Volume 58 - Number 2 - Summer 1992

E. Mortality

Studies that treat quantitative mortality data analytically. Methodological studies primarily concerned with mortality are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary. The main references to crude data are in the vital statistics items in S. Official Statistical Publications .

E.1. General Mortality

Studies of overall mortality and comparisons of several types of mortality. Studies dealing with two or more of the topics listed in this division are classified under the major section covered, or, if this is not self-evident, included here under General Mortality.

58:20117 Baker, Timothy D.; Hargarten, Stephen W.; Guptill, Katharine S. The uncounted dead--American civilians dying overseas. Public Health Reports, Vol. 107, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1992. 155-9 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors analyze mortality among U.S. citizens traveling or residing in other countries. "A previously unreported, unexamined data source is analyzed by cause, sex, age, length of stay, and country of death of Americans dying overseas. The major findings are [first,] most Americans who die overseas die in the developed countries of Western Europe, where most Americans live or visit....[Second,] the deaths of Americans in less developed countries are not from infectious and tropical disease, as many health professionals would expect, but are from chronic diseases, injuries, suicides, and homicides. [Data are from records of deaths]...reported to the U.S. Passport Office by the Consular Representatives of the United States in the various countries of the world."
Correspondence: T. D. Baker, Johns Hopkins University, School of Public Health, Department of International Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20118 Bos, Eduard; Vu, My T.; Stephens, Patience W. Sources of World Bank estimates of current mortality rates. Policy, Research, and External Affairs Working Paper, No. WPS 851, Feb 1992. 23 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper discusses the sources of the infant mortality rate (IMR) and life expectancy at birth for each of the 186 countries for which the Population and Human Resources Department at the World Bank makes demographic estimates and projections....The paper consists of two sections. The first section gives an overview of the sources, discusses their nature, and explains the projection methodology used to obtain current estimates. The second section provides the documentation of mortality sources for each country, organized by region."
Correspondence: World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

58:20119 Byers, Bryan; Zeller, Richard A.; Byers, Peggy Y. Birthdate and mortality: an evaluation of the death-dip/death-rise. Sociological Focus, Vol. 24, No. 1, Feb 1991. 13-28 pp. Bowling Green, Ohio. In Eng.
The effect on mortality of socially significant events is examined using birth date as the criterion date for a large sample from official state mortality records for Ohio. The sample consisted of all deaths from natural causes for 1979-1981. "The findings show that there is a greater tendency for persons to die within thirty days after the date of birth than before. More specifically, there was a statistically significant pattern of increased mortality for those who were never married and for ill-defined causes of death. A theoretical foundation and a brief interpretation of these findings is offered."
Correspondence: R. A. Zeller, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43403. Location: New York Public Library.

58:20120 El Mansoury, Mohamed; El Habashi, Moawad; El Bassioni, Mohamed Y. Mortality rates experience of Kuwait. Egyptian Population and Family Planning Review, Vol. 25, No. 1, Jun 1991. 1-10 pp. Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The authors compute the death rate for the population of Kuwait, based on data from Kuwaiti insurance companies, which hitherto have used life tables from the United States and England to compute expected mortality. Graduated mortality rates are introduced, as is a discussion of data adjustment. Finally, Kuwait's new adjusted mortality rates are compared to foreign life tables, and large discrepancies are found. The time period covered is 1985-1989.
Correspondence: M. El Mansoury, Kuwait University, Faculty of Commerce, POB 5969, Safat, Kuwait. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20121 Marcuzzi, Giorgio; Tasso, Miro. Seasonality of death in the period 1889-1988 in the Val di Scalve (Bergamo Pre-Alps, Lombardia, Italy). Human Biology, Vol. 64, No. 2, Apr 1992. 215-22 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
"We present results on the seasonality of death in four communes of the Val di Scalve (Bergamo Pre-Alps, Lombardia, Italy). The seasonality is remarkable in all four localities and also in both halves of the century examined (1889-1988). In particular, the mortality peaks during the cold season....The data were obtained by examining the death registrations at the four town halls...."
Correspondence: G. Marcuzzi, Universita degli Studi di Padova, Department of Biology, Via Trieste 75, 35121 Padua, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20122 Munoz Pradas, Francisco. Inverse projection and indirect estimation of mortality: results for a group of Catalan localities. [Proyeccion inversa y estimacion indirecta de la mortalidad: resultados para un grupo de localidades catalanas.] Boletin de la Asociacion de Demografia Historica, Vol. 9, No. 3, 1991. 67-86 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
The author applies inverse projection and indirect estimation techniques to mortality data for a group of 12 localities in Catalonia, Spain, to determine changes in life expectancy at birth during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The methodology is briefly described, and trends in mortality levels for these areas are estimated.
Correspondence: F. Munoz Pradas, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Centre d'Estudis Demografics, 08193 Bellatierra, Barcelona, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20123 Sogaard, Jes. Econometric critique of the economic change model of mortality. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 34, No. 9, May 1992. 947-57 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The application of time-series data and analysis to study the effects of changes in unemployment rates on mortality rates has been a controversial issue in health-unemployment research for many years. This article presents new criticism against previous aggregate time-series regression models and concludes that these models are misspecified in functional form, and the t-ratios used in significance tests are grossly overstated. Future empirical analysis of the Economic Change Model of Mortality, i.e. the aggregate, time-series relationship between mortality rates and economic variables must pay more attention to the salient characteristics of time-series data and implications for regression results." The concepts are illustrated using data from Denmark for the period 1911-1987.
Correspondence: J. Sogaard, University of Odense, Department of Economics, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

58:20124 Trovato, Frank; Clogg, Clifford C. General and cause-specific adult mortality among immigrants in Canada, 1971 and 1981. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 19, No. 1, 1992. 47-80 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"In this study, we examine general and cause-specific mortality for American, English, Scottish, Italian and other foreign-born immigrants in relation to the Canadian-born population for the census periods, 1971 and 1981. Results from a Poisson regression analysis, based on log-rate models for relative mortality risk, reveal limited support for the hypothesis that the life stresses of the migration experience lead to an increased risk of death due to suicide, homicide and accidents among immigrants. The prediction that discrepancies in socioeconomic status are of importance in explaining mortality differentials gained partial support....Overall, the findings are consistent with the literature based on other immigrant societies, that the foreign-born generally experience better survival probabilities than their host countries."
Correspondence: F. Trovato, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.2. Prenatal and Perinatal Mortality

Studies dealing primarily with fetal and neonatal mortality, except those dealing with spontaneous abortions, which are classified under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology , and those studies dealing with induced abortions, which are classified under F.4.5. Induced Abortion . Perinatal mortality is defined as mortality occurring between the twenty-eighth week of gestation and the seventh day of life.

No citations in this issue.

E.3. Infant and Childhood Mortality

Studies of infant mortality under one year of age, including neonatal mortality occurring after the seventh day of life, and childhood mortality after one year of age. The subject of infanticide, deliberate or implied, is also classified under this heading.

58:20125 Acharya, Laxmi B. Effect of birth spacing on childhood mortality in Nepal. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1990. 1991. 831-64 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"The broad objectives of the study are: to evaluate the effect of preceding, succeeding, and average of preceding birth intervals on childhood mortality [in Nepal, and] to evaluate the net effect of preceding birth interval and some of the selected socio-economic and environmental variables on infant and child mortality, using hazards model analysis." Data are from the 1986 Nepal Fertility and Family Planning Survey.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20126 Ahmed, Ferial A. El-K. Gender difference in child mortality. Egyptian Population and Family Planning Review, Vol. 24, No. 2, Dec 1990. 60-79 pp. Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
Using official census and survey data from 1976 and 1980, trends in sex differences in child mortality in Egypt are analyzed and compared. The author concludes that "males have higher mortality [levels] in infancy, but females have higher mortality from birth to ages 5, 10, 15 and 20....The higher the social class (indicated by mother's education) the higher the mortality level of boys relative to girls....The main factor that causes sex difference in child mortality is the inequality in illness treatment favoring male children."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20127 Andrehyak, Gail M. An epidemiologic study of demographic factors associated with infant mortality in Bridgeport, Connecticut, 1981-1984. Garland Studies in Historical Demography, ISBN 0-8240-4959-4. LC 89-29805. 1989. xiii, 150 pp. Garland Publishing: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
"This epidemiologic study is an examination of demographic factors in Bridgeport, [Connecticut] that are associated with infant mortality. The study is limited to deaths of infants, from birth to one year of age, occurring among the 1981-1984 Bridgeport live birth cohort. The source of data was death certificates and birth certificates, from which information on the following demographic characteristics was obtained: age of mother, race, education, location of residence in the city, marital status, number of prenatal visits, when first prenatal visit occurred, parity, income, birth weight, and gestational age." It is noted that the infant mortality rate for the city is 16.2 per 1,000 live births, the third highest in the state. Some policy and program recommendations are made.
Correspondence: Garland Publishing, 717 Fifth Avenue, Suite 2500, New York, NY 10022. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20128 Barbieri, Magali. The socio-economic and cultural context of infant and child mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. In: Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, August 5-7, 1991, Washington, D.C.: proceedings. Volume 1. 1991. 155-76 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
Recent DHS data on infant and child mortality for nine countries in Sub-Saharan Africa are examined, with a focus on the socioeconomic and cultural factors affecting such mortality. After a section describing the data and methodology used, the author discusses the findings, including the high rates of infant and child mortality in all the countries observed.
Correspondence: M. Barbieri, Centre Francais sur la Population et le Developpement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Medecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20129 Bicego, George T.; Boerma, J. Ties. Maternal education and child survival: a comparative analysis of DHS data. In: Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, August 5-7, 1991, Washington, D.C.: proceedings. Volume 1. 1991. 177-204 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
"This study examined the DHS data of 17 developing countries with the aim of addressing a set of questions regarding the statistical association of maternal education with child health and survival. Multivariate logistic and hazards regressions were used to estimate the education effect on neonatal mortality, postneonatal mortality (1-23 months), stunting (3-23 months), underweight status (3-23 months), and non-use of selected health services....This study has found significantly elevated risks of dying throughout the first 2 years of life associated with low levels of mother's education....In only five of the 17 countries did the education effect remain statistically relevant after controlling for economic condition of the household....The education-postneonatal mortality relationship tends to be more pronounced in towns than in rural areas...."
Correspondence: G. T. Bicego, Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 8850 Stanford Boulevard, Suite 4000, Columbia, MD 21045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20130 Brittain, Ann W. Birth spacing and child mortality in a Caribbean population. Human Biology, Vol. 64, No. 2, Apr 1992. 223-41 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
"Ten independent variables were used to predict death before the first birthday for 4,411 births that took place from 1878 to 1976 to 978 women of native ancestry on the island of St. Barthelemy [French West Indies]. Significant predictors of death include the death of the mother within a year, the birth year, multiple birth, whether the preceding child also died before 1 year of age, and whether the next child was conceived before the index child was 1 year old. Unlike most prior studies, birth-spacing variables were only weakly related to death in the first year. The relative absence of contraceptive techniques to control birth spacing in the study of population and the use of vital records rather than survey data distinguish this project from others and may account at least partly for the unusual findings."
Correspondence: A. W. Brittain, University of Miami, Department of Anthropology, Coral Gables, FL 33124-2005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20131 Brockerhoff, Martin P. Rural to urban migration and child survival in West Africa: an analysis using the DHS. Pub. Order No. DA9204834. 1991. 290 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study, prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Brown University, uses data from the Demographic and Health Surveys of Ghana, Mali, and Senegal.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 52(9).

58:20132 Casterline, John B.; Cooksey, Elizabeth C.; Ismail, Abdel F. Infant and child mortality in rural Egypt. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 24, No. 2, Apr 1992. 245-60 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This research examines determinants of infant and child mortality in rural Egypt, primarily the effects of household economic status and the availability of health services. Certain features of the health service environment affect survival in the neonatal period. In early childhood, survival chances improve markedly as income increases and if the household depends almost exclusively on employment income. In infancy and in early childhood, mortality is strongly associated with region of residence and maternal demographic characteristics, and is weakly associated with parental schooling....The analysis uses data collected in the [1980] Egyptian Fertility Survey (EFS), conducted as part of the World Fertility Survey (WFS) programme...."
Correspondence: J. B. Casterline, Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20133 Cleland, John; Bicego, George; Fegan, Greg. Socio-economic inequalities in childhood mortality: the 1970's compared with the 1980's. In: Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, August 5-7, 1991, Washington, D.C.: proceedings. Volume 1. 1991. 135-54 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
Socioeconomic determinants of infant and childhood mortality in 12 developing countries that participated in the DHS and the WFS during the 1970s and 1980s are analyzed and compared. Factors considered include mother's educational status, father's occupational status, and rural-urban differentials. A significant decline in child mortality is observed in all but one of the countries.
Correspondence: J. Cleland, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, 99 Gower Street, London WC1E 6AZ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20134 De Vries, Henny F. The malnutrition-infections syndrome model: a preliminary study for Nigeria and Zimbabwe. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1990. 1991. 677-711 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The author describes a model of the social and biological determinants of childhood mortality, developed by B. van Norren and H. A. W. van Vianen, which can be substantially affected by primary health care measures. The model focuses on mortality conditions that are exacerbated by the combination of malnutrition and infections, which commonly lead to infant and child deaths in Sub-Saharan Africa. The model is applied to data from the Demographic Health Surveys carried out in Ondo State, Nigeria, in 1986 and in Zimbabwe in 1988.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20135 El-Deeb, Bothaina. Evaluation of the completeness of infant death registration in Egypt. Egyptian Population and Family Planning Review, Vol. 25, No. 1, Jun 1991. 11-31 pp. Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"The main objective of the present study is the estimation of [the] recent completeness level of mortality registration among infants for: the whole nation [of Egypt], different governorates (urban/rural), [and] both sexes. The present study depends on various sources of data such as: the 1986 Census..., the Post Enumeration Survey of Population and Housing Census [and]...vital registration data during the period 1976 till 1987."
Correspondence: B. El-Deeb, Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics, Child and Women Research Division, Cairo, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20136 El-Nashashibi, Abla M. The effect of birth spacing on child survival: the case of Syria, 1978. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1990. 1991. 453-502 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"In view of the importance of birth spacing the present study attempts to examine the possible effects of birth spacing on fetal loss and mortality at early ages in [Syria]....The analysis is based primarily on [the] Syria Fertility Survey (SFS) conducted in 1978 as part of [the] World Fertility Survey (WFS)."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20137 Fauveau, V.; Stewart, M. K.; Chakraborty, J.; Khan, S. A. Impact on mortality of a community-based programme to control acute lower respiratory tract infections. Bulletin of the World Health Organization/Bulletin de l'Organisation Mondiale de la Sante, Vol. 70, No. 1, 1992. 109-16 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"A targeted programme designed to treat children with ALRI [acute lower respiratory tract infection] was implemented in 1988 in a primary health care project in rural Bangladesh....Findings suggest that in the study region the combination of specific and nonspecific interventions can reduce ALRI mortality by as much as 50% and the overall mortality among under-5-year-olds by as much as 30%."
Correspondence: V. Fauveau, c/o SCF/UK, B.P. 1146, Vientiane, Laos. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20138 Flores, Manuel; Bidegain, Gabriel. Infant mortality in Honduras: prospects and politics. [La mortalidad infantil en Honduras: perspectivas y politicas.] 1990. x, 109, [3] pp. Facultad de Ciencias Economicas, Unidad de Docencia e Investigacion en Poblacion [UDIP]: Tegucigalpa, Honduras. In Spa.
This volume contains five papers presented by various authors at a seminar entitled Infant Mortality in Honduras, which was held in November 1989 in Tegucigalpa. The first work provides an overview of levels and trends in infant mortality for Central America as a whole, while the second deals specifically with Honduras. The third article discusses the relationships among health, infant mortality, and various aspects of economic development, and the fourth provides some strategies to improve infant survival in Honduras. Finally, improved health care and its effect on infant death rates in Costa Rica is described and compared with the Honduran situation.
Correspondence: Facultad de Ciencias Economicas, Unidad de Docencia e Investigacion en Poblacion, Ciudad Universitaria, Edificio 3, Piso 2, Tegucigalpa, Honduras. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20139 Frisch, Ann S.; Kallen, David J.; Griffore, Robert J.; Dolanski, Eugene A. Biosocial variances and infant survival: a path analysis approach. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 24, No. 2, Apr 1992. 175-83 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This study used path analysis to assess the chances of survival of babies in a neonatal intensive care unit in Lansing, Michigan, U.S.A. Two paths to neonatal survival were identified and the variables accounted for 20% of the variance in gestational age. The first path showed that prior infant losses were negatively correlated with gestational age while in the second path, gestational age showed negative relationships with pre-pregnancy weight and household job worries."
Correspondence: A. S. Frisch, 3565 Bambi Lane, Oshkosh, WI 54904. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20140 Golden, Reid M. The macrostructural determinants of health care delivery in the United States: a test of competing theoretical models. Pub. Order No. DA9207768. 1991. 206 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study is primarily concerned with testing five alternative hypotheses concerning the impact of race on infant mortality. It was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the State University of New York at Albany.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 52(9).

58:20141 Jahrig, Klaus. Impact of social and medical factors on infant mortality: methodological aspects of international comparisons. [Einfluss sozialer und medizinischer Faktoren auf die Sauglingssterblichkeit--methodologische Aspekte des internationalen Vergleichs.] Zeitschrift fur Klinische Medizin, Vol. 45, No. 22, 1990. 1,925-8 pp. Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
Data from the World Health Organization are used to examine the impact of selected social, biological, and medical factors on infant mortality rates (IMR) around the world. "Factors reflecting a low quality of life (illiteracy, low level of women's education, low urbanization, malnutrition, etc.) showed a highly significant statistic correlation with increased IMR. The lack of a nation-wide family planning program and a low level of medical care (prenatal care, presence of medical personnel during delivery, availability of contraceptives, etc.) act in the same direction." Other factors considered include income, birth weight, and the legalization of abortion.
Correspondence: K. Jahrig, Universitatsklinik fur Kindermedizin, Soldtmannstrasse 15, Greifswald 2200, Germany. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:20142 Kristensen, Finn B.; Mac, Flemming. Life table analysis of infant mortality and feto-infant mortality distributed on causes of death in Denmark 1983-1987. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 21, No. 2, Apr 1992. 320-3 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
This article "presents some results of life table analyses of data in the Danish Medical Birth Register...which covers all births to residents in Denmark. We have aimed at a direct graphic presentation of the survival function of the 1983-1987 national birth cohorts with mortality distributed on groups of underlying causes of death. This combined approach was explored to display better the periods of follow-up in which functionally related causes of death contributed to perinatal and infant mortality. The data comprises 263,322 singletons of the 1983-1987 Danish birth cohorts...."
Correspondence: F. B. Kristensen, University of Copenhagen, Department of General Practice, Juliane Mariesvej 18, DK 2100 Copenhagen 0, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20143 Lantz, Paula; Partin, Melissa; Palloni, Alberto. Using retrospective surveys for estimating the effects of breastfeeding and childspacing on infant and child mortality. Population Studies, Vol. 46, No. 1, Mar 1992. 121-39 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Recent contributions to our knowledge about the effects of breastfeeding and pace of childbearing on early child mortality have originated in the analysis of birth histories elicited from retrospective interviews. The validity of these findings has been questioned on the ground that when the timing of events is systematically distorted, estimates of effects will be affected by serious biases. In addition, it has been argued that the results obtained are highly sensitive to the models used and the techniques of estimation applied to calculate estimates of effects. In this paper we review the most important criticisms levelled against recent findings and interpretations and show that they rest on propositions of questionable validity....We limit our attention to results obtained from the World Fertility Survey....We limit our focus to the impact of breastfeeding, and the length of the previous and subsequent birth intervals on infant and early child mortality, since these are the main relations called into question."
Correspondence: P. Lantz, University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20144 Lattes, Alfredo E.; Farren, Mark; MacDonald, Jane. Health, illness, and death among Latin American children. [Salud, enfermedad y muerte de los ninos en America Latina.] ISBN 950-9231-33-0. 1989. 412 pp. Consejo Latinoamericano de Ciencias Sociales [CLACSO]: Buenos Aires, Argentina; International Development Research Centre [IDRC]: Ottawa, Canada. In Spa.
This collection of 15 papers results from a conference entitled Perinatal and Infant Health and Mortality in Latin America, held November 25-29, 1985, in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Topics covered include research methodology, socioeconomic and cultural factors influencing infant mortality, diet and nutrition, availability of medical services, poverty, and recent trends in and causes of infant mortality in various countries.
Correspondence: Editorial CLACSO, Callao 875, 1023 Buenos Aires, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20145 Miller, Jane E.; Trussell, James; Pebley, Anne R.; Vaughan, Barbara. Birth spacing and child mortality in Bangladesh and the Philippines. Demography, Vol. 29, No. 2, May 1992. 305-18 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This analysis uses data from Bangladesh and the Philippines to demonstrate that children who are born within 15 months of a preceding birth are 60 to 80% more likely than other children to die in the first two years of life, once the confounding effects of prematurity are removed. The risks associated with short conception intervals are confined to children who are also high birth order; they persist in the presence of controls for prior familial child mortality, breast-feeding, mother's age, and socioeconomic status. In Bangladesh but not in the Philippines, these effects are confined to the neonatal period."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1991 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: J. E. Miller, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20146 Mina Valdes, Alejandro. Mortality by cause among children younger than age one in Mexico. [La mortalidad por causas de menores de 1 ano en Mexico.] Estudios Demograficos y Urbanos, Vol. 5, No. 3, Sep-Dec 1990. 595-640, 825 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This article presents the levels and trends of deaths among children [in Mexico] under the age of one, by groups of causes, for some states, for the years 1979-1985. Identifying the causes of death according to the international classification of diseases, both for deaths among children under the age of one and for total deaths, the goal is to establish a comparison of the levels of general and infant mortality by groups of causes. The data are taken from the statistical yearbooks of the Head Office for Statistics, for the years 1979 to 1985."
Correspondence: A. Mina Valdes, El Colegio de Mexico, Centro de Estudios Demograficos y de Desarrollo Urbano, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20147 Muhuri, Pradip K. Child mortality in Matlab, Bangladesh, with special reference to excess mortality of girls. Pub. Order No. DA9200376. 1991. 161 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study was undertaken as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Pennsylvania.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 52(7).

58:20148 Mukherji, S.; Coyaji, Banoo J. Loss of human life from conception to age two. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 37, No. 1, Mar 1991. 3-10 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
Various methods of measuring fetal, infant, and child mortality up to the age of two years are reviewed in terms of their applicability to India. An analysis of lives lost before age two is then presented for 16 countries using data from official sources.
Correspondence: S. Mukherji, International Institute for Population Sciences, Department of Mathematical Demography and Statistics, Govandi Station Road, Chembur, Bombay 400 008, India. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

58:20149 Mychaszula, Sonia M.; Acosta, Luis. Infant mortality in Argentina, 1976-1981. [La mortalidad infantil en la Argentina, 1976-1981.] Cuaderno del CENEP, No. 43, 1990. xvii, 110 pp. Centro de Estudios de Poblacion [CENEP]: Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa.
The authors analyze levels and trends in infant mortality for Argentina from 1976 to 1981. Chapter 1 describes those trends by age (neonatal and postneonatal) and sex for both the country as a whole and individual provinces. In the second chapter, the authors assess the overall drop in infant death rates and the accompanying changes in the mortality age structure. Infant deaths are enumerated by cause in Chapter 3.
Correspondence: Centro de Estudios de Poblacion, Casilla 4397, Correo Central, 1000 Buenos Aires, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20150 Ngondo a Pitshandenge. Infant mortality in the towns and cities of Zaire: levels, trends, and explanatory factors. [La mortalite des enfants dans les villes du Zaire: niveaux, tendances et facteurs explicatifs.] Document de Travail, No. 20, Nov 1988. 37 pp. Universite de Montreal, Departement de Demographie: Montreal, Canada. In Fre.
Infant and child mortality in urban Zaire is analyzed using data from a survey undertaken in 1986-1987 involving 9,379 households. The period covered in the analysis is from 1955, and both direct and indirect methods of estimation are employed. The results indicate levels of infant mortality at about 90 per 1,000 and of mortality under age 5 at 120 per 1,000 live births.
Correspondence: Universite de Montreal, Departement de Demographie, Case Postale 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20151 O'Donoghue, Timothy F. Urbanization and infant mortality: an ecological analysis. Pub. Order No. DA9201725. 1991. 142 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study uses data for Ohio's 88 counties and for the United States as a whole. It was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Ohio State University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 52(8).

58:20152 Pinnelli, Antonella; Mancini, Paola. Mortality differences by sex from birth to puberty in Italy: a century of change. [Differences de mortalite par sexe de la naissance a la puberte en Italie: un siecle d'evolution.] Population, Vol. 46, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1991. 1,651-76 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"In this paper the ratio between the death rates of boys and girls in Italy at ages below 14 years is studied from the end of the nineteenth century....Until about 1920 girls were at a disadvantage....Although infant mortality rates for boys exceeded those for girls, the difference was smaller than could be accounted for by 'biological' factors. From 1920 to 1940, excess mortality of girls was progressively reduced at all ages....Between 1940 and 1980, the advantage of girls increased; excess mortality of boys rose with age...." Changes in causes of death and in gender-based child-rearing practices and their effect on death rate differentials are also discussed.
Correspondence: A. Pinnelli, Universita di Roma la Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche, Via Nomentana 41, 00161 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20153 Poston, Dudley L. Patterns of infant mortality in China. Population and Development Program: 1990 Working Paper Series, No. 2.19, [1990?]. 29 pp. Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program: Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
"This paper uses newly available data [for 1981] for the counties and cities of the People's Republic of China to both describe the range and variability in infant mortality, and to examine its main socioeconomic and health-related determinants." Socioeconomic development variables considered include literacy, population density, and level of industrialization.
Correspondence: Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program, 134 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20154 Rodriguez de Simons, Leticia. Geographical and socioeconomic differentials in infant mortality in Honduras, 1975-1985. [Diferenciales geograficos y socioeconomicos de la mortalidad infantil en Honduras, 1975-1985.] Jan 1992. xi, 83 pp. Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Honduras, Facultad de Ciencias Economicas, Unidad de Docencia e Investigacion en Poblacion [UDIP]: Tegucigalpa, Honduras. In Spa.
This is an analysis of infant mortality in Honduras for the period 1975-1985. Factors considered include geographical variations, the effect on infant mortality of mother's educational status and of living conditions, such as water supply and sanitary facilities in the house. Data are from official published sources.
Correspondence: Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Honduras, Facultad de Ciencias Economicas, Unidad de Docencia e Investigacion en Poblacion, Ciudad Universitaria, Edificio 5, Piso 1, Tegucigalpa, DC, Honduras. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20155 Ross, Paul J.; Etkin, Nina L.; Muazzamu, Ibrahim. The greater risk of fewer deaths: an ethnodemographic approach to child mortality in Hausaland. Africa, Vol. 61, No. 4, 1991. 502-12 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"A Nigerian case study illustrates how local understandings of health influence perceptions of infant survival in ways that may juxtapose indigenous interpretations to other 'objective' data. Evidence from two extended field investigations of a Hausa-Fulani village, set 12 years apart, suggests a decline in childhood mortality rates attendant upon the increasing availability of biomedicines. We note, however, that local perceptions are that mortality risks are now greater for those less than five years old. Our discussion focuses on the circumstances that inform this ethnodemography and its applicability to other population studies."
Correspondence: P. J. Ross, University of Hawaii, College of Social Sciences, Dole Street, Honolulu, HI 96822. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

58:20156 Sawyer, Diana O.; Beltrao, Kaizo I. "Healthy households" and child survival in Brazil. In: Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, August 5-7, 1991, Washington, D.C.: proceedings. Volume 1. 1991. 205-21 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
Data from the 1986 Demographic and Health Survey for Brazil are used to assess the effects of household characteristics on child survival. "To pursue our objectives we decided to work with a concept of 'healthy' household....In our framework we considered...i. mother's educational level; ii. the material condition of the household; iii. household demographic composition and iv. health related behavior....There was a strong indication that the over-mortality of the first born decreases as the scores move from least to most healthy profile."
Correspondence: D. O. Sawyer, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Center for Regional Development and Planning (CEDEPLAR), Rua Curitiba 832, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20157 Schoendorf, Kenneth C.; Hogue, Carol J. R.; Kleinman, Joel C.; Rowley, Diane. Mortality among infants of black as compared with white college-educated parents. New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 326, No. 23, Jun 4, 1992. 1,522-6 pp. Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
Data from the National Linked Birth and Infant Death Files for the period 1983-1985 are used to calculate infant mortality rates for black and white children born to college-educated parents in the United States. "The study population consisted of 865,128 white infants and 42,230 black infants. A separate effect of birth weight was assessed by examining mortality rates before and after the exclusion of infants weighing less than 2,500 g at birth (low-birth-weight infants). In this population, the infant mortality rate was 10.2 per 1,000 live births for black infants and 5.4 per 1,000 live births for white infants...." The authors conclude that "in contrast to black infants in the general population, black infants born to college-educated parents have higher mortality rates than similar white infants only because of their higher rates of low birth weight. Black and white infants of normal birth weight have equivalent mortality rates."
Correspondence: K. C. Schoendorf, National Center for Health Statistics, Division of Analysis, Room 1080, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

58:20158 Shoham-Yakubovich, Ilana; Barell, Vita. Maternal education as a modifier of the association between low birthweight and infant mortality. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 17, No. 2, Jun 1988. 370-7 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines the mortality risk attributable to LBW [low birth weight] in different levels of maternal education. Comprising the study population were 18,715 singleton live births to Jewish mothers ages 20-39, during the years 1977-1980 in the Negev (the southern part of Israel)....As expected, proportions of LBW...were inversely related to level of maternal education [and]...the mortality risk attributed to LBW was found to be modified by maternal level of education....The survival advantage of LBW infants in the lowest educational level was observed both in the neonatal and the postneonatal periods....In terms of population attributable risk, both the highest and the lowest levels of education will gain...from a reduction in proportion of LBW...."
Correspondence: I. Shoham-Yakubovich, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, University Center for Health Sciences, Epidemiology and Health Services Evaluation Unit, Beersheba 84100, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20159 Silva Aycaguer, Luis C.; Duran Macho, Esperanza. Infant mortality and hygienic and social conditions in the Americas. A correlation analysis. [Mortalidad infantil y condiciones higienico-sociales en las Americas. Un estudio de correlacion.] Revista de Saude Publica, Vol. 24, No. 6, Dec 1990. 473-80 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Por.
"The relation between the infant mortality rate [in the Americas], as a health indicator, and various demographic, social and health care development indexes is explored by means of an ecological study based on correlation theory. Results show that the variables of greatest influence are maternal education and birth rate. It seems apparent that, once a minimal level is achieved, an increase of resources devoted to medical care does not by itself improve the infant mortality rate in these countries."
Correspondence: L. C. Silva Aycaguer, Instituto Superior de Ciencias Medicas de la Habana, 25 No. 15005, Playa, 16000 Havana, Cuba. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:20160 Sullivan, Jeremiah M. The pace of decline in under-five mortality: evidence from the DHS surveys. In: Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, August 5-7, 1991, Washington, D.C.: proceedings. Volume 1. 1991. 25-38 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
"The main objective of this paper is to review time trends in childhood mortality in the less developed regions of the world during the period from 1965 to 1980 and then to report more recent information on childhood mortality based on data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). The review will consider the proposition that the pace of mortality decline has slowed in the decade of the 1980s. A second object of the paper is to consider the implications of the AIDS epidemic in Africa for childhood mortality estimation in future surveys which employ DHS methodology; i.e., surveys which collect birth history data from female respondents."
Correspondence: J. M. Sullivan, Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 8850 Stanford Boulevard, Suite 4000, Columbia, MD 21045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20161 United Nations. Economic Commission for Africa [ECA]. Population Division (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia). A comparative study of infant and childhood mortality and its relationship with fertility, cultural factors and socio-economic development in selected African countries. Pub. Order No. ECA/POP/TP/89/4(2.4). Aug 23, 1989. 39, [22] pp. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. In Eng.
This is a comparative analysis of the relationships among infant and childhood mortality and fertility, cultural factors, and socioeconomic development in selected countries of Northern and Western Africa. The study is based on World Fertility Survey data for Egypt, Mauritania, Morocco, Senegal, the Sudan, and Tunisia. Factors analyzed include length of birth interval, level of maternal education, maternal age at birth, and marital status of mother.
Correspondence: U.N. Economic Commission for Africa, Population Division, P.O. Box 3001, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20162 Victora, Cesar G.; Huttly, Sharon R. A.; Barros, Fernando C.; Lombardi, Cintia; Vaughan, J. Patrick. Maternal education in relation to early and late child health outcomes: findings from a Brazilian cohort study. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 34, No. 8, Apr 1992. 899-905 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The relationships among maternal education and a number of child health outcomes are analyzed using data on some 6,000 children in Pelotas, Brazil, who were followed up for a five-year period following birth. The results indicate that when family income and husband's education were controlled, maternal education was associated with infant mortality. "These findings support the hypothesis that maternal education has an effect on child health which is partly independent from that of other socioeconomic factors; they also suggest that maternal care is more important than the biological characteristics of the mothers since stronger effects were observed for the late (postneonatal mortality, hospital admissions and nutritional status) than for the early (birthweight, perinatal mortality) outcomes."
Correspondence: C. G. Victora, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Departamento de Medicina Social, CP 464, 96001 Pelotas, RS, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

58:20163 West, R. R. Perinatal and infant mortality in Wales: inter-district variations and associations with socio-environmental characteristics. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 17, No. 2, Jun 1988. 392-6 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author analyzes "stillbirth rates, perinatal death rates, early and late neonatal death rates and (post-neonatal) infant death rates...for Wales....The time trends in these rates show declining mortality, in full weight and in low birthweight babies. Analysis of average rates for the period 1974-81 inclusive in the 37 local authority districts within Wales demonstrate wide variations....Many highly statistically significant associations were evident between socioeconomic characteristics of the districts and stillbirth rates but few with neonatal death rates and none with infant death rates."
Correspondence: R. R. West, University of Wales College of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Community Medicine, Heath Park, Cardiff, Wales. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20164 Wood, Charles H.; Lovell, Peggy A. Racial inequality and child mortality in Brazil. Social Forces, Vol. 70, No. 3, Mar 1992. 703-24 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"This study uses demographic censuses to estimate infant and child mortality rates among children born to white and nonwhite mothers in Brazil. Estimates of associated levels of life expectancy showed that whites outlived nonwhites by 7.5 years in 1950. The mortality gap between the white and Afro-Brazilian populations remained about the same in 1980 (6.7 years). Tobit regression analyses of sample data for metropolitan areas in 1980 found that race of mother continued to have a significant effect on child mortality after controlling for region, household income, and parental education. Tests for interaction effects indicated that key social indicators (maternal and paternal education, indoor plumbing, access to the public health system, and the demographic characteristics of the household) had significantly different effects on the probability of death among white and nonwhite children."
Correspondence: C. H. Wood, University of Florida, Department of Sociology, Gainesville, FL 32611. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20165 Young, Frank W. Infant mortality, urbanization and voting in Chile, 1942-1989. Population and Development Program: 1990 Working Paper Series, No. 2.27, [1990?]. 6, [4] pp. Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program: Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
"The contribution of political pluralism to the prediction of infant mortality differentials is demonstrated for Chilean provinces. Pluralism is indexed by the percent of the population voting, and is placed in competition with urbanization in regression analyses for five different decades [1940-1990]....This analysis...has demonstrated that voting is strongly linked to lowered infant mortality and it maintains its effect even when urbanization is controlled."
Correspondence: Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program, 134 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.4. Mortality at Other Ages

Studies of age-specific mortality and of mortality in special groups defined by age.

58:20166 Hansluwka, Harald. Some aspects of adult mortality in developed countries. Cahiers de Sociologie et de Demographie Medicales, Vol. 32, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1992. 5-50 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
The author reviews mortality trends for adults aged 15 to 65 years in developed countries over the past four decades. He discusses five major causes of death: suicide, accidents, cancer, AIDS, and cardiovascular diseases. A comparison of the path toward decreased adult mortality taken by the countries of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union is made with that followed by the other developed nations. Consideration is given to the impact of advances in health care and to the consequences of major migratory flows from less-developed countries.
Correspondence: H. Hansluwka, Institute for Tumorbiology-Cancer Research, Vienna, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20167 Houston, Rab. Mortality in early modern Scotland: the life expectancy of advocates. Continuity and Change, Vol. 7, No. 1, May 1992. 47-69 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
Given the lack of consistent parish records or census information for the average person in Scotland, "the present article...seeks to examine the expectation of life of a group of elite professionals--advocates--from the mid-sixteenth to the late eighteenth century. The merit of this exercise is to provide direct evidence of adult mortality experience, albeit among just one element of society [for whom better vital statistics are available]. It allows us to discuss the following issues. First, what evidence is there of socially specific differences in adult mortality? Second, did adult mortality change over the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries? Third, how do observed levels and trends compare with other British and European populations? Fourth, how can we explain stability or change in life expectancy?"
Correspondence: R. Houston, University of St. Andrews, Department of Modern History, St. Andrews, Fife KY16 9AJ, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20168 Timaeus, Ian M. Measurement of adult mortality in less developed countries: a comparative review. Population Index, Vol. 57, No. 4, Winter 1991. 552-68 pp. Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
"This paper compares the direct and indirect methods used to measure adult mortality in the developing world. No other approach can substitute fully for accurate and complete vital registration, but in many countries it is unrealistic to expect the registration system to cover the majority of the population in the foreseeable future....The difficulties involved in measuring adult mortality using surveys and other ad hoc inquiries are discussed....While the choice of methods must depend on each country's situation, direct questions require very large samples and are unreliable in single-round inquiries. On the other hand, although indirect methods provide less detailed and up-to-date information than is ideal, they are adequate for many practical purposes. In particular, the experience of the 1980s suggests that questions about orphanhood perform better than earlier assessments indicated, and recent methodological developments have circumvented some of the limitations of the indirect approach."
Correspondence: I. M. Timaeus, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.5. Life Tables

Studies that present actual life table data and all studies concerned primarily with life tables, including the appropriate methodological studies. Life table studies that are concerned with topics other than mortality are classified under the appropriate heading and cross-referenced to this heading.

58:20169 Calot, Gerard; Caselli, Graziella. Life table construction: conversion of rates into probabilities of dying. [Determination d'une table de mortalite: la conversion des taux en quotients.] Population, Vol. 46, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1991. 1,441-90 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
French data on birth date and mortality are used "to determine the equations needed to calculate the probability of dying between birthday i and birthday i+1...." A model that assumes a closed population and a uniform distribution of i birthdays is found to be sufficient.
Correspondence: G. Calot, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20170 Cimbaro, Philippe. One small century and then it's gone... [Un petit siecle et puis s'en va...] Economie de la Reunion, No. 55, Sep-Oct 1991. 12-5 pp. Ste.-Clothilde, Reunion. In Fre.
Data from the 1990 census of Reunion are used to develop life tables and estimates of life expectancy by sex.
Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

58:20171 Maccheroni, Carlo. A logistical model of life tables according to cause of death. An application to the Italian tables of 1975-1979. [Un modele logistique des tables de mortalite par cause de deces. Application aux tables italiennes de 1975-1979.] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 20, No. 1, Spring 1991. 95-114 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The author presents a model to estimate the life expectancy indicators used in the life table analysis of mortality by cause of death. Data from life tables for Italy for the period 1975-1979 are used to illustrate the model.
Correspondence: C. Maccheroni, Universita Commerciale Luigi Bocconi, Institut de Methodes Quantitatives, Via R. Sarfatti 25, 20136 Milan, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20172 Netherlands. Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek. Hoofdafdeling Bevolkingsstatistieken (Voorburg, Netherlands). Life tables by sex and age, 1986-1990. [Overlevingstafels naar geslacht en leeftijd, 1986-1990.] ISBN 90-357-1379-6. 1992. 59 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Life tables are presented for the Netherlands by sex and age for individual years from 1986 to 1990.
Correspondence: Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek, Postbus 959, 2270 AZ Voorburg, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20173 Prins, C. J. M.; Levering, J. Marriage, marriage dissolution, and death 1976-1990: figures from life tables. [Huwelijkssluiting, huwelijksontbinding en sterfte 1976-1990; een overlevingstafelbenadering.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 40, No. 3, Mar 1992. 17-24 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Life table data for the Netherlands are presented by marital status, age, and sex for four Dutch cohorts: never married, married, divorced, and widowed. "The numbers of survivors in each marital status are computed using sex, age and marital status specific rates...." Consideration is given to nonmarital fertility; average ages at first marriage, divorce, and remarriage; life expectancy at birth; and average age at death by sex and marital status.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20174 Tas, R. F. J. Period life tables for the Netherlands by age, sex, and province, 1986-1990. [Periode-overlevingstafels naar leeftijd, geslacht en provincie, 1986-1990.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 40, No. 4, Apr 1992. 19-33 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Regional differences in life expectancy and mortality are examined for the Netherlands for the period 1986-1990. Life table data are presented by province of birth, sex, and age. Increment-decrement life table techniques are used to incorporate migration between provinces into the analysis.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.6. Differential Mortality

Studies on the ratio of mortality in different subgroups of a population, classified according to certain criteria, such as sex, social class, occupation, and marital status. Also includes studies on excess mortality and comparative mortality.

58:20175 Carlson, Elwood; Tsvetarsky, Sergey. Concentration of rising Bulgarian mortality among manual workers. Sociology and Social Research, Vol. 76, No. 2, Jan 1992. 81-4 pp. Los Angeles, California. In Eng.
"The present analysis documents for Bulgaria a widening gap between manual and nonmanual workers in mortality risk." The data are from unpublished official sources and are for the years 1975 and 1985.
Correspondence: E. Carlson, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

58:20176 Choiniere, Robert. Spatial mortality disparities in the metropolitan region of Montreal, 1984-1988: an ecological analysis of the role of social, economic, and cultural factors. [Les disparites geographiques de la mortalite dans le Montreal metropolitain, 1984-1988: etude ecologique des liens avec les conditions sociales, economiques et culturelles.] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 20, No. 1, Spring 1991. 115-44 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
Geographic differentials in mortality and life expectancy in the region surrounding Montreal, Canada, are compared. The author notes that "despite a marked drop of mortality in the Montreal region, there are still important geographic disparities at the end of the [1980s]....A multiple regression analysis shows that the proportion of poor and the percentage of immigrants account for more than 80% in the geographic disparities of life expectancy in the Montreal region."
Correspondence: R. Choiniere, Hopital General de Montreal, Departement de Sante Communautaire, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20177 de Lolio, Cecilia A.; Santo, Augusto H.; Buchalla, Cassia M. Adolescent mortality in Brazil, 1977, 1980, and 1985. Magnitude and trends. [Mortalidade de adolescentes no Brasil, 1977, 1980 e 1985. Magnitude e tendencias.] Revista de Saude Publica, Vol. 24, No. 6, Dec 1990. 481-9 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
"Mortality among adolescents...resident in 9 states of Brazil in 1977, 1980 and 1985, was analysed according to age...sex...and underlying cause of death. The mortality was greater among males aged 15-19. External causes were responsible for the [most] mortality in all strata, mainly in the metropolitan regions of the urban southeast, rising throughout the period in these regions. The chronic diseases (cancer and cardiovascular diseases) were also frequent as the underlying cause of death in adolescents, though in much lesser proportion than the non-natural causes."
Correspondence: C. A. de Lolio, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Faculdade de Saude Publica, Departamento de Epidemiologia, Av. Dr. Arnaldo 715, 01255 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:20178 Greenberg, Michael; Schneider, Dona. Region of birth and mortality of blacks in the United States. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 21, No. 2, Apr 1992. 324-8 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Analysis of black American death rates by region of birth and region of residence showed that southern-born blacks had the highest mortality rates and western-born blacks the lowest mortality rates. Blacks born in the northeast, midwest, and outside the U.S. had rates intermediate between southern and western-born black rates. Blacks born in one region and who died in another had age-specific and age-adjusted mortality rates similar to their region of birth rather than their region of residence." Data are from the 1980 U.S. Census.
Correspondence: M. Greenberg, Rutgers University, Graduate Program in Public Health, Department of Urban Studies and Community Health, Kilmer Campus, New Brunswick, NJ 08903. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20179 Junankar, P. N. Unemployment and mortality in England and Wales: a preliminary analysis. Oxford Economic Papers, Vol. 43, No. 2, Apr 1991. 305-20 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The relationship between unemployment and mortality in the United Kingdom is analyzed using data from the OPCS Longitudinal Study. The author concludes that there is a positive association between mortality rates and unemployment when controls are introduced for social class and geographical region. The results also show that the lower the social class the more unemployment affects mortality. A clear north-south divide was found, with the richer southeast doing better than the poorer north, even after controlling for social class.
Correspondence: P. N. Junankar, Australian National University, GPO 4, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

58:20180 LeGrand, Thomas K.; Mbacke, Cheikh S. M. The existence and determinants of sex differentials in infant and early child mortality in the Sahel. Working Paper du CERPOD, No. 9, Jan 1992. 33, [3] pp. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherche sur la Population pour le Developpement [CERPOD]: Bamako, Mali. In Eng.
"In this paper, three small-area longitudinal data sets for the cities of Bamako (Mali), Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso), and for a rural area in Senegal are used to study the existence and possible causes of sex differentials in post-neonatal and early child mortality." The data, which were collected between 1981 and 1985, are from the Survey on Infant Mortality in the Sahel (EMIS). The results confirm the existence of excess female mortality for specific age groups and areas without clearly identifying its causes.
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1991 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Centre d'Etudes et de Recherche sur la Population pour le Developpement, INSAH, BP 1530, Bamako, Mali. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20181 Madrigal, Lorena. Differential sex mortality in a rural nineteenth-century population: Escazu, Costa Rica. Human Biology, Vol. 64, No. 2, Apr 1992. 199-213 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
"This study focuses on Escazu, a rural nineteenth-century population from Costa Rica with low life expectancy. I investigate whether Escazu males had higher violent and accidental deaths and whether females had higher diarrhea-related deaths, an indication of nutritional discrimination. An analysis of mortality by cause of death indicates that males and females did not experience significantly different diarrhea-related death rates, although males did experience greater violent mortality....The data set analyzed here was collected from death records of the parish of San Miguel de Escazu, Costa Rica, dating from 1851 to 1921...."
Correspondence: L. Madrigal, University of South Florida, Department of Anthropology, Tampa, FL 33620. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20182 Mbacke, Cheikh; LeGrand, Thomas K. Mortality differentials by sex and by use of health services in Mali. [Differences de mortalite selon le sexe et utilisation des services de sante au Mali.] Working Paper du CERPOD, No. 8, Nov 1991. 23 pp. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherche sur la Population pour le Developpement [CERPOD]: Bamako, Mali. In Fre.
Using data from the 1987 Demographic and Health Survey for Mali, the authors analyze mortality differentials by sex and cause. The first section looks at mortality trends by sex over the past 15 years. In the next section, the literature on possible causes of excess female mortality in the Sahel is reviewed. The data from the 1987 survey are then presented and analyzed. The focus is on mortality under five years of age, and the impact of preventive and curative health services, including the provision of vaccinations and of programs to assess and improve nutritional status.
Correspondence: Centre d'Etudes et de Recherche sur la Population pour le Developpement, INSAH, BP 1530, Bamako, Mali. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20183 Pekkanen, Juha; Manton, Kenneth G.; Stallard, Eric; Nissinen, Aulikki; Karvonen, Martti J. Risk factor dynamics, mortality and life expectancy differences between eastern and western Finland: the Finnish cohorts of the Seven Countries Study. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 21, No. 2, Apr 1992. 406-19 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
Mortality data for men living in eastern and western Finland are compared. The authors use "a model which described (a) changes in risk factors over time, (b) dependency of risk factor effects on age, and (c) interactions and nonlinear effects of risk factors on mortality. The model was applied to 25-year follow-up data from cohorts of eastern...and western...Finnish men using pulse pressure, diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, total cholesterol, vital capacity index, cigarette smoking, and heart rate as risk factors. At age 40, men in the west had a life expectancy 2.4 years higher. Of the difference 29% (0.7 years) was associated with differences in risk factor means, variances, and their change with age. The remainder, 1.7 years, was associated with age differences in the relation of risk factor interactions to CVD [cardiovascular disease] mortality."
Correspondence: J. Pekkanen, National Public Health Institute, Department of Epidemiology, Mannerheimintie 166, SF-00280 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20184 Regidor Poyatos, E.; Gonzalez Enriquez, J. Social inequality and mortality in Spain. [Desigualdad social y mortalidad en Espana.] Revista de Sanidad e Higiene Publica, Vol. 63, No. 9-10, Sep-Oct 1989. 107-16 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
Data from official Spanish sources are used to explore the relationship between social inequality and mortality. The focus is on mortality differentials by occupation for males aged 16 to 65 between 1980 and 1982. The results confirm that the lowest socioeconomic groups experience the highest rates of mortality.
Correspondence: E. Regidor Poyatos, Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo, Subdireccion General de Informacion Sanitaria y Epidemiologia, Madrid, Spain. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:20185 Rogers, Richard G. Living and dying in the U.S.A.: sociodemographic determinants of death among blacks and whites. Demography, Vol. 29, No. 2, May 1992. 287-303 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper examines the demographic and social factors associated with differences in length of life by race [in the United States]. The results demonstrate that sociodemographic factors--age, sex, marital status, family size, and income--profoundly affect black and white mortality. Indeed, the racial gap in overall mortality could close completely with increased standards of living and improved lifestyles. Moreover, examining cause-specific mortality while adjusting for social factors shows that compared to whites, blacks have a lower mortality risk from respiratory diseases, accidents, and suicide; the same risk from circulatory diseases and cancer; and higher risks from infectious diseases, homicide, and diabetes."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1991 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: R. G. Rogers, University of Colorado, Population Program, Campus Box 484, Boulder, CO 80309-0484. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20186 Umberson, Debra. Gender, marital status and the social control of health behavior. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 34, No. 8, Apr 1992. 907-17 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
A theoretical model of social integration and social control is developed to determine the reasons for the lower mortality that is observed among married individuals. The hypothesis that spouses monitor and attempt to control their partner's health behavior is tested using U.S. data from the Americans' Changing Lives Survey involving 3,617 individuals in 1986 and 2,867 in 1989. The results suggest that women are more likely than men to try to alter their spouse's health behavior, and that although marriage has little effect on health behavior, the breakup of a marriage has a negative impact on health.
Correspondence: D. Umberson, University of Texas, Department of Sociology, Austin, TX 78712. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

E.7. Mortality by Cause

Studies of demographic relevance on causes of death. Studies of morbidity and of public health measures are included only if they relate specifically to mortality. Also included are maternal mortality and comparisons of causes.

58:20187 Davis, Devra L.; Hoel, David. Trends in cancer mortality in industrial countries. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 609, ISBN 0-89766-643-7. LC 90-13629. 1990. xi, 347 pp. New York Academy of Sciences: New York, New York. In Eng.
This volume is the result of a workshop held in Carpi, Italy, October 21-22, 1989. The 26 papers by various authors cover aspects of cancer mortality in developed countries. They indicate a convergence in trends in several types of cancer mortality throughout the developed world in both men and women. Much of the discussion concerns why cancers not linked to smoking or occupational exposures to hazardous materials are increasing, and why stomach cancer is decreasing.
Correspondence: New York Academy of Sciences, Marketing Department, 2 East 63rd Street, New York, NY 10021. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:20188 Defense for Children International--USA (New York, New York). The effects of maternal mortality on children in Africa: an exploratory report on Kenya, Namibia, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe. ISBN 0-943965-16-0. 1991. i, 143, [78] pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This report contains four papers by various authors on the impact of maternal mortality on children in Africa. The first paper examines demographic approaches to the study of the effects of maternal mortality on children. The second paper looks at the consequences for child survivors in Kenya, Namibia, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The third paper assesses social and cultural factors affecting maternal and child mortality, particularly in East Africa, while the final paper concerns legal aspects of children's rights in such circumstances. Appendixes provide a list of relevant international legislation, organizations active in the field, and an unannotated bibliography.
Correspondence: Defense for Children International--USA, 210 Forsyth Street, New York, NY 10002. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20189 Dwyer, Jeffrey W.; Clarke, Leslie L.; Miller, Michael K. The effect of religious concentration and affiliation on county cancer mortality rates. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, Vol. 31, No. 2, 1990. 185-202 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This research examines the effect of religious concentration and denominational affiliation on [U.S.] county cancer mortality rates. Our findings suggest that religion has a significant impact on mortality rates for all malignancies combined, for digestive cancer, and for respiratory cancer when we control for demographic, environmental, and regional factors known to affect cancer mortality."
Correspondence: J. W. Dwyer, University of Florida, Center for Health Policy Research, Box J-177, Health Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32610-0177. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:20190 Giovannucci, Edward; Tosteson, Tor D.; Speizer, Frank E.; Vessey, Martin P.; Colditz, Graham A. A long-term study of mortality in men who have undergone vasectomy. New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 326, No. 21, May 21, 1992. 1,392-8 pp. Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"We examined the relation between vasectomy and mortality rates from cardiovascular disease, cancer, and all causes in a retrospective cohort of [U.S.] husbands of members of the Nurses' Health Study. In 1989 we obtained data by questionnaire on 14,607 men who had undergone vasectomy as of 1976 and 14,607 men who had not." The results indicate that "vasectomy is not associated with an increase in overall mortality or mortality from cardiovascular disease. Our study also found no increase in overall mortality from cancer after vasectomy, but there was an apparent increase in the risk of cancer 20 or more years after vasectomy that requires further study."
Correspondence: E. Giovannucci, Channing Laboratory, 180 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

58:20191 Hessol, Nancy A.; Buchbinder, Susan P.; Colbert, David; Scheer, Susan; Underwood, Ronald; Barnhart, J. Lowell; O'Malley, Paul M.; Doll, Lynda S.; Lifson, Alan R. Impact of HIV infection on mortality and accuracy of AIDS reporting on death certificates. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 82, No. 4, Apr 1992. 561-4 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"In this analysis, we obtained information on HIV infection, reported infection, reported AIDS diagnosis, and deaths among a San Francisco [California] cohort of homosexual and bisexual men. Our objectives were to describe the underlying causes of death; to assess underreporting of AIDS on death certificates; and to calculate cause-specific proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs), years of potential life lost (YPLL), and standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for deceased cohort members."
Correspondence: N. A. Hessol, San Francisco Department of Public Health, AIDS Office, 25 Van Ness Avenue, Suite 500, San Francisco, CA 94102. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

58:20192 Keeling, J. W.; McCaw-Binns, A. M.; Ashley, D. E.; Golding, J. Maternal mortality in Jamaica: health care provision and causes of death. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Vol. 35, No. 1, May 1991. 19-27 pp. Limerick, Ireland. In Eng.
"Details of 62 maternal deaths occurring [in Jamaica] in 1986/1987 were compared with a control population. The incidence was 11.5 per 10,000 livebirths. The major cause of maternal mortality was hypertension followed by hemorrhage and infection. There were trends with advanced maternal age and high parity. The risk of maternal death varied with hospital facilities available, being lowest in areas with access to a specialist hospital and highest in areas where there were no obstetricians available."
Correspondence: J. Golding, Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Child Health, Bristol BS2 8BJ, England. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:20193 Koenig, Michael. Mortality reductions from measles and tetanus immunization: a review of the evidence. Policy, Research, and External Affairs Working Paper, No. WPS 868, Mar 1992. 35 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The impact that measles and tetanus immunization programs could have on mortality in developing countries is examined. The author concludes that "tetanus and measles account for more than 2.5 million childhood deaths annually--and immunization programs could significantly reduce those numbers. With tetanus vaccinations, two doses may be necessary."
Correspondence: World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

58:20194 Kurosu, Satomi. Suicide in rural areas: the case of Japan 1960-1980. Rural Sociology, Vol. 56, No. 4, Winter 1991. 603-18 pp. College Station, Texas. In Eng.
Data on rural-urban differentials in suicides in Japan during the period 1960-1981 are analyzed and compared for 47 prefectures. "Higher suicide rates are observed in areas with a sparse population, a stagnant economy, and a population over-represented by elderly people....Variation in social integration, rather than the degree of industrialization and urbanization, is the key to understanding the differentials in suicide rates."
Correspondence: S. Kurosu, International Research Center for Japanese Studies, 3-2 Oeyama-cho, Goryo, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 610-11, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20195 Laurenti, Ruy; Buchalla, Cassia M.; de Lolio, Cecilia A.; Santo, Augusto H.; Jorge, Maria H. P. de M. Mortality among women of reproductive age in Sao Paulo City (Brazil), 1986. Part 2: deaths by maternal cause. [Mortalidade de mulheres em idade fertil no municipio de Sao Paulo (Brasil), 1986. II--mortes por causas maternas.] Revista de Saude Publica, Vol. 24, No. 6, Dec 1990. 468-72 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
Maternal mortality in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 1986 is analyzed. When data from the original death certificates were supplemented with additional information from other sources, the maternal mortality rate more than doubled, from 44.5 per 100,000 live births to 99.6. Changing causes of maternal mortality over time are analyzed.
Correspondence: R. Laurenti, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Faculdade de Saude Publica, Departamento de Epidemiologia, Av. Dr. Arnaldo 715, 01255 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:20196 Lindberg, Gunnar; Rastam, Lennart; Gullberg, Bo; Eklund, Gunnar A. Serum sialic acid concentration predicts both coronary heart disease and stroke mortality: multivariate analysis including 54,385 men and women during 20.5 years follow-up. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 21, No. 2, Apr 1992. 253-7 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"To investigate the nature of the relationship between serum sialic acid concentration and cardiovascular mortality, the risks for coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke were assessed separately in 26,693 men and 27,692 women [in Sweden] followed during 20.5 years. Diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and body mass index were used as covariates in a person-year-based Poisson model....For both genders, and both endpoints, diastolic blood pressure was associated with higher relative risk than sialic acid, and body mass index and serum total cholesterol were less predictive. Serum sialic acid concentration predicts both death from CHD and stroke in men and women independent of age. The biological foundation of this finding remains unclear."
Correspondence: G. Lindberg, Centre for Public Health Research, S-65182 Karlstad, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20197 Liu, Zhiyuan. Smoking and lung cancer in China: combined analysis of eight case-control studies. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 21, No. 2, Apr 1992. 197-213 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In China, a number of epidemiological studies have investigated the association between lung cancer and smoking and in the present paper, a combined analysis of eight such case-control studies is described. The summary odds ratio (OR)...and attributable risk (AR) of lung cancer associated with smoking were calculated from the combined data which were obtained from a literature review. The eight case-control studies were conducted in Beijing, Shanghai, Shenyang, Nanjing, Harbin, Zhenghou, Taiyuan, and Nanchang, yielding a total of 4,081 lung cancer cases and 4,338 controls....The OR and AR of lung cancer associated with smoking in China were much lower than those reported in Western countries and the possible reasons for this are discussed." Consideration is given to sex factors, number of cigarettes smoked per day, and age at start of smoking.
Correspondence: Z. Liu, Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine, Institute of Environmental Health and Engineering, 29 Nan Wei Road, Beijing 100050, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20198 Marshall, Roger J.; Scragg, Robert; Bourke, Paul. An analysis of the seasonal variation of coronary heart disease and respiratory disease mortality in New Zealand. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 17, No. 2, Jun 1988. 325-31 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The seasonal variation of coronary heart disease mortality rates in New Zealand is analysed by age, sex and race using monthly national mortality data for the period 1970-83. A 35% variation from the winter peak to summer low is found in the crude mortality rate....The hypothesis that respiratory infections are linked to coronary heart disease, and that their seasonal occurrence explains the seasonal variation in coronary rates, is examined by an analysis of the association between coronary disease and respiratory disease mortality rates....It is suggested that the season acts as a confounding factor to cause an apparent association between the two rates. After controlling for season there is a tenuous relationship, but it is apparent only in the elderly."
Correspondence: R. J. Marshall, University of Auckland, School of Medicine, Department of Community Health and General Practice, Private Bag, Auckland, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20199 Patterson, K. David. Yellow fever epidemics and mortality in the United States, 1693-1905. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 34, No. 8, Apr 1992. 855-65 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Yellow fever epidemics struck the United States repeatedly in the 18th and 19th centuries. The disease was not indigenous; epidemics were imported by ship from the Caribbean. Prior to 1822, yellow fever attacked cities as far north as Boston, but after 1822 it was restricted to the south. Port cities were the primary targets, but the disease occasionally spread up the Mississippi River system in the 1800s. New Orleans, Mobile, Savannah, and Charleston were major targets; Memphis suffered terribly in 1878. Yellow fever epidemics caused terror, economic disruption, and some 100,000-150,000 deaths. Recent white immigrants to southern port cities were the most vulnerable; local whites and blacks enjoyed considerable resistance."
Correspondence: K. D. Patterson, University of North Carolina, Department of History, Charlotte, NC 28223. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

58:20200 Peto, Richard; Lopez, Alan D.; Boreham, Jillian; Thun, Michael; Heath, Clark. Mortality from tobacco in developed countries: indirect estimation from national vital statistics. Lancet, Vol. 339, No. 8804, May 23, 1992. 1,268-78 pp. Baltimore, Maryland/London, England. In Eng.
The authors attempt to estimate the extent of mortality from tobacco use in developed countries using official vital statistics data. They estimate that annual deaths attributable to smoking have risen from 0.9 million in 1965 to 1.7 million in 1985; about 21 million persons will die from this cause during the 1990s; more than half of these deaths will be in the age group 35-69; and about 20 percent of all deaths in developed countries are attributed to tobacco, making it the single largest cause of premature death.
Correspondence: R. Peto, University of Oxford, Imperial Cancer Research Fund, Cancer Studies Unit, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford OX2 6HE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

58:20201 Soro, B. N.; Gershy-Damet, G. M.; Coulibaly, A.; Konan, K.; Sato, P. A. The present and future course of the AIDS epidemic in Cote d'Ivoire. Bulletin of the World Health Organization/Bulletin de l'Organisation Mondiale de la Sante, Vol. 70, No. 1, 1992. 117-23 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"An assessment of the current and future mortality and morbidity from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Cote d'Ivoire [Ivory Coast] was made using the results of the 1989 national survey of the prevalence of human immunodeficiency (HIV) infection in the country and the AIDS projection model developed by WHO. For 1989 it was estimated that about 25,000 AIDS cases in adults and children had occurred....It is projected that by 1994 in Cote d'Ivoire the cumulative number of cases of AIDS in adults will be 89,000, and that for infants and children the corresponding number will be 41,000. It was also projected that about 371,000 uninfected children will have been born to HIV-infected mothers in Cote d'Ivoire by 1994 and that many of these children will have been orphaned by the deaths of their mothers from AIDS."
Correspondence: B. N. Soro, National AIDS Programme, Surveillance Unit, Abidjan, Ivory Coast. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20202 Woodbury, Max A.; Manton, Kenneth G.; Blazer, Dan. Trends in U.S. suicide mortality rates 1968 to 1982: race and sex differences in age, period and cohort components. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 17, No. 2, Jun 1988. 356-62 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"We examine the trends in U.S. age-specific suicide rates for the period 1962 to 1981 for four elderly race and sex groups....Age, period and cohort effects all significantly contributed to these trends. The race and sex differences were largest for the age pattern of changes in suicide mortality. Of particular interest was the different contribution of each of these factors to recent increases in mortality at advanced ages for black males--a hitherto little recognized or studied trend."
Correspondence: K. G. Manton, Duke University, Center for Demographic Studies, 2117 Campus Drive, Durham, NC 27706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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