Volume 58 - Number 2 - Summer 1992

G. Nuptiality and the Family

Studies that quantitatively analyze aspects of nuptiality and the family. Studies concerned equally with marriage and the family are coded first under G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to G.1. Marriage and Divorce . Methodological studies on nuptiality and the family are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , as appropriate.

G.1. Marriage and Divorce

Studies of trends in marriage and divorce, nuptiality, duration of marriage, age at marriage, and demographic characteristics of marriage partners. Also includes studies of unmarried cohabitation and consensual unions.

58:20395 Allen, Douglas W. Marriage and divorce: comment. American Economic Review, Vol. 82, No. 3, Jun 1992. 679-93 pp. Nashville, Tennessee. In Eng.
The author comments on an article by H. Elizabeth Peters concerning the impact of state laws, particularly no-fault divorce laws, on divorce rates in the United States. A reply by Peters is included (pp. 686-93).
For the article by Peters, published in 1986, see 52:30473.
Correspondence: D. W. Allen, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia V5A 1S6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

58:20396 Audinarayana, N.; Senthilnayaki, M. Socio-economic characteristics influencing age at marriage in a Tamil Nadu village. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 36, No. 1, Mar 1990. 48-55 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
Data from a survey of 415 women living in a village in Tamil Nadu, India, are analyzed to ascertain the impact of socioeconomic status on marriage age. "It may be concluded that all the socio-economic characteristics under consideration viz., educational status, occupational status and economic status of the children (respondent and husbands) and of their fathers, exerted a significant positive influence on the age at marriage of the respondents and their husbands."
Correspondence: N. Audinarayana, Bharathiar University, Department of Population Studies, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu 641 046, India. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

58:20397 Bhagat, R. B.; Unisa, S. Religion, caste/tribe and marriage age of females in India: a study based on recent census data. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 37, No. 1, Mar 1991. 17-22 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"The present paper makes an attempt to study the influence of religion and caste/tribe status on the age at marriage for females [in India] in the light of recent data available from the 1981 census." The positive impact of economic and educational investments on raising marriage age is noted.
Correspondence: R. B. Bhagat, Maharshi Dayanand University, Department of Geography, Rohtak 124 001, Haryana, India. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

58:20398 Bittles, Alan H. Consanguinity: a major variable in studies on North African reproductive behavior, morbidity and mortality? In: Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, August 5-7, 1991, Washington, D.C.: proceedings. Volume 1. 1991. 321-41 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
"The initial aim of this paper is to draw together information on the rates of consanguineous marriage in North Africa....The effects of inbreeding on reproductive behavior, and on postnatal morbidity and mortality in the progeny of these unions, are then determined....Data on the incidence of consanguineous marriages were obtained as an integral component of investigations into the reproductive record of ever-married women age 15 to 49 years in Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia." Data from surveys for other North African Countries are included for comparative purposes.
Correspondence: A. H. Bittles, University of London, London WC1E 7HU, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20399 Chen, Xiangming; Dai, Kejing; Parnell, Allan. Disaster tradition and change: remarriage and family reconstruction in a post-earthquake community in the People's Republic of China. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 23, No. 1, Spring 1992. 115-32 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"On July 28, 1976, a devastating earthquake struck the Chinese city of Tangshan, killing over 200,000 and injuring more than 160,000 people. Following this disaster, researchers...began studying the reconstruction of the survivors' families through rapid and extensive remarriage....This paper presents perspectives and evidence on why so many remarriages occurred in a society where remarriage was traditionally considered a violation of established norms. It also examines why some widows and widowers...remained unmarried."
Correspondence: X. Chen, University of Illinois, Department of Sociology, Box 4348, Chicago, IL 60680. Location: Princeton University Library (SSA).

58:20400 DellaPergola, Sergio. Recent trends in Jewish marriage. In: World Jewish population: trends and policies, edited by Sergio DellaPergola and Leah Cohen. 1992. 65-92 pp. Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Institute of Contemporary Jewry, Division of Jewish Demography and Statistics: Jerusalem, Israel; Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs, Demographic Center: Jerusalem, Israel. In Eng.
Recent nuptiality trends among Jewish populations around the world are analyzed. Sections are included on marriage propensities, divorce, and intermarriage and conversion. The results indicate a general weakening and decline of traditional Jewish marriage patterns.
Correspondence: S. DellaPergola, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Institute of Contemporary Jewry, Mount Scopus Campus, Jerusalem 91905, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20401 Friedlander, Dov. The British depression and nuptiality: 1873-1896. Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Vol. 23, No. 1, Summer 1992. 19-37 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The author analyzes trends in nuptiality in England and Wales between 1873 and 1896 using two kinds of data: cross-sectional socioeconomic and demographic data taken primarily from the census, and a time series of national data from various sources. "My demographic analysis of the patterns of nuptiality levels demonstrates that a decline occurred and that it was related to the deterioration of the standard of living of the population." He also concludes that "economic fluctuations in the feasibility of marriage provide the major explanation for variation from the historically low Western European nuptiality levels."
Correspondence: D. Friedlander, Hebrew University, Department of Demography, Mount Scopus, 91905 Jerusalem, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SH).

58:20402 Guest, Philip. Marital dissolution and development in Indonesia. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 23, No. 1, Spring 1992. 95-113 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"In this study we utilize World Fertility Survey data for the Indonesian islands of Java and Bali to establish the incidence of marital dissolution, to examine how the incidence has changed over time, and to analyze the covariates of the timing and probability of divorce. The findings suggest that declines in divorce can be largely attributed to development processes that have increased levels of educational attainment and resulted in later ages of marriage."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1989 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: P. Guest, Australian National University, Division of Demography and Sociology, GPO Box 4, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SSA).

58:20403 Hassan, Amal F. M. Marriage stability and its impact on fertility in Egypt, 1984. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1990. 1991. 175-215 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
This study examines factors affecting nuptiality in Egypt. "Bivariate analysis is used as a starting point to establish the relationship between socio-economic, demographic variables and nuptiality factors, namely first marriage stability and remarriage. In addition, step-wise regression analysis is adopted to identify the determinants of...first marriage dissolution by divorce and [by] remarriage. Path analysis technique is utilized to measure the direct as well as indirect effect that each variable has upon achieved fertility level."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20404 Hoem, Jan M. Improved indirect standardization and its application to divorce risk in Sweden (1971-1989). [La standardisation indirecte amelioree et son application a la divortialite en Suede (1971-1989).] Population, Vol. 46, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1991. 1,551-68 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"In this report, we analyze trends and patterns of divorce risks in Sweden in the 1970s and 1980s, and display differential developments by parity and by age at marriage and order of marriage. Standard patterns are verified, such as a general decrease in divorce risk with increasing parity and elevated risks for the remarried and for those who marry young....The analysis is carried out by a systematic use of an improved form of indirect standardization, and it demonstrates once more the usefulness of combining classical demographic techniques of analysis with the notions of modern statistical theory."
Correspondence: J. M. Hoem, University of Stockholm, Demography Unit, Stockholm S-106 91, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20405 Hoem, Jan M. Trends and patterns in Swedish divorce risks 1971-1989: a case of modern demographic analysis. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 64, ISBN 91-7146-967-2. Jan 1992. 51 pp. Stockholm University, Section of Demography: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
This is "an analysis of trends and patterns of divorce risks in Sweden in the 1970s and 1980s, which displays differential developments by parity and by age at marriage and order of marriage. Standard patterns are verified, such as a general decrease in divorce risk with increasing parity and elevated risks for the remarried and for those who marry young. A permanent super-risk for the latter group as the marriage matures is interpreted as a lasting effect of negative selection into marriage at young ages. On the other hand, the super-risks of divorce at parity 0 over that at parity 1 disappear after a marital duration of some ten years....The analysis is carried out by a systematic use of an improved form of indirect standardization, and it demonstrates once more the usefulness of combining classical demographic techniques of analysis with the notions of modern statistical theory."
Correspondence: Stockholm University, Demography Unit, S-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20406 Juarez, Fatima. The link between demographic events: a study of nuptiality patterns. [La vinculacion de eventos demograficos: un estudio sobre los patrones de nupcialidad.] Estudios Demograficos y Urbanos, Vol. 5, No. 3, Sep-Dec 1990. 453-77, 821 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The author examines links between the timing of various major life events (including women's age at marriage and the spacing of children) and the economic and urban development of a society, using Mexico as an example. The focus is on marriage patterns. She finds that nuptiality influences rural-urban migration for women, as do age and socioeconomic factors and husband's employment status. Data are from the Mexican Fertility Survey for the period 1976-1977.
Correspondence: F. Juarez, El Colegio de Mexico, Centro de Estudios Demograficos y de Desarrollo Urbano, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20407 Landers, Robert K. Are Americans still in love with marriage? Editorial Research Reports, Vol. 1, No. 25, Jul 6, 1990. 382-91, 393-4 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Recent trends in marriage patterns in the United States are reviewed using data from published studies. The author notes increases in marriage age, the number of consensual unions, divorces, and births outside of marriage.
Location: Princeton University Library (DR).

58:20408 Legare, Jacques; Desjardins, Bertrand. One-parent families: a modern concept or an old reality. [La monoparentalite: un concept moderne, une realite ancienne.] Population, Vol. 46, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1991. 1,677-87 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
Trends in the prevalence and characteristics of single-parent families in Canada during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries are studied. The authors find that "in 70 per cent of first marriages which had terminated (we exclude unmarried mothers) we found a single-parent household, with at least one dependent child under the age of 25....The state of single parenthood lasted on average six years after which it was ended by the death or the remarriage of the surviving parent, or because the last surviving child had left home....Finally, in 20 per cent of single-parent families, minor children became double orphans, with an average of three children per family."
Correspondence: J. Legare, Universite de Montreal, Departement de Demographie, Groupe de Recherche sur la Demographie Quebecoise, CP 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20409 Pavon, Norma P. Is the marriage market unbalanced? The case of Mexico in 1980. [El mercado matrimonial en desbalance? El caso de Mexico en 1980.] Estudios Demograficos y Urbanos, Vol. 5, No. 3, Sep-Dec 1990. 503-33, 822-3 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"The objective of this article is to present the results obtained when estimating how balanced, in numerical terms, the Mexican population of marriageable age [12 to 50 years old] was in 1980, in relation to its structure by age and sex, as well as the timing of its nuptiality. This estimate was made for both the state and national levels, using as a source of information the 1980 Census...."
Correspondence: N. P. Pavon, El Colegio de Mexico, Centro de Estudios Demograficos y de Desarrollo Urbano, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20410 Peron, Yves. Period indexes of nuptiality for single individuals. [Les indices du moment de la nuptialite des celibataires.] Population, Vol. 46, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1991. 1,429-40 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
Two methods for measuring nuptiality of single persons are described. The author analyzes and compares age-specific marriage rates and nuptiality tables from the period 1930-1987 for cohorts of Canadian women. "The two methods not only give different results, they are useful for different purposes; whereas the sum of age-specific marriage rates can be used to trace movements in the number of marriages resulting from the link which exists between present and past nuptiality, current nuptiality tables provide information about the nuptiality behaviour of individuals during a short period of observation."
Correspondence: Y. Peron, Universite de Montreal, Departement de Demographie, CP 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20411 Quilodran, Julieta. Features of nuptiality in the border zone. [Particularidades de la nupcialidad fronteriza.] Estudios Demograficos y Urbanos, Vol. 5, No. 3, Sep-Dec 1990. 479-502, 822 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This article is limited to an analysis of some characteristics of nuptiality in the municipalities in the northern border zone of Mexico, based on the classification of the population by age and sex [and] by marital status...contained in the 1980 Census....Nuptiality in the border zone is not only distinguished from that of the country as a whole, but also in relation to the states in which the municipalities comprising it are located."
Correspondence: J. Quilodran, El Colegio de Mexico, Centro de Estudios Demograficos y de Desarrollo Urbano, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20412 Raha, Manis K. Polyandry in India: retrospect and prospect. Man in India, Vol. 71, No. 1, Mar 1991. 163-81 pp. Ranchi, India. In Eng.
This is a review of the literature concerning polyandry in India from ancient times to the present. Consideration is given to socioeconomic aspects of polyandrous societies, fraternal polyandry, and the allocation of paternity.
Correspondence: M. K. Raha, Anthropological Survey of India, Central India Station, 11, Seminary Hills, Nagpur, India. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

58:20413 Rajan, S. Irudaya. Marriage and remarriage among Bombay Roman Catholics. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 36, No. 1, Mar 1990. 61-79 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
Data from the records of four Roman Catholic parishes in Bombay, India, are analyzed to examine trends in marriage age and remarriage during the period 1869-1984. The author notes that "remarriages were prevalent...even in the nineteenth century...[and remarriage] showed a continuous decline indicating that the age at first marriage and the age at widowhood increased steadily among Roman Catholics in the recent periods."
Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

58:20414 Rajaretnam, T. How delaying marriage and spacing births contributes to population control: an explanation with illustrations. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 36, No. 4, Dec 1990. 3-13 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
The author examines how delayed marriage and birth spacing can contribute to slowing the rate of population growth in India. She concludes that, in contrast to programs that concentrate on permanent methods of contraception, "programmes that encourage the postponement of marriage especially of girls,... spacing between births through temporary methods of family planning, prolonged breastfeeding, and practice of induced abortion...will amount to a large-scale reduction of the high population growth rate besides contributing to the health of mothers and children."
Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

58:20415 Sardon, Jean-Paul. An aid to analysis: isoquotients. A nuptiality example. [Une aide a l'analyse: les lignes d'isoquotients. L'exemple de la nuptialite.] Population, Vol. 46, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1991. 1,405-27 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The author describes a method for analyzing nuptiality rates and the probability of marriage. "The relationship between the three elements in a nuptiality table can be represented on a three-dimensional diagram, where the total marriage rate is measured on the y-axis, the proportion of persons already married on the x-axis, and the probability of marriage on the z-axis. Such a representation would make it possible to estimate the probability of marriage from a knowledge of the marriage rate at age x in a cohort and the cumulated total of marriage rates to age x-1 in the same cohort, provided that the assumption of independence and continuity are met. An examination of French data for the period since 1968 shows that this is the case...."
Correspondence: J.-P. Sardon, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20416 Schellenberg, James A. Patterns of delayed marriage: how special are the Irish? Sociological Focus, Vol. 24, No. 1, Feb 1991. 1-11 pp. Bowling Green, Ohio. In Eng.
"This paper deals with delayed marriage and singlehood among the Irish as a focus for the study of the persistence of ethnic characteristics. Patterns of delayed marriage in Ireland in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries are reviewed, and evidence is also presented that Irish persons in other countries (especially in the United States) continue to show significantly higher rates of singlehood and postponed marriage than persons of other nationality groups. Discussion includes how delayed marriage became common in Ireland during the past 150 years and what may be involved in the apparent persistence of this pattern today in Ireland and among the Irish in other countries."
Correspondence: J. A. Schellenberg, Indiana State University, Department of Sociology and Social Work, Terre Haute, IN 47809. Location: New York Public Library.

58:20417 Schwarz, Karl. Educational achievement of the spouses of university graduates. [Die Schulabschlusse der Ehegatten der Akademiker und Akademikerinnen.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 17, No. 3, 1991. 315-22 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The marital status of university graduates in the Federal Republic of Germany is analyzed by sex and age. It is noted that a greater proportion of women who remain unmarried are university graduates and that female university graduates are also more likely than the rest of the female population to marry men with equivalent or higher degrees. Data are from the 1987 census.
Correspondence: K. Schwarz, Klopstockstrasse 14, 6200 Wiesbaden, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20418 Srivastava, J. N. Inter-district and inter-regional variations in incidence of child marriage among females and its inter-censal changes in Uttar Pradesh. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 36, No. 4, Dec 1990. 20-31 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
The author analyzes district-level changes in levels of female child marriage in Uttar Pradesh, India, using census data for 1961, 1971, and 1981. The results show a continuing decline in rates of child marriage "from 61.89 per cent in 1961 to 51.4 per cent in 1971, and further to 38.8 per cent in 1981." The analysis also indicates that raising the level of socioeconomic development is a more effective way to reduce rates of child marriage than is legislation.
Correspondence: J. N. Srivastava, Lucknow University, Department of Economics, Population Research Centre, Lucknow 226 007, UP, India. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

58:20419 Telford, Ted A. Covariates of men's age at first marriage: the historical demography of Chinese lineages. Population Studies, Vol. 46, No. 1, Mar 1992. 19-35 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Age at first marriage is studied in one historical Chinese population reconstituted from the genealogies of 39 lineage groups for the period 1520-1661. By using event-history methods, descriptive measures of age at marriage for various categories of men are generated from fathers' ages at birth of first son as a proxy measure. The covariates of the likelihood of marriage at specific ages are also examined, using Cox's regression analysis. This study confirms an early average age at first marriage of 21-22 years for men....Some evidence for large proportions of celibate men and marriage in the teens for women in these lineage populations is also presented. Considerable variation in men's age at marriage is evident, primarily accounted for by differences in social status."
Correspondence: T. A. Telford, University of Utah, Department of Sociology, Salt Lake City, UT 84112. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20420 Udry, J. Richard; Dole, Nancy; Gleiter, Karin. Forming reproductive unions in urban Zimbabwe. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 18, No. 1, Mar 1992. 10-2, 17 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"A pilot survey conducted in [1986 among Shona tribal members in] Harare, Zimbabwe, conceptualized the formation of a reproductive union as a series of steps and asked 201 women who were pregnant with or had just given birth to their first children to report the occurrence and chronological order of 12 postulated steps in the relationships leading to the pregnancies. Different patterns of union formation emerged, and a multinomial logit regression analysis revealed associations between the union-formation patterns and the women's demographic characteristics." The applicability of the method to the study of such patterns in other cultures is discussed.
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1990 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: J. R. Udry, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square 300A, Chapel Hill, NC 27514. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20421 Wilson, Barbara F.; Clarke, Sally C. Remarriages: a demographic profile. Journal of Family Issues, Vol. 13, No. 2, Jun 1992. 123-41 pp. Newbury Park, California. In Eng.
"This article presents descriptive statistics for remarriages [in the United States] according to the combined marital histories of brides and grooms. In 1988, 745,000 divorced men and 748,000 divorced women remarried. For each sex, 61% married divorced, 35% married single, and 4% married widowed partners. On average, the grooms were 39 and the brides were 35 years of age, but those who married single partners were younger (35 and 31, respectively) and better educated than average. In 1988, 72,000 widowed men and 77,000 widowed women remarried, at ages 61 and 53. They married widowed or divorced partners in similar proportions. By 1988, husbands and wives who jointly remarried at ages 25 to 44 in 1972 had lower divorce levels than did those who were first married as teenagers. This indicates that marrying at a young age was a stronger determinant of divorce than was a previous marriage of either or both spouses."
Correspondence: B. F. Wilson, U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

58:20422 Wu, Zheng; Balakrishnan, T. R. Attitudes towards cohabitation and marriage in Canada. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 23, No. 1, Spring 1992. 1-12 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"An analysis of a national sample of Canadian women in the Canadian National Fertility Survey (1984) indicates that attitudes towards cohabitation and marriage are associated with their demographic, socioeconomic and cultural background. Eight attitudinal variables in the survey are used to construct the scales for the attitudes in a confirmatory factor analysis. Women who are in older ages, currently married, living in rural areas, with lower educational attainment, non-Catholic, having a higher frequency of church attendance and a higher desired number of children are found to be more conservative in their attitudes towards cohabitation and marriage. The study also finds that Quebec women tend to be more liberal than non-Quebec women."
Correspondence: Z. Wu, University of Western Ontario, Department of Sociology, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SSA).

G.2. Family and Household

Studies of household structure and of family composition and size and the factors influencing them. Includes the full range of family concepts from the one-parent to the extended family and includes studies on the life course of the family. Studies on attitudes toward family size are coded under F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control .

58:20423 Ahmed, Bashir. Determinants of desired family size in rural Bangladesh: a two-stage analysis. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 36, No. 1, Mar 1990. 22-31 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"This paper examines the determinants of desired family size in rural Bangladesh, following the two-stage analysis suggested by McCarthy and Oni. It gives us an understanding of the rationale for wanting a large family size, and why the proportion of non-numeric answers is very high in Bangladesh." Data are from the World Fertility Survey conducted in Bangladesh in 1976.
For the article by J. McCarthy and G. A. Oni, see 53:20453.
Correspondence: B. Ahmed, University of Florida, College of Business Administration, Bureau of Economic and Business Research, Gainesville, FL 32611. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

58:20424 Boukhris, Mohamed. The family in Tunisia: the current status of its rights. [La famille en Tunisie: etat des droits.] 1991. 90 pp. Office National de la Famille et de la Population: Tunis, Tunisia. In Fre.
The current status of the family in Tunisia is reviewed, with a focus on family laws and policies. Information is included on family characteristics and demographic aspects.
Correspondence: Office National de la Famille et de la Population, 42 Avenue de Madrid, Tunis, Tunisia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20425 Bruderl, Josef; Klein, Thomas. Level of education and family formation: institutional versus level effect. [Bildung und Familiengrundung: Institutionen- versus Niveaueffekt.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 17, No. 3, 1991. 323-51 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"This article investigates the effects of education on the process of family formation of West German women. Following Blossfeld and Huinink we argue that there are two effects of education: participation in the educational system delays family formation, and a higher level of education decreases marriage and birth rates. By using data from the German socioeconomic panel we show that both effects are strong. This contrasts with the findings Blossfeld and Huinink report in their studies. We conclude that sociological and economic theories, which claim that educational level reduces family formation rates, are still of relevance." A reply by Hans-Peter Blossfeld, Johannes Huinink, and Gotz Rohwer is also included (pp. 337-51).
For the original article by Blossfeld and Huinink, published in 1989, see 56:30203.
Correspondence: J. Bruderl, Universitat Bern, Institut fur Soziologie, Speichergasse 29, CH-30 11 Bern, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20426 Davidson, Carl. The "family" in New Zealand. New Zealand Population Review, Vol. 17, No. 2, Nov 1991. 4-26 pp. Wellington, New Zealand. In Eng.
The author explores family characteristics and structures in New Zealand from a sociological perspective. The focus is on differences between the government's concept of the family, which it uses as the basis for its family policies, and the actual state of the family in New Zealand. Consideration is given to nonfamily households, families with and without children, single parent households, and the unique structure of Maori and Polynesian families. Policy implications are also discussed.
Correspondence: C. Davidson, Social Sciences Unit, DSIR, P.O. Box 29-181, Christchurch, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20427 Deven, Freddy. Living arrangements in Flanders in the eighties. In: Population and family in the Low Countries 1991, edited by Gijs Beets, Robert Cliquet, Gilbert Dooghe, and Jenny de J. Gierveld. 1991. 39-51 pp. Swets and Zeitlinger: Berwyn, Pennsylvania/Lisse, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This contribution provides an overall picture of the kind of living arrangements characterizing Flanders during the 1980s. Three main types of living arrangements--singles, couples, families--are further distinguished (e.g. couples on the basis of their marital status and families according to the number and type of parents available to the child(ren) in the household)....The figures for unmarried cohabitation remain well below those registered for countries such as Sweden or France." Plans for improving the relevant data sources in the 1990s are described.
Correspondence: F. Deven, Population and Family Study Centre, Markiesstraat 1, 1000 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20428 Fairlamb, C. D.; Nieuwoudt, W. L. An economic analysis of family size decision making with reference to the developing areas of South Africa. Development Southern Africa, Vol. 8, No. 4, Nov 1991. 513-20 pp. Halfway House, South Africa. In Eng.
A neoclassical utility framework is used to analyze links between decisions about family size and socioeconomic variables using data for 175 women in KwaZulu, South Africa. The demand curve for children is specified within a simultaneous model of family decision-making. "Child education, women's opportunity cost of time and formal market participation were negatively related to fertility, reflecting substitution from numbers of children (time intensive) to fewer, more educated children (less time intensive) as opportunity costs rise. Child labour was positively related to fertility. Strategies to reduce population growth rates should therefore include improvements in women's education and employment opportunities to raise their time costs, and time-saving devices to reduce demand for child labour."
Correspondence: C. D. Fairlamb, University of Natal, Agricultural Economics Department, POB 375, Pietermaritzburg 3200, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

58:20429 Germany, Federal Republic of. Statistisches Bundesamt (Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of). Families today: structures, life courses, and attitudes. 1990 edition. [Familien heute: Strukturen, Verlaufe und Einstellungen. Ausgabe 1990.] ISBN 3-8246-0033-1. Jun 1990. 282 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
The first part of this publication contains statistical data and commentary on the demographic and socioeconomic structure of families in West Germany. Topics covered include the impact of fertility decline and marriage age, the social structures of families, relationships between social structure and number and education of children, family formation and dissolution, and living conditions. The second part of the book provides selected results of studies carried out by the Federal Institute for Population Research. These studies include a 1987 retrospective survey on the family life cycle and a 1975-1984 panel study of changes in women's attitudes toward children, family, and career over the course of their marriage.
Correspondence: Statistisches Bundesamt, Gustav-Stresemann-Ring 11, 6200 Wiesbaden 1, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20430 Gilbertson, Greta; Gurak, Douglas T. Household transitions in the migrations of Dominicans and Colombians to New York. International Migration Review, Vol. 26, No. 1, Spring 1992. 22-45 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"Using life history survey data, we examined the correlates of change in the composition of Dominican and Colombian immigrant co-residential households [in New York City] at three points in time--prior to migration, just after migration and at the time of the survey. We found that there is considerable heterogeneity in the patterns of household transitions, although the majority of both Dominican and Colombian households at the time of the survey were nuclear family households. Dominican women tended to have made transitions into single-parent households by the time of the survey. Background and migration characteristics influence the pattern of household transitions, but fail to explain the ethnic and gender differences."
Correspondence: G. Gilbertson, Fordham University, Fordham Road, Bronx, NY 10458. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20431 Gurak, Douglas T.; Gilbertson, Greta A. Female headship and the migration process: an event history analysis of marital disruption among Dominican and Colombian female immigrants. Population and Development Program: 1990 Working Paper Series, No. 2.11, [1991?]. 11, [6] pp. Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program: Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
"This paper attempts to explain differences in the rates of female headship among two immigrant groups in New York City by focusing on the determinants of marital dissolution....To accomplish this goal we employ life-history data on Dominican and Colombian immigrants in New York and an analytical framework that utilizes information on status prior to migration, information concerning the migration event itself, and data on the economic activity of women and their partners in the United States following immigration."
This paper was originally presented at the 1991 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program, 134 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20432 Ismael, Mona M. M. Selected factors affecting desired family size in Egypt, 1984. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1990. 1991. 217-46 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
Using a path analysis, the author "focuses on fertility desires in Egypt by examining differentials by demographic and socio-economic factors and by determining the factors affecting desired family size....[Factors considered include] age of wife, number of living children, and knowledge of contraception,...wife's and husband's education, wife's work status, and husband's occupation." Data are from the 1984 Egypt Contraceptive Prevalence Survey.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20433 Kaiser, Daniel H. Urban household composition in early modern Russia. Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Vol. 23, No. 1, Summer 1992. 39-71 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"The present essay analyzes household structure for early modern Russia on the basis of twelve population inventories compiled between 1710 and 1720 in ten towns of European Russia." The results suggest that most households were of the simple nuclear type prevalent in Western Europe. A substantial number, however, were extended, multiple-family households, particularly among the upper social classes.
Correspondence: D. H. Kaiser, Grinnell College, Department of History, Grinnell, IA 50112. Location: Princeton University Library (SH).

58:20434 Larrivee, Daniel. Projected trends in the number of households in Canada and the demographic impact, 1986-2011. [Evolution projetee du nombre de menages au Canada et effet demographique, 1986-2011.] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 20, No. 1, Spring 1991. 145-56 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The author presents three scenarios for the future evolution of the number of households [in Canada], and analyses the results of these projections according to type and size of households and age of the household head. Particular emphasis is given to the impact of population growth on the evolution of households."
Correspondence: D. Larrivee, Statistics Canada, Demography Division, Ottawa, Ontario K1A OT6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20435 Lehning, James R. Socioeconomic change, peasant household structure and demographic behavior in a French department. Journal of Family History, Vol. 17, No. 2, 1992. 161-81 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"The article focuses on the relationship between social and economic structure and household structure, on the one hand, and household structure and demographic behavior on the other. The analysis provides some insights into the factors that determined household structure and demographic behavior in the two nineteenth-century villages in the Loire district in France--one village agricultural and the other with a protoindustrial sector. Labor needs imposed on the household by the economy helped to determine the structure of that household, and, especially by way of nuptiality, such considerations could also affect reproduction. Nevertheless, it would be pressing the evidence much too far to suggest that only household structure determined demographic behavior."
Correspondence: J. R. Lehning, University of Utah, Department of History, Salt Lake City, UT 84112. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20436 Levin, Irene; Trost, Jan. Women and the concept of family. Familjerapporter/Family Reports, No. 21, 1992. 39 pp. Uppsala Universitet: Uppsala, Sweden. In Eng.
The authors examine perceptions of what constitutes a family unit, focusing on differences between men and women. Data are from a survey of 935 men and women aged 20-59 in Uppsala province, Sweden. The results suggest that women have a broader definition of the family based on feelings of responsibility for others.
Correspondence: Uppsala University, Department of Sociology, P.O. Box 513, S-751 20 Uppsala, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20437 Lopez de Mazier, Armida. Female heads of household in Honduras. [La mujer hondurena jefa de hogar.] Dec 1991. xi, 56 pp. Fondo de Poblacion de las Naciones Unidas [FNUAP]: Tegucigalpa, Honduras; Unidad de Docencia e Investigacion en Poblacion [UDIP]: Tegucigalpa, Honduras. In Spa.
Unpublished data from the 1988 census are used to study levels, trends, and quality of life in one-parent families headed by women in Honduras. Data are presented on spatial distribution, age distribution, marital status, number of dependent children in household, level of education of the household head, household income level, residence characteristics, occupational status, and total number of one-parent families in the country.
Correspondence: Unidad de Docencia e Investigacion en Poblacion, Edificio No. 5, Piso 1, Ciudad Universitaria, Tegucigalpa, Honduras. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20438 Miller, Warren B. Personality traits and developmental experiences as antecedents of childbearing motivation. Demography, Vol. 29, No. 2, May 1992. 265-85 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper explores...two measures of childbearing motivation, one positive and the other negative....Using a [U.S.] sample of 362 married men and 354 married women, the paper systematically examines the factors associated with these measures. In addition to a set of basic personality traits, these factors include parental characteristics, teenage experiences, and a number of variables from young adult behavior domains such as marriage, education, work, religion, and parental relationships. Stepwise multiple regression analyses...indicate the importance of both personality traits and diverse life-cycle experiences in the development of childbearing motivation, [and] the differential gender distribution of predictors...."
This paper was originally presented at the 1991 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: W. B. Miller, Transnational Family Research Institute, 669 Georgia Avenue, Palo Alto, CA 94306. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20439 Moors, Hein; van Nimwegen, Nico. Young Europeans and changing living arrangements: some social and demographic effects. In: Population and family in the Low Countries 1991, edited by Gijs Beets, Robert Cliquet, Gilbert Dooghe, and Jenny de J. Gierveld. 1991. 17-38 pp. Swets and Zeitlinger: Berwyn, Pennsylvania/Lisse, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This contribution describes changes in the household structure of the European population and the social and demographic consequences for children and young people in the member states of the Council of Europe. Particular attention is paid to an analysis of the effects of instability and changes in couples, and to the effects of changing living arrangements on economic, social, and psychological aspects of young people, especially young women. Two life-styles are specifically relevant in this respect...: consensual unions (cohabitations) and one-parent families."
Correspondence: H. Moors, Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute, P.O. Box 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20440 Morocco. Direction de la Statistique. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques [CERED] (Rabat, Morocco). The family in Fes: continuity or change? The networks of family solidarity. [Famille a Fes: changement ou continuite? Les reseaux de solidarites familiales.] 1991. 190 pp. Rabat, Morocco. In Fre.
This is a study of the family and the changes it is experiencing in Morocco, based on a 1983-1984 survey of 390 families residing in the city of Fes. Chapters are included on family characteristics, migration to Fes, continuity and change in the family, and economic factors and family strategies.
Correspondence: Direction de la Statistique, Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques, B.P. 178 Charii Maa El Ainain, Rabat, Morocco. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20441 Radecki, Stephen E.; Beckman, Linda J. Determinants of child-bearing intentions of low-income women: attitudes versus life circumstances. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 24, No. 2, Apr 1992. 157-66 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Surveys of low-income women in Los Angeles County [California] in 1985 and 1986 were used to examine the relative impact of child-bearing motivations versus life circumstances on the intention to have a(nother) child. Future child-bearing intentions are strongly related to current parity level regardless of marital status, race/ethnicity or economic status....Multivariate analyses showed that motivation for parenthood and life circumstances combined predicted women's child-bearing intentions 88.6% of the time for nulliparous women, but 73.7% for parous women. These findings suggest that, in a low-income population, the onset of parenthood reduces the relationship between specific motivations for child-bearing and actual child-bearing intentions, and diminishes the ability to predict child-bearing intentions based on both attitudinal and social/structural factors."
Correspondence: S. E. Radecki, Long Beach Memorial Medical Center, Memorial Family Medicine, Long Beach, CA. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20442 Schlumbohm, Jurgen. From peasant society to class society: some aspects of family and class in a northwest German protoindustrial parish, 17th-19th centuries. Journal of Family History, Vol. 17, No. 2, 1992. 183-99 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"In the parish of Belm, Northwest Germany, population trebled between 1650 and 1830, but the number of peasant holdings remained stable. A new class of people without real property came into existence. Protoindustrialization in the form of linen production supplemented incomes from agriculture. This article outlines social differentials in demographic behavior and household structure. It looks at social mobility and the selection of mates. Furthermore, it explores the economic and non-economic ties that bound together propertied and propertyless families. Finally, it asks how important kinship was for propertied peasants and for landless people. It suggests that kin relationships across classes or within class may have been a factor relevant in the formation of classes."
Correspondence: J. Schlumbohm, Max-Planck-Institut fur Geschichte, Hermann-Foge-Weg 11, Postfach 2833, 3400 Gottingen, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20443 Schulz, Reiner. Time budget structures of working women. [Zeitbudgetstrukturen erwerbstatiger Frauen.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 17, No. 3, 1991. 227-50 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"In this article the activity structures (time budgets) of working women [in Germany] with (a) child(ren) and living with a (conjugal) partner, differentiated by the child(ren)'s age are compared with the activity structures of single mothers....In another evaluation step the women's activity structures are compared with those of their (conjugal) partner...in order to learn about the division of housework....The comparison between single mothers with women living with a (conjugal) partner very clearly shows a strong relation between the activity structures and the child(ren)'s age."
For an earlier article by Schulz that presented data on which the present article is based, see 57:20439.
Correspondence: R. Schulz, Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung, Postfach 55 28, 6200 Wiesbaden 1, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20444 Shoemaker, Nancy. The census as civilizer: American Indian household structure in the 1900 and 1910 U.S. censuses. Historical Methods, Vol. 25, No. 1, Winter 1992. 4-11 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The earliest censuses of the American Indian population in the United States raise several issues about the quality of census data for analysis of household structure. The 1900 and 1910 censuses were part of an intrusive colonizing bureaucracy insensitive to cultural relativism and intent on transforming Indians into model Americans....Determining boundaries of the household, the sequence of individuals listed within it, and their relationships to each other, enumerators had the power to make Indian families appear more like Euroamerican families. Despite the transforming power of the process, the censuses did capture some distinctness in residence patterns for different cultural groups. Although enumerators tried to fit Indian families into alien, Euroamerican, bureaucratized definitions of a family, cultural differences in residence patterns are still apparent....[The author concludes that] the census is a reliable source of information for family history so long as users are aware of potential biases."
Correspondence: N. Shoemaker, St. Lawrence University, Department of History, Canton, NY 13617. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20445 South, Scott J.; Tolnay, Stewart E. The changing American family: sociological and demographic perspectives. ISBN 0-8133-1100-4. LC 91-39295. 1992. vii, 304 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This book is the product of an interdisciplinary conference held in Albany, New York, on April 6-7, 1990, entitled Demographic Perspectives on the American Family: Patterns and Prospects. It contains 13 papers by various authors. "The issues receiving attention include past and current racial differences in family and household structure; the rise in and consequences of nonmarital cohabitation; the role of divorced fathers in the financial and emotional well-being of their children; changing attitudes toward marriage and family life; and the frequently conflictive division of household labor."
Correspondence: Westview Press, 5500 Central Avenue, Boulder, CO 80301-2847. Location: New York Public Library.

58:20446 Touliatos, John; Czaplewski, Mary J. Inventory of marriage and family literature, 1990/91. Vol. 17, ISBN 0-916174-31-X. LC 67-63014. 1991. xv, 848 pp. Data TRAQ International: Anoka, Minnesota; National Council on Family Relations: Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
This inventory is one in a series that lists published studies on marriage and fertility. It includes citations to 3,703 articles and 488 books published between September 1990 and December 1991. The published citations do not have abstracts, but abstracts to them are available for retrieval through IMFL (Inventory of Marriage and Family Literature) Online (formerly Family Resources Database). The bibliography is divided into three parts: a subject index, an author index, and a key word in title (KWIT) index. The geographical scope is worldwide, but the bibliography is confined to English-language publications.
For Volume 16, also published in 1991, see 57:30469.
Correspondence: National Council on Family Relations, 3989 Central Avenue NE 550, Minneapolis, MN 55421. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20447 United States. Bureau of the Census (Washington, D.C.). Household and family characteristics: March 1991. Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, No. 458, Feb 1992. iv, 189, [28] pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This annual report presents new national level, detailed data on [U.S.] households and families for March 1991, and summarizes some of the important changes that have occurred during the past twenty years or so. The 1991 data are based on the Annual Demographic Supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS)." The data are presented by type, age, residence, and race and Hispanic origin.
For a previous report for 1990, see 57:10467.
Correspondence: Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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