant mortality, birth rate, and acceptance of sterilization and IUDs are considered. The focus is on differences among the various districts in the state.
Correspondence: University of Kerala, Population Research Centre, Kariavattom, Thiruvananthapuram 695 581, India. Location: East-West Population Institute, Honolulu, HI.

58:30277 Benson, Janie; Leonard, Ann H.; Winkler, Judith; Wolf, Merrill; McLaurin, Katie E. Meeting women's needs for post-abortion family planning: framing the questions. Issues in Abortion Care, No. 2, 1992. iv, 69 pp. International Projects Assistance Services [IPAS]: Carrboro, North Carolina. In Eng.
"Given the lack of understanding of the complex dimensions of post-abortion family planning, this paper reviews what information exists in the literature, brings into the discussion lessons learned from efforts to provide clinical services, and frames questions regarding ways to improve the delivery of these critical services....[It] focuses on the prevention of subsequent unwanted pregnancy while acknowledging that women who have sought abortion have reproductive health needs in addition to contraceptive information and services....The authors stress that expanding access to post-abortion family planning will not obviate the need for safe abortion services." The geographical focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: International Projects Assistance Services, 303 East Main Street, P.O. Box 100, Carrboro, NC 27510. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30278 Brewster, Karin L.; Billy, John O. G.; Grady, William R. Community influences on the sexual and contraceptive behaviors of adolescent women. Seattle Population Research Center Working Paper, No. 10, May 1990. 29, [19] pp. Seattle, Washington. In Eng.
"The present study explores the role of a wide variety of community characteristics in shaping two crucial aspects of adolescent reproductive behavior [in the United States]--the risk of experiencing nonmarital first intercourse during adolescence and contraceptive use-status at that event."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1990 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Seattle Population Research Center, c/o University of Washington, Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology, Department of Sociology DK-40, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30279 Chesler, Ellen. Woman of valor: Margaret Sanger and the birth control movement in America. ISBN 0-671-60088-5. LC 92-11496. 1992. 639 pp. Simon and Schuster: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
This is a biography of the American birth control pioneer, Margaret Sanger. It attempts "to recapture Sanger's vitality and the intensity of her long struggle to establish the legitimacy of her concerns. It examines both the personal and public dimensions of her life much as she experienced them, layering complicated private struggles and intimate relationships upon larger intellectual and political pursuits." The study is based primarily on papers available in the Library of Congress and at Smith College and on Sanger's personal correspondence.
Correspondence: Simon and Schuster, 1230 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10020. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30280 Cochrane, Susan H.; Guilkey, David K. Fertility intentions and access to services as constraints on contraceptive use in Colombia. In: Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, August 5-7, 1991, Washington, D.C.: proceedings. Volume 2. 1991. 1,305-28 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to employ a structural model to assess the effects of access on contraceptive use in Colombia....The model examines the effects of the number of currently surviving children on the decision to have additional children and their desired spacing. Fertility intentions are then used as right-hand-side endogenous variables in equations that explain current contraceptive use and choice among methods. The basic policy questions that need to be addressed are the extent to which contraceptive use is constrained by the demand to restrict fertility and to what extent it is constrained by access to services."
Correspondence: S. H. Cochrane, World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30281 Galway, Katrina. Strategic use of DHS data in family planning program development. In: Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, August 5-7, 1991, Washington, D.C.: proceedings. Volume 2. 1991. 889-96 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
In this article, the author "presents ideas about how DHS data can be used strategically for family planning program development. The first section presents a description of selected family planning program development issues which a strategic analysis of DHS data can address. The second section presents two examples of this type of strategic analysis: 1) to estimate what is an appropriate method mix to move towards; and 2) to estimate what would be the magnitude of the contraceptive program to meet existing fertility preferences--i.e., how many users."
Correspondence: K. Galway, Futures Group, 80 Glastonbury Boulevard, Glastonbury, CT 06033. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30282 Goyal, R. S. Infant mortality, fertility and family planning: an analysis of relationships. Demography India, Vol. 19, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1990. 189-203 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The "present paper is an attempt to assess the effect of infant mortality on...fertility behaviour and family planning practices. The study drew on data from a family planning evaluation study conducted by the author in Punjab (India), wherein 439 eligible couples (non-contraceptors) and 145 family planning acceptors (of sterilization and IUD) were surveyed....[It is found that] the eligible couples have experienced higher pregnancy wastage due to still births and abortions and higher infant mortality, which is positively associated with their fertility level. The family planning acceptors have not only experienced fewer infant deaths, but their fertility level is also higher than the eligible couples."
Correspondence: R. S. Goyal, Panjab University, Department of Sociology, Population Research Centre, Chandigarh 160 014, Union Territory, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30283 Hammerslough, Charles R. Proximity to contraceptive services and fertility transition in rural Kenya. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 18, No. 2, Jun 1992. 54-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Data from the 1989 Kenya Community Survey (KCS), which revisited 260 of the rural communities included in the Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS), show a swift rise in access to family planning services in rural Kenya during the 1980s. As the decade began, only 26% of the rural population could reach a source of family planning within three hours; by 1989, 87% could do so. This increase in access to services coincided with the beginning of the rise in contraceptive prevalence. Multivariate analyses of linked KCS and KDHS data reveal that although contraceptive availability coincided with growth in demand for fertility control, it did not initiate Kenya's fertility transition. The greater availability of services, however, has accelerated the fertility transition by increasing the proportion of users who rely on highly effective clinical methods."
Correspondence: C. R. Hammerslough, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30284 Hammerslough, Charles R. Proximity to contraceptive services and fertility transition in rural Kenya. In: Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, August 5-7, 1991, Washington, D.C.: proceedings. Volume 2. 1991. 1,287-304 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
"This paper examines the role of contraceptive availability, as measured by proximity to family planning services, in either initiating or accelerating Kenya's fertility transition. It also demonstrates the potential usefulness of re-visiting rural DHS sample clusters to collect community data in group interviews of residents, including contraceptive availability information. The paper supplements the 1989 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey data on rural women with...the [1989] Kenya Community Survey...[and with] 13 group interviews with rural and urban women's self-help groups, conducted by the author in early 1991."
Correspondence: C. R. Hammerslough, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30285 Hubacher, David; Potter, Linda. Comparative look at pill compliance in four DHS countries. In: Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, August 5-7, 1991, Washington, D.C.: proceedings. Volume 2. 1991. 1,395-409 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
"This paper uses data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) project to highlight mistakes pill users make, the extent of those mistakes, the characteristics of women making them, and whether such errors are consistent across countries." The countries examined are Botswana, Egypt, Indonesia, and Zimbabwe.
Correspondence: D. Hubacher, Family Health International, P.O. Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30286 Klepinger, Daniel H.; Grady, William R. A joint model of contraceptive choice and frequency of intercourse: implications for estimates of contraceptive use-failure. Seattle Population Research Center Working Paper, No. 7, Mar 1991. 27, [9] pp. Seattle, Washington. In Eng.
"We develop a joint model of the decision-making process governing both sexual and contraceptive behavior and test this model against the more common assumption of independent decision processes....We use the results...to develop a measure of coital frequency that serves as an appropriate control for selection bias in a hazard model of contraceptive use-failure....We will [also] investigate the impact of using women versus intervals of method use as the units of analysis in models of contraceptive use-failure." The model is tested using U.S. data.
This paper was originally presented at the 1991 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Seattle Population Research Center, c/o University of Washington, Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology, Department of Sociology DK-40, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30287 Lerman, Charles. The effect of migration on contraceptive usage and service point choice in Indonesia. In: Fertility transitions, family structure, and population policy, edited by Calvin Goldscheider. 1992. 137-54 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author investigates the relationships between internal migration and family planning choices in Indonesia using data on 10,919 currently married women who participated in the 1987 National Indonesia Contraceptive Prevalence Survey. Differences between rural and urban dwellers and between migrants and nonmigrants are explored. Policy implications are also discussed.
Correspondence: C. Lerman, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Urban Volunteer Program, Bangladesh, GPO Box 128, Dhaka 2, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30288 Lesthaeghe, R.; Verleye, G.; Jolly, C. Female education and factors affecting fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa. IPD Working Paper, No. 1992-2, 1992. 31, [22] pp. Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Interuniversity Programme in Demography: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
"In this paper, we shall take a closer look at the determinants of contraceptive use [including women's educational status] in sub-Saharan [Africa] using primarily the data from the WFS and DHS rounds. The WFS describes the situation during the period 1978-82 and the DHS covers the years 1986-1989...." Consideration is given to the impact of demographic, cultural, and socioeconomic factors on fertility. "The present analysis is performed at the level of regions within these sub-Saharan nations...."
Correspondence: Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Centrum Sociologie, Interuniversity Programme in Demography, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30289 Mauldin, W. Parker. Contraceptive use in the year 2000. In: Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, August 5-7, 1991, Washington, D.C.: proceedings. Volume 2. 1991. 1,373-93 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
This paper contains estimates by method of the number of contraceptive users and acceptors required to meet the U.N. medium population projection of 5 billion people in the developing world by the year 2000. The author concludes that it will be necessary to increase contraceptive prevalence from 51 to 59 percent by 2000 and that this will involve an increase in the number of users from 380 to 567 million. Increases in family planning effort and funding required to reach this goal are described.
Correspondence: W. P. Mauldin, Rockefeller Foundation, 1133 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10021-6399. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30290 Ochoa, Luis H.; Tsui, Amy O. Contraceptive availability in four Latin American countries. In: Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, August 5-7, 1991, Washington, D.C.: proceedings. Volume 2. 1991. 1,273-86 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
The authors "compare the relative availability of contraceptive services to eligible populations, by focusing on the following: (1) level of service availability to all women and to modern method users, (2) the relationship between methods used and service access, using time and distance measures, (3) the type of providers used, and (4) source-specific method availability both through clinic and community-based outlets. A secondary objective is to discuss the analytical utility of the local-level survey measures of contraceptive access as collected in the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS)." The countries studied are Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, and Guatemala.
Correspondence: L. H. Ochoa, Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 8850 Stanford Boulevard, Columbia, MD 21045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30291 Raman, S.; Kishen, D.; Hamidah, K.; Ang, E. S. Changes in contraceptive practice in a multiracial urban-based community over a ten-year period. Advances in Contraception, Vol. 8, No. 2, Jun 1992. 129-40 pp. Boston, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"There have been changes in the national policy regarding population growth in Malaysia from 1982. This report studies the changes in contraceptive practice among the three racial groups in this country, i.e. Malays, Chinese and Indians....This is a retrospective study based on the attendance at the same family planning clinic in an urban setting. The striking change noted is the change in the racial composition of contraceptive usage in the two study periods with a shift from the Chinese being predominant in 1975-1979 to Malays in 1985-1989....The results also reveal a significant trend of change for users of the pill and those undergoing sterilization."
Correspondence: S. Raman, University Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 59100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30292 Ross, John A.; Mauldin, W. Parker; Green, Steven R.; Cooke, E. Romana. Family planning and child survival programs as assessed in 1991. ISBN 0-87834-066-1. LC 92-60575. 1992. v, 182 pp. Population Council: New York, New York. In Eng.
This volume provides data on family planning programs and maternal and child survival in more than 100 developing countries. It is based partly on a questionnaire survey conducted in 1989. Separate sections cover demographic and social settings, including life expectancy and fertility rates; eligible populations and contraceptive prevalence; program effort and coverage; government policies, including those regarding legal abortion; family planning expenditures; import regulations and contraceptive costs; and maternal care and child survival programs, including breast-feeding promotion and oral rehydration and immunization programs.
For a related report covering historical patterns up to the mid-1980s by Ross et al., published in 1988, see 54:40336.
Correspondence: Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30293 Ross, John A. Sterilization: past, present, future. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 23, No. 3, May-Jun 1992. 187-98 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Sterilization is unique as a method of contraception, because it has nearly perfect continuation and effectiveness. These features, together with its one-step character and its availability to either sex, have gradually raised the prevalence of sterilization to a level above that of any other method. This report begins by assessing current prevalence and recent trends, and then examines the dynamics of past growth, with illustrations from cohort studies. Finally, a new projection method is used to anticipate the future course of sterilization adoption and prevalence." The focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: J. A. Ross, Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30294 Samijo, M. S.; Weller, Bob; Sly, David F. The characteristics of private vs. public sector contraceptive users in Indonesia. Center for the Study of Population Working Paper, No. WPS 91-82, [1991]. 25, [5] pp. Florida State University, College of Social Sciences, Center for the Study of Population: Tallahassee, Florida. In Eng.
"Using data from [the 1987] National Indonesian Contraceptive Prevalence Survey, this paper identifies and compares some of the determinants of contraceptive use and self-reliance. To accomplish this we compare users and nonusers of family planning generally. Then focusing on users we compare self-reliant users to [public-sector users in the government-sponsored program]."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1991 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Robert H. Weller, Editor, Working Paper Series, Florida State University, Center for the Study of Population, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4063. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30295 Soottipong, Rossarin. Differentials in contraceptive use among the Karen in Chiang Mai province, northern Thailand. Working Papers in Demography, No. 27, 1991. 31 pp. Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Division of Demography and Sociology: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"Using data from the 1986 census of hill tribe populations, this study identifies and tests hypotheses associated with causal factors, (cultural, socioeconomic, and family planning) affecting contraceptive use among the Karen, the largest hill tribe minority group in Thailand, in Chiang Mai province, northern Thailand. Estimated logistic regression models indicate that women who had high ability to use the Thai language, women with a high level of wealth, and women who had received family planning advice were most likely to use contraception. The analysis of Karen women who wanted no more children, and those who wanted to postpone the next child also shows similar results."
Correspondence: Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Division of Demography and Sociology, P.O. Box 4, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30296 Tanfer, Koray; Cubbins, Lisa A.; Brewster, Karin L. Determinants of contraceptive choice among single women in the United States. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 24, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1992. 155-61, 173 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Data from the 1983 [U.S.] National Survey of Unmarried Women are used to analyze characteristics that affect contraceptive decision-making among single women aged 20-29 who are exposed to the risk of pregnancy. Factors found to affect whether these women use a relatively effective method such as the pill or the IUD, use coitus-dependent methods or use no method include family structure at age 15, educational level, work status, religious affiliation, fertility relative to desired fertility, and past contraceptive failure. Bivariate analyses revealed notable differences between whites and blacks in contraceptive behavior. Multivariate analyses showed that while the decision to use a contraceptive method was somewhat affected by race, method choice was not. Overall, contraceptive decision-making was relatively unaffected by race, length of the relationship and current living arrangement."
Correspondence: K. Tanfer, Battelle Human Affairs Research Centers, Health and Population Research Center, 4000 NE 41st Street, Seattle, WA 98105. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30297 Tanfer, Koray; Cubbins, Lisa A.; Brewster, Karin L.; Schoorl, Jeannette J. Determinants of contraceptive use and method choice among single women in the United States. Seattle Population Research Center Working Paper, No. 6, Mar 1990. 30, [9] pp. Seattle, Washington. In Eng.
"This paper examines the social and demographic determinants of contraceptive use and method choice among sexually active, [20-29-year-old] single women, in the United States, who were exposed to the risk of a pregnancy. A general social-demographic model is used as the conceptual framework in which contraceptive use status and method choice are viewed as a function of [a] set of background factors, life-cycle variables, and current characteristics....Separate models are estimated for black and white women."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1990 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Seattle Population Research Center, c/o University of Washington, Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology, Department of Sociology DK-40, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30298 Tanfer, Koray; Hyle, Patricia D. The determinants and effects of waiting time to coitus. Seattle Population Research Center Working Paper, No. 9, Mar 1991. 34, [9] pp. Seattle, Washington. In Eng.
"In this paper we explore the determinants of waiting time to coitus in a steady relationship, and the effects of waiting time on contraceptive behavior." Data are from the 1983 National Survey of Unmarried Women, which covered a sample of 20-29-year-old never-married U.S. women.
This paper was originally presented at the 1991 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Seattle Population Research Center, c/o University of Washington, Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology, Department of Sociology DK-40, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30299 Thapa, Shyam; Kumar, Sushil; Cushing, Jeanne; Kennedy, Kathy. Contraceptive use and needs among postpartum women in 25 developing countries: recent patterns and implications. In: Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, August 5-7, 1991, Washington, D.C.: proceedings. Volume 2. 1991. 1,429-54 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
"This paper examines the contraceptive behavior and needs among postpartum women in developing countries. It addresses three inter-related issues: First, what is the prevalence of contraceptive use among postpartum women and when do they begin contracepting after childbirth? Second, what are their preferences for future childbearing? And third, to what extent do postpartum women actually have contact with health personnel before, during and after the delivery?" Data are from 25 countries participating in the DHS program.
Correspondence: S. Thapa, Family Health International, P.O. Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30300 Toulemon, Laurent; Leridon, Henri. Birth control and social class: contraception, accidental pregnancies, and abortion. [Maitrise de la fecondite et appartenance sociale: contraception, grossesses accidentelles et avortements.] Population, Vol. 47, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1992. 1-45 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
Changes in contraceptive practice and availability in France are reviewed by social class for the period 1978-1988. Consideration is given to the effects of modern contraceptive methods on the number of accidental pregnancies and on the number of abortions performed.
Correspondence: L. Toulemon, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30301 United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP] (Bangkok, Thailand). China: accessibility of contraceptives. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 103-B, Pub. Order No. ST/ESCAP/1037. 1991. v, 43, 11 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
This is one in a planned series of eight volumes presenting results from ESCAP's Study of the Accessibility of Contraceptives. This volume is concerned with China and presents results from surveys undertaken in rural areas of Hebei and Shaanxi provinces. The report covers such aspects as contraceptive availability and accessibility, clinic methods, and distance and time. "The general conclusion...was that while the IUD and female sterilization were widely available and easily accessible, the prevalence of the supply methods, such as the pill, condom and injectable, was low, although the supply methods were, in principle, available on demand."
Correspondence: U.N. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, United Nations Building, Rajdamnern Nok Avenue, Bangkok 10200, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30302 United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP] (Bangkok, Thailand). India: accessibility of contraceptives. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 103-F, Pub. Order No. ST/ESCAP/1084. 1991. [iv], 39 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
This is one in a planned series of eight volumes presenting results from ESCAP's Study of the Accessibility of Contraceptives. This volume concerns India. Data are from two surveys: a nationwide sample survey of married women aged 15-44 carried out by the Operations Research Group, Baroda, in 1988; and a special survey conducted in the same villages in 1989. The data concern rural populations in Uttar Pradesh and Haryana. "The study measured the distance and time necessary for the average rural woman of these states to obtain the common modern contraceptives: the pill, IUD, condom and male and female sterilization. In addition to measuring the physical accessibility of contraceptives, the study sought to determine whether facilitating the accessibility of contraceptives would encourage the practice of family planning. The study also sought to specify the types of health facilities where the accessibility of contraceptives should be improved."
Correspondence: U.N. Economic Commission for Asia and the Pacific, United Nations Building, Rajdamnern Nok Avenue, Bangkok 10200, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30303 United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP] (Bangkok, Thailand). Indonesia: accessibility of contraceptives. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 103-C, Pub. Order No. ST/ESCAP/1054. 1991. v, 49, 20 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
This is one in a planned series of eight volumes presenting results from ESCAP's Study of the Accessibility of Contraceptives. This volume, which is concerned with Indonesia, measures the physical accessibility to contraceptives in Central and West Java using data from the 1987 National Indonesia Contraceptive Prevalence Survey (NICPS) and from a survey carried out specifically for this project in 1989. The report first looks at fertility and contraceptive prevalence and then analyzes distance, time, and cost of travel and their effects on contraceptive practice.
Correspondence: U.N. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, United Nations Building, Rajdamnern Nok Avenue, Bangkok 10200, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30304 United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP] (Bangkok, Thailand). Philippines: accessibility of contraceptives. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 103-D, Pub. Order No. ST/ESCAP/1107. 1991. v, 45, 15 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
This is one in a planned series of eight volumes presenting results from ESCAP's Study of the Accessibility of Contraceptives. This volume is concerned with the Philippines. "Measurements of the distance and time for the average rural woman to get to various sources of contraceptives (hospitals, clinics and pharmacies) were taken in 1990 of 246 rural barangays (villages) throughout the Philippines and 20 urban barangays in the National Capital Region. These data were matched with women from the same barangay who had been interviewed in the 1986 Philippines Contraceptive Prevalence Survey (CPS)."
Correspondence: U.N. Economic Commission for Asia and the Pacific, United Nations Building, Rajdamnern Nok Avenue, Bangkok 10200, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30305 United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP] (Bangkok, Thailand). Viet Nam: accessibility of contraceptives. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 103-A, Pub. Order No. ST/ESCAP/1035. 1991. v, 47, 11 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
This is one in a planned series of eight volumes presenting results from ESCAP's Study of the Accessibility of Contraceptives. This volume, which is concerned with Viet Nam, uses data from a random sample of 103 rural communities interviewed in 1990 to assess the accessibility of various contraceptive methods to the rural population, as well as data from the 1988 Viet Nam Demographic Survey, which covered the same communities. The results indicate that almost all rural women had access to a district hospital that supplied family planning services. The report concludes that "with more supplies of contraceptives, better pay and better training for lower level workers, and with decentralization of the delivery system, especially for sterilization and the pill, contraceptive prevalence could rise rapidly in Viet Nam in the near future."
Correspondence: U.N. Economic Commission for Asia and the Pacific, United Nations Building, Rajdamnern Nok Avenue, Bangkok 10200, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30306 Wilkinson, Marilyn I.; Abderrahim, Noureddine; Njogu, Wamucii. Availability and use of contraception: a comparative analysis. In: Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, August 5-7, 1991, Washington, D.C.: proceedings. Volume 2. 1991. 1,255-72 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
The authors assess the collection of data on the availability of health and family planning services, using DHS data for 11 developing countries. The availability of family planning service providers is examined, and the relationship between physical access and contraceptive use is analyzed.
Correspondence: M. I. Wilkinson, Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 8850 Stanford Boulevard, Columbia, MD 21045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30307 Wolowyna, Oleh; Starbird, Ellen H.; Olson, Kirsten. Using DHS data for family planning program development and evaluation. In: Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, August 5-7, 1991, Washington, D.C.: proceedings. Volume 2. 1991. 875-82 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
Determining levels of unmet need for contraception among women in developing countries using DHS data is described. "We will show that together with additional information contained in the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), the concept of unmet need can be very useful for better planning of future needs of family planning programs at the country and subnational levels....Data from the DHS allow us to...target different family planning activities to the subpopulations most likely to be receptive to these services. Data from the Bolivian DHS will be used to illustrate the proposed methodology."
Correspondence: O. Wolowyna, Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30308 Yang, Deqinq. On the socioeconomic benefits of family planning work. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 3, No. 1, 1991. 53-60 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The socioeconomic costs and benefits of China's family planning program are discussed. The author concludes that "China must improve the socioeconomic benefits of family planning and lower its cost, the main method being to reform its huge administrative organization, [and] strengthen...its family planning services organization, thereby both cutting public spending on administration and at the same time improving the quality of service."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.2. Clinical Aspects & Use-Effectiveness Studies

Selected studies on the medical aspects of fertility control methods, including studies on side effects and use-effectiveness.

58:30309 Cates, Willard; Stone, Katherine M. Family planning, sexually transmitted diseases and contraceptive choice: a literature update--Part II. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 24, No. 3, May-Jun 1992. 122-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Part I of this article...reviewed the scientific literature on the effects of barrier methods and spermicides (used alone or in combination with a barrier method) on infection with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)....Part II reviews what is known about the effects of the pill, the IUD, tubal sterilization and abortion on the risks of upper reproductive tract infections. A discussion of the trade-offs involved in choosing a contraceptive is illustrated by estimates of the first-year rates of unplanned pregnancy and gonorrhea infection (given an infected partner) among women using various contraceptive methods....Studies summarized in the tables are arranged by increasing strength of study design. In general, descriptive or cross-sectional designs are the most vulnerable to methodologic problems; case-control studies, cohort investigations and randomized clinical trials follow, in ascending order of strength."
For Part I, also published in 1992, see 58:20342.
Correspondence: W. Cates, Centers for Disease Control, Epidemiology Program Office, Division of Training, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30310 Grimes, David A. The safety of oral contraceptives: epidemiologic insights from the first 30 years. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Supplement, Vol. 166, No. 6, Pt. 2, Jun 1992. 1,950-4 pp. St. Louis, Missouri. In Eng.
"This review will highlight some of the important epidemiologic findings that concern the safety of oral contraceptives. It will describe the main types of epidemiologic studies that have been performed, summarize information on the established health benefits of oral contraceptives, and comment on several putative risks and lingering concerns."
Correspondence: D. A. Grimes, Women's Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1240 N. Mission Road, Los Angeles, CA 90033. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30311 Khanna, J.; Van Look, P. F. A.; Griffin, P. D. Reproductive health: a key to a brighter future. Biennial report 1990-1991. ISBN 92-4-156153-X. 1992. xiii, 171 pp. World Health Organization [WHO], Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction: Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
This report was produced on the occasion of the twentieth anniversary of WHO's Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction. It examines the global status of reproductive health, the development of the Programme, and the highlights of activities in 1990-1991.
Correspondence: World Health Organization, Office of Publications, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30312 Mumford, Stephen D.; Kessel, Elton. Was the Dalkon Shield a safe and effective intrauterine device? The conflict between case-control and clinical trial study findings. Fertility and Sterility, Vol. 57, No. 6, Jun 1992. 1,151-76 pp. Birmingham, Alabama. In Eng.
The authors review the clinical trial literature and compare it with literature on case-control and cohort studies performed throughout the world on the Dalkon Shield, an IUD that was found to cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and was removed from the market in the United States in 1974. "The 16 case-control and 2 cohort studies found or suggested that the Dalkon Shield increased the risk of PID. The 71 clinical trials of the Dalkon Shield show that when this device is inserted by an experienced clinician it is a safe and effective contraceptive method, comparable with other IUDs used at the time. There was no evidence of an increased risk of PID found in these clinical trials....This study offers convincing evidence that the indictment of the Dalkon Shield was a mistake. Additionally, this study shows that physician skill and experience is far more important to successful IUD insertion than previously recognized, a finding with considerable implications for IUD study designs and for marketing strategies."
Correspondence: S. D. Mumford, Center for Research on Population and Security, P.O. Box 13067, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30313 Segal, Sheldon J. The role of technology in population policy. Populi, Vol. 18, No. 4, Dec 1991. 5-13 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author reviews advances in contraceptive technology and their effects on family planning programs and policies. New methods, including subdermal implants and anti-pregnancy vaccines for women and pills and contraceptive injections for men, are described and evaluated. The geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: S. J. Segal, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30314 Williams-Deane, Martha; Potter, Linda S. Current oral contraceptive use instructions: an analysis of patient package inserts. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 24, No. 3, May-Jun 1992. 111-5 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors evaluate the instructions for oral contraceptive use contained in manufacturers' patient package inserts (PPIs). "Our analysis compares aspects of instructions from all nine U.S. manufacturers of oral contraceptives, including internal content and completeness, standardization or consistency across brands and manufacturers, and format and readability." It is found that the instructions "are often inconsistent or conflicting, both among manufacturers and among different brands and regimens from the same manufacturer. Instructions on what to do about missed pills are often incomplete or inadequate, as are instructions on backup contraceptive use when pills are missed. The format of many PPIs is confusing and makes instructions difficult to find and read. Comprehending the PPIs requires the user to read at a 10th-12th-grade level, far higher than the generally accepted 5th-6th grade level considered standard for health education materials."
Correspondence: M. Williams-Deane, Schenectady County Community College, Sociology Department, Schenectady, NY 12308. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.3. Evaluation of Programs

Studies evaluating either the demographic impact or other criteria of effectiveness of family planning programs.

58:30315 Ahmad, Shakeel. Fertility trends and population policy in India. ISBN 81-85072-58-2. 1989. xiv, 258 pp. Vohra Publishers and Distributors: Allahabad, India. In Eng.
This is a critique of India's population policy. It attempts to identify the reasons for the policy's relative failure to slow the rate of population growth. The volume includes chapters on religious composition; age structure; marital status; births, deaths, and fertility trends; migration; and the impact of India's several five-year plans.
Correspondence: Vohra Publishers and Distributors, 36 M.G. Marg (behind Kalpana Talkies), Civil Lines, Allahabad 211 001, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30316 Aslam, Abid. Pakistan's renewed commitment to family planning. Populi, Vol. 18, No. 4, Dec 1991. 28-35 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author assesses Pakistan's family planning program since its inception in 1953. Reasons for the program's relative lack of success are discussed, as is the government's recent commitment to providing adequate country-wide family planning services.
Correspondence: A. Aslam, United Nations Population Fund, 220 East 42nd Street, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30317 Christopher, Elphis. Is family planning failing? British Journal of Family Planning, Vol. 18, No. 1, Apr 1992. 20-4 pp. London, England. In Eng.
This is the text of a lecture given at the Current Fertility Symposium held in London, England, at the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists on October 17-18, 1991. The author reviews the status of family planing in developed and developing countries, with a focus on the United Kingdom, to ascertain whether existing programs are fulfilling worldwide family planning needs.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30318 Gouws, N. B. The indicators used to monitor the progress of the Population Development Programme in South Africa. Southern African Journal of Demography/Suidelike Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Demografie, Vol. 3, Jul 1990. 33-6 pp. Pretoria, South Africa. In Eng.
Progress made by the Population Development Programme toward stabilizing the population of South Africa is assessed. Indicators used include the infant mortality rate, life expectancy at birth, number of teenage pregnancies, per capita income, literacy, school attendance, and crowding within housing units. Data concern the 1980s and are from published sources.
Correspondence: N. B. Gouws, Department of National Health and Population Development, Demographic and Population Analysis, Pretoria, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30319 Ross, John A.; Lloyd, Cynthia B. Methods for measuring programme impact: a review of applications in the last decade. May 1989. 39 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"The chief methods for assessing programme impact on fertility were codified in the 1970s through a collaboration between the U.N. Population Division and the IUSSP Committee on the Comparative Analysis of Fertility and Family Planning....This paper identifies, through an inquiry to numerous institutions and individuals, as well as through a literature search, the way in which these methods have been used. We also suggest reasons for non-use of certain of the methods, and we discuss their successes and failures in research, training, and programme evaluation at country level."
Correspondence: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, 34 rue des Augustins, B-4000 Liege, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30320 Stevens, Janice R.; Stevens, Carl M. Introductory small cash incentives to promote child spacing in India. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 23, No. 3, May-Jun 1992. 171-86 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors assess the effectiveness of the Ammanpettai Family Welfare Program, which was begun in India in 1985 "as a pilot program to determine whether offering small monthly cash incentives for a limited period would be a cost-effective way to increase the use of modern temporary methods of contraception among rural Indian women who do not want to become pregnant but are not ready to adopt sterilization. The program has demonstrated that a modest cash incentive for 3-5 months attracts very large numbers of women to a clinic where they learn about and are provided with the pill, condoms, or the IUD. In catchment areas where official government reports showed temporary-methods prevalence rates of 3-5 percent at best, the Ammanpettai incentive program has attracted up to 70 percent of eligible women to join the program and try the method of their choice....The cost-effectiveness of this program compares favorably with that of the current government family welfare program."
Correspondence: J. R. Stevens, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, OR 97201. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30321 Tien, H. Yuan; Zhang, Tianlu; Yu, Ping; Li, Jingneng; Liang, Zhongtang. China's demographic dilemmas. Population Bulletin, Vol. 47, No. 1, Jun 1992. 44 pp. Population Reference Bureau: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This Bulletin examines the development and consequences of the strict population planning control measures introduced [in China] in the 1970s, and strengthened in the early 1980s. Success of these measures has led to a rapid aging of the population, a marriage squeeze, charges of female infanticide, and international approbation and censure. Meanwhile, the huge momentum of the Chinese population base has continued to add 17 million persons annually; and the total is expected to top 1.3 billion by the year 2000." Consideration is given to urbanization and the carrying capacity of China's cities, the widening socioeconomic gap between rural and urban residents, and the depletion of the country's natural resources.
Correspondence: Population Reference Bureau, 1875 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 520, Washington, D.C. 20009-5728. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30322 World Bank. Operations Evaluation Department (Washington, D.C.). Population and the World Bank: implications from eight case studies. World Bank Operations Evaluation Study, ISBN 0-8213-2081-5. LC 92-13541. 1992. xii, 159 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This is the first assessment of the World Bank's role in the population sector, which was undertaken by its Operations and Evaluation Department. The demographic, social, and economic changes that have occurred in developing countries since the bank began lending to population projects in 1968 are examined. The report focuses on eight countries: Bangladesh, Brazil, Colombia, India, Indonesia, Kenya, Mexico, and Senegal. Ways to improve the effectiveness of Bank-supported projects are examined, including the development of population programs that work in very poor countries and activities that support population projects indirectly. Attention is also given to the need to improve cost-effectiveness and project monitoring by the Bank.
Correspondence: World Bank, Operations Evaluation Department, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.4. Attitudes Toward Fertility & Fertility Control

Studies concerned with the interrelations between fertility control and attitudinal variables, including studies on wanted and unwanted pregnancy and children, motivation for parenthood, sex preference, and voluntary childlessness. Studies on knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of family planning and attitudes toward family size are classified under this heading.

58:30323 Barker, Gary K.; Rich, Susan. Influences on adolescent sexuality in Nigeria and Kenya: findings from recent focus-group discussions. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 23, No. 3, May-Jun 1992. 199-210 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"To study peer interaction and societal factors and their impact on adolescent attitudes toward sexuality and contraception, the authors conducted a series of single-sex focus-group discussions with in-school and out-of-school youth in urban and rural areas of Kenya and Nigeria in 1990. Out-of-school youth generally receive information on sexuality and family planning from peers (and the media), while in-school youth receive information in school, although not necessarily relevant information. Young women interviewed perceived unwanted early childbearing as something that affected them, an important precursor to family planning use. However, young people tended to have better information and more positive attitudes about induced abortion than about family planning."
Correspondence: G. K. Barker, Center for Population Options, International Center on Adolescent Fertility, 1025 Vermont Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30324 Burch, Thomas K. De gustibus confusi sumus? In: Female labour market behaviour and fertility: a rational-choice approach, edited by Jacques J. Siegers, Jenny de Jong-Gierveld, and Evert van Imhoff. 1991. 61-73 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"The central thesis...is that the concept of preferences continues to be used indiscriminately to refer to a number of conceptually distinct subjective states of respondents which also prove to be empirically distinct....Illustrations of the conceptual problem are taken from literature on tastes generally and specifically on their role in the study of fertility and work. Empirical illustrations are provided by data from the 1984 Canadian Fertility Survey, which asked a number of questions relating to subjective states of women of childbearing age...with respect to relationships, children, work and personal freedom."
Correspondence: T. K. Burch, University of Western Ontario, Faculty of Social Science, Department of Sociology, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

58:30325 De Silva, W. I. Reproductive intentions in Sri Lanka: do they predict behaviour? Working Papers in Demography, No. 31, 1991. 23 pp. Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Division of Demography and Sociology: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"The achievement of reproductive intentions of Sri Lankan women is examined using longitudinal data for the period 1982-85. Aggregate consistency between reproductive intentions expressed in 1982 and subsequent behaviour up to 1985 was almost perfect, but at the individual level there were inconsistencies. Among married women who wanted to have no more children, 23 per cent reported a birth in the 3 years and 2 months inter-survey period; among those saying they wanted a birth, 36 per cent did not have one....Even though inconsistencies exist, expressed fertility intentions in 1982 appeared to significantly predict the fertility outcome. Apart from the intention variable, age, marital duration, family size and education of husband and wife all influenced fertility in the follow-up period."
Correspondence: Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Division of Demography and Sociology, P.O. Box 4, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30326 Deven, Freddy; Bauwens, Sabien. Shortcuts as pitfalls? Ways of measuring childbearing preferences and intentions. In: Female labour market behaviour and fertility: a rational-choice approach, edited by Jacques J. Siegers, Jenny de Jong-Gierveld, and Evert van Imhoff. 1991. 74-86 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
The authors examine the results from two recent family development surveys for Belgium to determine the effect of women's childbearing intentions and their perception of their partners' intentions on their childbearing decisions. They also attempt to determine "whether piecemeal measurement of...increasingly sophisticated models to study reproductive behaviour produces incomplete and/or biased knowledge....They stress the importance of having a specific theoretical framework as the basis for data collection."
Correspondence: F. Deven, Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudien, Markiesstraat 1, 1000 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

58:30327 Jacobsen, R. Brooke; Bigner, Jerry J. Black versus white single parents and the value of children. Journal of Black Studies, Vol. 21, No. 3, Mar 1991. 302-12 pp. Newbury Park, California/London, England. In Eng.
Differences between black and white single parents concerning the value of children in the United States are examined, and recent studies on this subject are reviewed. Data were collected at a private day care center in a large metropolitan area.
Correspondence: R. B. Jacobsen, Colorado State University, Department of Human Development and Family Studies, Fort Collins, CO 80523. Location: New York Public Library.

58:30328 Makinwa-Adebusoye, Paulina. Sexual behavior, reproductive knowledge and contraceptive use among young urban Nigerians. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 18, No. 2, Jun 1992. 66-70 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The author examines the sexual activity of young urban adults in Nigeria to determine their knowledge about, attitudes toward, and use of contraception. "A high proportion of young urban Nigerians, both male and female, are currently sexually active--as many as 78% of males and 86% of females aged 20-24....Only around 15% of these young adults currently practice contraception. They also possess little information (or incorrect information) about reproductive biology....Friends, schoolmates and the media are the most common sources of information about sexual or reproductive matters, while parents and guardians are the least common sources." Data are from a 1988 sample of those aged 12-24 in five Nigerian cities.
Correspondence: P. Makinwa-Adebusoye, Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research, Population Research Unit, PMB 5, University Post Office, Ibadan, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30329 Nam, Sunghee. Family planning practice and women's fertility decision-making power. Korea Journal of Population and Development, Vol. 20, No. 2, Dec 1991. 41-8 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
"This paper investigates the effects of family planning practice on fertility decision-making power in South Korea. The log-linear analysis of the 1981 survey data by the Institute of Population and Health Services Research, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea, shows that those urban and rural women who practice family planning or have experienced abortion exercise greater influence on couple's fertility decision-making than those who do not practice family planning or have had no abortion experience. In addition, there is an interactive effect of abortion experience and contraceptive use on fertility decision-making among urban women."
Correspondence: S. Nam, University of South Carolina, Department of Sociology, Columbia, SC 29208. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30330 Pongracz, Tiborne; Molnar, Edit S. Family planning, childbearing, and ideal number of children as expressed by mothers of large families. [Csaladtervezes, gyermekvallalas, idealis gyermekszam a sokgyermekes anyak koreben.] Demografia, Vol. 34, No. 3-4, 1991. 383-410 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng.
Results are presented from a survey conducted among Hungarian women with families of three or more children. The objective of the survey was to determine the differences between ideal and actual family size and the relationship of contraceptive knowledge and practice to these factors. "More than half of the interviewees said that their high number of children was due to chance, [to]...ignorance as to contraceptive methods,...fear of abortion, [or] too late detection of the pregnancy....We found that the number of children mothers of large families find ideal (2.80)...is far lower than the actual average number of children they have (4.37)....[However,] 39% of the whole sample said they would have the same number of children as they had at the time of the interview."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30331 Spiess, Erika; Nerdinger, Friedemann W.; von Rosenstiel, Lutz. Motivation of reproductive behaviour and the professional motivation of women. In: Female labour market behaviour and fertility: a rational-choice approach, edited by Jacques J. Siegers, Jenny de Jong-Gierveld, and Evert van Imhoff. 1991. 87-100 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"The decision by women with children to be active in the labour market is determined, to a large extent, by the preferences of the woman and her partner. This paper pays special attention to [women's] professional motivation, on the one hand, and to the desire to have children, on the other hand. Using survey data for young married [West German] women, the relation between professional activities and the desire for children is examined further...." Data are from 1980 and 1982 surveys of married couples.
Correspondence: E. Spiess, Universitat Munchen, Institut fur Psychologie, Wirtschafts- und Organisationspsychologie, Leopoldstrasse 13, 8000 Munich 40, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

58:30332 Tipping, Sharon L.; Allen, Hubert A. Bolivia DHS--La Paz oversample: analysis of SOMARC-specific data. In: Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, August 5-7, 1991, Washington, D.C.: proceedings. Volume 2. 1991. 1,411-27 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
The results of a KAP survey conducted as part of the SOMARC project of the Futures Group in La Paz, Bolivia, in April 1989 are presented. The sample on which the survey was based was developed from the Bolivian DHS. The results indicate that although attitudes toward birth spacing were positive, knowledge and use of oral contraception was negligible.
Correspondence: S. L. Tipping, Futures Group, 80 Glastonbury Boulevard, Glastonbury, CT 06033. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30333 Ward, Victoria M.; Bertrand, Jane T.; Puac, Francisco. Exploring sociocultural barriers to family planning among Mayans in Guatemala. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 18, No. 2, Jun 1992. 59-65 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Focus-group research with nine groups of 8-12 participants, and in-depth interviews with 25 traditional birth attendants, in Maya-Quiche communities in Guatemala in 1990 indicate that social pressure against family planning is a substantial barrier to its use. Community leaders, religious leaders and husbands exert considerable influence on family planning decisions and usually oppose the use of contraceptives. Although Mayan participants found periodic abstinence acceptable, many believe that conception is least likely to occur in the middle of the menstrual cycle. The concept of birthspacing is a more acceptable way of promoting family planning than the theme 'responsible parents have small families,' because of prevailing positive attitudes toward large families."
Correspondence: V. M. Ward, Columbia University, Center for Population and Family Health, 60 Haven Avenue, New York, NY 10027. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30334 Weller, Bob; Sly, David F.; Sukamdi, A.; Ekawati, Rindang. The wantedness status of births in Indonesia. Center for the Study of Population Working Paper, No. WPS 92-87, [1992]. 15, [13] pp. Florida State University, College of Social Sciences, Center for the Study of Population: Tallahassee, Florida. In Eng.
"In this paper, we use the 1987 Indonesian Demographic and Health Survey...to examine the extent of unwanted childbearing in Indonesia and the extent to which retrospective questions on the wantedness status of the pregnancy are consistent with other indicators of the failure to realize one's family size desires. Then we examine the factors which are related to having an unwanted birth."
Correspondence: Robert H. Weller, Editor, Working Paper Series, Florida State University, Center for the Study of Population, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4063. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.5. Induced Abortion

Studies on induced abortion, including those on attitudes, with the exception of studies primarily concerned with government regulation of abortion, which are coded under M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility . Studies of spontaneous abortion appear under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology .

58:30335 Bachelot, A.; Cludy, L.; Spira, A. Conditions for choosing between drug-induced and surgical abortions. Contraception, Vol. 45, No. 6, Jun 1992. 547-59 pp. Stoneham, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This prospective survey was conducted to study the conditions under which women [in France] choose their abortion method, and to evaluate the acceptability of each method after the abortion. The data gathered from 488 women were analyzed according to their initial decision, and then according to the method actually used. The majority (62%) chose RU486 [over vacuum aspiration]. The women's choice was found to be linked to sociodemographic characteristics such as age, education, occupation, geographic origin, and certain attitudes towards pregnancy, as well as to the individual criteria of each method."
Correspondence: A. Bachelot, Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale Unit 292, Hopital de Bicetre, 78 rue du General Leclerc, 94275 Le Kremlin Bicetre Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30336 Baretto, Thalia; Campbell, Oona M. R.; Davies, J. Lynne; Fauveau, Vincent; Filippi, Veronique G. A.; Graham, Wendy J.; Mamdani, Masuma; Rooney, Cleone I. F.; Toubia, Nahid F. Investigating induced abortion in developing countries: methods and problems. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 23, No. 3, May-Jun 1992. 159-70 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article reviews the methodological dilemmas encountered in previous studies [of induced abortion], which provide useful lessons for future research on induced abortion and its complications, including related deaths. Adverse health outcomes of induced abortion are emphasized, because these are largely avoidable with access to safe abortion services. The main sources of information are examined, and their relevance for assessing rates of induced abortion, complications, and mortality is addressed....The article concludes with a discussion of approaches for improving the accuracy, completeness, and representativeness of information on induced abortion." The focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: O. M. R. Campbell, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Population Sciences, Maternal and Child Epidemiology Unit, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30337 Belsky, Judith E. Medically indigent women seeking abortion prior to legalization: New York City, 1969-1970. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 24, No. 3, May-Jun 1992. 129-34 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article details the psychiatric evaluation of 199 [medically indigent] women requesting a therapeutic abortion at a large municipal hospital in New York City under a restrictive abortion law. Thirty-nine percent had tried to abort the pregnancy. Fifty-seven percent had concrete evidence of serious psychiatric disorder. Forty-eight percent had been traumatized by severe family disruption, gross emotional deprivation or abuse during childhood. Seventy-nine percent lacked emotional support from the man responsible for the pregnancy, and the majority were experiencing overwhelming stress from the interplay of multiple problems exacerbated by their unwanted pregnancy."
Correspondence: J. E. Belsky, New York University, School of Medicine, 550 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30338 Costa, Marie. Abortion: a reference handbook. Contemporary World Issues, ISBN 0-87436-602-X. LC 91-15231. 1991. xvii, 258 pp. ABC-CLIO: Santa Barbara, California. In Eng.
The purpose of this book is to provide access to the available information on induced abortion in the United States. "Historical and factual background information is presented, along with resources for further exploration into the social, psychological, legal, medical, political, and moral aspects of abortion." Sections are included on the history of abortion, biographical sketches, facts and statistics, a directory of organizations, and selected print and nonprint resources, both with abstracts.
Correspondence: ABC-Clio, 130 Cremona Drive, P.O. Box 1911, Santa Barbara, CA 93116-1911. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30339 McKeegan, Michele. Abortion politics: mutiny in the ranks of the right. ISBN 0-02-920533-6. LC 92-7238. 1992. x, 227 pp. Free Press: New York, New York. In Eng.
The author traces the influence of the political right in the United States since the early 1980s, with a focus on the anti-abortion coalition's efforts to control the Republican party. She describes "how the resurgent right organized socially and politically conservative voters around the abortion issue and other single issues and how it helped deliver the stunning 1980 Republican victory at the polls...." Efforts to eliminate access to abortion, federally funded family planning programs, U.S. international population aid, and AIDS education are outlined, and reasons for the decline of the anti-abortion coalition are analyzed. The impact of the attempts to restrict reproductive rights is assessed, with emphasis on rates of adolescent pregnancy, family planning services, abortion rates, funding for contraceptive research, women's health, the credibility of the Catholic church and the political right, and support for the Republican party.
Correspondence: Free Press, 866 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10022. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30340 Santee, Barbara; Henshaw, Stanley K. The abortion debate: measuring gestational age. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 24, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1992. 172-3 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors examine "the use [in the United States] of two different methods of estimating the length of pregnancy and, hence, the age of the embryo or fetus at termination. The difference between these methods is the reference point considered as the starting date of pregnancy: One method uses the first day of the last menstrual period, while the other uses the probable date of fertilization, which is about two weeks after the onset of the last menstrual period....The purpose of this article is to clarify these two measures and to show how abortion statistics can be interpreted more accurately."
Correspondence: B. Santee, University of Oklahoma, College of Public Health, Norman, OK 73019. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30341 Spain. Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo. Subdireccion General de Informacion Sanitaria y Epidemiologia (Madrid, Spain). Induced abortion: final data for 1988. [Interrupcion voluntaria del embarazo: datos definitivos correspondientes al ano 1988.] Nov 1989. 337 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
Data on legal induced abortions in Spain for 1988 are presented. The data include information on seekers' age, educational status, marital status, residence characteristics, method of contraception used, and reason for abortion. The data are provided separately by province and autonomous community.
Correspondence: Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo, Subdireccion General de Informacion Sanitaria y Epidemiologia, Madrid, Spain. Location: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Paris, France.

58:30342 Tanfer, Koray; Price-Spratlen, Townsand. Abortion attitudes among young single women: antecedents and correlates. Seattle Population Research Center Working Paper, No. 8, Feb 1992. 27, [9] pp. Seattle, Washington. In Eng.
"In this paper we examined abortion attitudes among...[U.S.] women who were in their twenties, and who had never been married. We also explored the factors underlying the formation of and/or changes in these attitudes."
Correspondence: Seattle Population Research Center, c/o University of Washington, Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology, Department of Sociology DK-40, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30343 Tissot, Bernadette; Vekemans, Marcel. Induced abortion in Belgium and its neighboring countries. [L'interruption de grossesse en Belgique et dans les pays voisins.] ISBN 2-87196-005-4. 1990. 80 pp. Ministere de la Culture et des Affaires Sociales, Direction Generale des Affaires Sociales: Brussels, Belgium; Federation Francophone Belge pour le Planning Familial et l'Education Sexuelle, Centre de Documentation et d'Information: Brussels, Belgium. In Fre.
Legislation concerning induced abortion in Belgium and the 11 other countries in the European Community are first reviewed. Next, the administrative arrangements for collecting abortion data are considered. Contraceptive practice and attitudes and their relationship to induced abortion in selected countries are also analyzed.
Correspondence: Ministere de la Culture et des Affaires Sociales, Direction Generale des Affaires Sociales, Espace 27 Septembre, Boulevard Leopold II 44, 1080 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Paris, France.

58:30344 Wu, Z. C.; Gao, E. S.; Ku, X. Y.; Lu, S. Y.; Wang, M. J.; Hong, W. C.; Chow, L. P. Induced abortion among unmarried women in Shanghai, China. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 18, No. 2, Jun 1992. 51-3, 65 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The authors examine recent changes in abortion rates among unmarried women in Shanghai, China, in light of the influence of Western culture beginning in the 1980s. "A pilot study conducted in five sample areas in Shanghai found that...between 1982 and 1988, the abortion rate among single women aged 15-19 increased from five procedures per 1,000 women to 56 per 1,000. Although increases among older women were not as extreme, abortion rates increased nearly fourfold among unmarried women aged 20-24 and 30-34, and more than doubled among women aged 25-29. The proportion of abortions obtained by single women also increased....Between 1982 and 1988, half of the second- and third-trimester abortions provided in one hospital were for single women, indicating that single women tend to seek abortion services late in pregnancy."
Correspondence: Z. C. Wu, Shanghai Medical University, School of Public Health, 138 Yixueyuan Lu, Shanghai 200032, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility

Studies on lactation, nutrition, fecundability, sex behavior, menarche and menopause, and other biological factors or social customs as they affect fertility directly. Factors affecting contraceptive practice and factors affecting fertility indirectly are not included here.

58:30345 Bailey, Robert C.; Jenike, Mark R.; Ellison, Peter T.; Bentley, Gillian R.; Harrigan, Alisa M.; Peacock, Nadine R. The ecology of birth seasonality among agriculturalists in Central Africa. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 24, No. 3, Jul 1992. 393-412 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper presents an analysis of the ecology of human birth seasonality among the Lese, a population of subsistence farmers living in the Ituri Forest of north-east Zaire, based on a specific model that links ecological variables and physiological mechanisms to birth seasonality.... Results from this study show that variability in the seasonal pattern of rainfall in the Ituri Forest causes variability in Lese garden size, which translates into significant changes in nutritional status. Declines in female nutritional status result in reduced ovarian function, which produces seasonal reductions in rates of conception and implantation. These results support a model of birth seasonality relating climatic variables to variation in fertility through a causal chain linking rainfall to food production to energy balance to ovarian function to fertility."
Correspondence: R. C. Bailey, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30346 Bracher, Michael. Breastfeeding, lactational infecundity, contraception and the spacing of births: implications of the Bellagio Consensus Statement. Health Transition Review, Vol. 2, No. 1, Apr 1992. 19-47 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
The author assesses the implications of the 1988 Bellagio Statement, which "recommended that lactating women not consider adopting contraception until the earliest of their first post-partum menstruation, the introduction of supplementary feeding or their child's reaching six months of age. This article employs microsimulation to quantify the implications of this recommendation for the spacing of births and, in particular, for the proportion of birth intervals that are unacceptably short. The findings are not encouraging. The implementation of this protocol would not produce better birth spacing than a simpler strategy of initiating contraception early in the post-partum period and, unless implemented perfectly, the outcomes would be considerably worse. Breastfeeding should be viewed not as a method of birth control but as the best form of infant nourishment."
Correspondence: M. Bracher, Australian National University, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Health Transition Centre, GPO Box 4, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30347 Khan, Zubeda. Are breastfeeding patterns in Pakistan changing? Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 30, No. 3, Autumn 1991. 297-311 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
"This study was undertaken to find out the recent changes in the breastfeeding pattern and their potential impact on the fertility levels in Pakistan. The data for this study is based on two National Fertility Surveys--the 1975 Pakistan Fertility Survey (PFS) and the 1979 Population, Labour Force, and Migration Survey (PLM)....The findings are as follows: (1) a decline of about 4 months occurs in the average length of lactation; (2) age of mother is positively associated with the duration of breastfeeding; (3) urban women have shorter periods of breastfeeding; (4) women working on farms have longer periods of breastfeeding; (5) a slight increase in fertility is due to the decline in breastfeeding and the decrease in the use of contraceptives."
Correspondence: Z. Khan, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, P.O. Box 1091, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30348 Knodel, John; Chayovan, Napaporn. Coital activity among married Thai women. In: Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, August 5-7, 1991, Washington, D.C.: proceedings. Volume 2. 1991. 925-45 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
"The present study examines marital sexual activity among reproductive-age women in Thailand based on a survey conducted as part of the DHS program....The...analyses had two objectives: to evaluate the quality of data on coital activity and to provide a descriptive analysis of coital activity." Consideration was given to the impacts of pregnancy, menstruation, recent childbearing, age, marital duration, socioeconomic factors, contraceptive use, and reproductive intentions on coital frequency.
Correspondence: J. Knodel, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30349 Ku, Leighton C.; Sonenstein, Freya L.; Pleck, Joseph H. The association of AIDS education and sex education with sexual behavior and condom use among teenage men. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 24, No. 3, May-Jun 1992. 100-6 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors assess the impact of AIDS education and sex education on sexual behavior among U.S. teenage males. "Results of multivariate analyses show the receipt of AIDS education and sex education to be associated with modest but significant decreases in the number of partners and the frequency of intercourse in the year prior to the survey. Having received instruction in these topics was also associated with more consistent condom use. Instruction in some topics was associated with increases in knowledge and attitudes about AIDS, but these increases were not always correlated with safer behavior....The data derived from the 1988 National Survey of Adolescent Males (NSAM), a nationally representative household survey of noninstitutionalized, never-married 15-19-year-old men in the coterminous United States...."
Correspondence: L. C. Ku, Urban Institute, 2100 M Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30350 Lunn, Peter G. Breast-feeding patterns, maternal milk output and lactational infecundity. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 24, No. 3, Jul 1992. 317-24 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
Methods to measure the effects of suckling patterns on maternal milk output and fertility are examined. Consideration is given to factors affecting suckling behavior and the measurement of breast milk consumption.
Correspondence: P. G. Lunn, MRC Dunn Nutrition Centre, Cambridge, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30351 Mascie-Taylor, C. G. N. Endemic disease, nutrition and fertility in developing countries. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 24, No. 3, Jul 1992. 355-65 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper focuses on the importance of disease and nutrition in modifying fertility in developing countries....[The author finds that] diseases may and do affect fertility rates in many ways. They may cause subfecundity through coital inability, conceptive failure and/or pregnancy loss. Disease may affect fertility in yet other ways, including the time spent in unions, coital frequency and contraceptive use. Poor nutritional status, in general, increases the risk of maternal mortality and low birth weight."
Correspondence: C. G. N. Mascie-Taylor, University of Cambridge, Department of Biological Anthropology, Cambridge CB2 1TN, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30352 Peterson, Christine E.; DaVanzo, Julie. Why are teenagers in the United States less likely to breast-feed than older women? Demography, Vol. 29, No. 3, Aug 1992. 431-50 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors discuss reasons why U.S. teenage mothers are less likely to breast-feed their infants than are older women. "The lower breastfeeding rate among teenagers aged 16-19, compared with women aged 20-29, is due almost entirely to the fact that teenage mothers tend to have characteristics associated with a lower likelihood of breastfeeding among all women, such as lower educational level, lower income, and being unmarried. Even so, nearly 40% of the difference between teenage mothers aged 15 or less and mothers aged 20-29 remains unexplained by these factors and may be due to developmental aspects of adolescence, such as greater egocentricity and greater concern about body image."
Correspondence: C. E. Peterson, RAND, 1700 Main Street, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30353 Reinisch, June M.; Sanders, Stephanie A.; Hill, Craig A.; Ziemba-Davis, Mary. High-risk sexual behavior among heterosexual undergraduates at a Midwestern university. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 24, No. 3, May-Jun 1992. 116-21, 145 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The study discussed in this article was conducted to investigate the prevalence and frequency of high-risk sexual behavior among Midwestern [U.S.] college students. Specifically, we examined the age at first vaginal and anal intercourse, the prevalence and frequency of both types of intercourse and the number of sexual partners reported by the respondents. Each behavior is considered in relation to the sex of the respondent and the type of his or her current sexual relationship....The majority of the heterosexual college students in this self-selected sample had engaged in sexual behavior that may place them at risk for both STDs and unplanned pregnancy."
Correspondence: Indiana University, Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction, Morrison Hall, 3rd Floor, Bloomington, IN 47405. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30354 Rosetta, L. Aetiological approach of female reproductive physiology in lactational amenorrhoea. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 24, No. 3, Jul 1992. 301-15 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
The author outlines a research approach for the study of the physiological components of lactational amenorrhea. Consideration is given to study design, methodology, selection of subjects, data management, and follow-up procedures. The approach is based on a French research project conducted in 1980 in Senegal in which the author participated.
Correspondence: L. Rosetta, Laboratoire de Physiologie des Adaptations, 24 Rue du Fauborg Saint-Jacques, 75014 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30355 Rutstein, Shea O. The impact of breastfeeding on fertility. In: Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, August 5-7, 1991, Washington, D.C.: proceedings. Volume 2. 1991. 897-924 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
The author uses data from the first round of the Demographic and Health Survey program to examine the impact of breast-feeding on fertility. Consideration is given to postpartum amenorrhea, the combined effects of breast-feeding and abstinence, national differentials, and the effect of breast-feeding on the use of contraception.
Correspondence: S. O. Rutstein, Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 8850 Stanford Boulevard, Columbia, MD 21045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30356 Thalabard, J.-C. The female reproductive axis and its modifications during the post-partum period. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 24, No. 3, Jul 1992. 289-300 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
The author describes the effects of delivery, lactation, and nutritional status on female hormones. The text of a brief discussion of the findings among the participants of the workshop at which the paper was presented is included.
Correspondence: J.-C. Thalabard, URA Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 1454, Faculte Lyon-Sud, Chemin du Petit Revoyet, 69600 Oullins, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30357 Tiwari, V. K. Some distributions of postpartum amenorrhea. Demography India, Vol. 19, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1990. 271-8 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"Two probability distributions to describe the mechanism of variation in the length of [the] post-partum amenorrhea period have been proposed. The first model incorporates the assumption that the intensity of resuming menstruation after a live birth is a linear function of time elapsed from the date of birth. The second model is obtained by considering the variations in the risk of resuming menstruation among women. Both the models have been applied to an observed set of data [for India] on the basis of frequency estimates of the parameters, for the purpose of illustration."
Correspondence: V. K. Tiwari, Gandhi Medical College, Department of Pediatrics, 28(T), I.C.M.R., Bhopal 462 001, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30358 Trussell, James; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence; Rodriguez, German; VanLandingham, Mark. Trends and differentials in breastfeeding behaviour: evidence from the WFS and DHS. Population Studies, Vol. 46, No. 2, Jul 1992. 285-307 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this paper trends and correlates of breastfeeding behaviour are analysed with data from available surveys conducted in conjunction with the World Fertility Surveys (WFS) and the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS)....The first objective is to compare current-status information on breastfeeding with retrospective reports on durations of lactation. The extent to which distortions in retrospectively reported ages at weaning produce biases in summary measures (means and quartiles) of breastfeeding durations is examined, and the loss of precision incurred by the use of current-status data is explored. On the basis of these results, the relative merits of the two types of breastfeeding information are discussed. The second objective is to document breastfeeding differentials by education and urban/rural residence, in populations with surveys conducted as part of the WFS or the DHS. The third objective is to document trends in breastfeeding in populations with both WFS and DHS surveys."
Correspondence: J. Trussell, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30359 World Health Organization [WHO]. Regional Office for the Western Pacific (Manila, Philippines). Workshop on breast-feeding and its effect on fertility in the Western Pacific Region. No. RS/91/GE/07(PHL), Aug 1991. 69 pp. Manila, Philippines. In Eng.
This is a report of the workshop on the effects of breast-feeding on fertility, held in Manila, Philippines, April 9-12, 1991. A selection of background papers, a summary of the country reports, and a summary of the discussions are included. The geographical focus is on Asia and Oceania. "The Workshop examined recent scientific information on the fertility control aspects of breast-feeding and came to the conclusion that, if a woman is breast-feeding exclusively on demand during night and day without any use of pacifiers, a 98% protection from another conception can be expected. The suppression of ovulation after six months diminishes progressively in such mothers, (but is still considerably higher compared to mothers who are bottle-feeding). The use of additional methods of family planning to delay another pregnancy is indicated after six months of exclusive breast-feeding, or if menstruation begins, or if breast-feeding ceases to be exclusive."
Correspondence: World Health Organization, Regional Office for the Western Pacific, United Nations Avenue, P.O. Box 2932, 1099 Manila, Philippines. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.6. Fertility Outside Marriage

Studies on nonmarital fertility, including illegitimacy. Studies of common-law marriage and other forms of cohabitation or voluntary single parenthood are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

58:30360 Decroly, J.-M. Births out of marriage in Europe. [Les naissances hors mariage en Europe.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 2, 1992. 259-64 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre.
This report first examines trends in births outside marriage in Europe from 1950 to 1990. The author then considers regional differences in illegitimacy at the beginning of the 1980s.
Correspondence: J.-M. Decroly, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Laboratoire de Geographie Humaine, Campus de la Plaine, CP 246, Boulevard du Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30361 Mensch, Barbara; Kandel, Denise B. Drug use as a risk factor for premarital teen pregnancy and abortion in a national sample of young white women. Demography, Vol. 29, No. 3, Aug 1992. 409-29 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The relationship between adolescent drug use and premarital teen pregnancy and abortion as a pregnancy outcome among sexually active women is investigated in a sample of white women from the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Event history analysis is used to explore whether prior drug use has a unique effect on premarital teen pregnancy, with controls for personality, lifestyle, and biological factors. Logistic regression is used to estimate whether drug use affects the decision to terminate a premarital teen pregnancy. The results show that the risk of premarital teen pregnancy is nearly four times as high for those who have used illicit drugs other than marijuana as for those with no history of any prior substance involvement. Furthermore, illicit drug use increases the likelihood of an abortion by a factor of 5."
This study is based on a paper presented at the 1990 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: B. Mensch, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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