Volume 58 - Number 2 - Summer 1992

F. Fertility

Studies that treat quantitative fertility data analytically. References to crude data are coded under S. Official Statistical Publications . Methodological studies specifically concerned with fertility are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary.

F.1. General Fertility

Analytical studies of quantitative birth data and reproduction rates and studies of fertility and its concomitants. Studies of age at marriage, divorce, and factors influencing family size are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

58:20203 Abma, Joyce C.; Krivo, Lauren J. The ethnic context of Mexican American fertility. Sociological Perspectives, Vol. 34, No. 2, Summer 1991. 145-64 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut. In Eng.
"In this paper, we seek to further clarify the ways in which the ethnic context affects Mexican American fertility by incorporating several specific contextual measures into analyses of recent births. In addition to the relative size of the Mexican American population, we include an index comprised of several indicators of the cultural environment which may foster high fertility. We alternatively test the ratio of Hispanic-to-white female unemployment as an indicator of local limitations in economic opportunities. Analyses of 1980 [U.S.] census data provide little support for a cultural-contextual explanation of fertility, but some support for the notion that the local context affects fertility through limiting economic opportunities."
Correspondence: L. J. Krivo, Ohio State University, Department of Sociology, 300 Bricker Hall, 190 North Oval Mall, Columbus, OH 43210-1353. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

58:20204 Ahmad, Alia. Women and fertility in Bangladesh. ISBN 81-7036-225-3. LC 91-6973. 1991. 184 pp. Sage Publications: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author analyzes the relationships among economic, social, and cultural factors and their effects on women's fertility behavior in Bangladesh. Data are from official and other published sources and from "the author's empirical work among a group of women in two villages and Dhaka....Chapter 2 deals with the fertility models and the status of women in traditional societies. Chapter 3 presents some facts on the status of women in Bangladesh, while the next chapter analyses the factors which determine [their] insecure status....Chapters 5, 6 and 7 are devoted to the description and analysis of our empirical findings, and the last chapter presents policy recommendations emanating from the study. Information about the study area and the respondents is provided in the Appendix."
Correspondence: Sage Publications, M-32 Greater Kailash Market I, New Delhi 110 048, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20205 Baras, Mario; Peritz, Eric. Parity progression among Israeli Moslem women: a record linkage study. In: Studies in the fertility of Israel, edited by Eric Peritz and Mario Baras. 1992. 133-64 pp. Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Institute of Contemporary Jewry, Division of Jewish Demography and Statistics: Jerusalem, Israel; Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs, Demographic Center: Jerusalem, Israel. In Eng.
Fertility trends among the Muslim population of Israel are analyzed using a record-linkage approach. The data are from a sample of 20 percent of households included in the 1983 census and from vital statistics data on births occurring in the subsequent three years. Among the factors considered are age, sex composition of family to date, educational status, urban residence, and income.
Correspondence: M. Baras, Hebrew University and Hadassah, School of Public Health, Jerusalem 91010, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20206 Baras, Mario; Peritz, Eric. Parity progression among Jewish women in Israel: a record linkage study. In: Studies in the fertility of Israel, edited by Eric Peritz and Mario Baras. 1992. 59-96 pp. Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Institute of Contemporary Jewry, Division of Jewish Demography and Statistics: Jerusalem, Israel; Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs, Demographic Center: Jerusalem, Israel. In Eng.
Fertility trends among the Jewish population of Israel are analyzed using a record-linkage approach. The data are from a systematic sample of 20 percent of households included in the 1983 census and from vital statistics data on births occurring over the following three years. Factors considered include age, years of schooling, region of origin, religiosity, sibship composition, occupation, and crowding.
Correspondence: M. Baras, Hebrew University and Hadassah, School of Public Health, Jerusalem 91010, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20207 Belize. Central Statistical Office (Belmopan, Belize); Belize Family Life Association (Belmopan, Belize); Belize. Ministry of Health (Belmopan, Belize); United States. Centers for Disease Control [CDC]. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Division of Reproductive Health (Atlanta, Georgia). 1991 Belize Family Health Survey: final report. May 1992. 70, [140] pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
These are the results of the first national sample survey designed to provide information on fertility, infant mortality, family planning, and the use of maternal and child health services in Belize. The survey, which was carried out in 1991, covered a sample of 2,656 women aged 15-44. "General areas covered in the survey were fertility and its determinants; attitudes towards childbearing; knowledge, use, and source of contraception, including reasons for nonuse of contraception and desire to use it in the future; characteristics of women at risk of an unplanned pregnancy; use of and potential demand for surgical contraception; use of maternal and child health services; breastfeeding and weaning practices; immunization levels and the prevalence of diarrhea and acute respiratory illness among children less than 5 years of age; infant and child mortality; and knowledge of AIDS."
Correspondence: Centers for Disease Control, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Reproductive Health, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20208 Chen, Jiajian. Wait-for-change strategy: a dynamic analysis of Chinese maternity histories. Pub. Order No. DANN64275. ISBN 0-315-64275-0. 1990. 299 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This is an analysis of the fertility decline in China based on data from the In-Depth Fertility Surveys carried out in Shaanxi in 1985 and Guangdong in 1987. It was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Western Ontario in Canada.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 52(9).

58:20209 Cheng, Chaoze. A speculative analysis of socio-economic influences on the fertility transition in China. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 6, No. 3, Sep 1991. 3-24 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This article examines the channels of influence through which socioeconomic forces other than population policies and family planning programmes have affected the fertility transition in China....It focuses on the following changes: (a) the emancipation of women, (b) the socialization of agriculture and industry (c) social security and other welfare benefits, (d) public health care, (e) the expansion of education, (f) changes in female labour force participation, (g) the rise in urban residence and (h) the so-called 'sending-down' campaigns." Data are from official and other published sources.
Correspondence: C. Cheng, University of Western Ontario, Department of Sociology, London, Ontario N6A 3K7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20210 Cheng, Chaoze. Socioeconomic influences on fertility decline in mainland China. Issues and Studies, Vol. 28, No. 2, Feb 1992. 103-27 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Eng.
"This paper examines socioeconomic forces other than the much-discussed population policies and family planning programs that have affected the decline in mainland China's fertility rate. Before and after the population planning activities were intensified, the mainland government directly and indirectly influenced fertility rates by: socializing the economy; transforming the Chinese family; and providing education, employment, medical, welfare, cultural, and related services in the country as a whole, but in the rural areas particularly. Various social changes have greatly weakened the motivation for large families. The by-products of urbanization, such as the housing shortage, unemployment, rising living standards, changes in the cost of raising a child, and urban-rural downward mobility, have affected the social and economic costs of childbearing. These increased costs have in turn resulted in the postponement of childbearing. Thus, considerations of the decline in mainland China's fertility rate must be broadened to include aspects of socioeconomic development."
Correspondence: C. Cheng, University of Western Ontario, Department of Sociology, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

58:20211 Colliez, Jean-Paul. Uncertainties concerning the fertility decline. [Incertitude sur la baisse de la fecondite.] Economie de la Reunion, No. 55, Sep-Oct 1991. 4-11 pp. Ste.-Clothilde, Reunion. In Fre.
Recent fertility trends in Reunion are analyzed. The author notes that the decline in fertility, which was fairly consistent between 1965 and 1985, has not continued over the past five years. Reasons for the increase in the number of births in recent years are explored.
Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

58:20212 Cremer, H.; Pestieau, P. Bequests, filial attention and fertility. Economica, Vol. 58, No. 231, Aug 1991. 359-75 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to show within a simple setting how the demand for children may be affected by the type of parent-children interaction, ranging from conflict with threat to more harmonious settlement. We consider the case where parents offer bequests to their children in exchange for attention. The type of parent-children interaction is formalized by the solution concept that is used to determine the bequest-attention allocation for any given number of children." The implications for policies designed to influence fertility are considered. The authors conclude that "it is likely that in countries that are ruled by the Napoleonic Code, and in which equal estate sharing is therefore mandatory, the size of families will be smaller than in countries with full testamentary freedom. From a policy viewpoint, the former countries would be well inspired to shift to a more flexible inheritance rule if they deem it desirable to foster their fertility rate."
Correspondence: H. Cremer, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

58:20213 Das, N. P.; Padhiyar, A. C. A model to study the socio-cultural determinants of fertility: an extension of Bongaarts' model. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 37, No. 1, Mar 1991. 30-41 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"This paper analyses socio-economic and other differentials in the proximate determinants of fertility by separating the negative or fertility inhibiting and positive or fertility-enhancing influence of a variable on fertility. This is achieved by using an extension of the decomposition model suggested by Bongaarts for studying the proximate determinants of fertility. The present model has been illustrated using data from a 1980 fertility survey of rural south Gujarat [India]....The results clearly indicate the influence of caste/religion, education of husband, education of wife, occupation of husband and annual income of the family in explaining the fertility behaviour of couples."
Correspondence: N. P. Das, Population Research Centre, Faculty of Science, Lokmanya Tilak Road, Baroda 390 002, India. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

58:20214 De Mouzon, J.; Spira, A.; Schwartz, D. A prospective study of the relation between smoking and fertility. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 17, No. 2, Jun 1988. 378-84 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"A prospective study of fertility was conducted [in France] from 1977 to 1982. Analysis of the relation between cigarette smoking and occurrence of a pregnancy was performed on 1,887 couples. The actuarial pregnancy rate was 82.9% at the end of a year. Cigarette smoking by both members of the couple was found to be related to decreased fertility when this factor was considered alone. But after including all the confounding covariates in a Cox semi-proportional hazards model for survival data, no relationship remained between cigarette smoking and fertility."
Correspondence: J. De Mouzon, Institut Nacional de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale U 292, Hopital de Bicetre, 78 rue du General Leclerc, 94275 Le Kremlin Bicetre Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20215 Dekle, Robert. Equal opportunity and the quantity and quality of Japanese children. Journal of Asian Economics, Vol. 1, No. 2, Fall 1990. 319-31 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"This paper constructs and estimates a simple model of Japanese completed fertility. The analytical model shows that as a woman's lifetime wage rises, there is a decline in average 'quality' per child, but the effect on the quantity of children is ambiguous. Estimation of the model with rare household level data shows that increases in the husband's permanent income raises completed fertility for high income couples, but lowers fertility for the low income. If the wife's education is an appropriate instrument for her lifetime wage, then a rise in the wife's lifetime wage appears to lower her demand for children."
Correspondence: R. Dekle, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

58:20216 Donadje, Florentin; Tabutin, Dominique. Male nuptiality and fertility in South Benin. [Nuptialite et fecondite des hommes au Sud-Benin.] Institut de Demographie Working Paper, No. 163, ISBN 2-87209-169-6. Nov 1991. 34 pp. Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The authors analyze the marital and fertility history of men in Benin, using data from a 1989 random sample survey of 2,400 men over the age of 20 in Cotonou and the rural area surrounding the city. The results indicate "that practically all men are married, nowadays at slightly later ages than before, and practise polygamy in nearly all social groups. Male fertility has barely changed in the past 15 years, except that men among the younger generation have children sooner after marriage and relatively [fewer] children in town than in the rural zones. Moreover, female fertility is as high among monogamous unions as among polygamous ones. Apart from young urban males with a high level of education, opinions and behaviours concerning fertility and nuptiality remain favourable to a maximalist reproduction strategy."
Correspondence: Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie, Place Montesquieu 1, Boite 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20217 El-Khorazaty, M. Nabil; Horne, Amelia D. Dynamics of childbearing statistics in twentieth century developing and developed countries. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 23, No. 1, Spring 1992. 13-37 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"In the present paper, the dynamics of childbearing indices in the twentieth century are presented for 23 developing and 35 developed countries....The experience of childbearing over time is measured by projected ages at first and last birth, and length of reproductive life span using [a] childbearing model....The model uses quantum measures of period fertility, namely, age-specific fertility rates, to obtain projected temporal indices of the childbearing process. Thus, a detailed picture of the timing of fertility for synthetic cohorts of women is obtained by applying the childbearing model to the 58 countries."
Correspondence: M. N. El-Khorazaty, Central Statistics Organization, P.O. Box 5835, Manama, Bahrain. Location: Princeton University Library (SSA).

58:20218 Etukudo, Itimitang W. Fertility level in urban Nigerian societies: recent observations from Eket Urban of Akwa Ibom State of South Eastern Nigeria. Egyptian Population and Family Planning Review, Vol. 24, No. 2, Dec 1990. 80-98 pp. Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
Results are presented from a fertility survey conducted in November and December 1990 among 614 women living in Eket, an urban center located in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Consideration is given to population characteristics including age, parity, religion, socioeconomic status, and occupation. A high fertility rate in the area is observed, and some policy implications of this finding are discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20219 Frank, Odile; Bongaarts, John. Behavioural and biological determinants of fertility transition in sub-Saharan Africa. Statistics in Medicine, Vol. 10, No. 2, Feb 1991. 161-75 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
Characteristics of the fertility transition in Sub-Saharan Africa are examined. The authors note that "the prevalence of contraceptive practice is low, and fertility levels are exceptionally high for recorded levels of contraceptive practice, even where levels of contraceptive practice are comparable to other regions. The discrepancies are explained to a very large extent by differences between Africa and other regions in other proximate determinants--notably exposure to the risk of pregnancy, and abstinence after delivery. It would seem that transition in African countries will follow one of two patterns that are different to the pattern of transition observed in all other regions. First, fertility may rise before it declines, due to abandonment of traditional fertility regulation for some time prior to the eventual adoption of contraceptive practice. Second, the prevalence of contraceptive practice may rise for a time before there is an observable decline in fertility, because at the same time that contraception is adopted, traditional regulation of fertility is being abandoned, offsetting any effect on fertility."
Correspondence: O. Frank, World Health Organization, Special Programme of Research on Human Reproduction, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:20220 Freedman, Ronald; Blanc, Ann K. Fertility transition: an update. In: Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, August 5-7, 1991, Washington, D.C.: proceedings. Volume 1. 1991. 5-24 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
"A major decline in the fertility of developing countries in recent decades is the essential background for discussions at this conference on the results of the Demographic and Health Surveys Program. We first use United Nations data to review the course of the fertility transition since the mid 1960's for less developed countries (LDC) as a whole, for major regions, and individual large countries. We then examine some specific contributions of the DHS toward defining and understanding the recent path of fertility decline." The authors note that "over the last 15 years..., fertility in the developing world has declined by almost one third. This decline represents close to one half of the difference between the fertility rate at the beginning of this period and replacement level fertility....A change of this magnitude in this relatively short period of time is extraordinary in that it involved challenging fundamental attitudes and behavior concerning the roles of the family, of women, and of children. Although fertility has declined by a significant amount, the decline in the rate of population growth is substantially less in percentage terms, largely as a result of an offsetting decline in mortality and the effects of young age distributions."
Correspondence: R. Freedman, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20221 Geel, Fatma El-Z. M. M. Pregnancy loss experience and reproductive patterns in Egypt. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1990. 1991. 99-127 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"The present study attempts to: examine the differentials in reproductive behaviour and contraceptive use by pregnancy loss experience [and]...by selected demographic and socio-economic variables, assess the relationship between fertility and pregnancy loss experience, [and] examine the relationship between contraceptive use and pregnancy loss experience." Data are from the 1984 Egypt Contraceptive Prevalence Survey.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20222 Goodkind, Daniel M. Creating new traditions in modern Chinese populations: aiming for birth in the Year of the Dragon. Population and Development Review, Vol. 17, No. 4, Dec 1991. 663-86, 755-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The author studies various urban Chinese populations across Southeast Asia to attempt to explain the marked surge in births that occurred during the two most recent Dragon years, 1976 and 1988. "The motivating forces underlying this new behavioral tradition are explored at the cultural, individual, and institutional levels. While modern contraception and smaller family-size desires may have facilitated the tradition, the onset of the phenomenon and its widely varying strength over space and time cannot be understood as simple consequences of these variables. Rather, the phenomenon appears to be a social construction of the modern era...."
Correspondence: D. M. Goodkind, University of Pennsylvania, Department of Sociology, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20223 Groot, Wim; Pott-Buter, Hettie A. The timing of maternity in the Netherlands. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 5, No. 2, Apr 1992. 155-72 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"In this paper the timing of maternity is estimated by a hazard model. The novel aspect of this paper is that it is shown that wages and total household labor income have a significant effect on the timing of maternity. Both the wage rate of the woman and the wage rate of the husband have a negative effect on the timing of maternity. Total household labor income increases the probability of having a child at an earlier age....Women working in the labor market delay the timing of maternity compared to non-participating women. Attending school has the same effect. Until the age of 28 the maternity hazard increases with age, after that it decreases." Data are from a longitudinal survey of 4,020 men and women in the Netherlands who were interviewed during the period 1980-1985.
Correspondence: W. Groot, Leiden University, Department of Economics, P.O. Box 9521, 2300 RA Leiden, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20224 Gu, Baochang; Yang, Shuzhang. Fertility trends in rural China in the 1980s: cohort effect versus period effect. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 6, No. 4, Dec 1991. 3-34 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This article examines the fertility trends of rural China during the decade of the 1980s, paying particular attention to the relationship between the cohort effect and period effect of fertility. It also examines the variations in fertility among the subregions of rural China, demonstrating that, while the total fertility rate has been further controlled, the timing of both marriage and child-bearing has moved downward. As a result, 'birth bunching' became a nationwide and decade-long phenomenon. It discusses also the implications for future family planning programmes...."
Correspondence: B. Gu, China Population Information and Research Center, P.O. Box 2444, Beijing 100081, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20225 Guzman, Jose M.; Torrez, Hugo; Schkolnik, Susana. Changes in fertility in Bolivia. [Cambios de la fecundidad en Bolivia.] In: Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, August 5-7, 1991, Washington, D.C.: proceedings. Volume 1. 1991. 367-89 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Spa.
Data from the 1989 Demographic and Health Survey for Bolivia are analyzed and compared with data from previous studies to determine levels and trends in fertility for the country as a whole and for its three major regions from 1965 to 1990. A decline from an average of six children per woman in the years up to 1975 to five children per woman by 1990 is observed. Determinants of this reduction in fertility and the implications for future population policy are noted.
Correspondence: J. M. Guzman, U.N. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia, Edificio Naciones Unidas, Avenida Dag Hammarskjold, Casilla 91, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20226 Hodge, Robert W.; Ogawa, Naohiro. Fertility change in contemporary Japan. Population and Development, ISBN 0-226-34650-1. LC 91-17787. 1991. xvii, 344 pp. University of Chicago Press: Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
This analysis of fertility trends in modern Japan is based on data from the sixteenth round of the Mainichi Newspaper surveys on fertility behavior and family planning among currently married women that was carried out in 1981. The authors first describe the course of Japan's demographic transition. They then develop a statistical model of the relationships among reproductive variables; other demographic variables such as age at marriage and marriage duration; and socioeconomic variables such as urbanization, education, labor force activity of women, parental arrangement of marriage, and patrilocality. Particular attention is given to the roles of contraception and induced abortion. The two main objectives of the study are "to lay out the basic factors which governed in the aggregate the course of Japan's demographic transition, and to document insofar as possible how these same and other factors continue to affect Japanese reproductive behavior at the microlevel after the transition was completed."
Correspondence: University of Chicago Press, 5801 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20227 Irudaya Rajan, S.; Rao, Sandhya. Can we explain demography through culture? Man in India, Vol. 71, No. 2-3, Jun-Sep 1991. 383-99 pp. Ranchi, India. In Eng.
"An attempt has been made here to understand how far the culture of a community can be held responsible in the determination of its demographic aspects of life....[The authors] analyse the cultural norms and values, beliefs and superstitions, taboos and other related factors in relation to fertility. Various situations arising out of these features have been examined in the background of different religious faiths through the categorical analysis of different [Indian] census data."
Correspondence: S. Irudaya Rajan, Centre for Development Studies, Prasantanagar Road, Ulloor, Trivandrum 695 011, Kerala State, India. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

58:20228 Ittmann, Karl. Family limitation and family economy in Bradford, West Yorkshire 1851-1881. Journal of Social History, Vol. 25, No. 3, Spring 1992. 547-73 pp. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
The experience of Bradford, an industrial town in West Yorkshire, is used to examine factors associated with the fertility decline that occurred in late nineteenth-century England. The author concludes that second-generation immigrant women in industrial urban areas experienced alternatives to marriage and children. As independent women, they were exposed to greater possibilities for experimentation in many aspects of life. Their use of fertility control, particularly during times of economic hardship, was part of this change in women's roles. "Material realities rather than cultural diffusion shaped the family life of Bradford's working class and led to the adoption of family limitation."
Correspondence: K. Ittmann, University of Houston, Department of History, Houston, TX 77204. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

58:20229 Jones, Clare. Fertility of the over thirties. Population Trends, No. 67, Spring 1992. 10-6 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Changes in age-specific fertility in England and Wales in the period since World War II are analyzed. "Falls in fertility rates of women in their twenties, and the rise in fertility rates--and especially in the first birth rates--among women in their thirties and forties, are features of later childbirth among women born since 1945. An increase in births to remarried women has contributed to this trend, but more women are delaying childbirth, both in first marriages and outside marriage. The data suggest that the women delaying childbearing are more highly educated, and most commonly have husbands or partners who are defined as being in Social Classes I and II, as defined by occupation."
Correspondence: C. Jones, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, Demographic Analysis and Vital Statistics Division, St. Catherine's House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20230 Keysar, Ariela; Sabatello, Eitan F.; Shtarkshall, Ronny; Ziegler, Ilana; Kupinsky, Shlomo; Peritz, Eric. Fertility and modernization in the Moslem population of Israel. In: Studies in the fertility of Israel, edited by Eric Peritz and Mario Baras. 1992. 97-132 pp. Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Institute of Contemporary Jewry, Division of Jewish Demography and Statistics: Jerusalem, Israel; Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs, Demographic Center: Jerusalem, Israel. In Eng.
"The objective of this chapter is to try and assess the impact of selected modernization variables on Moslem fertility [in Israel] and, as far as possible, on its change over time." The data concern 471 married Muslim women aged 22-39 included in a fertility survey carried out in 1987. Factors considered include age, education, religiosity, urbanization, traditionalism, employment, occupations, size of family of origin, and marital life-style.
Correspondence: A. Keysar, Hebrew University and Hadassah, School of Public Health, Jerusalem 91010, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20231 Keysar, Ariela; Sabatello, Eitan F.; Ziegler, Ilana; Shtarkshall, Ronny; Kupinsky, Shlomo; Zur, Ron; Peritz, Eric. Fertility patterns in the Jewish population of Israel. In: Studies in the fertility of Israel, edited by Eric Peritz and Mario Baras. 1992. 21-57 pp. Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Institute of Contemporary Jewry, Division of Jewish Demography and Statistics: Jerusalem, Israel; Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs, Demographic Center: Jerusalem, Israel. In Eng.
The results of a survey of fertility in the Jewish population of Israel, undertaken in 1987-1988, are presented. The survey covered 1,751 married women aged 22-39 out of an original sample of 2,500. "First we present a number of general background tables giving frequency distributions and averages of the numbers of pregnancies and births, as well as of the desired and ideal numbers of children. Next, after having shown that religiosity is a particularly important determinant of actual and desired fertility, while age has little effect on the desired number of children, we turn to a series of bivariate crosstabulations. Each of these tables gives the average number of desired children by religiosity and by one other independent variable. Thirdly, we present an analogous set of tables for the number of children a woman has until she reaches 28.5 years of age...."
Correspondence: A. Keysar, Hebrew University and Hadassah, School of Public Health, Jerusalem 91010, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20232 Keysar, Ariela. Fertility patterns in the kibbutzim of Israel. In: Studies in the fertility of Israel, edited by Eric Peritz and Mario Baras. 1992. 165-85 pp. Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Institute of Contemporary Jewry, Division of Jewish Demography and Statistics: Jerusalem, Israel; Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs, Demographic Center: Jerusalem, Israel. In Eng.
This is a summary of a doctoral dissertation concerning fertility in the kibbutz population, some 126,000 persons making up 3.5 percent of the Jewish population of Israel. The objectives of the study were to determine "to what extent indicators of family formation and fertility differ from those of the surrounding society [and] what the internal determinants of differential fertility are within the kibbutz. The underlying purpose was to discover what determines the levels and variation in fertility in a society which relieves the family of the economic burden of childrearing and in which standards of living are homogeneous." Data are primarily from a fertility survey carried out in 1987-1988 supplemented with data from official sources.
Correspondence: A. Keysar, Hebrew University and Hadassah, School of Public Health, Jerusalem 91010, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20233 Khan, Abdul Q. Link between nuptiality and fertility in Pakistan, 1988. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1990. 1991. 749-90 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The author analyzes the relationship between nuptiality and fertility in Pakistan, with a focus on the impact of marriage age and marital dissolution. Data are from the 1988 Pakistan Demographic Survey, with figures from the 1975 survey used for comparison.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20234 Komalig, Aske T. Fertility behavior in Indonesia: a study of the relationship between women's work status and fertility in 1976 and 1987. 1991. University of Southern California: Los Angeles, California. In Eng.
This study was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Southern California, Los Angeles.
Correspondence: University of Southern California, Doheny Library, Micrographics Department, University Park, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0182. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 52(8).

58:20235 Korra, Antenane. Links between fertility and nuptiality, and other proximate determinants of fertility: evidence from Lesotho. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1990. 1991. 527-62 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The author analyzes the relative fertility-inhibiting effects of selected intermediate variables, using data from the 1977 Lesotho Fertility Survey carried out as part of the World Fertility Survey. Particular attention is given to the effect of nuptiality factors on fertility, such as age at marriage and marital dissolution. The major impact of lactational amenorrhea on fertility reduction is noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20236 Kritz, Mary M.; Gurak, Douglas T. Women's economic independence and fertility among the Yoruba. In: Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, August 5-7, 1991, Washington, D.C.: proceedings. Volume 1. 1991. 89-111 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
Data from the 1986 Demographic and Health Survey for Ondo State, Nigeria, are used to examine the effects of women's economic independence on fertility among the Yoruba. "The key questions examined are whether women's economic independence has implications for fertility and fertility-related behavior and how that relationship varies for different age cohorts." The findings suggest "that pressures for fertility control have begun to affect the attitudes and behavior of both urban and rural women in southwestern Nigeria but that these pressures are being articulated by different mechanisms for different age cohorts. Younger women are more likely to respond to modernizing forces of education and conjugal sharing while older women obtain their autonomy from and adapt their behavior to the traditional reward system."
Correspondence: M. M. Kritz, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20237 Li, Li; Ballweg, John A. Development, urbanization and fertility in China. Sociology and Social Research, Vol. 76, No. 3, Apr 1992. 111-7 pp. Los Angeles, California. In Eng.
Data from the 1982 census of China are used to assess the impact of socioeconomic conditions on fertility in China, focusing on the differences between rural and urban areas. "This study clearly indicates a close relationship between fertility rates and socioeconomic conditions. Overall, the degree of socioeconomic development is negatively related to fertility rates in China. The higher the level of industrial labor force and mass education, the lower the fertility; the lower the infant mortality rate, the lower the birth rate."
Correspondence: L. Li, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

58:20238 Li, Yong-Ping. Proximate determinants of fertility: a case study of Shaanxi province, China, 1975-1985. Pub. Order No. DA9203622. 1991. 247 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
Data from China's In-Depth Fertility Survey of 1985 are used in this study, which was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of California at Berkeley.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 52(8).

58:20239 Mielecka-Kubien, Zofia. The analysis of seasonality in births and deaths. [Analiza sezonowosci urodzen i zgonow.] Wiadomosci Statystyczne, No. 10, Oct 1991. 12-6 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol.
Monthly data on live births and stillbirths and quarterly data on mortality and infant mortality in Poland are analyzed for the period 1983-1985. The aim is to evaluate and compare seasonal fluctuations in these variables in Katowice voivodship and in Poland as a whole. Effects of seasonal factors are estimated separately for males and females and urban-rural areas via a regression model. For births, effects of seasonality are similar in Katowice and Poland, while for deaths significant differences are observed.
Correspondence: Z. Mielecka-Kubien, Akademia Ekonomiczna w Katowicach, 1 Maja, 40-287 Katowice, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20240 Mithranon, Preeya; Soottipong, Rossarin. Special report on fertility and mortality changes in Thailand: an analysis of the 1985-1986 and the 1989 Survey of Population Change. ISBN 974-8090-17-5. [1992?]. [vii], 22 pp. National Statistical Office: Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This article...examines the changes in fertility and mortality [in Thailand] across geographical areas and socioeconomic groups in the recent period based on the 1985-1986 and the 1989 Survey of Population Change (SPC). Two measures of fertility are considered: a cumulative fertility (children ever born--CEB) and a current fertility (the total fertility rate--TFR). The decomposition technique and the own-children method are utilized for fertility analysis. For mortality analysis, infant and under five mortality are of interest. The Trussell technique based on the West Model Life Tables is applied for mortality estimations."
Correspondence: National Statistical Office, Bangkok Metropolis 10100, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20241 Murthy, P. V. Agricultural modernisation, its associated factors and fertility behaviour. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 36, No. 4, Dec 1990. 61-6 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
The relationship between agricultural modernization and fertility is explored through a comparative analysis of some 600 couples in two villages in Andhra Pradesh, India. "The overall trend showed that as the level of general modernity increased, fertility declined at all the three levels of agricultural modernisation."
Correspondence: P. V. Murthy, Sri Venkateswara University, Population Studies Centre, Tirupati 517 502, Andhra Pradesh 20116, India. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

58:20242 Nigeria. Federal Office of Statistics (Lagos, Nigeria); Institute for Resource Development/Macro International. Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS] (Columbia, Maryland). Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey, 1990. Apr 1992. xviii, 243 pp. Lagos, Nigeria. In Eng.
Findings are presented from the 1990 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. The survey covered a nationally representative sample of 8,781 women aged 15-49 and their 8,113 children under five years of age. The report includes chapters on characteristics of households and respondents, fertility, fertility regulation, proximate determinants of fertility, fertility preferences, infant and child mortality, maternal and child health, infant feeding and childhood nutrition, and local availability of family planning and health services.
Correspondence: Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 8850 Stanford Boulevard, Suite 4000, Columbia, MD 21045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20243 Nikander, Timo. The woman's life course and the family formation. [Naisen elamankulku ja perheellistyminen.] Vaesto/Population 1992, No. 1, 1992. 183, [42] pp. Tilastokeskus: Helsinki, Finland. In Eng; Fin.
This volume contains the results of a survey of 5,105 women conducted in 1989 "to explore the changes which have taken place in fertility and forms of family life in Finland in the last few decades." Data were collected on trends in marriage, consensual unions, fertility, education, and economic activity. "An essential part is played in the present interview survey by histories of [these] events in the subjects' lives...." The statistics are presented in tabular format.
Correspondence: Tilastokeskus, PL 504, 00101 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20244 Nwakeze, Peter C. Social and cultural determinants of fertility in Nigeria. Pub. Order No. DA9137205. 1991. 246 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study was undertaken as a doctoral dissertation at Fordham University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 52(7).

58:20245 Observatoire Departemental de la Reunion [ODR] (Saint-Denis, Reunion). Births in Reunion in 1988: an analysis by mother's commune of residence. [Les naissances a la Reunion en 1988: analyse en fonction de la commune de residence de la mere.] Document ODR, Feb 1990. 25 pp. Saint-Denis, Reunion. In Fre.
Data on births occurring in Reunion in 1988 by commune of residence of the mother are analyzed.
Correspondence: Observatoire Departemental de la Reunion, 1 rue de la Source, 97400 Saint-Denis, Reunion. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20246 Ogedengbe, Christopher O. Nuptiality in Ghana and its impact on fertility. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1990. 1991. 597-628 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"This present study attempts to analyse the patterns, levels, trends and differentials of age at first marriage and their impact on fertility [in Ghana]." Data are from the 1979-1980 Ghana Fertility Survey, carried out as part of the World Fertility Survey.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20247 Osman, Magued I. Birth spacing and nutritional status of child in Egypt, 1988. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1990. 1991. 87-97 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"The purpose of the present paper is to study the relation between nutritional status of young children (3 to 36 months) and spacing between children....Data from the Egypt Demographic and Health Survey 1988 were analyzed. Results indicated that 30.8% of Egyptian children are stunted...."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20248 Parmar, S. B. Singh. The impact of infant mortality on fertility behaviour of women. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 36, No. 1, Mar 1990. 43-7 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"The main objective of this study...is to ascertain the influence of infant mortality on the fertility behaviour of women....The data [were] collected at [a] maternity centre...in Uttar Pradesh [India]. In all, 300 women obtaining maternity services during March-August 1983 were interviewed....Results indicate a marked and significant positive association between infant mortality and fertility."
Correspondence: S. B. S. Parmar, Atarra Post Graduate College, Department of Sociology, Atarra, Banda 210 201, Uttar Pradesh, India. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

58:20249 Patil, R. L. Estimation of potential fertility rates by age-group for Karnataka state. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 36, No. 1, Mar 1990. 3-6 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"The main objective of this paper is to estimate the potential fertility of the adopters of family planning methods in Karnataka state [India], for the Census years 1971 and 1981." The author concludes that "age-specific marital fertility rates need to be estimated at regular intervals of five years before estimates of potential fertility can be obtained."
Correspondence: R. L. Patil, J. S. S. Institute of Economic Research, Population Research Centre, Vidyagiri, Dharwad 580 004, Karnataka, India. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

58:20250 Pavlik, Zdenek. General and specific features of the reproduction after demographic revolution. Acta Universitatis Carolinae: Geographica, Vol. 25, No. 2, 1990. 29-36 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Eng. with sum. in Cze.
Factors affecting human reproduction following the demographic transition are examined. In particular, the author looks at the prospects for the countries that first experienced the transition of raising levels of fertility that will ensure population replacement.
Correspondence: Z. Pavlik, Charles University, Department of Demography and Geodemography, Ovocny trh 5, 116 36 Prague 1, Czechoslovakia. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

58:20251 Peritz, Eric; Baras, Mario. Studies in the fertility of Israel. Jewish Population Studies, No. 24, ISBN 965-222-258-5. 1992. 201 pp. Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Institute of Contemporary Jewry, Division of Jewish Demography and Statistics: Jerusalem, Israel; Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs, Demographic Center: Jerusalem, Israel. In Eng.
This publication contains five chapters by various authors on aspects of fertility in Israel. They examine the Jewish and Muslim populations separately using data from the same official sources and from a fertility survey carried out in 1987-1988. A chapter on fertility patterns in the kibbutzim is included.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Institute of Contemporary Jewry, Division of Jewish Demography and Statistics, Gaster Building, Mount Scopus Campus, Jerusalem 91905, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20252 Peterson, Kenneth D. The economics and demographics of fertility transitions: calculation or imitation? Pub. Order No. DA9205254. 1991. 204 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The factors affecting the decline of fertility in Sri Lanka are examined using World Fertility Survey and Demographic and Health Survey data. The study was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the State University of New York at Stony Brook.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 52(9).

58:20253 Prioux, France. Fertility at the beginning of a marriage: some reflections on the calculation of rates. [La fecondite en debut de mariage: reflexions sur le calcul des taux.] Population, Vol. 46, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1991. 1,491-512 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Duration-specific fertility rates are used to study the fertility of marriages from vital registration data....To eliminate...bias we...need a classification of births by year of marriage and duration of marriage in months. In the absence of such information, we suggest the use of a weighted mean; weights based on the monthly distribution of marriages in one country may be applied to those in a different country, in which legitimate fertility is similar." The method is applied to data for Austria, England and Wales, France, and the Netherlands.
Correspondence: F. Prioux, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20254 Raajpoot, Uzzer A. Analysis of birth intervals: the case of Pakistan. Pub. Order No. DA9137371. 1991. 167 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
Data from the 1975 Pakistan World Fertility Survey are used to analyze fertility in this study, which was undertaken as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Oregon.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 52(7).

58:20255 Ritterband, Paul. The fertility of the Jewish people: a contemporary overview. In: World Jewish population: trends and policies, edited by Sergio DellaPergola and Leah Cohen. 1992. 93-105 pp. Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Institute of Contemporary Jewry, Division of Jewish Demography and Statistics: Jerusalem, Israel; Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs, Demographic Center: Jerusalem, Israel. In Eng.
Jewish fertility around the world is analyzed using data from a variety of sources. The author concludes that because Jewish populations in developed countries are no longer supplemented by immigration, low fertility and assimilation cause a continuing population decline. It is also noted that "one consequence of the choice of modernism has been the gradual erosion of the demographic basis of Jewish life."
Correspondence: P. Ritterband, City University of New York, Graduate and University Center, Center for Jewish Studies, 33 West 42nd Street, New York, NY 10036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20256 Rodriguez, German; Aravena, Ricardo. Socio-economic factors and the transition to low fertility in less developed countries: a comparative analysis. In: Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, August 5-7, 1991, Washington, D.C.: proceedings. Volume 1. 1991. 39-72 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
"In this paper we undertake a systematic examination of the process of transition to low fertility within groups defined by socio-economic factors....We use data from a set of fifteen developing countries which have conducted fertility surveys as part of both the World Fertility Survey (WFS) and the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) programs, thereby permitting comparative analysis of trends over time....We focus our attention on marital fertility, or more precisely fertility following first union, which we study as a function of two demographic controls: age and duration since first union. We consider three socio-economic factors which affect fertility: type of place of residence, wife's education and husband's occupation. All three are treated in the analysis as discrete or categorical variables. The analysis is conducted using a multivariate Poisson regression model...and yields indices of the spacing and limiting components of marital fertility. The statistical model is used to produce estimates of spacing and limiting behavior as well as estimates of the implied total marital fertility rate for each country and survey, both at the national level and within categories of each socio-economic factor."
Correspondence: G. Rodriguez, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20257 Roeske-Slomka, Iwona. The influence of income on family fertility in the light of the results of empirical studies. Polish Population Review, No. 1, 1991. 89-104 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Eng.
The author uses data from family budget surveys conducted in Poland from 1973 to 1983 to assess the impact of income on total family fertility. The author concludes that earnings influence parity by either maintaining or influencing a family's life-style, including its decisions concerning reproductive behavior.
Correspondence: I. Roeske-Slomka, University of Economics, U1. Niepodleglosci 10, 60-967 Poznan, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20258 Sarma, R. S. S. Probability of first birth by duration of union: an indirect method of estimation and application to Egypt, Sudan and Yemen. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1990. 1991. 867-91 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"The interest in the present study is to investigate the pattern of first birth occurrence by duration of sexual union....[Data on the] proportion [of] currently married women who are nulliparas, at different durations since first union are used. A functional form is identified and the goodness of fit established in the case of three selected countries, namely, Egypt, Sudan and Yemen. Probabilities of first birth at specified durations of marriage are computed and applied to a cohort of women. The resulting first birth distributions, the related indices of location and spread are estimated for the purpose of cross-national comparisons."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20259 Sivamurthy, M. An evaluation of the principal components models of ASFR. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1990. 1991. 893-943 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"The purpose of this investigation is to present a systematic evaluation of the Principal Components Models of ASFR [age-specific fertility rates]....The main effort here is to make the methodology less subjective and statistically more acceptable....The evaluation undertaken here confirms that a two parameter Principal Components model can represent an ASFR schedule satisfactorily." Data from selected countries are used to test the proposed models.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20260 Suchindran, C. M.; Koo, Helen P. Age at last birth and its components. Demography, Vol. 29, No. 2, May 1992. 227-45 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper examines the ways in which the behavior of twentieth century cohorts of [U.S.] women changed simultaneously in the three components of fertility that determine age at last birth--age at first birth, spacing between subsequent births, and parity progression ratios of subsequent births--to produce changes in the timing of the completion of childbearing. It decomposes changes in the mean age at last birth among cohorts and between whites and nonwhites to changes in these three components. To perform these analyses, we developed and applied a method to estimate the distributions and means of ages at first and last births, birth intervals, and parity progression ratios from age- and parity-specific fertility rates available from vital statistics data. Results show that the cohorts increased and decreased their age at first birth, birth intervals, and parity progression ratios of lower and higher birth orders in almost every possible combination so as to achieve a relatively young age at final birth."
Correspondence: C. M. Suchindran, University of North Carolina, Department of Biostatistics, CB No. 7400, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7400. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20261 VanderPost, Cornelis. Regional patterns of fertility transition in Botswana. Geography, Vol. 77, Pt. 2, No. 335, Apr 1992. 109-22 pp. Sheffield, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines the spatial progression of the second and crucial part of the 'demographic transition', i.e., a reduction of fertility, by comparing fertility between urban and rural areas and among rural districts, and between two generations of women in three contrasting villages. The analysis shows that the 'fertility transition' in Botswana is progressing in a geographically uneven manner: in some districts fertility is increasing due to the breakdown of traditions, while in others it is slowly declining due to modernisation or westernisation. The progression of the transition is not yet sufficient to contribute substantially to a reduction of overall population growth." Data are from official sources.
Correspondence: C. VanderPost, University of Botswana, Department of Environmental Science, Private Bag 0022, Gaborone, Botswana. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

58:20262 Waltisperger, D. A statistical analysis of fertility. [Analyse statistique de la fecondite.] International Statistical Institute Proceedings and Monographs Series, No. 1, ISBN 90-73592-02-X. 1991. 122 pp. International Statistical Institute [ISI]: Voorburg, Netherlands. In Fre.
These are the proceedings of a workshop held at the Institut de Formation et de Recherche Demographiques (IFORD) in Yaounde, Cameroon, October 2-27, 1989. The objective of the workshop was to examine how techniques of data analysis can help measure the overall demographic impact of a group of variables, using the example of sociocultural effects on fertility and infant and child mortality. The publication consists of eight studies in which this approach is used to analyze World Fertility Survey data from Benin, Cameroon, the Ivory Coast, Morocco, Rwanda, Senegal, and Tunisia. The primary focus of these studies is on fertility, although two papers examine aspects of nuptiality.
Correspondence: International Statistical Institute, Prinses Beatrixlaan 428, P.O. Box 950, 2270 AZ Voorburg, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20263 Warren, Charles W.; Johnson, J. Timothy; Gule, Gugulethu; Hlophe, Ephraim; Kraushaar, Daniel. The determinants of fertility in Swaziland. Population Studies, Vol. 46, No. 1, Mar 1992. 5-17 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this paper data from the 1988 Swaziland Family Health Survey...are used to examine the relative importance of nuptiality, contraceptive use, lactation, and involuntary infertility as they affect fertility. It is shown that future decreases in fertility in Swaziland are most likely to result from increases in use of contraception. Current use of contraception among women of reproductive age, though only 17 per cent, is four times higher than previously reported, and its effectiveness appears to be high. The nuptiality effect appears least likely to change, because it is such an integral part of Swazi custom. Most Swazi women experience post partum amenorrhoea of long duration; thus, an increase in the importance of this factor is unlikely to decrease fertility."
Correspondence: C. W. Warren, Centers for Disease Control, Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Adolescent and School Health, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20264 Whittington, Leslie A. Taxes and the family: the impact of the tax exemption for dependents on marital fertility. Demography, Vol. 29, No. 2, May 1992. 215-26 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"In this paper I use data from the Panel Study on Income Dynamics to examine the relationship between the dependent exemption feature of the United States federal income tax (an unambiguous subsidy to dependents) and the fertility behavior of married couples over the period 1979-1983. The exemption decreases the price of a child to a household, thus having a direct relationship to the timing and/or number of children observed in a family. Conditional logit results support this hypothesis by showing that the exemption has a positive and significant impact on the likelihood of having a birth during the period under study."
Correspondence: L. A. Whittington, University of Maryland, Department of Consumer Economics and Center on Population, Gender and Social Inequality, 2100 Marie Mount Hall, College Park, MD 20742. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20265 Wolde, Mulu. Socio-economic and demographic determinants of fertility in Lesotho. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1990. 1991. 563-95 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to analyse the extent of influence of the level of social transformation on the intervening variables and the concomitant cumulative fertility using the 1977 Lesotho Fertility Survey." The importance of educational status, childhood place of residence, and occupation is noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.2. Differential Fertility

Studies on differences in fertility patterns and levels in subgroups of a population. Also included are studies on age-specific fertility, such as teenage pregnancy.

58:20266 Blau, Francine D. The fertility of immigrant women: evidence from high fertility source countries. NBER Working Paper, No. 3608, Jan 1991. 39, [19] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
U.S. census data for 1970 and 1980 are used to compare fertility differentials among migrant women from the Middle East, Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean. Comparisons are also made between those migrants and native-born Americans.
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

58:20267 Craig, John. Fertility trends within the United Kingdom. Population Trends, No. 67, Spring 1992. 17-21 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This article looks at [fertility] differences between the four countries of the United Kingdom and, at a lower areal level, between the standard regions of England. It is shown, for example, that the overall level of fertility in England and in Wales is now markedly above that in Scotland....Analysed by age, in all three countries the age-specific rates for women aged under 25 fell in the 1980s, whereas those for women aged 30 and over rose....In Northern Ireland fertility is still at a higher level than in the other countries of the United Kingdom; but this differential has decreased and here, too, the largest decline has been amongst the under 25s."
Correspondence: J. Craig, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, Demographic Analysis and Vital Statistics Division, St. Catherine's House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20268 El Bakly, Ahmed A. A. Determinants of adolescent fertility in Egypt (1984). In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1990. 1991. 153-74 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The levels and determinants of adolescent fertility in Egypt are explored using data from the 1984 Egypt Contraceptive Prevalence Survey for those aged 12-19 years. Policy implications are discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20269 Hern, Warren M. Polygyny and fertility among the Shipibo of the Peruvian Amazon. Population Studies, Vol. 46, No. 1, Mar 1992. 53-64 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This report describes a study of the fertility experience of an Amazon Indian tribe that has shown evidence of having the highest documented fertility of any human group. The Shipibo, who live in the upper Peruvian Amazon, are experiencing rapid cultural change, including a decline in the prevalence of polygyny. This study tests the specific hypotheses that polygyny limits individual female and community fertility through the mechanism of post partum sexual abstinence and longer birth intervals. Total population counts in eight villages and reproductive histories of all females age 13 [and older] show that mean birth interval lengths of polygynous women are four months longer than those of monogamous women. Fertility of polygynous women was lower, with 1.3 fewer term-births per reproductive span than that of monogamous women. The community general fertility rate is negatively associated with the proportion of polygynous birth intervals in the community. In this study, cultural change is strongly associated with higher fertility."
Correspondence: W. M. Hern, University of Colorado, Department of Anthropology, Campus Box 233, Boulder, CO 80309-0233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20270 Kupinsky, Shlomo. Results of the fertility study relevant to a population policy in Israel. In: World Jewish population: trends and policies, edited by Sergio DellaPergola and Leah Cohen. 1992. 301-18 pp. Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Institute of Contemporary Jewry, Division of Jewish Demography and Statistics: Jerusalem, Israel; Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs, Demographic Center: Jerusalem, Israel. In Eng.
The first part of this paper concerns fertility differentials among Jews in Israel by age, educational status, religiosity, region of origin, and female employment. Data are from a fertility survey carried out in 1988 that included a representative sample of 1,750 married Jewish women aged 22-39. The second part examines the policy implications of these findings, focusing on the prospects for developing pronatalist measures.
Correspondence: S. Kupinsky, Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs, Demographic Center, 10 Yad Haruzim Street, Box 1260, 91000 Jerusalem, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20271 Liao, Tim F. Immanence and transcendence: the relationship between patterns of family decision making and fertility among Catholics and Protestants. Sociological Analysis, Vol. 53, No. 1, Spring 1992. 49-62 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The purpose of this article is to study the effects of the family organization as a sociological setting--which may be differentially compatible to religion--on fertility differences between Catholics and Protestants in the United States." The focus is on whether patterns of decision-making in the two groups are responsible for some of the observed differences. Data are from the 1978 Detroit Area Study: A Study of the Family. "It is found that a contemporary American woman living in a family with a pattern of decision making similar to the sociological setting that was conducive to the existence of Catholicism in the past would have higher fertility, regardless of her religious preference and her marital age. In addition, this effect of patterns of family decision making on fertility would not be dependent on her religion."
Correspondence: T. F. Liao, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

58:20272 Low, Bobbi S. Reproductive life in nineteenth century Sweden: an evolutionary perspective on demographic phenomena. Ethology and Sociobiology, Vol. 12, No. 6, Nov 1991. 411-48 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper analyzes the reproductive patterns of a sample of mid-19th century Swedish men and women living in seven parishes, addressing survivorship, marriage, remarriage, marital versus nonmarital fertility, survivorship of children, and age effects as these varied for people of different status, living in different parishes." The author uses an evolutionary perspective to determine "whether the particular behaviors or trends, in specific environments, are advantageous or disadvantageous for their bearers, in terms of net lifetime reproductive success and lineage persistence."
Correspondence: B. S. Low, University of Michigan, School of Natural Resources and Evolution and Human Behavior Program, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

58:20273 McCrate, Elaine. Labor market segmentation and relative black/white teenage birth rates. Review of Black Political Economy, Vol. 18, No. 4, Spring 1990. 37-53 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
"Teenage mothers typically have lower educational attainment than other women. Most observers have argued that this is a major reason for their greater risk of poverty. This article takes the opposite view: that circumstances associated with poverty contribute to a greater likelihood of teenage childbearing. In particular, poor educational quality and the chances of secondary sector employment are more common for black women, regardless of their age at first birth. Hence the payoffs to education may be quite low for these women, which may be the reason for early motherhood. This argument is presented in terms of segmented labor market theory. Data to support it is presented from the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Other common explanations of teenage motherhood are critiqued."
Correspondence: E. McCrate, University of Vermont, Department of Economics, Burlington, VT 05405. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

58:20274 Mosher, William D.; Williams, Linda B.; Johnson, David P. Religion and fertility in the United States: new patterns. Demography, Vol. 29, No. 2, May 1992. 199-214 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors examine data from the 1982 and 1988 U.S. National Surveys of Family Growth for a sample of 16,400 women to determine the effect of religious affiliation on fertility. Current trends are explored and compared with fertility during the period 1947-1961. The authors find that "the baby boom-era pattern of high Catholic and low Protestant fertility has ended. Among non-Hispanic whites in the 1980s, Catholic total fertility rates (TFRs) were about one-quarter of a child lower than Protestant rates....Most of the Protestant-Catholic difference is related to later and less frequent marriage among Catholics....[Also noted are] the high fertility of Mormons and frequently attending Protestants, and the very low fertility of those with no religious affiliation."
Correspondence: W. D. Mosher, National Center for Health Statistics, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20275 Pool, Ian; Tiong, Fred. Sub-national differentials in the Pakeha fertility decline: 1876-1901. New Zealand Population Review, Vol. 17, No. 2, Nov 1991. 46-64 pp. Wellington, New Zealand. In Eng.
Fertility trends among the Pakeha, the British migrants who settled in New Zealand, are examined for the period 1876-1901, during which a significant fertility decline occurred. Special emphasis is given to regional differences in this decline. The authors conclude that "despite the absence of modern means of contraception, a very rapid decline occurred, across most regions....[These] differences in the rates of decline were determined by the patterns of development; urbanisation and peri-urbanisation played a major role, while in rural areas the pattern of development--established, extensive pastoralism as against intensive pastoral or pioneer farming--was critical, and seems to have superseded factors such as the United Kingdom place of origin of the major settler populations."
Correspondence: I. Pool, University of Waikato, Population Studies Centre, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20276 Schoemaker, Juan. Social class as a determinant of fertility behavior: the case of Bolivia. In: Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, August 5-7, 1991, Washington, D.C.: proceedings. Volume 1. 1991. 73-88 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
"In this paper we will attempt to show that social class is a significant variable in determining reproductive behavior, and that its inclusion in demographic analysis can enhance our understanding of demographic phenomena. We hypothesize that the inverse correlation that is invariably found between education and fertility is fostered to a great extent by social class. The socio-economic position of a woman in society is a decisive factor in motivating her aspirations regarding family size, in expanding her awareness about the means available to accomplish those aspirations and in determining her access to those means. We will use Bolivia as a case study, analyzing the data from the DHS survey, carried out in 1989."
Correspondence: J. Schoemaker, Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 8850 Stanford Boulevard, Suite 4000, Columbia, MD 21045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20277 Stephen, Elizabeth H.; Bean, Frank D. Assimilation, disruption and the fertility of Mexican-origin women in the United States. International Migration Review, Vol. 26, No. 1, Spring 1992. 67-88 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This research uses 1970 and 1980 Census data to test hypotheses about the effects of adaptation, assimilation and disruption on the fertility of Mexican-origin women [in the United States]....Fertility is found to decline the greater the length of familial exposure to the United States and, in the case of younger groups of immigrant women, to fall below the level of U.S.-born Mexican-origin and non-Hispanic White women when other variables are held constant. These results illustrate why assimilation effects on immigrant group fertility have often not emerged in previous research. They also imply that the fertility behavior of the Mexican-origin population is likely to come to resemble that of the rest of the population the longer this group resides in the United States."
Correspondence: E. H. Stephen, Georgetown University, 37th and O Streets NW, Washington, D.C. 20057. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20278 Wendt, Hartmut. Fertility in the two German states--between convergence and divergence. [Geburtenhaufigkeit in beiden deutschen Staaten-zwischen Konvergenz und Divergenz.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 17, No. 3, 1991. 251-80 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
Fertility trends in the German Democratic Republic and the Federal Republic of Germany are analyzed and compared for the period from the end of World War II to 1989. Factors considered include the postwar baby boom, political factors and economic development, and differences in government policies affecting fertility, including population and family policies. The author finds that "the Federal Republic of Germany differs from the former GDR with regard to characteristic factors of behaviour especially by a higher childlessness, higher age at marriage as well as at birth, but also by a lower divorce rate and lower illegitimacy ratio."
Correspondence: H. Wendt, Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung, Postfach 55 28, 6200 Wiesbaden 1, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20279 Wilson, S. H.; Brown, T. P.; Richards, R. G. Teenage conception and contraception in the English regions. Journal of Public Health Medicine, Vol. 14, No. 1, Mar 1992. 17-25 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Nationally available data on teenage fertility, family planning care and mortality were analysed to determine the relationships between teenage conception, availability of abortion and family planning care, and an indicator of socioeconomic disadvantage--the Standardized Mortality Ratio (SMR). In the 14 regions of England the strongest correlate of teenage conception and of the proportion of teenage conceptions aborted was female all-causes SMR. High levels of provision of NHS [National Health Service] abortion services and uptake of family planning clinic care did not significantly reduce teenage fertility."
Correspondence: S. H. Wilson, University of Nottingham Medical School, Department of Public Health Medicine and Epidemiology, Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham NG7 2UH, England. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology

Studies on infertility, as well as studies of spontaneous abortion, prematurity, and other relevant pathologies of pregnancy.

58:20280 Faro, Sebastian. OB-GYN care in the 1990s: the chlamydia challenge. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Supplement, Vol. 164, No. 6, Pt. 2, Jun 1991. 1,767-96 pp. Mosby-Year Book: St. Louis, Missouri. In Eng.
This issue is devoted to papers presented at a symposium that preceded the annual meeting of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, held in May 1990 in San Francisco, California. The five papers deal with various aspects of Chlamydia trachomatis infection, its effects on ectopic pregnancies and fertility, and its treatment and prevention.
Correspondence: Mosby-Year Book, 11830 Westline Industrial Drive, St. Louis, MO 63146-3318. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20281 Hilden, J.; Modvig, J.; Damsgaard, M. T.; Schmidt, L. Estimation of the spontaneous abortion risk in the presence of induced abortions. Statistics in Medicine, Vol. 10, No. 2, Feb 1991. 285-97 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"We propose a method of estimating the miscarriage risk in a setting where counts of births, miscarriages and induced abortions are available, and also the gestational week of each induced abortion. Unlike previously proposed methods, ours takes into account the fraction of the miscarriage risk to which each interrupted pregnancy has been exposed....Separate attention is given to a competing-risk model of miscarriages and interruptions, and examples are given of reasons why the crucial assumption that these two sources of termination operate independently is unlikely to be met. Finally, it is argued that pregnancy wishes, especially those of habitual aborters, shape the miscarriage rate to the extent that it becomes as much a cultural parameter as a marker of biological hazards." The geographical focus is on Denmark.
Correspondence: J. Hilden, Institute of Medical Genetics (Biostatistics) and of Social Medicine, Panum, Blegdamsvej 3, DK-2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:20282 Serour, G. I.; El Ghar, M.; Mansour, R. T. Infertility: a health problem in the Muslim world. Population Sciences, Vol. 10, Jan 1991. 41-58 pp. Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
A study of 1,488 infertile couples in Egypt is used as a model for the assessment of infertility levels in the rest of the Muslim world. The authors note the need for government-sponsored preventive programs in developing countries to offset the expense of infertility treatments, which are often only available at the private level.
Correspondence: G. I. Serour, Al-Azhar University, Endoscopy and Microsurgery Unit, Cairo, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4. Actions and Activities Directly Affecting Fertility

Studies concerning activities, including family planning programs, that are primarily designed to influence fertility.

F.4.1. General Fertility Control and Contraception

General aspects of fertility control, primarily those concerned with family planning and family planning programs.

58:20283 Acharya, Laxmi B. Factors affecting contraceptive use in urban Nepal. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1990. 1991. 715-47 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
Factors that are associated with current contraceptive usage in Nepal, other than the accessibility and availability of contraceptive methods, are analyzed using data from the 1986 Nepal Family Planning and Fertility Survey. The results suggest that contraceptive usage is highest among women aged 30-34, married for 15-19 years, and with four living children, and that the greatest need is among older women and women who already have large families.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20284 Agyei, William K. A.; Epema, Elsbeth J. Sexual behavior and contraceptive use among 15-24-year-olds in Uganda. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 18, No. 1, Mar 1992. 13-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"In this article, we use data from the 1988 and 1989 phases of [the Ugandan Adolescent Fertility Survey] to examine sexual behavior and contraceptive practice in Kampala (the major urban center), in smaller urban centers with populations of 5,000-50,000, and in rural areas. Although our emphasis is on late adolescence (ages 15-19), we also collected data from a comparison group of young adults aged 20-24." The authors conclude that while contraceptive awareness among respondents is high, contraceptive prevalence rates among the sexually active are low. The need to improve both family planning education and program accessibility is stressed.
Correspondence: W. K. A. Agyei, Makerere University, Institute of Statistics and Applied Economics, Kampala, Uganda. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20285 Ahmed, Yosr A. F. Dis-continuation of contraceptives in Egypt, 1980-1984. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1990. 1991. 129-51 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"This study aims at assessing the level of [contraceptive] dis-continuation rates [in Egypt] for overall users and by specific methods. It also aims at measuring the relative importance of each cause interrupting the practice of use. Finally, it aims at examining the level of [contraceptive] use-effectiveness with regard to all methods and a specific method." Data are from the 1984 Egypt Contraceptive Prevalence Survey.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20286 Akhter, Halida H.; Ahmed, Saifuddin. Determinants of contraceptive continuation in rural Bangladesh. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 24, No. 2, Apr 1992. 261-8 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
The authors analyze determinants of contraceptive continuation in rural Bangladesh, using data from the 1988 Contraceptive Use Dynamics Study. The study "indicated that the previous death of children, number of living children, desire for additional children and son preference were important determinants of contraceptive continuation. The importance of these factors varies to some extent with use of different contraceptive methods."
Correspondence: H. H. Akhter, Bangladesh Fertility Research Programme, 3/7 Asad Avenue, Mohammadpur, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20287 Al-Najjar, Latifa M. Fertility preferences and fertility regulation behaviour in Jordan (1976). In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1990. 1991. 413-51 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"The objectives of this study [are] as follows: 1) to examine the effect of fertility preferences on fertility regulation behaviour. 2) to study the determinants of the intention to use contraception in the future as well as the desire for future births....Data used in this study come from the Jordan Fertility Survey (JFS), which was conducted in 1976 as part of the WFS [World Fertility Survey] programme." A second measure of fertility preferences that is considered is a comparison of desired and actual family size.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20288 Amin, Ruhul; Chowdhury, Jamir; Hill, Robert B. Socioeconomic differentials in contraceptive use and desire for more children in Greater Freetown, Sierra Leone. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 18, No. 1, Mar 1992. 24-6 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"An analysis of data from a 1990 household survey conducted in Greater Freetown, the capital of Sierra Leone, revealed that among women aged 12-49 with at least one child younger than five, 17% were using a contraceptive method and 64% wanted more children. Regression analysis showed that contraceptive use was positively associated with age and with education beyond the primary level, and negatively associated with Islamic religious affiliation. The desire for more children was negatively associated with age and with parity greater than three, and was positively associated with Islamic religious affiliation."
Correspondence: R. Amin, Morgan State University, Institute for Urban Research, Hillen Road and Coldspring Lane, Baltimore, MD 21239. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20289 Ashford, Lori S.; Bouzidi, Med. Family planning programme sustainability: a review of cost recovery approaches. Mar 1992. iv, 81 pp. International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]: London, England. In Eng.
These are the papers presented at the Seminar on Programme Sustainability through Cost Recovery, held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, October 21-25, 1991. The focus of the seminar was on the experience of IPPF member associations in developing the sustainability of family planning programs, and on how cost-recovery experiences have affected the management and growth of family planning services. The papers are divided into sections on client fees, the social marketing of contraceptives, and service agreements with the public sector. The geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: International Planned Parenthood Federation, Regent's College, Inner Circle, Regent's Park, London NW1 4NS, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20290 Bhende, Asha A.; Choe, Minja Kim; Rele, J. R.; Palmore, James A. Determinants of contraceptive method choice in an industrial city of India. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 6, No. 3, Sep 1991. 41-66 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
Factors affecting contraceptive choice in the city of Jamshedpur, Bihar State, India, are examined. Data are from a survey conducted in 1984 to evaluate a family planning program that offers participants a variety of contraception choices. The "analysis shows that religion and caste are important determinants of acceptance and method choice. Mother tongue also has a substantial influence. Although husband's occupation does not affect overall use, it does have some influence on method choice; wife's occupation shows a strong positive relationship with overall use."
Correspondence: A. A. Bhende, International Institute for Population Sciences, Deonar, Bombay 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20291 Bracher, Michael; Santow, Gigi. Premature discontinuation of contraception in Australia. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 24, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1992. 58-65 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Life-history data from a nationally representative survey of Australian women were used to examine discontinuation of contraceptive methods because of accidental pregnancy, side effects or dissatisfaction....Hazards models were used to identify the correlates of discontinuation of each method. Predictors of premature discontinuation reflect the availability of methods, physiological reactions to them and the social characteristics of their users."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1990 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: M. Bracher, Australian National University, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, GPO 4, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20292 Bulatao, Rodolfo A.; Bos, Eduard. The spread of fertility regulation as collective behaviour. In: Family planning programmes and fertility, edited by James F. Phillips and John A. Ross. 1992. 123-37 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors "present a theoretical perspective on how collective behaviour arises, blending the roles of supply and demand determinants into a social context, within which programmes respond to contraceptive needs and shape reproductive motives. In their view, the spread of fertility regulation throughout the world can be viewed partly as an instance of collective behaviour; the spread of fertility regulation is conceptually similar to such disparate social phenomena as crowds, riots, panics, fads, and social movements. [They] consider how the collective behaviour perspective might illuminate fertility transition theory. They explain the predominant theoretical approach to it, and assess what is gained and what is lost by adopting it instead of alternative perspectives."
Correspondence: R. A. Bulatao, World Bank, Population and Human Resources Department, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20293 Chernichovsky, Dov; Pardoko, Henry; De Leeuw, David; Rahardjo, Pudjo; Lerman, Charles. The Indonesian family planning program: an economic perspective. Policy, Research, and External Affairs Working Paper, No. WPS 628, Mar 1991. v, 185 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This report is designed to provide the Indonesian authorities with data that could be used to improve the cost-effectiveness of family planning delivery. It "examines resource allocation, cost, funding institutions, and output of the program at grassroots level in selected regencies in three provinces: West Java, the Special District of Yogyakarta, and South Kalimantan. It is based on data about the program's field operations collected during November 1986-March 1987, and routine service statistics...." The authors conclude that the development of IUDs and injectable contraceptives could probably improve contraceptive prevalence but would require capital investment and the training of medical personnel that would strain available resources.
Correspondence: World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

58:20294 Cho, Nam-Hoon; Kim, Hyun-Oak. Korean experience with population control policy and family planning program management and operation. Sep 1991. vii, 350 pp. Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs: Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
This publication is a reference work used in workshops in South Korea and has been published for those interested in the experience of South Korea in family planning policy and program management. "The report consists of two parts. The first is an overview of program policy developments and the major changes in demographic, social and economic status that have taken place in Korea during the last 30 years, and the second part describes the components of family planning program management, including program management structure and procedures at each level of the administrative system, program planning for the target setting and allocation system, information and evaluation [systems], supervision system, and other management practices."
Correspondence: Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs, San 42-14, Bulgwang-dong, Eunpyung-ku, Seoul 122-040, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20295 Chomitz, Kenneth M.; Birdsall, Nancy. Incentives for small families: concepts and issues. In: Proceedings of the World Bank Annual Conference on Development Economics, 1990. ISBN 0-8213-1607-9. 1991. 309-49 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper examines the benefits and costs of client-targeted family planning incentives--public policies providing specified rewards or penalties for specified fertility-related behavior. Two rationales for incentives are discussed: first, where markets for contraceptives or contraceptive information fail, incentives can increase families' welfare by reducing barriers to the use of contraception; and, second, where childbearing imposes external costs not borne by parents, incentives can align private and social costs, improving social welfare. These distinct rationales require distinct types of incentives." A framework for assessing the costs and benefits of such incentives is proposed and tested using data for the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. The results suggest "that incentives for short-term trial of contraceptives or for acquiring information may offer substantial benefits at low costs." Comments by Paulina Makinwa-Adebusoye (pp. 341-5) and a summary of the floor discussion (pp. 347-9) are included.
Correspondence: K. M. Chomitz, Boston University, 147 Bay Street Road, Boston, MA 02215. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

58:20296 Cochrane, Susan; Gibney, Laura. Does better access to contraceptives increase their use? Key policy and methodological issues. Policy, Research, and External Affairs Working Paper, No. WPS 728, Jul 1991. 26, [4] pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Some general policy and methodological issues concerning the relationships between access to contraceptives and contraceptive usage in developing countries are explored. The authors review the published literature on the effect of access on use, with a focus on the policy implications of such studies. "The only consistently significant results available on whether access to contraceptives increases their use relate to the density of access: the more sources users have access to, the more they seem to use contraceptives. Better data are needed on other measures of access."
Correspondence: World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

58:20297 Das, N. P. The effect of birth spacing on current fertility. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 36, No. 4, Dec 1990. 36-45 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
The author investigates the possible fertility effects of the Indian family planning program's promotion of birth spacing. A fertility decision-making model is developed and applied to Indian data. It is concluded that "if all couples are persuaded to space their desired children by at least three years, the present birth rate can at least be reduced to about 25 per 1,000 population."
Correspondence: N. P. Das, Population Research Centre, Faculty of Science, Baroda 390 002, India. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

58:20298 Diczfalusy, Egon. Contraceptive prevalence, reproductive health, and international morality. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol. 166, No. 4, Apr 1992. 1,037-43 pp. St. Louis, Missouri. In Eng.
This is the text of an address presented at the 1991 annual meeting of the American Gynecological and Obstetrical Society. The author discusses the impact of increased contraceptive prevalence on reproductive and environmental health and on social and economic development. Aspects considered include funding sources, political commitment, the involvement of community leaders, human rights, women's status, education, access to and quality of family planning services, and contraceptive development. He emphasizes the importance of trying "to change the perception of priorities and their consequences by the people and their governments." The focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: E. Diczfalusy, Karolinska Institute, Department of Reproductive Endocrinology, Stockholm S-104 01, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20299 Doherty, Emita T. A diffusion of innovations model applied to family planning education in Honduras. Pub. Order No. DA9201978. 1990. 222 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Florida.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 52(8).

58:20300 El-Zanaty, Fatma H. Family planning differentials by governorate, in Egypt. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1990. 1991. 63-85 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"This paper deals with levels and differentials at [the] governorate level [in Egypt] with regard to family planning....Levels, and differentials in knowledge and source of contraceptive methods, and approval of family planning which may affect contraceptive use will be examined. Variations in contraceptive use (ever use, current use and method mix) and reasons for these variations will be discussed....Some socio-economic differentials of ever-married women between governorates which may affect family planning adoption will also be presented."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20301 Farley, Tim; Machin, David. Statistical problems in family planning research. Statistics in Medicine, Vol. 10, No. 2, Feb 1991. 159-297 pp. John Wiley and Sons: Chichester, England. In Eng.
"The object of this special issue of Statistics in Medicine is to draw to the attention of medical statisticians working in other fields of application the extensive and important research activities associated with contraceptive development."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: John Wiley and Sons, Baffins Lane, Chichester, West Sussex PO19 1UD, England. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:20302 Figueroa Perea, Juan G.; Aparicio Jimenez, Ricardo C.; Aguilar Perez, Elba. Contraceptive use dynamics in Mexico: a follow-up of some reproductive events. In: Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, August 5-7, 1991, Washington, D.C.: proceedings. Volume 1. 1991. 641-66 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
This is an analysis of the dynamics of contraceptive use in Mexico, based on data from two surveys of the same population conducted one year apart. The surveys were the National Fertility and Health Survey (ENFES 1987) and the Project on Determinants of Contraceptive Practices in Mexico (EDEPAM). "In order to understand contraceptive use dynamics, two main phases have been distinguished: preadoption and postadoption stages....Three main elements have been considered in order to understand the process that leads to contraception adoption: there must be a perception of the possibility to limit family size, elements must exist for a couple to be motivated to either have less children or space their birth, and, the decision to adopt contraception should result from a positive valuation of at least one method and one source of supply."
Correspondence: J. G. Figueroa Perea, Direccion General de Planificacion Familiar, Secretaria de Salud, Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20303 Foley, Peter J.; Vongsak, Davone. Demographic health survey: Xay Thani district of Vientiane prefecture, Lao People's Democratic Republic. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 6, No. 4, Dec 1991. 67-78 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This article analyses survey data from [Xay Thani,] a district not too far from the capital [of Laos]....It finds that there is a pressing need for education and provision of birth-spacing methods, safe drinking water and sanitation in order to improve family health. It also finds that there is a large, latent, unmet need for modern contraceptive spacing methods. The primary impediment to family planning is the lack of knowledge about contraceptive methods and where to get them." The survey was modeled on those from the Demographic and Health Surveys program and was conducted in 1991.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20304 Gandotra, M. M.; Das, N. P. Contraceptive choice, shift and use continuation: a prospective study in Gujarat. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 36, No. 3, Sep 1990. 54-69 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"The main objectives of the present paper are: (1) to examine the choice of a particular family planning method, the proportion of switchers, and the reason for their switching over to another method; and (2) to assess the proportion of discontinuers and identify the factors that determine the discontinuation of the method." The data concern some 2,800 family planning acceptors in Gujarat, India.
Correspondence: M. M. Gandotra, Population Research Centre, Faculty of Science, Baroda 390 002, India. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

58:20305 Ghosh, A. K.; Das, N. K. Fertility and adoption of family planning among the Muslims of 24 Parganas, West Bengal--Part-II. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 36, No. 1, Mar 1990. 32-42 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
The authors explore family planning acceptance and fertility trends among Shia and Sunni Muslims living in 24 Parganas district, West Bengal, India. They find that "family planning acceptance among these two Muslim groups...was observed to be very low....It was also observed that neither religion nor infant mortality had any effect on family planning acceptance in these two populations."
For Part I of this article, published in 1988, see 55:40357.
Correspondence: A. K. Ghosh, North Eastern Hill University, Department of Anthropology, Shillong, Meghalaya, India. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

58:20306 Haws, Jeanne; Bakamjian, Lynn; Williams, Tim; Lassner, Karen J. Impact of sustainability policies on sterilization services in Latin America. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 23, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1992. 85-96 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The association for Voluntary Surgical Contraception retrospectively examined the impact of funding decreases on access to sterilization services at 20 nongovernmental family planning clinics in Mexico, the Dominican Republic, and Brazil. Clinic staff were asked questions about client fees, caseloads, availability of comparable low-cost or free services nearby, cost-recovery activities, and the socioeconomic profile of clients before, during the time, and after subsidies were lowered or eliminated. Funding reductions were followed by decreased caseloads at 14 of the 20 sites studied....The most common response to the decrease in funding (shared by 17 sites) was an increase in client fees. In all but three of the 17 clinics, the increase in fees was met with a decline in caseloads. Moreover, at nine of these 17 sites, the fee increase effected a change in client mix; anecdotal evidence suggests that more middle-income and fewer lower-income clients were using sterilization services."
Correspondence: J. Haws, Association for Voluntary Surgical Contraception, International Programs Division, 79 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20307 Herold, Joan M.; Valenzuela, Maria S.; Morris, Leo. Premarital sexual activity and contraceptive use in Santiago, Chile. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 23, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1992. 128-36 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The Santiago Young Adult Reproductive Health Survey was conducted in 1988 to examine the sexual behavior of and contraceptive use among young adults in Chile. The survey was based on multistage household probability samples of 865 women and 800 men aged 15-24 who were living in Santiago in 1988. Findings show that 35 percent of females and 65 percent of males had had premarital intercourse. Among those who had done so, the median age at first experience was 18.4 years for women and 16.4 years for men. Only 20 percent of females and 19 percent of males used contraceptives at first premarital intercourse. Use of contraceptives increased with age at the time of that event....The high rates of premarital and unintended pregnancy among young women and the low prevalence of effective contraceptive use indicate a need for greater emphasis on sex education and family planning services directed at adolescents and unmarried young adults in Santiago."
Correspondence: J. M. Herold, Emory University, School of Public Health, 1599 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30329. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20308 Jamshedji, Armin; Kokate, Narayan. Medical termination of pregnancy and concurrent contraceptive acceptance. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 36, No. 3, Sep 1990. 39-53 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"This paper attempts to determine among women the acceptability of a permanent or temporary contraceptive method after undergoing MTP [medical termination of pregnancy] in relation to intervening variables like socio-demographic characteristics, awareness of contraceptive methods, past contraceptive use, and quality of counselling and services." Data concern 1,042 women who accepted contraception following an abortion in clinics operated by the Family Planning Association of India between 1986 and 1988.
Correspondence: A. Jamshedji, Family Planning Association of India, Bajaj Bhavan, Nariman Point, Bombay 400 021, India. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

58:20309 Joshi, J. V.; Gurjar, N.; Kiro, V.; Sawarkar, S.; Baji, S.; Thosar, C.; Sawant, S. Frequency of coitus in women attending family welfare clinics. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 37, No. 1, Mar 1991. 59-64 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
The impacts of coital frequency and living conditions of couples in India on acceptance of barrier methods of contraception are assessed. Data are from a survey of 1,045 women in Bombay.
Correspondence: J. V. Joshi, Institute for Research in Reproduction, Jehangir Merwanji Street, Parel, Bombay 400 012, India. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

58:20310 Khan, M. E.; Patel, Bella C.; Chandrasekar, R. Contraceptive use dynamics of couples availing of services from government family planning clinics--a case study of Orissa. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 36, No. 3, Sep 1990. 18-38 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"The present study...seeks to understand the contraceptive behaviour of couples seeking family planning services at government family planning clinics. It provides a detailed profile of the couples as to why people prefer one or the other contraceptive, how many children they had at the time they visited the family planning clinic, and what was their family planning status? Whether they were adopting family planning for the first time or they wanted to switch over to another method, or they were past users and had come again to accept contraception?" Data concern 1,023 family planning acceptors in Orissa, India.
Correspondence: M. E. Khan, Operations Research Group, Dr. Vikram Sarabhai Road, Baroda 390 007, India. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

58:20311 Lakshmamma, T.; Reddy, B. P. Knowledge and practice of family planning in Ongole Taluk of Prakasam district in Andhra Pradesh. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 37, No. 1, Mar 1991. 48-58 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"The main objective of this paper was to assess the knowledge and practice of women about family planning methods in relation to their status as responsible parents. The study was conducted in Ongole Taluk in Prakasam district of Andhra Pradesh [India]."
Correspondence: T. Lakshmamma, Sri Venkateswara University, Department of Population Studies, District Chittoor Tirupati 517 502, Andhra Pradesh, India. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

58:20312 Liskin, Laurie; Benoit, Ellen; Blackburn, Richard. Vasectomy: new opportunities. Population Reports, Series D: Male Sterilization, No. 5, Mar 1992. 23 pp. Johns Hopkins University, Center for Communication Programs, Population Information Program [PIP]: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
World trends in vasectomy rates are reviewed. Reasons why this method of contraception is popular in some countries and underutilized in others are explored. The authors conclude that a newly introduced vasectomy technique and improved public information campaigns could increase the popularity of the method.
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins University, Center for Communication Programs, Population Information Program, 527 St. Paul Place, Baltimore, MD 21202. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20313 Liu, Xian. The initiation of contraceptive use in the People's Republic of China. Pub. Order No. DA9135637. 1991. 207 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This research examines the determinants of initiation of contraceptive use in three province-level areas of China: Hebei Province, Shaanxi Province, and the Municipality of Shanghai. It focuses on the patterns of timing at first contraceptive use, the use within birth intervals, and the method chosen...." The study was undertaken as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Michigan.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 52(7).

58:20314 Llera, Silvia. Contraceptive practice in Mexico: two five-year periods, two different patterns (1976-1977 to 1987). [La practica anticonceptiva en Mexico: dos quinquenios, dos patrones diferentes (1976-1977 a 1987).] Estudios Demograficos y Urbanos, Vol. 5, No. 3, Sep-Dec 1990. 535-67, 823-4 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"On the basis of the information gained from the Mexican Fertility Survey (1976-1977), the National Demographic Survey (1982), and the National Fertility and Health Survey (1987), this article aims to present the evolution of the patterns of contraceptive practice in the country, in accordance with the population's sociodemographic profile before and after the introduction of the National Plan for Family Planning. The results [showed] different trends in the five-year periods under review. In the first one, from 1976-1977 to 1982, the use of contraceptive methods increased significantly among certain subgroups of the population (rural women, those with limited schooling, and young women). During the second one, from 1982 to 1987, although some rises were to be observed in the proportion of women using contraceptives, such increases were less intense and more homogeneous...."
Correspondence: S. Llera, El Colegio de Mexico, Centro de Estudios Demograficos y de Desarrollo Urbano, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20315 Locoh, Therese. Twenty years of family planning in Sub-Saharan Africa. [Vingt ans de planification familiale en Afrique Sub-Saharienne.] Les Dossiers du CEPED, No. 19, ISBN 2-87762-039-5. Feb 1992. 27 pp. Centre Francais sur la Population et le Developpement [CEPED]: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"During the past twenty years, [the] African governments' official positions regarding fertility control have progressively evolved. More specifically, programmes have built up in most countries of Sub-Saharan Africa in favour of family planning although only a few countries have experienced a significant fertility decline. This article analyses the successes and failures of programmes that have been implemented since 1970 in an attempt to define a global strategy to promote consistent fertility reduction policies. Such a strategy would include an increased awareness of policy-makers, vigorous actions to improve women's status, child health improvement and interventions towards family planning."
Correspondence: Centre Francais sur la Population et le Developpement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Medecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20316 Mahmud, Simeen. Current contraception among programme beneficiaries. Bangladesh Development Studies, Vol. 19, No. 3, Sep 1991. 35-61 pp. Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
"This paper examines the socio-demographic and female status predictors of current contraception among a group of women beneficiaries of development programmes in four rural areas of Bangladesh. Although the socio-demographic factors are found to persist as the most important determinants of contraceptive use among these women, changes in female status are also able to significantly influence contraception, and display net independent effects. These changes in female status may be linked to both direct and indirect programme inputs, the most notable impact on contraceptive use being through increased physical mobility outside the homestead. These findings bear important implications for programmes aimed at impacting on fertility levels through changes in women's status."
Correspondence: S. Mahmud, Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies, Adamjee Court, Motijheel Commercial Area, Dhaka-2, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

58:20317 Malhotra, Anju; Thapa, Shyam. Determinants of contraceptive method choice in Sri Lanka: an update of a 1987 survey. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 6, No. 3, Sep 1991. 25-40 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"Using survey data, this article analyzes demographic and socio-economic factors affecting contraceptive method choice [in Sri Lanka]....The results show that both demographic and socio-economic factors are important in distinguishing users from non-users. However, there are no significant distinguishing characteristics between the users of traditional methods and those of the modern temporary methods....The findings suggest that much of the rise in contraceptive use in Sri Lanka has taken place without any major shifts in contraceptive method mix or structural changes in the socio-economic and demographic characteristics of the users of specific contraceptive methods."
Correspondence: A. Malhotra, University of Maryland, Center on Population, Gender and Social Inequality, College Park, MD 20742. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20318 Mauldin, W. Parker; Ross, John A. Contraceptive use and commodity costs in developing countries, 1990-2000. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 18, No. 1, Mar 1992. 4-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"In this article, we provide estimates of the number of new and continuing contraceptive users and of the cost of the contraceptive commodities that will be needed to limit population growth during the next decade to no more than the 969 million increase implied by [a recent U.N. population projection]." The authors conclude that an increase in the contraceptive prevalence rate in developing countries to 59 percent by the year 2000 will be necessary to meet this objective. The cost of meeting this goal is estimated at $5.1 billion.
Correspondence: W. P. Mauldin, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20319 Medeiros, Amaury de S. Family planning in the Northeast. [O planejamento familiar e o Nordeste.] ISBN 85-7199-016-6. 1990. [x], 114 pp. MEDSI: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In Por.
This collection of 13 papers by various authors is the product of a symposium held on November 23, 1987, in Pernambuco, Brazil. They examine various aspects of family planning in the northeastern region of Brazil. Topics covered include population trends in the region; social, economic, political, and cultural aspects of family planning; the impact of family planning on maternal and child health programs; and contraceptive methods.
Correspondence: MEDSI, Rua Pareto, 12 Tijuca, 20550 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:20320 Nguyen, Minh Thang; Swenson, Ingrid E.; Vu Duy, Man; Phan, Trinh. Contraceptive use in Vietnam: the effect of individual and community characteristics. Contraception, Vol. 45, No. 5, May 1992. 409-27 pp. Stoneham, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"Data from the 1988 Vietnamese Demographic and Health Survey and the 1990 Vietnam Study of Accessibility of Contraceptives were used in this analysis to determine how selected individual and community characteristics influenced the use of modern methods of contraception in Vietnam. Although there were no significant differences in the use of contraceptives between women with a primary education and those with a higher educational attainment, the illiterate women with no formal education were significantly less likely to use modern methods of contraception. Women living in provinces with high infant mortality rates were significantly less likely to use modern methods of contraception than women in low-infant-mortality provinces. Independent of other individual and community characteristics, there were no significant differences in the use of contraception between urban and rural women."
Correspondence: I. E. Swenson, University of North Carolina, School of Nursing, CB# 7460, Carrington Hall, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7460. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20321 Ogbuagu, Stella C. Family planning: a human right for women. Afrique et Developpement/Africa Development, Vol. 15, No. 2, 1990. 45-56 pp. Dakar, Senegal. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
Cultural factors determining the low rate of contraceptive practice in Sub-Saharan Africa are examined, using data concerning 164 women in Cross-River State, Nigeria. Results indicate that cultural mores prevent these women from exercising their rights to education, employment, and community participation and keep them from an awareness of family planning options. The author suggests that this is accomplished in part by placing the entire burden of child rearing upon the mother.
Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

58:20322 Phillips, James F.; Ross, John A. Family planning programmes and fertility. International Studies in Demography, ISBN 0-19-828385-7. 1992. xi, 340 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
This volume is the result of the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP) seminar held in Tunisia, June 26-30, 1989, under the sponsorship of the IUSSP Committee on Comparative Analysis of Fertility and Family Planning. "With the accumulation of evidence that family planning programmes can shape demographic trends, there is a need to clarify how those effects arise. This volume, with its fourteen contributions, is directed to that end....The sections in this volume correspond to issues in family planning research, examining, in order, the role of family planning programmes as a fertility determinant, theoretical perspectives on the demography of family planning programmes, issues in assessing the role of demand for services and the role of supply, and the societal, institutional, and political constraints to organizing effective programmes." Implications for future research are discussed. The geographical scope is worldwide, with a focus on developing countries.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, Walton Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20323 Phillips, James F.; Mundigo, Axel; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat. The correlates of continuity in contraceptive use. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 36, No. 3, Sep 1990. 3-17 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"This paper reviews research on contraceptive continuation and presents an analytical framework for characterising the role of various determinants. It reviews methodological implications of this framework, and a summary of future research needs [is included]." The implied geographical focus is on developing countries.
For an earlier version of this paper, published in 1989, see 56:10304.
Correspondence: J. F. Phillips, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

58:20324 Pillai, Vijayan K. Family planning among Zambian males: differences between Catholics and non-Catholics. Sociology and Social Research, Vol. 76, No. 2, Jan 1992. 85-9 pp. Los Angeles, California. In Eng.
"The objectives of this paper are (1) to examine the net association between religion and use of family planning methods among men in Zambia, and (2) to describe the attitude toward family planning among two religious categories, Catholics and non-Catholics." The data, which concern 100 employees of the University of Zambia, were collected in 1986-1987.
Correspondence: V. K. Pillai, University of North Texas, Department of Sociology and Social Work, Denton, TX 76203-3826. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

58:20325 Rao, K. Seshagiri. The influence of a community-based distribution programme on contraceptive choice. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 36, No. 3, Sep 1990. 86-106 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
This article reports changes observed in contraceptive methods chosen by new acceptors in a community-based distribution program in Varanasi, India, from 1980 to 1989. The results indicate that this private-sector program played an important role in supplementing government efforts, by increasing both overall levels of contraceptive usage and the choice of methods available.
Correspondence: K. S. Rao, Family Planning Association of India, Bajaj Bhavan, Nariman Point, Bombay 400 021, India. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

58:20326 Reddy, P. H.; Badari, V. S. "India Population Projects" in Karnataka. Population Research Abstract, Vol. 2, No. 2, Dec 1991. 3-11 pp. Bangalore, India. In Eng.
The authors describe the population projects that have been developed in the Indian state of Karnataka with assistance from the World Bank. The primary objective of these projects has been to improve the quality and effectiveness of the state's family planning and associated health programs.
Correspondence: P. H. Reddy, Population Centre, 2nd Cross, Malleswaram, Bangalore 560 003, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20327 Riddle, John M.; Estes, J. Worth. Oral contraceptives in ancient and medieval times. American Scientist, Vol. 80, No. 3, May-Jun 1992. 226-33 pp. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. In Eng.
The authors review the history of oral contraceptives from 1850 B.C. to the Middle Ages, when the written record became that of the church, which excluded all mention of contraception. Various plants and their uses are described, as are the results of modern tests of their contraceptive effectiveness. The potential contributions of further interdisciplinary research using ancient art, legend, and writing to the modern development of new contraceptive technology are discussed.
Correspondence: J. M. Riddle, North Carolina State University, Department of History, Box 8108, Raleigh, NC 27695-8108. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20328 Rios-Neto, Eduardo L. G.; McCracken, Stephen D.; Rodrigues, Roberto N. Contraceptive use and fertility in Brazil. In: Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, August 5-7, 1991, Washington, D.C.: proceedings. Volume 1. 1991. 113-34 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
"This paper presents an application of [the] Easterlin framework to the estimation of contraceptive choice in Brazil using the 1986 DHS-BEMFAM survey....Our main question is to which extent the motivation for fertility control (supply and demand), regulation costs, and other socioeconomic aspects lead to different determinations of the current choice of contraceptive methods, in comparison to the traditional contraceptive use framework....We conclude that the synthesis framework generally applied to a supply and demand model of fertility determination and contraceptive use is also insightful to the case of contraceptive choice."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20329 Robinson, Warren; Cleland, John. The influence of contraceptive costs on the demand for children. In: Family planning programmes and fertility, edited by James F. Phillips and John A. Ross. 1992. 106-22 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The central topic of this paper is how the costs of fertility regulation--broadly defined--can affect demand for children....This topic leads to a re-examination of the demand-supply paradigm as applied to fertility and to the closely related application of this essentially economic framework to motives for and adoption of regulation. The Easterlin Synthesis Framework (ESF)...is our point of departure, and we start with a brief review of its evolution. In the second section we present two critiques of the ESF model....In the third section we propose a fundamental modification of the approach and develop an alternative, the Interactive Demand-Cost Framework (IDCF). This model elaborates the notion of cost as it relates to fertility regulation. Finally, in the fourth section we look at the policy and programme implications of using the IDCF model rather than the ESF."
Correspondence: W. Robinson, Population Council, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20330 Robinson, Warren C.; Kizito, Paul M. L. Understanding recent changes in contraceptive prevalence in Kenya. In: Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, August 5-7, 1991, Washington, D.C.: proceedings. Volume 1. 1991. 391-402 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
This is the preliminary report of a 1990 follow-up study to the 1989 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS). The aim was to determine the social, psychological, cultural, and economic factors behind the increase in contraceptive practice and the decline in fertility reported in the KDHS. Early results indicate that: "1. Contraceptive prevalence is continuing to rise in Kenya....2. Most Kenyan women respondents do accept that the economic benefits of children are still important but these perceptions vary across the regions....3. Respondents feel that children can entail costs or disadvantages as well as benefits....4. Respondents generally seem to find that contraceptive services are available, more so now than earlier. Quality of these services as measured by battery of indicators [seems] good to the respondents....[and] 5. Most respondents who have adopted a method did so because of advice from the providing staff or friends and relatives. They overwhelmingly report that they did have a choice of methods." Some regional variations are noted.
Correspondence: W. C. Robinson, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20331 Rochon, Madeleine. Tubal ligation and vasectomies in Quebec. Recent trends. [Les ligatures de trompes et les vasectomies au Quebec. Evolution recente.] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 20, No. 1, Spring 1991. 157-66 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The author analyzes recent trends in the number of tubal ligations and vasectomies performed in Quebec, Canada, using data for cohorts born since 1941. She finds that since the early 1980s, there has been "a decrease in the proportion of sterilized females and an increase in the proportion of sterilized males....On the whole, the number of sterilized couples in their thirties has slightly decreased....The most recent data seem to indicate that this evolution has come to a halt."
Correspondence: M. Rochon, Ministere de la Sante et des Services Sociaux, Direction Generale de la Planification et de l'Evaluation, Service des Etudes Socio-Sanitaires, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20332 Rutenberg, Naomi; Landry, Evelyn. Use of and demand for sterilization: a comparison of recent findings from the Demographic and Health Surveys. In: Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, August 5-7, 1991, Washington, D.C.: proceedings. Volume 1. 1991. 667-93 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
Levels and trends in the use of sterilization as a major form of contraception in developing countries are analyzed and compared. "Data from 26 countries which participated in the first phase of the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) program show that sterilization, predominantly tubal occlusion, has become a major contraceptive method in Latin America and Asia, is gaining a foothold in a few Sub-Saharan African countries, but has made few inroads in North Africa...."
Correspondence: N. Rutenberg, Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 8850 Stanford Boulevard, Suite 4000, Columbia, MD 21045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20333 Schor, Neia; Lopez, Fanny. Adolescence and contraception. Part 1. A study of knowledge and use among women interned for childbirth or abortion. [Adolescencia e anticoncepcao. 1. Estudo de conhecimento e uso em puerperas internadas por parto ou aborto.] Revista de Saude Publica, Vol. 24, No. 6, Dec 1990. 506-11 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
This study of adolescent knowledge and practice of contraception is based on data for 78 adolescents admitted to a hospital in Cotia county, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, for childbirth or abortion in 1986. Although most adolescents knew about contraception, only 1 in 10 had used a contraceptive method.
Correspondence: N. Schor, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Faculdade de Saude Publica, Departamento de Saude Materno-Infantil, Av. Dr. Arnaldo 715, 01255 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:20334 Shah, Iqbal. Comparative analysis of contraceptive method choice. In: Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, August 5-7, 1991, Washington, D.C.: proceedings. Volume 1. 1991. 617-39 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
"The objective of this paper is...to consider the various factors which have some bearing on the choice of contraceptive method in selected countries participating in the DHS Programme. Data for seven countries (Brazil, Colombia, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Ghana, Liberia, and Senegal) are examined....The next section provides information on data sources and on general background. This is followed by the discussion of results on the prevalence of contraceptive methods in these countries and their differentials by socio-economic and demographic background characteristics. In order to further investigate contraceptive method choice, switching patterns are also considered."
Correspondence: I. Shah, World Health Organization, Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20335 Simmons, Ruth; Mita, Rezina; Koenig, Michael A. Employment in family planning and women's status in Bangladesh. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 23, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1992. 97-109 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study investigates how employment in family planning affects the status of community workers. The focus is on three critical variables: prestige, professional status, and social influence. The data are derived from a focus-group study conducted in 1987-88 in the Maternal and Child Health and Family Planning Project in Matlab, Bangladesh. Focus-group sessions were held with community workers, their husbands, community leaders, and community women. Results show that although community workers initially faced intense hostility in the community, they succeeded in maintaining the prestige that is traditionally accorded to women in their conservative, rural society. Moreover, they established themselves as valued health and family planning professionals in a social context where professional roles for women have been extremely circumscribed. Finally, they gained social influence by performing a range of functions in the community that exceed formally prescribed job responsibilities."
Correspondence: R. Simmons, University of Michigan, School of Public Health, Department of Population Planning and International Health, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20336 Simmons, Ruth; Phillips, James F. The proximate operational determinants of fertility regulation behaviour. In: Family planning programmes and fertility, edited by James F. Phillips and John A. Ross. 1992. 181-201 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In this paper we have argued that the interactions between [family planning] programme representatives and their client populations are appropriately considered the proximate operational determinants of contraceptive use. We have stressed their complex interactions with demand and the extent to which client transactions are shaped, in fact often constrained, by the institutional context of supply. Essential dimensions and distinctions among client transactions have also been identified, indicating findings, issues, and relevant areas of analysis. Evidence from Bangladesh has illustrated the extent to which inclusion of the proximate operational determinants in analysis has the potential for shifting explanations of programme success or failure from an inherent demand orientation to a recognition of the contribution of supply."
Correspondence: R. Simmons, University of Michigan, School of Public Health, Department of Population Planning and International Health, 109 South Observatory, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20337 Singh, Padam; Kumar, P.; Goel, Uma; Yadav, R. J.; Agrawal, Abha. Adoption of family planning practices and associated factors in Paharganj area of Delhi. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 36, No. 2, Jun 1990. 36-42 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"The present paper presents an analysis of the data collected [in 1985] from 590 households with the objective of estimating the extent of adoption of family planning practices and its relationship with socio-economic characteristics." The survey concerned the Paharganj area of Delhi, India.
Correspondence: P. Singh, Institute for Research in Medical Statistics, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, India. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

58:20338 Sundar, Ramamani. The status of women and family planning acceptance: some field results. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 36, No. 2, Jun 1990. 60-8 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
The author assesses the status of women by examining women's educational level and occupation in order to determine the effect of women's status on family planning acceptance. Data are from a survey conducted by the National Council of Applied Economic Research and concern 578 ever-married women living in Delhi, India.
Correspondence: R. Sundar, National Council of Applied Economic Research, Parisila Bhavan, 11 I. P. Estate, New Delhi 110 002, India. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

58:20339 Tsui, Amy O.; Ochoa, Luis H. Service proximity as a determinant of contraceptive behaviour: evidence from cross-national studies of survey data. In: Family planning programmes and fertility, edited by James F. Phillips and John A. Ross. 1992. 222-56 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper reviews evidence from Third World national surveys on the question, does proximity to contraceptive services influence the use of contraception? The post-1982 evidence continues to suggest that it does....[However,] we have found a risk in assuming, as has been the standard, that proximity to services equates to proximity to methods. Distance to facilities...does not necessarily enable current or potential contraceptive acceptors to obtain services easily for the particular methods they are currently using. The rapid development of mixed modes of service delivery for contraceptives...will complicate the identification of effects of service access on method use." Data are from DHS surveys conducted in Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, and Guatemala.
Correspondence: A. O. Tsui, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square 300A, Chapel Hill, NC 27514-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20340 Westoff, Charles F.; Moreno, Lorenzo. The demand for family planning: estimates for developing countries. In: Family planning programmes and fertility, edited by James F. Phillips and John A. Ross. 1992. 141-58 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors examine the demand for services in developing countries that have organized family planning programs, using data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) project. "This report presents estimates of both the level and the composition of unmet need for birth limitation and for spacing. The data are for the first eleven countries for which the DHS collected all of the necessary information (between 1986 and 1988). The paper examines trends over the past decade in the unmet need for birth limitation and concludes with an examination of the potential demographic significance of satisfying unmet need." Data concern currently married women aged 15-49 years. The effects of age, educational status, and place of residence on their desire to plan their families are noted.
Correspondence: C. F. Westoff, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20341 Westoff, Charles F.; Ochoa, Luis H. The demand for family planning: highlights from a comparative analysis. In: Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, August 5-7, 1991, Washington, D.C.: proceedings. Volume 1. 1991. 575-98 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
This paper summarizes a recently published report by the same authors presenting a comparative analysis of the demand for family planning. "It focuses on the highlights of the analysis of the [developing] countries participating in the first round of DHS (DHS I) and on the trends over the preceding decade, using WFS data from those countries included in both surveys. It adds more recent data from a survey in Sudan. A new section has also been included that attempts to evaluate the demographic significance of unmet need."
For the report referred to, published in 1991, see 57:40307.
Correspondence: C. F. Westoff, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.2. Clinical Aspects & Use-Effectiveness Studies

Selected studies on the medical aspects of fertility control methods, including studies on side effects and use-effectiveness.

58:20342 Cates, Willard; Stone, Katherine M. Family planning, sexually transmitted diseases and contraceptive choice: a literature update--Part I. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 24, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1992. 75-84 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
In this article, the authors describe the efficiency of various contraceptive methods in preventing both pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). They conclude that "couples who place high priority on minimizing both risks may have to use two methods. The need for contraceptive methods that provide effective protection against both pregnancy and STDs has been intensified by the HIV epidemic, but progress has been slowed by the lack of integration between the STD and family planning fields....[This] article discusses the similarities and differences between the two fields, examines the impact of STDS on contraceptive use and services, and reviews the scientific literature dealing with the effects of condoms, spermicides and barrier-and-spermicide methods on the risk of STD transmission." The geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: W. Cates, Centers for Disease Control, Epidemiology Program Office, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20343 Chi, I-cheng; Faar, G. Postpartum IUD contraception--a review of an international experience. Advances in Contraception, Vol. 5, No. 3, Sep 1989. 127-46 pp. Boston, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The authors discuss in-hospital postpartum insertion of intrauterine devices (IUDs) and the implications of this procedure for women in developing countries. "In this paper the experiences with postplacental IUD insertions from international studies are reviewed, the lessons we have learned from these experiences summarized, and future research directions suggested."
Correspondence: I.-c. Chi, Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20344 Cleland, John G.; Hardy, Ellen E.; Taucher, Erica. Introduction of new contraceptives into family planning programmes: guidelines for social science research. Pub. Order No. WHO/HRP/BST/90.1. 1990. 67 pp. World Health Organization [WHO], Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction: Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
"The purpose of these guidelines is to assist scientists in the planning and conduct of social science research on the introduction of contraceptive methods into family planning programmes. These guidelines are equally relevant to the introduction of newly developed methods and the introduction of existing methods to new settings. This document is addressed both to those with a formal training in the social sciences and to clinicians and health workers with social science backgrounds or interests. The following sections examine the potential contributions and substantive scope of social science research and describe the major research designs and common problems encountered in the implementation of studies."
Correspondence: World Health Organization, Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

58:20345 Milne, Ruairidh; Vessey, Martin. The pill and mortality--an overview. Journal of Public Health Medicine, Vol. 14, No. 1, Mar 1992. 9-16 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper approaches the impact of oral contraceptives on mortality from three angles: (1) the association of the pill with specific life-threatening diseases: (2) the conclusions of non-randomized cohort studies: (3) the conclusions of various attempts to model the impact of oral contraceptives on mortality....The picture that emerges repeatedly...is that oral contraceptives are associated either with no increase in mortality or with a small increase (of the order of 10-20 per cent). There are important caveats: any increase may be confined to women under the age of about 50; any increase may be concentrated in smokers and older women; any increase is likely to be less with modern, lower-dose pills. Despite these caveats, so many women have been exposed to the pill that even a 'small' increase might have important public health consequences."
Correspondence: R. Milne, University of Oxford, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Gibson Building, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford OX2 6HE, England. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:20346 Moreno, Lorenzo. Differentials in contraceptive failure rates in developing countries: results from the Demographic and Health Surveys. In: Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, August 5-7, 1991, Washington, D.C.: proceedings. Volume 1. 1991. 695-716 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
"In this paper we have reported [contraceptive] failure rates by residential and educational characteristics of women in union at the time of interview for 15 countries in Latin America, Asia and North Africa. The resulting first-year life table probabilities of failure give an overall picture of the relative efficacy of the main groups of methods among women living in urban or rural areas in a country, or across categories of educational attainment. Multivariate methods were used to attempt to answer several substantive questions regarding contraceptive failure. The analyses suggest that duration of use among women using the same type of method, who are of similar age and of the same parity at the acceptance of the method, plays a trivial role as a determinant of contraceptive failure in most of the countries considered. In addition, the observed patterns of the duration-specific relative risks cannot be consistently explained in terms of progressive selection of women." Data are from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted between 1986 and 1989.
Correspondence: L. Moreno, Mathematica Policy Research, P.O. Box 2393, Princeton, NJ 08543-2393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20347 Nassim, Janet. Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction. Policy, Research, and External Affairs Working Paper, No. WPS 779, Oct 1991. 13 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author reviews the Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction, set up by the World Health Organization in 1972 to engage in contraceptive research aimed at the needs of developing countries. She concludes that the program merits the World Bank's continued and expanded support.
Correspondence: World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

58:20348 Society for the Advancement of Contraception (Manchester, England). Current status of oral contraception and new developments: proceedings of an international symposium at the VII World Congress on Human Reproduction, Helsinki, Finland, June 26-July 1, 1990. Advances in Contraception, Vol. 6, Suppl., Dec 1990. 83 pp. Kluwer Academic: Boston, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
This issue contains six papers on new developments and research in oral contraception, which were presented at a symposium in 1990. The purpose of the meeting was to discuss the current status of hormonal contraception and, in particular, new developments in dosage and type of progestogen currently available.
Correspondence: Kluwer Academic Publishers Group, P.O. Box 322, 3300 AH Dordrecht, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20349 Society for the Advancement of Contraception (Manchester, England). In celebration of twenty years of legalizing family planning in Canada: proceedings of an International Meeting, held Wednesday, November 1, 1989, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Advances in Contraception, Vol. 5, No. 4, Dec 1989. 189-269 pp. Kluwer Academic: Boston, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
The 11 articles included here were presented at a symposium held in Ottawa, Canada, in 1989. They are grouped under the headings of the history of contraception, barrier contraception, IUDs in the 1990s, sterilization, oral contraception, and contraception from 1990 to the future.
Correspondence: Kluwer Academic Publishers Group, P.O. Box 322, 3300 AH Dordrecht, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20350 Society for the Advancement of Contraception (Manchester, England). Seventh Annual Meeting, Singapore, November 4-11, 1990: abstracts. Advances in Contraception, Vol. 6, No. 4, Dec 1990. 219-306 pp. Kluwer Academic: Boston, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
This issue contains abstracts of the papers presented at the 1990 annual meeting of the Society for the Advancement of Contraception. The abstracts are organized under the topics of male contraception, contraception and women's health, contraception and malignancy, surgical contraception, fertility awareness, basic science, long-acting hormonal methods, oral contraceptives, IUDs, sexually transmitted diseases and contraception, social issues in family planning, and advances in contraception.
Correspondence: Kluwer Academic Publishers Group, P.O. Box 322, 3300 AH Dordrecht, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20351 Society for the Advancement of Contraception (Manchester, England). Seventh International Meeting of the Society for Advancement of Contraception, Singapore, 4-11 November 1990. Advances in Contraception, Vol. 7, No. 2-3, Jun-Sep 1991. 113-315 pp. Kluwer Academic: Boston, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
This issue presents selected papers from the Seventh International Meeting of the Society for Advancement of Contraception, held in 1990. The focus is on research and program advances, but papers are also included on the problem of reduced contraceptive choices because of actions by pressure groups or fears of legal costs, women's reproductive health, and ethical aspects of family planning.
Correspondence: Kluwer Academic Publishers Group, P.O. Box 322, 3300 AH Dordrecht, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.3. Evaluation of Programs

Studies evaluating either the demographic impact or other criteria of effectiveness of family planning programs.

58:20352 Abdelghany, A. M.; Naguib, Mohamed; Abdelmauty, Nadia. Assessment of the fertility impact of family planning programmes in Egypt. Egyptian Population and Family Planning Review, Vol. 24, No. 2, Dec 1990. 42-59 pp. Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The authors describe Egypt's family planning program and its effect on fertility determinants and trends and on family planning patterns. Data are from surveys conducted in 1980, 1984, and 1988. A significant decline in fertility, increases in contraceptive knowledge and use, and increases in marriage age are noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20353 Amadeo, Jesus; Chernichovsky, Dov; Ojeda, Gabriel. The Profamilia family planning program, Colombia: an economic perspective. Policy, Research, and External Affairs Working Paper, No. WPS 759, Aug 1991. vi, 113 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors evaluate the economic effectiveness of the Profamilia family planning program in Colombia. They note that this program "provides more than 60 percent of Colombia's family planning services. In 1986, Profamilia recovered more than half of its costs, which is rare for family planning services. But it could have provided more protection for the same amount of money."
Correspondence: World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

58:20354 Banerji, Debabar. Family planning in the nineties: more of the same? Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 27, No. 17, Apr 25, 1992. 883-7 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
The author develops a detailed critique of the implementation of India's national family planning program. He notes that it "has been characterised by astonishingly simplistic approaches to the highly complex problem of population growth. There is an urgent need to devise humane, decentralised programme packages to suit specific demographic, cultural and economic zones which will replace the faceless bureaucratic structure which exists today."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

58:20355 Cochrane, Susan; Guilkey, David K. How access to contraception affects fertility and contraceptive use in Tunisia. Policy, Research, and External Affairs Working Paper, No. WPS 841, Jan 1992. 61 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to employ a structural model to assess the effects of access on contraceptive use and fertility in Tunisia....Two versions of the model are developed. The first version examines the effects of the number of currently surviving children on the decision to have additional children and their desired spacing. Fertility intentions are then used as right-hand-side endogenous variables in equations that explain current contraceptive use and choice among methods. In the second version, fertility intentions formed five years ago are assumed to affect duration of method specific contraceptive use in the five year interval. Contraceptive use is then hypothesized to affect number of births in the last five years."
Correspondence: World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

58:20356 Freedman, Ronald; Freedman, Deborah. The role of family planning programmes as a fertility determinant. In: Family planning programmes and fertility, edited by James F. Phillips and John A. Ross. 1992. 10-27 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors review the background of the debate over whether family planning programs are effective in reducing fertility. They conclude that "although regional variations are pronounced, and associations with development levels and cultural factors are clear, evidence indicates that programmes have exerted an influence on the pace of reproductive change. Major factors affecting the demand for and supply of contraception are reviewed with particular attention to the role of ideational factors in creating and crystallizing demand. The review concludes that further debate over the demographic significance of family planning programmes will be unproductive; what is required at this point is further clarification of how such effects arise." The geographical focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: R. Freedman, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20357 Jain, Anrudh; Bruce, Judith; Kumar, Sushil. Quality of services, programme efforts and fertility reduction. In: Family planning programmes and fertility, edited by James F. Phillips and John A. Ross. 1992. 202-21 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors identify six elements to be appraised when evaluating the quality of care provided by a developing country's family planning program. These elements are choice of methods available, quality of information given to clients, technical competence of staff, quality of staff-client relations, follow-up procedures, and appropriateness of the range of services offered.
Correspondence: A. Jain, Population Council, Programs Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20358 Janowitz, Barbara; Suazo, Margarita; Fried, Daniel B.; Bratt, John H.; Bailey, Patricia E. Impact of social marketing on contraceptive prevalence and cost in Honduras. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 23, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1992. 110-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This report focuses on the social marketing program run by the Honduran Family Planning Association (ASHONPLAFA). The program's impact is measured by changes in (1) the prevalence of oral contraceptive use and in the source of contraceptives for various groups of clients; (2) the financial and labor resources used in ASHONPLAFA programs; and (3) the potential cost savings. We report changes in the source of contraceptives, including both the commercial sector and other subsidized programs. Within ASHONPLAFA, we emphasize source switching from the CBD [community-based distribution] program to the CSM [contraceptive social marketing] program....This report uses data from two Honduran national surveys of maternal-child health and family planning, which were carried out in 1984 and 1987...."
Correspondence: B. Janowitz, Family Health International, Economics of Family Planning, P.O. Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20359 Kaufman, Joan; Zhang, Zhirong; Qiao, Xinjian; Zhang, Yang. The creation of family planning service stations in China. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 18, No. 1, Mar 1992. 18-23 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The short-term effects of a new Chinese health institution, the family planning service station, were studied in 1987 in...rural counties in the provinces of Heilongjiang and Fujian. The new approach...appears to have improved the availability and accessibility of clinical services....However, the quality of these services is no better than that of services provided by the health system. Despite the increased volume of information, education and communication services in counties with the new stations, women who received these services were not as well-informed and counseled about their method as were women who received services through the general health infrastructure. Medical screening was rare in all four counties."
Correspondence: J. Kaufman, Harvard University, School of Public Health, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20360 Kaufman, Joan; Zhang, Zhirong; Qiao, Xinjian; Zhang, Yang. The quality of family planning services in rural China. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 23, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1992. 73-84 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article provides a preliminary analysis of three aspects of service quality in four rural counties in China--the availability of contraceptive methods, information given to users, and provider knowledge about methods. Contraceptive choice and characteristics of contraceptive use by women in the study areas are also examined. The data are derived from a survey carried out by the authors during 1987, under the auspices of China's State Family Planning Commission....A total of 318 married women of reproductive age were randomly selected and interviewed....Although providers believe they inform women about method choices and side effects, women were poorly informed about the methods they selected. Not all providers who insert IUDs and distribute pills were knowledgeable about contraindications and side effects of the methods. Ever-use of contraception was nearly 100 percent, but most women...have only used one method: the IUD or sterilization. Improvements in quality, especially in method mix, providers' level of knowledge, and the quality and quantity of information provided to users will likely improve contraceptive continuation, client satisfaction, and women's health."
Correspondence: J. Kaufman, Harvard School of Public Health, Department of Population and International Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20361 Kim, Young-Mi; Rimon, Jose; Winnard, Kim; Corso, Carol; Mako, I. V.; Lawal, Sebioniga; Babalola, Stella; Huntington, Dale. Improving the quality of service delivery in Nigeria. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 23, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1992. 118-27 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study evaluates the effect of a nurse training program in family planning counseling skills on the quality of service delivery at the clinic level [in Nigeria], as well as its impact on client compliance with prearranged appointments. The study used a quasi-experimental design to compare certified nurses who received six weeks of family planning technical training with certified nurses who, in addition to the technical training course, received a three-day course in counseling skills. Data were collected through client exit interviews, expert observation, and inspection of medical record abstracts. Trained nurses performed better than their untrained counterparts in the quality-of-care areas investigated--interpersonal relations, information giving, counseling, and mechanisms for encouraging continuity. The likelihood that clients will attend follow-up visits was also found to improve when they were attended by trained professionals."
Correspondence: Y.-M. Kim, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Population Communication Services, 527 St. Paul Place, Baltimore, MD 21202. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20362 Koenig, Michael A.; Simmons, Ruth. Constraints on supply and demand for family planning: evidence from rural Bangladesh. In: Family planning programmes and fertility, edited by James F. Phillips and John A. Ross. 1992. 259-75 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Our objective in the present paper is to complement existing knowledge with a micro analysis of socio-economic and cultural constraints to the effective organization and delivery of family planning services in a developing setting. Drawing upon the experience of an experimental family planning project...together with other published and unpublished materials from Bangladesh, we examine how factors commonly identified as constraints to demand may represent constraints to the delivery of family planning services at the field level as well....The roles of four variables are examined--the status of women, female education, low levels of development, and community institutions--in shaping both demand for family planning and its supply. A subsequent section of the paper discusses the cumulative nature of these effects upon service delivery." Some recommendations to improve the delivery of services are then made.
Correspondence: M. A. Koenig, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20363 Phillips, James F.; Ross, John A. Family planning programmes and fertility effects: an overview. In: Family planning programmes and fertility, edited by James F. Phillips and John A. Ross. 1992. 325-32 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
In the present article, the authors "have urged that the field leave behind the old debate on whether programmes have reduced fertility rates, in favour of enquiries into their modes of action under varying institutional conditions. We have argued for the interplay of supply and demand forces in raising contraceptive use....We have proposed that research attention focus upon specific programme types and the necessary conditions for programme success, as well as ways to transfer the lessons of pilot trials to the national scene. We have also recommended research into organizational change so as to know better how large bureaucracies can be changed to satisfy programme requirements. We have particularly stressed the need to measure programme effort at the community level to establish a symmetry with social setting evidence, and the need to integrate both types of information with individual-level data. Finally, on the action side, we have pressed for programme strategies that are closely adapted to the special constraints found in each environment, whether these are demand-linked or supply-linked."
Correspondence: J. F. Phillips, Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20364 Phillips, James F.; Hossain, Mian B.; Simmons, Ruth; Koenig, Michael. Worker-client exchanges and contraceptive use in rural Bangladesh. Population Council Research Division Working Paper, No. 32, 1991. 37 pp. Population Council, Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper utilizes longitudinal data from rural Bangladesh to assess the impact of family planning worker household visits on contraceptive use. A panel of women was interviewed in a demographic survey and reinterviewed every 90 days for six successive rounds. Regression methods are used to estimate the effect of encounters on the odds that a woman will use contraception....Findings suggest that both male and female worker-initiated exchanges have an effect, although the impact of outreach is more pronounced if the worker is female. Estimated effects are consistent with the hypothesis that the predominant impact of outreach is to crystallize existing latent demand for contraception. Results also suggest, however, that female worker outreach generates new demand by fostering ideational change."
Correspondence: Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20365 Ross, John A.; Lloyd, Cynthia B. Methods for measuring the fertility impact of family planning programmes: the experience of the last decade. In: Family planning programmes and fertility, edited by James F. Phillips and John A. Ross. 1992. 28-55 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors survey "techniques for assessing the fertility effects of family planning programmes....[They] review the actual use of these methods in research, training, and policy formulation. Based upon enquiries to institutions and individuals in several countries and a review of research literature, they critically appraise applications over the last decade." The findings "are organized under three major headings: research, training, and policy. Under each topic we assess the ways in which existing methods have been used, point out the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches, and make recommendations about their suitability in a variety of settings."
Correspondence: J. A. Ross, Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20366 Schultz, T. Paul. Assessing family planning cost-effectiveness: applicability of individual demand-programme supply framework. In: Family planning programmes and fertility, edited by James F. Phillips and John A. Ross. 1992. 78-105 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper re-examines the supply-demand framework as a means for analysing fertility in low-income countries with the objective of assessing the cost-effectiveness of family planning programmes....Section 2 of this paper describes and contrasts these various frameworks. Section 3 comments briefly on promising efforts to integrate them in empirical research aimed at evaluating the consequences of unexpected fertility. An analysis of Thailand survey and programme data that estimates the effects of supply and demand factors on fertility is summarized in section 4. The concluding section restates several criteria for evaluating the impact of a family planning programme."
Correspondence: T. P. Schultz, Yale University, Economics Department, New Haven, CT 06520. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20367 Simmons, George B. Supply and demand, not supply vs. demand: appropriate theory for the study of effects of family planning programmes on fertility. In: Family planning programmes and fertility, edited by James F. Phillips and John A. Ross. 1992. 59-77 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper deals with alternative theoretical perspectives for characterizing the influence of programmes on fertility. Since, in my view, demand and supply are inextricably linked as determinants of fertility, section 2 is a review of the theoretical approaches contained in the recent literature on the demand for children, and section 3 addresses theories that are orientated toward supply. Section 4 examines the implications of a framework for analysing the demographic role of family planning programmes developed by a study group of the [U.S.] National Academy of Sciences (NAS). The last section draws some conclusions about what all of this might mean for appropriate research strategies and for policy." The geographical scope is worldwide.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20368 Soonthorndhada, Amara; Buravisit, Orapen; Vong-Ek, Panee. Ascertaining the user perspectives on community participation in family planning programme in Thailand. IPSR Publication, No. 156, ISBN 974-587-317-9. Dec 1991. 132 pp. Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research [IPSR]: Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. In Eng.
"The aim of this research study was to determine the extent to which community members are prepared to participate in family planning programmes [in Thailand] and in which activities they would prefer to participate. The research objectives for the study were: i) to explore the perceptions and attitudes of potential and actual service users, community leaders and Community Based Distributors towards the existing programme in their community; ii) to ascertain which IEC and service provision programme activities community members would be prepared to take responsibility for carrying out; [and] iii) to examine the nature of the incentives, both intangible and tangible, by which community members would be motivated to participate in the service provision activities, both individually and collectively." The study was conducted in 1989 in four different regions of Thailand.
Correspondence: Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research, 25/25 Puthamontol, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.4. Attitudes Toward Fertility & Fertility Control

Studies concerned with the interrelations between fertility control and attitudinal variables, including studies on wanted and unwanted pregnancy and children, motivation for parenthood, sex preference, and voluntary childlessness. Studies on knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of family planning and attitudes toward family size are classified under this heading.

58:20369 Arnold, Fred. Sex preference for children and its demographic and health implications. In: Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, August 5-7, 1991, Washington, D.C.: proceedings. Volume 1. 1991. 249-73 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
"This study has examined how fertility attitudes and behavior are affected by parental sex preferences for children. It has also investigated whether couples discriminate against children on the basis of their sex with respect to feeding practices, the provision of childhood immunizations, the treatment of diseases, and other areas of child care. Overall, the DHS findings generally exhibit a lower level of son preference than [was] found in a comprehensive review of worldwide sex preferences just 15 years ago. The most common preference pattern in DHS countries is a desire to have at least one child of each sex....With respect to fertility-related behavior, there are few consistent patterns of contraceptive use in relation to the sex of children, although some son preference is evident in a few countries....If anything, the common preference for a balanced number of sons and daughters is more likely to affect fertility than is a preference for sons."
Correspondence: F. Arnold, Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 8850 Stanford Boulevard, Suite 4000, Columbia, MD 21045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20370 De Silva, W. I. Relationships of desire for no more children and socioeconomic and demographic factors in Sri Lankan women. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 24, No. 2, Apr 1992. 185-99 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Data from the 1982 Sri Lanka Contraceptive Prevalence Survey are used to identify women who wish to stop childbearing; they differ in socioeconomic status from their counterparts who want more children. Educated women are more likely to be motivated to cease childbearing than non-educated women; Christian or Sinhalese/Buddhist women are more willing to stop childbearing than Moor/Muslim or Tamil/Hindu women. The relationships between sex composition of existing children and women's fertility desires indicate that although moderate son preference exists it does not affect their contraceptive behaviour. Among those who want no more children, 15% are at risk of unwanted pregnancy because they do not practise contraception....Women whose husbands disapproved of contraception had over four times higher risk of unwanted pregnancy than women whose husbands approved."
Correspondence: W. I. De Silva, University of Colombo, Demographic Training and Research Unit, Colombo, Sri Lanka. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20371 Ezeh, Alex C. Gender differences in reproductive orientation in Ghana: a new approach to understanding fertility and family planning issues in Sub-Saharan Africa. In: Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, August 5-7, 1991, Washington, D.C.: proceedings. Volume 1. 1991. 291-320 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
Data from the 1988 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey are used to examine four questions: "1. Do couples who agree on their family size ideals and contraceptive attitude differ in their actual behavior from those who disagree? 2. Among those who disagree, whose desire or preference most closely approximates the couple's actual behavior? 3. What factors account for agreement and non-agreement? [and] 4. Does couple agreement and its relation to fertility and family planning vary by status and type of union (consensual versus stable; monogamous versus polygynous) and by lineage system (patrilineal versus matrilineal)?" The sample consists of 4,448 women and includes a subsample of 943 coresident husbands.
Correspondence: A. C. Ezeh, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20372 Stycos, J. Mayone; Fridman, Samuel. The impact of schooling on fertility attitudes among adolescents in four developing countries. Population and Development Program: 1990 Working Paper Series, No. 2.25, [1990?]. 7, [10] pp. Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program: Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
The authors analyze data from surveys conducted by the Population and Development Program at Cornell University between 1986 and 1988 in China, Colombia, Costa Rica, and Peru to assess the effect of education on adolescents' attitudes toward family planning and family size. They find that "the higher the grade level, the more liberal the attitudes toward contraception, population size, age at marriage, and gender roles....As regards...desired family size, a 'modern,' or in our terminology 'liberal' preference for a small family seems already entrenched by the seventh grade in all countries, and the next five years of schooling does nothing to change it."
This paper was originally presented at the 1990 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program, 134 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20373 Weller, Robert H.; Sly, David F.; Sukamdi, A.; Ekawati, Rindang. The wantedness status of births in Indonesia. In: Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, August 5-7, 1991, Washington, D.C.: proceedings. Volume 1. 1991. 275-90 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
"In this paper, we use the 1987 Indonesian Demographic and Health Survey...as a source of information to examine the extent of unwanted childbearing in Indonesia. Then we examine the fertility regulation behavior associated with various states of wantedness. This is one method of determining whether wantedness status is related to behavioral variables....Finally, we examine factors which are related to having an unwanted birth."
Correspondence: R. H. Weller, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.5. Induced Abortion

Studies on induced abortion, including those on attitudes, with the exception of studies primarily concerned with government regulation of abortion, which are coded under M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility . Studies of spontaneous abortion appear under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology .

58:20374 Bielli, Carla; Racioppi, Filomena. Recent characteristics of legal abortion in Naples: the results of a field survey. [Caratteristiche recenti dell'abortivita legale a Napoli: risultati di un'indagine sul campo.] Materiali di Studi e di Ricerche, No. 2, Dec 1991. iii, 57 pp. Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche: Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng.
These are the results of a survey of 1,194 women undergoing induced abortion at Sao Paolo Hospital in Naples, Italy. Topics covered include "socio-economic and demographic status, the methods of contraception used and the reasons why they had decided not to have a baby....In order to evaluate the specific characteristics of women undergoing voluntary abortion in Naples, the results were compared both with data deriving from current statistics and with the results of some special surveys on legal abortion, conducted both at a national level and at the level of particular regions and cities." The results suggest that Neapolitan women have difficulties in achieving an acceptable level of effectiveness in the contraceptive methods they choose. The authors suggest that these problems are linked to a lack of adequate sex education.
Correspondence: Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche, Via Nomentana 41, 00161 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20375 Henshaw, Stanley K. Abortion trends in 1987 and 1988: age and race. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 24, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1992. 85-6, 96 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This research note updates and revises the numbers, percentage distributions, rates and ratios of U.S. abortion patients, according to age and race. New data for 1988 are presented, and the statistics for 1987 have been recalculated....Data for 1980 and 1986 are shown to illustrate recent trends."
For a related study by Henshaw et al., published in 1991, see 57:20347.
Correspondence: S. K. Henshaw, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 111 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20376 Hill, Elizabeth M.; Low, Bobbi S. Contemporary abortion patterns: a life history approach. Ethology and Sociobiology, Vol. 13, No. 1, Jan 1992. 35-48 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper applies an ecological model of reproductive choice, life history theory, to humans. It models a tension among further investment in self, in present offspring, and later investment in future offspring. Some reproductive decisions for men and women in modern societies may fit this type of 'now vs later' analysis; we model the decision of a woman to have an elective abortion....We find evidence that abortion decisions are affected by age and previous parity of the mother, and by expectations of available investment by the father or other sources." Data for the United States and Scotland are used to illustrate the model.
Correspondence: E. M. Hill, University of Michigan, Alcohol Research Center, 400 East Eisenhower Parkway, Ann Arbor, MI 48104. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

58:20377 Khan, M. E.; Patel, Bella C.; Chandrasekar, R. A study of MTP acceptors and their subsequent contraceptive use. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 36, No. 3, Sep 1990. 70-85 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
The authors examine subsequent contraception among women obtaining an abortion (medical termination of pregnancy or MTP) at four public urban hospitals in India. The data, which concern some 950 women, were collected at the original consultation prior to abortion and in a follow-up survey three months after the operation.
Correspondence: M. E. Khan, Operations Research Group, Dr. Vikram Sarabhai Road, Baroda 390 007, India. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

58:20378 King, Randall H.; Myers, Steven C.; Byrne, Dennis M. The demand for abortion by unmarried teenagers: economic factors, age, ethnicity and religiosity matter. American Journal of Economics and Sociology, Vol. 51, No. 2, Apr 1992. 223-35 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A demand model was developed and applied to a [U.S.] nationally representative sample of unmarried, pregnant teenagers drawn from the National Longitudinal Surveys in order to identify the economic determinants of abortion. Measures of the opportunity costs of pregnancy were found to play a major role in the individual's decision to give birth or to abort. Economic variables in the analysis included predicted wages, local area unemployment rates, other family income, poverty status, and school enrollment status. Other factors found to be significant were age, ethnicity, and religiosity. In general, young women in favorable economic circumstances were substantially more likely than others to abort a pregnancy."
Correspondence: R. H. King, University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

58:20379 Northern Ireland Abortion Law Reform Association (Belfast, Northern Ireland). Abortion in Northern Ireland: the report of an international tribunal. ISBN 0-9514229-1-X. 1989. v, 87 pp. Beyond the Pale Publications: Belfast, Northern Ireland. In Eng.
This is a report on a two-day international tribunal of the Northern Ireland Abortion Law Reform Association, held in October 1987 in Belfast. "The intention was that a number of experts from outside Northern Ireland would hear evidence from individuals and groups, mainly from within Northern Ireland, on the consequences of the absence of legal abortion facilities locally. That evidence constitutes the bulk of this Report." Sections are included on the campaign for legal abortion in Northern Ireland; referral support groups; women's groups; testimony of individual women; legal evidence; medical evidence; and statements and recommendations of tribunal members. The tribunal called for open discussion on the abortion issue and for an extension of Great Britain's 1967 Abortion Act to include Northern Ireland.
Correspondence: Beyond the Pale Publications, 7 Winetavern Street, Belfast BT1 1JQ, Northern Ireland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20380 Rasevic, Mirjana. Abortion as a method of birth control. [Abortus kao metod kontrole radanja.] Jugoslovenski Pregled, Vol. 34, No. 7-8, 1990. 177-86 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Scr.
The author notes that the number of induced abortions performed in Yugoslavia has increased steadily over the past 20 years. By 1984, the total number of abortions exceeded the total number of live births. At the same time, although maternal mortality associated with abortion has declined, it is still six times higher than is normal in developed countries.
Correspondence: M. Rasevic, Instituta Drustvenih Nauka, Centar za Demografska Istrazivanja, Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

58:20381 Ryan, Kenneth J. Abortion or motherhood, suicide and madness. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol. 166, No. 4, Apr 1992. 1,029-36 pp. St. Louis, Missouri. In Eng.
This is the presidential address presented at the 1991 annual meeting of the American Gynecological and Obstetrical Society. The author critically examines social and ethical aspects of the debate on abortion in the United States. He reviews the status of and attitudes toward abortion both before and after the 1973 Supreme Court decision on Roe v. Wade. He also discusses the difficulty of interpreting public opinion polls on abortion and assesses religious, legal, and ethical arguments on the issue.
Correspondence: K. J. Ryan, Harvard Medical School, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20382 Sachar, R. K.; Verma, J.; Prakash, V.; Chopra, A.; Adlaka, R.; Sofat, R. Sex selective fertility control--an outrage. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 36, No. 2, Jun 1990. 30-5 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"The present study was carried out to get indirect information on sex selective foeticide [in India] by studying the secondary sex ratios, that is the sex ratio at birth. Data on the sex ratio at birth were obtained from different hospitals and nursing homes in the city of Ludhiana for the years 1981 to 1988." Some implications of a preselected sex ratio that favors males are discussed.
Correspondence: R. K. Sachar, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Ludhiana 141 001, Punjab, India. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

58:20383 Woodroffe, Caroline. Medical abortion and the availability of RU486: are women's rights being ignored in developing countries? Health Policy and Planning, Vol. 7, No. 1, Mar 1992. 77-81 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
Factors affecting the reluctance of the manufacturers of RU486 to apply for product licenses in developing countries are examined. The author concludes that the main reasons are pressure tactics by religious and anti-abortion groups, particularly in the United States, which could threaten the profitability of the company's other pharmaceutical products. She also notes that the availability of RU486 could significantly reduce mortality from unsafe induced abortion, a leading cause of death in women in the third world.
Correspondence: C. Woodroffe, Institute of Child Health, Division of Public Health, Wolfson Child Health Monitoring Unit, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, England. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility

Studies on lactation, nutrition, fecundability, sex behavior, menarche and menopause, and other biological factors or social customs as they affect fertility directly. Factors affecting contraceptive practice and factors affecting fertility indirectly are not included here.

58:20384 Benefo, Kofi D.; Parnell, Allan M. The determinants of breastfeeding practices in Ghana. In: Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, August 5-7, 1991, Washington, D.C.: proceedings. Volume 1. 1991. 475-96 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
"This paper examines relationships between breastfeeding and women's work in Ghana. The paper specifically examines patterns of breastfeeding durations for different groups of women using life table estimates for and multivariate hazards models of both the duration of unsupplemented breastfeeding and the total duration of breastfeeding." Data are from the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey.
Correspondence: K. D. Benefo, University of North Carolina, POB 2688, Chapel Hill, NC 25715-2688. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20385 Boklage, Charles E.; Kirby, Charles F.; Zincone, Louis H. Annual and sub-annual rhythms in human conception rates. I. Effective correction and use of public record LMP dates. International Journal of Fertility, Vol. 37, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1992. 74-81 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The use of the date of last normal menses (LMP) for determining seasonal variation in conception rates is examined. Data are for some 600,000 births that occurred in the state of North Carolina during the period 1979-1985. "We have identified a clear artifact of poor LMP recall, highly correlated with passage of time between conception and onset of prenatal care. The majority of the variation in daily LMP counts due to this recall artifact can be corrected statistically to yield population data suitable to more detailed analyses." A clear annual rhythm is observed.
Correspondence: C. E. Boklage, East Carolina University, School of Medicine, Genetics Program, Greenville, NC 27858-4354. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20386 Elo, Irma T.; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence M. Infant feeding practices in Peru 1977-1986. In: Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, August 5-7, 1991, Washington, D.C.: proceedings. Volume 1. 1991. 429-50 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
"In this paper, we examine changes in breastfeeding initiation and duration in Peru between 1977 and 1986 with data from the World Fertility Survey (WFS) and the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). In addition, we analyze patterns of full breastfeeding and breastfeeding supplementation in 1986 with data from the DHS."
Correspondence: I. T. Elo, University of Pennsylvania, School of Arts and Sciences, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20387 Krishnakumari, K. Breastfeeding and conception interval--an empirical study. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 36, No. 4, Dec 1990. 46-55 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"This paper seeks to evaluate the explanatory role of three factors--breastfeeding, postpartum amenorrhoea and mother's age in prolonging conception intervals in a population setting in Kerala [India]." The data concern 415 currently married women in Trivandrum city.
Correspondence: K. Krishnakumari, University of Kerala, Department of Demography, Trivandrum 695 034, India. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

58:20388 Marcotte, John; Casterline, John B. Interrelations among child mortality, breastfeeding, and fertility in Egypt, 1975-80. Policy, Research, and External Affairs Working Paper, No. WPS 478, Aug 1990. 52 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The relationships among breast-feeding, child mortality, and fertility in Egypt are analyzed for the period 1975-1980. The authors use mathematical models to examine the interrelationships among weaning, child deaths, and subsequent pregnancy among Muslim women using and not using contraception. The results show that weaning children in infancy increases the risk of death for children under five.
Correspondence: World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

58:20389 Royston, Patrick. Identifying the fertile phase of the human menstrual cycle. Statistics in Medicine, Vol. 10, No. 2, Feb 1991. 221-40 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"This paper reviews the application of statistical methods to three areas related to conception and the fertile phase. The first is the prediction and detection of ovulation from serial measurements, such as hormones, basal body temperature and cervical mucus, throughout the menstrual cycle....The second area comprises appropriate methods of analysing and interpreting data from clinical studies of the fertile phase, especially in so-called natural family planning (NFP)....The third area is the assessment of the probability of conception on certain days of the cycle, which is vital to the understanding of the fertile phase and its application to NFP....Finally, the need for a new prospective study of the probability of conception in relation to the markers of the fertile phase used in the symptothermal method of NFP is discussed."
Correspondence: P. Royston, Royal Postgraduate Medical School, Department of Medical Physics, Ducane Road, London W12 0NN, England. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:20390 Sharma, Ravi K.; Rutstein, Shea O. Comparative analysis of the determinants of infant feeding practices. In: Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, August 5-7, 1991, Washington, D.C.: proceedings. Volume 1. 1991. 403-27 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
"The purpose of this study is to describe the overall patterns of breastfeeding in twenty-five [developing] countries. The second object is to use multivariate statistical analysis to explore the relationship of child, family and community to the probability of breastfeeding. The paper presents first an overview of the data [sources] which is followed by discussion of patterns of breastfeeding, a conceptual framework, statistical methodology and results. The analyses in this report are based on the data collected by the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) program."
Correspondence: R. K. Sharma, University of Pittsburgh, 4200 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15260-0001. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20391 Singh, Saudan; Bhasin, Sanjiv K.; Lobo, J.; Kapoor, S. K. Interrelationship between breastfeeding and lactational amenorrhoea in a rural community of Haryana. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 36, No. 4, Dec 1990. 75-7 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
This study is concerned with the relationship between breast-feeding and lactational amenorrhea in rural India. Data concern 577 breast-feeding and 123 non-breast-feeding women in two villages in Haryana. "The present study provides further evidence that breastfeeding gives some contraceptive effect for spacing the next pregnancy...."
Correspondence: S. Singh, Maulana Azad Medical College, Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, New Delhi, India. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

58:20392 Tracer, David P. The interaction of nutrition and fertility among Au forager-horticulturalists of Papua New Guinea. Pub. Order No. DA9135710. 1991. 247 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study was undertaken as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Michigan.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 52(7).

F.6. Fertility Outside Marriage

Studies on nonmarital fertility, including illegitimacy. Studies of common-law marriage and other forms of cohabitation or voluntary single parenthood are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

58:20393 Rabin, Brigitte. An increasing number of births outside marriage. [De plus en plus de naissances hors mariage.] Economie et Statistique, No. 251, Feb 1992. 3-13, 57, 59 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"In 1990, more than 30% of the children born in France were born out of wedlock, which puts France in the second place behind Denmark in the European Community. The proportion of illegitimate births, which has been growing since the sixties, has greatly increased over the last decade. Simultaneously, the differences associated [with] the distinction between illegitimate and legitimate births have become less visible: geographical or social disparities are less noticeable, and today both married and unmarried women have children later in life."
Correspondence: B. Rabin, Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, Division Repertoires et Mouvement de la Population, 18 Boulevard Adolphe Pinard, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20394 South, Scott J.; Lloyd, Kim M. Marriage markets and nonmarital fertility in the United States. Demography, Vol. 29, No. 2, May 1992. 247-64 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"We merge census microdata with vital statistics data to examine the effect of women's marriage opportunities on nonmarital fertility rates and ratios across 75 U.S. metropolitan areas. Measures of the quantity and 'quality' of marriageable men simultaneously specific for women's age, race, education, and place of residence reveal especially poor marriage prospects for highly educated black women. The effect of mate availability on nonmarital fertility is generally modest. Among white women, marriage opportunities are associated inversely with the nonmarital fertility rate, perhaps reflecting an increased likelihood that a premarital conception will be legitimated. Marriage opportunities also reduce nonmarital fertility ratios for young black and white women....Only a small proportion of the racial difference in nonmarital fertility appears attributable to differences in the marriage markets of black and of white women."
Correspondence: S. J. South, State University of New York, Department of Sociology, Albany, NY 12222. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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