Volume 58 - Number 1 - Spring 1992

F. Fertility

Studies that treat quantitative fertility data analytically. References to crude data are coded under S. Official Statistical Publications . Methodological studies specifically concerned with fertility are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary.

F.1. General Fertility

Analytical studies of quantitative birth data and reproduction rates and studies of fertility and its concomitants. Studies of age at marriage, divorce, and factors influencing family size are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

58:10199 Adam, Abbas Y. Convergence on the two-child family norm in Australia. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 8, No. 2, Nov 1991. 77-91 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper examines childbearing patterns of ever-married women in Australia and establishes that during the process of fertility transition from high to low levels which largely began after 1971, significant changes occurred in the timing of the first birth after marriage, the length of the first and inter-birth intervals and the proportion of women progressing to have a first birth or births beyond the second. The analysis also confirms the predominance of the two-child family norm and shows the emergence of a converging trend on that family norm. The study applies the life tables technique to the marriage and birth history data collected in the Family Formation Survey conducted...in September 1986."
Correspondence: A. Y. Adam, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Cameron Offices, Demography Section, W4Gc, Belconnen, ACT 2616, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10200 Ancok, Djamaluddin. The role of traditional organization on family planning acceptance in Indonesia. Populasi, Vol. 2, No. 1, 1991. 25-35 pp. Yogyakarta, Indonesia. In Eng. with sum. in Ind.
"This paper discusses two related issues, of which one is the decline in fertility in Indonesia and its possible causes, and the other utilization of village traditional organization in the family planning program in Indonesia." Particular attention is given to the role that traditional village organizations have played in promoting contraceptive use.
Correspondence: D. Ancok, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Pusat Penelitian Kependudukan, Bulaksumur Blok G-7, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10201 Arora, Y. L.; Singh, Padam. Analysis of fertility decline in India through weighted path analysis. Demography India, Vol. 18, No. 1-2, Jan-Dec 1989. 21-6 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The present study has been undertaken to assess the conditions of fertility decline [in India] and to disentangle the effects of family planning efforts and development efforts, through weighted path analysis....Data have been taken for...16 variables from family welfare yearbooks for the different years and from census publications for 1971 and 1981. The data used relate to demographic variables, family planning variables and some aspects of development for different states for 1971 and 1981."
Correspondence: Y. L. Arora, Institute for Research in Medical Statistics, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi 110 029, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10202 Bachu, Amara. Fertility of American women: June 1990. Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, No. 454, Oct 1991. iv, 69 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This report on the fertility of U.S. women is based primarily on data from the June 1990 supplement to the Current Population Survey. It includes data on current fertility, premarital childbearing, age patterns of fertility, fertility and female labor force participation, and birth expectations.
Correspondence: Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10203 Bolivia. Consejo Nacional de Poblacion [CONAPO] (La Paz, Bolivia). Fertility and contraceptive knowledge and practice in the major cities of Bolivia. [Fecundidad, conocimientos y practicas anticonceptivas en las principales ciudades de Bolivia.] 1988. 76 pp. La Paz, Bolivia. In Spa.
This paper analyzes recent trends in fertility and in contraceptive knowledge and practice in Bolivia's major cities, including La Paz, Cochabamba, and Santa Cruz.
If requesting this document from CELADE, specify DOCPAL No. 14533.01.
Correspondence: Consejo Nacional de Poblacion, La Paz, Bolivia. Location: U.N. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia, Santiago, Chile. Source: DOCPAL Resumenes sobre Poblacion en America Latina 14(1).

58:10204 Bonneuil, Noel. Contextual and structural factors in fertility behaviour. Population. English Selection, Vol. 2, 1990. 69-91 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
"Following recent studies in the fields of vector topology and catastrophe theory, [we show] how new ways of representing changes in fertility can reveal the existence of distinct fertility regimes ('attractors') between which the population can move rapidly....[In contrast to the cyclical approach of Easterlin,] we shall attempt to demonstrate that large fluctuations are not the result of an underlying cycle set within a long-term trend....by showing that a sufficiently strong mortality perturbation, even if limited in time, can produce a discontinuity, and thus a fluctuation of large amplitude, a temporary stabilization at a high level accompanied by apparently chaotic fluctuations, followed by a slow return to a stable equilibrium....In a...methodological section, we consider an example, post-transitional Sweden, between 1930 and 1985. Keeping as close as possible to the observed data, we shall examine the topological structure of the observed time-dependent system." The analysis is also extended to several other European countries.
This is a translation of the French article published in 1989 and cited in 55:30219.
Correspondence: N. Bonneuil, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10205 Brittain, Ann W. Can women remember how many children they have borne? Data from the East Caribbean. Social Biology, Vol. 38, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1991. 219-32 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"The number of births reported by 786 women of native ancestry on the 1954 census of St. Barthelemy, French West Indies, was compared to the number of births registered to these same women in the records of vital events. The magnitude of the difference between the two numbers was related to a woman's parity and marital status, but not to her age or literacy. In general, the agreement between the two numbers was very high....It appears likely that the discrepancies between reported parities and registered statistics in previous studies are the result of cultural misunderstandings in questionnaires, or perhaps sample decay, rather than of women's memory loss."
Correspondence: A. W. Brittain, University of Miami, Department of Anthropology, Coral Gables, FL 33124. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10206 Brown, John; Guinnane, Timothy; Lupprian, Marion. Fertility decline in nineteenth-century Munich: background, issues, and some preliminary results. OPR Working Paper, No. 91-14, Nov 1991. 35, [15] pp. Princeton University, Office of Population Research [OPR]: Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
"This paper reports early results from a new project on life-cycle fertility in late nineteenth-century Munich. Using Munich Polizeimeldebogen (PMBs) for marriage cohorts of 1860 through about 1910, our project explores the role of rural-urban migration, wealth, life-cycle labor force participation and religious affiliation in urban fertility patterns."
Correspondence: Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10207 Calot, Gerard. Fertility in Europe: similarities and differences. [La fecondite en Europe: analogies et differences.] Population et Societes, No. 264, Jan 1992. [3] pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The author continues a comparative analysis of fertility trends in Europe, particularly in France and Sweden, using new data that became available in 1991. He suggests that there is a relationship between those countries that have devoted resources toward developing a family policy to encourage fertility and those countries that have reached replacement levels of fertility.
For a related study, published in 1990, see 56:20187.
Correspondence: G. Calot, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10208 Calot, Gerard. The rebuilding of generations. [La releve des generations.] Population et Societes, No. 265, Feb 1992. [4] pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
Some concepts concerning population replacement are discussed, with particular reference to France. The difference between gross and net replacement rate is explained. The author points out that if fertility continues at 1.8 children per woman, the number of women of reproductive age will continue to decrease, and the replacement of generations will not be assured without immigration.
Correspondence: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10209 Charbit, Yves; Ndiaye, Khardiata; Ndiaye, Salif; Sadio, Abdoulaye; Sarr, Ibrahima. Nuptiality and fertility in Senegal. [Nuptialite et fecondite au Senegal.] Annales de l'IFORD, Vol. 13, No. 2, Dec 1989. 37-74 pp. Yaounde, Cameroon. In Fre.
The relationship between fertility and nuptiality in Senegal is analyzed using data from the 1978 fertility survey carried out as part of the World Fertility Survey. The authors conclude that the high levels of fertility recorded are related to early and almost universal nuptiality and remarriage, as well as to the social status of children. The main factors limiting fertility, in the virtual absence of contraception or abortion, are breast-feeding, infertility, and polygamy.
Correspondence: Y. Charbit, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10210 Choiniere, Robert; Robitaille, Norbert. The fertility of the Inuit of Northern Quebec: a half-century of fluctuations. Collection de Tires a Part, No. 271, [1987]. [12] pp. Universite de Montreal, Departement de Demographie: Montreal, Canada. In Eng.
Trends in fertility among the Inuit of Northern Quebec are analyzed over the past 50 years using data from a population register prepared at the University of Montreal's Department of Demography. The authors attempt "to relate...fluctuations in the Northern Quebec Inuit fertility to the various events that influenced the recent history of this population such as starvations, epidemics, settling process, health improvements and socio-economic changes."
This article was originally published in Acta Borealia, Vol. 4, Nos. 1-2, 1987, pp. 53-64.
Correspondence: Universite de Montreal, Departement de Demographie, CP 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10211 Cliquet, R. L. Desirabilities and possibilities of a fertility recovery at replacement level in Europe: proceedings of a seminar organized at the occasion of CBGS' silver jubilee. Publications of the Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute (NIDI) and the Population and Family Study Centre (CBGS), Vol. 21, ISBN 90-265-1157-4. 1991. 140 pp. Swets and Zeitlinger: Lisse, Netherlands. In Eng.
This publication is the result of a seminar held on the occasion of the twenty-fifth anniversary of the Population and Family Study Centre (CBGS) of the Ministry of the Flemish Community in Belgium. The subject of the seminar was the need for and possibilities of a fertility recovery to replacement levels in Europe. Papers are included on Austria, Belgium, East Germany, Finland, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, West Germany, and Yugoslavia. The consensus was that, although this objective was desirable, the European experience with pronatalist policies was such that its attainment is questionable.
Correspondence: Swets and Zeitlinger, Heveweg 347B, 2161 CA Lisse, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10212 Cliquet, R. L. The second demographic transition: fact or fiction? Council of Europe Population Studies, No. 23, ISBN 92-871-1963-5. 1991. 115 pp. Council of Europe: Strasbourg, France. In Eng.
The author reviews recent literature on the determinants of Europe's fertility decline, demographic aging, and changes in nuptiality and household formation. "The aim of this document is to discuss the specificity of the so-called Second Demographic Transition, to draw attention to its possible consequences and to consider its probable future course and policy implications." The publication is also available in French.
Correspondence: Council of Europe, Directorate of Social and Economic Affairs, BP 431 R6, 67006 Strasbourg Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10213 De Simoni, Alessandro. A reconstruction of the resident female population of childbearing age by age and number of children for Italy and its two major regions: 1980-1988. [Ricostruzione della popolazione residente femminile in eta feconda per eta e numero di figli avuti dell'Italia e delle due grandi repartizioni: anni dal 1980 al 1988.] 1989. 86 pp. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione [IRP]: Rome, Italy. In Ita.
Data are presented on the female population of Italy of childbearing age by number of live-born children for each year from 1980 to 1988. The data are provided for Italy as a whole and for the North-Central and South-Islands regions.
Correspondence: Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione, Viale Beethoven 56, 00144 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10214 Ewbank, Douglas C. The marital fertility of American whites before 1920. Historical Methods, Vol. 24, No. 4, Fall 1991. 141-70 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The article reviews the evidence on marital fertility trends among U.S. whites up to 1910 and provides new information about geographic differentials for the period 1905-10....In the first section of this article, I review the evidence for increased fertility control at the older ages or higher parities....In the second section, I review the evidence on fertility control at the younger ages, including estimates of birth spacing at young ages (low parities) and estimates of the prevalence of childlessness and one-child families. I also present some estimates of the average interval among low-parity births....In the final section, I consider the strategies of childbearing implied by the preceding reviews of the evidence on fertility control at the younger and the older ages." Data are from a variety of published sources.
Correspondence: D. C. Ewbank, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10215 Ferial, A. El-K. Ahmed. Fertility and literacy level of the community. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1988. 1989. 75-86 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The effect of the educational level of the community, as opposed to the individual, on couples' fertility is examined using data from the Egyptian Contraceptive Prevalence Survey of 1984.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10216 Festy, Patrick. Fertility in Eastern Europe since 1950. [La fecondite en Europe de l'Est depuis 1950.] Population, Vol. 46, No. 3, May-Jun 1991. 479-509 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
Trends in fertility in Eastern Europe since World War II are reviewed. "In some countries, such as the Czech region, and the GDR, in which birth rates had already been low, there were indications of an increase: in others, such as Romania and Yugoslavia fertility remained high. During the 40 years following the war, trends have varied widely within each country, and there has been little synchronization between them. Short-term fluctuations can often be explained in terms of changes in the laws relating to abortion, and in the adoption of pro-natalist legislation. Overall, during these 40 years, there has been much greater homogeneity of fertility around replacement level. In this, Eastern European governments have been more successful than those in the West, even if the [numbers] of third births have not increased, as had been hoped."
Correspondence: P. Festy, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10217 Fu, Haishan. Education and fertility performance: evidence from China. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1988. 1989. 683-720 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The effect of educational status on fertility in China is analyzed. The focus is on whether the country's population policy and family planning programs have compensated for low educational status in high-fertility populations. Data are from the 1986 China In-Depth Fertility Survey.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10218 Gacesa, Ljubica. Transversal and cohort approaches to the analysis of fertility of the female population of Yugoslavia during the period 1950-1987. [Transverzalni i kohortni pristup analizi fertiliteta zenskog stanovnistva SFR Jugoslavije u periodu 1950-1987.] Studije, Analize i Prikazi, No. 128, 1991. 142 pp. Savezni Zavod za Statistiku: Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Scr.
Fertility trends in Yugoslavia are analyzed over the period 1950-1987 using official data, primarily from censuses. Various methodological approaches are used, including cohort and period analysis. The analyses are presented separately for the whole country and for the individual republics.
Correspondence: Savezni Zavod za Statistiku, Kneza Milosa 20, P.O. Box 203, 11000 Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10219 Gonsalves-Pinto, Lorna. The status of women and fertility in India, regional analysis of district level data. Pub. Order No. DA9122786. 1990. 185 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This work was undertaken as a doctoral dissertation at Bowling Green State University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 52(3).

58:10220 Gunn, P. A. Seasonality of births in nineteenth-century urban Tasmania. Human Biology, Vol. 64, No. 1, Feb 1992. 51-65 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
"The monthly distribution of births for Hobart Town, Van Diemen's Land, [Tasmania, Australia,] during the period 1839-1859 is examined....Some seasonality was found among farmers, seamen, and dealers in foodstuffs but not in other industry groups. Class differences were not apparent. The research establishes that the seasonal distribution of mid-nineteenth-century urban births corresponds neither to nineteenth-century rural patterns nor to the patterns evident in the twentieth century."
Correspondence: P. A. Gunn, University of Tasmania, Department of Sociology, GPO Box 252C, Hobart, Tasmania 7001, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10221 Hu, Ying; Meng, Canwen. An analysis of changing intermediate fertility variables in five provinces and one municipality in China, 1976-86. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 91-6, ISBN 0-7714-1320-3. Jul 1991. 7, [23] pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
"The total fertility rate (TFR) [in China] fell from an average level of 3.73 in the 1970's to 2.49 in the 1980's, a decline of about one-third in just a decade. In order to understand this broad process of fertility change, this paper examines in detail the proximate determinants of fertility change in five provinces and one municipality, over ten years (1976-1986). The Bongaarts model is applied to data from The In-Depth Fertility Survey, China 1987....The data used in this paper are primarily from questionnaires for individual women [under age 50], which include information on marriage, contraception, and breast-feeding history."
Correspondence: University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10222 Kohli, Vandana. Minority group status and fertility: the case of Asian Indians in the United States. Pub. Order No. DA9117833. 1990. 144 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Michigan State University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 52(2).

58:10223 Krishnan, Vijaya. Female labour force participation and fertility: an aggregate analysis. Genus, Vol. 47, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1991. 177-92 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
The author examines "the relationship between the fertility and the labour force participation of married women in Canadian cities....Examination of cross-sectional data for 1971 and 1981, and change data for the ten year period 1971-1981 suggest that (1) female participation in the labour force has a substantial depressing effect on number of children ever-born and (2) number of children ever-born has a depressing effect on female labour force participation independent of other factors...." Some policy implications are discussed.
Correspondence: V. Krishnan, University of Alberta, Department of Sociology, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10224 Landers, John; Reynolds, Vernon. Fertility and resources. Society for the Study of Human Biology Symposium Series, No. 31, ISBN 0-521-39526-7. LC 90-1833. 1990. vii, 199 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of a two-day meeting on fertility and resources, held at the University of Oxford, April 10-11, 1989. "In this book a number of biologists, anthropologists and demographers examine how patterns of reproduction are related to the availability of food and other scarce resources in a variety of conditions and circumstances....Patterns of breastfeeding, contraception and ideas about age of marriage and desired family size all affect fertility. The relation between these and access to scarce resources, via income, education and other forms of status, is explored in this book." The geographical focus is worldwide.
Correspondence: Cambridge University Press, Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1RP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10225 Lau, Tak Fai Joseph. The relationship between age at first marriage and the first birth interval of women in China. Pub. Order No. DA9126652. 1990. 202 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of California at Berkeley.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 52(4).

58:10226 LeVine, Robert A.; LeVine, Sarah E.; Richman, Amy; Tapia Uribe, F. Medardo; Correa, Clara S.; Miller, Patrice M. Women's schooling and child care in the demographic transition: a Mexican case study. Population and Development Review, Vol. 17, No. 3, Sep 1991. 459-96, 565, 567 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The question of how female school attendance influences fertility and child survival was studied by the authors at the community level, in one urban and one rural setting in central Mexico....Maternal schooling was found to be a predictor of reductions in fertility and the risks to child survival in both settings, with household socioeconomic factors controlled....Mothers with more schooling use maternal and child health and family planning services more frequently and are differentiated from those with less schooling by attitude, belief, and behavior variables, indicating psychosocial pathways between schooling and population change."
Correspondence: R. A. LeVine, Harvard University, Anthropology Department, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10227 Luther, Norman Y.; Pejaranonda, Chintana. The parity structure of fertility decline in Thailand, 1953-1979. Genus, Vol. 47, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1991. 63-88 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"Fertility estimates for Thailand in the period 1953-79 are derived by a newly extended procedure for reconstructing birth histories from 'own-children birth histories', applied to the censuses of 1970 and 1980....Period parity progression ratios from women's own birth (parity 0) to first marriage, from first marriage to first birth (parity 1), and from each parity to the next are calculated....Age-specific fertility rates for 1955-79 are computed as well. The data and results indicate significantly greater underreporting of children ever born in the 1980 census than in the 1970 census."
Correspondence: N. Y. Luther, Hawaii Pacific University, 1166 Fort Street, Honolulu, HI 96813. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10228 Mawhinney, Annette M. Fertility and reproduction in Dominica. Pub. Order No. DA9133617. 1991. 161 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Missouri at Columbia.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 52(6).

58:10229 McInnis, R. Marvin. Women, work and childbearing: Ontario in the second half of the nineteenth century. Histoire Sociale/Social History, Vol. 24, No. 48, Nov 1991. 237-62 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
Factors that led to the decline in marital fertility in nineteenth-century Ontario, Canada, are analyzed. The results suggest that since women's opportunities for gainful employment were limited, marriage postponement, the normal means of limiting population growth at the time, was not a viable alternative. "Marriage, and a household of one's own, was the preferred state, but that brought exposure to childbearing. The unappealing features of extended spinsterhood may have contributed to a relatively early acceptance by anglophone Canadians of the idea of limiting the fertility of marriage."
Correspondence: R. M. McInnis, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

58:10230 Miller, Jane E. Birth order, interpregnancy interval and birth outcomes among Filipino infants. OPR Working Paper, No. 91-13, Nov 1991. 14 pp. Princeton University, Office of Population Research [OPR]: Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
"The objective of this paper is to analyze the relations among birth order, length of preceding interpregnancy interval and birth outcomes using a representative sample of births from a developing country. Five different measures of health at birth--including birthweight, length of gestation, infant length, weight-for-gestational-age, and weight-for-length, as well as neonatal survival--are used to investigate the effects of birth order and spacing, providing a broader range of outcome measures than have been used previously. We examine the health effects of birth order and interpregnancy interval first alone and then jointly....Finally, we explore possible mediating effects...of birthweight and gestational age in the relations between birth spacing, birth order, and neonatal survival....The data for this analysis are drawn from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (CLHNS), a prospective survey conducted in the Metro Cebu region of the Philippines [in 1983 and 1984]...."
Correspondence: Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10231 Mitra, S. On the convergence of Das Gupta's model of fertility projection. Social Biology, Vol. 38, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1991. 281-4 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"A regression model expressing the age-specific fertility rates at a given point of time as a variable dependent upon the same at the preceding points of time has been developed by Das Gupta for purposes of fertility projection....The conditions of convergence of such a model have been determined in this paper according to which the model's usefulness for the purposes of long-term projection of fertility rates appears to be severely restricted." The model is evaluated using a U.S. data set.
Correspondence: S. Mitra, Emory University, Department of Sociology, Atlanta, GA 30322. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10232 Mitra, Samarendranath. An alternative method of estimating the parameters of birth trajectory. Genus, Vol. 47, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1991. 21-30 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
The author presents a model to determine the coefficients of the exponential functions of the trajectory of births.
Correspondence: S. Mitra, Emory University, Department of Sociology, Atlanta, GA 30322. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10233 Neumark, David. Interpreting demographic effects in duration analyses of first birth intervals. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 5, No. 1, 1992. 17-37 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"Estimated demographic effects in proportional hazard models of first birth intervals could reflect time-invariant differences in the risk of a birth, or differences in the timing of a shift in the risk, or both. This paper attempts to distinguish between these possibilities. The procedure is to estimate a more general model than the proportional hazard specification, in which the evolution of the risk of a birth can differ with demographic characteristics. The proportional hazard specification is nested within this more general model. Consequently, the consistency of the data with the 'risk' or the 'timing' interpretation of demographic effects can be tested. The data studied do not lead to a rejection of the proportional hazard specification." Data are from the 1984 U.S. National Longitudinal Survey Youth Cohort and concern 670 women aged 16 or 17 in 1979.
Correspondence: D. Neumark, University of Pennsylvania, Department of Economics, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6297. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10234 Noin, Daniel. Fertility decline in the world. [La baisse de la fecondite dans le monde.] Annales de Geographie, Vol. 100, No. 559, May-Jun 1991. 257-72 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"The article is an overview of the geographical aspects of the demographic transition, and more precisely of the change from high to low fertility....The decline is examined in the Third World countries where it is in process and where its impact varies considerably from one country to another. It is next studied within the industrialised countries where it took place especially between 1870 and 1930, but at very different speeds. The study ends with the enigmatic case of France where the decline was exceptionally early, but where the diffusion was remarkably slow."
Correspondence: D. Noin, Universite de Paris I, 191 rue Saint-Jacques, 75005 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

58:10235 O'Connell, Martin. Late expectations: childbearing patterns of American women for the 1990's. Current Population Reports, Series P-23: Special Studies, No. 176, Oct 1991. 1-18 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper will examine the changes in the timing of entry into motherhood among post World War II birth cohorts of women and the childbearing patterns of women after age 30 [in the United States]. The principal data source used in this paper will be the Census Bureau's fertility and birth expectations survey from the Current Population Survey (CPS)....A brief summary of the origins and evolving problems associated with using birth expectations data as a method to predict future fertility swings will first be examined. Next, the usefulness of expectations data as a predictor of the future will be discussed in the context of historical patterns of childbearing....Finally, this paper will examine which socioeconomic groups of women are most likely to be characterized by delays in childbearing and their current prospects for having their first birth at later ages."
Correspondence: Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10236 Ordonez Sotomayor, Jose. Women's educational level and fertility. [Instruccion de la mujer y fecundidad.] Sep 1991. 39 pp. Centro de Estudios de Poblacion y Paternidad Responsable [CEPAR]: Quito, Ecuador. In Spa.
Data from two national surveys conducted in 1979 and 1989 are analyzed and compared to study the relationship between maternal education and fertility among Ecuadoran women. Results indicate that fertility declines as educational level increases.
Correspondence: Centro de Estudios de Poblacion y Paternidad Responsable, Toribio Montes 23 y Daniel Hidalgo, Casilla No. 17-01-2327, Quito, Ecuador. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10237 Pathak, K. B.; Pandey, A.; Mishra, U. S. Estimation of current fecundability from data on open status of women. Demography India, Vol. 19, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1990. 131-9 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"We present a simple approach to simulate the distribution of [the] open status of married women at a point of time by using...data on...age specific marital fertility rates....We have applied the theoretical distribution of the open status to obtain some biological parameters of the distribution, such as fecundability and secondary sterility for 14 major states of India as well as for all India circa the census years of 1971 and 1981." Changes over the intercensal period are described.
Correspondence: K. B. Pathak, International Institute for Population Sciences, Department of Fertility Studies, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Bombay 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10238 Pauritsch, Gertrude; Frakele, Beate; List, Elisabeth. Making children: strategies for the control of female fertility. [Kinder machen: Strategien der Kontrolle weiblicher Fruchtbarkeit.] Grazer Projekt "Interdisziplinare Frauenstudien", Vol. 2, ISBN 3-900399-20-0. LC 90-107775. 1988. 269 pp. Wiener Frauenverlag: Vienna, Austria. In Ger.
This is a collection of 16 papers presented at a 1987 lecture series and symposium sponsored by the Graz Project on Interdisciplinary Women's Studies. The papers are grouped into three sections dealing with female infertility and modern reproductive technology, the history of reproductive control from ancient times to the industrial era, and historical and current aspects of population policy affecting fertility.
Correspondence: Wiener Frauenverlag, Lange Gasse 51, A-1080 Vienna, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10239 Prioux, France. Fertility and family size in Western Europe. Population. English Selection, Vol. 2, 1990. 141-61 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
"It is known that the fertility decline in Western Europe started almost everywhere in the mid-1960s, that the national trends have run in parallel, and that the reason was essentially the decrease in the numbers of large families, or even their complete disappearance. However, for want of comparable data, international comparisons are often limited to annual fertility indices, and do not distinguish changes due to reduced family size from those which are the result of changes in fertility timing....[The author presents,] for a broad range of countries, an analysis by cohort and birth order. This makes it possible to measure the fertility decline in more detail, to compare its amplitude in the various parts of Europe, and to study its mechanisms."
This is a translation of the French article published in 1989 and cited in 56:10242.
Correspondence: F. Prioux, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10240 Romaniuc, Anatole. Fertility in Canada: retrospective and prospective. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 18, No. 2, 1991. 56-77 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Following the broad configurations of the secular decline, this paper speculates about the future course of fertility in Canada. To explain the past and rationalize the future scenarios, an attempt is made to unravel the forces that shape the procreative behaviour in advanced societies. Low fertility--below replacement level--is viewed as a condition endemic to such societies."
Correspondence: A. Romaniuc, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10241 Rosero-Bixby, Luis. Interaction diffusion and fertility transition in Costa Rica. Pub. Order No. DA9124093. 1991. 279 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study examines the spread of birth control by social interaction and its effect on fertility in Costa Rica. It was undertaken as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Michigan.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 52(3).

58:10242 Saleh, Omer M. The effect of infant and child mortality on the birth interval: the case of Northern Sudan. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1988. 1989. 395-424 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The author examines the relationship between infant and child mortality and birth interval length in Northern Sudan. Data are from the World Fertility Survey for Sudan (SUDFS), conducted in 1978-1979.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10243 Sarma, R. S. S. On factor contributions to overall fertility change. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1988. 1989. 57-72 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
In this methodological study, the author examines the choice of standards for analyzing changes in fertility over time. The focus is on the relative contribution of proportion married, marital fertility, and nonmarital fertility to changes in overall fertility.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10244 Sathar, Zeba A.; Mason, Karen O. Why female education affects reproductive behavior in urban Pakistan. Population Studies Center Research Report, No. 89-148, Jul 1989. 5, [4] pp. University of Michigan, Population Studies Center: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"We initially focus on the proximate determinants of fertility (age at marriage, breastfeeding patterns, fertility desires, and contraceptive use...). Our goal is to understand how education is related to these variables, and their impact on the education-fertility relationship....We then turn to the question of which economic and social intermediate variables explain the relationship between education and fertility. We are especially interested here in whether it is the economic opportunity costs associated with education that influence fertility, the wife's autonomy, or variation in the costs of fertility regulation. The paper's final section briefly discusses the policy implications of the analysis." The authors conclude that "an upgrading of female schooling throughout Pakistan and perhaps in other South and West Asian countries as well would appear to be a wise investment from both a development and demographic point of view." Data are for a sample of 1,000 ever-married women aged 15-52 who were interviewed in Karachi, Pakistan, from March through May 1987.
Correspondence: University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10245 Sayed, Hussein A. Estimates of the total fertility rates (TFR) of some selected areas of Egypt based on the Egypt Contraceptive Prevalence Survey (ECPS, 1984). In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1988. 1989. 33-55 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
This study analyzes recent changes in fertility in Egypt using data from three fertility surveys carried out between 1974 and 1984. Consideration is given to differential fertility among governorates and between rural and urban areas.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10246 Schwarz, Karl. The parity of female cohorts, 1865-1955. [Kinderzahl der Frauen der Geburtsjahrgange 1865-1955.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 17, No. 2, 1991. 149-57 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
Total fertility and live birth rates for German women born between 1865 and 1955 are examined for evidence of a fertility decline and a decrease in the number of children each woman needed to have to ensure population replacement. The author finds that births have not reached replacement levels since 1880. The effect of further improvements in female mortality on population replacement levels is also considered.
Correspondence: K. Schwarz, Klopstockstrasse 14, 6200 Wiesbaden, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10247 Shi, Leiyu. Family planning policy and socioeconomic factors affecting fertility in China. Pub. Order No. DA9126461. 1990. 219 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of California at Berkeley.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 52(5).

58:10248 Sivamurthy, M. Applicability of the principal components model to cohort ASFR: an investigation utilizing Australian data. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1988. 1989. 3-18 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The applicability of the principal components model to the analysis of cohort age-specific fertility rates is examined using Australian data for the period 1911-1986. The results indicate that this approach could be useful in analyzing fertility in populations where vital statistics data are unreliable.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10249 Tejada Yanguela, Argelia A. Women, work, and fertility: the Dominican Republic. Pub. Order No. DA9122805. 1990. 244 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This work was undertaken as a doctoral dissertation at Bowling Green State University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 52(3).

58:10250 Tesfaghiorghis, Habtemariam. Fertility and infertility in Ethiopia. Pub. Order No. DA9115207. 1990. 334 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the Australian National University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 52(2).

58:10251 Tian, Xueyuan. The third population boom and corresponding macro-policies. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 2, No. 2, 1990. 115-24 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Using official data from 1988 and 1989, the author considers the impact of two recent periods of high birth rates on China's population. The first period, 1953-1957, resulted in a rise in the birth rate and an increase in the working-age population during the 1970s. Similar effects on fertility and employment of the second period, 1962-1973, have been seen since the mid-1980s. The influence of the resulting uneven age distribution on China's current problems of overpopulation, surplus labor, and the aging of the population are projected. Strategies for management of these effects are discussed.
Correspondence: X. Tian, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Institute of Population Science, 5 Jianguomen Nei Da Jie 5 Hao, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10252 Udjo, Eric O. Fertility levels among Nigeria's Kanuri. Genus, Vol. 47, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1991. 163-76 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"This paper analyses and evaluates information from maternity histories collected from a retrospective survey carried out by the author, in some parts of [northeast] Nigeria, which would supplement our meagre knowledge of levels and patterns of fertility in northern Nigeria. Estimates of total fertility rates...appear plausible, but low by African standards. This low fertility is...attributable to sterility. There is no direct evidence as to the cause of the sterility but fragmentary evidence points to prevalence of venereal disease in the areas."
Correspondence: E. O. Udjo, University of Zimbabwe, Department of Sociology, Mt. Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10253 Vermunt, J. K. Births: developments in the past and expectations for the future. [Geboorte: ontwikkelingen in het verleden en toekomstverwachtingen.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 40, No. 1, Jan 1992. 18-28 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Revisions in the fertility assumptions made in the 1991 national population forecasts for the Netherlands are described. The changes reflect the continuing increase in fertility rates of women aged over 30, which have led to a reduction in the estimates of women remaining childless in the projections. The author notes the growing assumption that female labor force participation can be effectively combined with having and raising children.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10254 Wolfe, Barbara L.; Behrman, Jere R. The synthesis economic fertility model: a latent variable investigation of some critical attributes. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 5, No. 1, 1992. 1-16 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"This study uses Nicaraguan data to estimate a latent variable system of reduced-form demands for births, infant mortality, contraception, nutrition and breastfeeding. The estimates support some of the synthesis extensions to the standard fertility model, such as the concurrent increase of contraception, health, nutrition and fertility and decline in breastfeeding with income increases from initial low levels....The initial stages of development may experience an increase in family size despite an increase in contraceptive use...as well as a profertility impact of reduced breastfeeding." Data are from a survey of women aged 15-45 that was conducted in Nicaragua from 1977 to 1978.
Correspondence: B. L. Wolfe, University of Wisconsin, Department of Economics and Preventive Medicine, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10255 Xie, Yu. Model fertility schedules revisited: the log-multiplicative model approach. Population Studies Center Research Report, No. 90-174, Apr 1990. 27, [11] pp. University of Michigan, Population Studies Center: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This paper reconsiders Coale and Trussell's...specification of model fertility schedules by age. It formally presents model fertility schedules within the framework of categorical data analysis. Specifically, births are assumed to follow an independent Poisson distribution for each age interval of each population. Identification and estimation problems are discussed. It shows that...Coale-Trussell's specification corresponds to Goodman's...log-multiplicative model....This is demonstrated with the same data that were used in Coale-Trussell's article. It is shown that the new estimates are superior."
This paper was originally presented at the 1990 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
For the article by Coale and Trussell, published in 1974, see 40:3025.
Correspondence: University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10256 Zeng, Yi; Tu, Ping; Guo, Liu; Xie, Ying. A demographic decomposition of the recent increase in crude birth rates in China. Population and Development Review, Vol. 17, No. 3, Sep 1991. 435-58, 565, 567 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Based on a decomposition of increases in the crude birth rate into components attributable to changes in age structure, marriage pattern, and marital fertility, this article demonstrates that the recent increase in China's crude birth rate is caused mainly by the rising proportion of women of peak reproductive age and the declining age at marriage. The contribution of the absolute change in marital fertility is much less important. The findings effectively refute the allegations that the recent increase in the crude birth rate is caused by a resurgence of fertility and that China's population growth is 'out of control again.'"
Correspondence: Y. Zeng, Peking University, Institute of Population Research, Hai Dian, Beijing 100871, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10257 Zhao, Yali. Fertility transition in Shaanxi province, China. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1988. 1989. 747-68 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
Components of fertility change in Shaanxi province, China, are examined. Factors considered include variations in socioeconomic development within the region, the impact of the government's population policy and family planning programs, changes in marriage and maternal ages, and marital fertility.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10258 Zhou, Li. Chinese fertility decline in relation to social and economic development, 1949-1982. Pub. Order No. DA9124236. 1991. 214 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Cincinnati.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 52(3).

F.2. Differential Fertility

Studies on differences in fertility patterns and levels in subgroups of a population. Also included are studies on age-specific fertility, such as teenage pregnancy.

58:10259 Acharya, Laxmi B. Regional differentials in nuptiality and fertility in Nepal. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1988. 1989. 575-601 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
Fertility and nuptiality trends are examined and compared for three regions in Nepal representing both urban and rural populations. Factors affecting fertility are considered, including marital status, contraception, and lactation. Data are from the 1981 census and two surveys on fertility and contraceptive prevalence.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10260 Fuguitt, Glenn V.; Beale, Calvin L.; Reibel, Michael. Recent trends in metropolitan-nonmetropolitan fertility. Rural Sociology, Vol. 56, No. 3, Fall 1991. 475-86 pp. Bozeman, Montana. In Eng.
Fertility differentials between U.S. metropolitan and nonmetropolitan populations for the period 1971-1988 are analyzed. The authors find "a divergence of metropolitan and nonmetropolitan fertility rates in the 1970-1980 decade, but [a] renewed convergence since 1980....Metro-nonmetro differences widened in favor of nonmetro for women 20-24 years of age and in favor of metro for women over 30 years of age. The apparent catching up of postponed first and second births is found primarily among metropolitan women over 30 years of age."
Correspondence: G. V. Fuguitt, University of Wisconsin, Department of Rural Sociology, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10261 Giusti, Alejandro; Pantelides, Edith A. Fertility in adolescence: the Argentine Republic, 1980-1985. [Fecundidad en la adolescencia: Republica Argentina, 1980-1985.] Programa Nacional de Estadisticas de Salud, Serie 8: Analisis de Datos, No. 11, Nov 1991. 41 pp. Ministerio de Salud y Accion Social, Direccion de Estadisticas de Salud: Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa.
An analysis of trends in adolescent fertility in Argentina from 1980 to 1985 is presented. Factors considered include age, marital status, educational status, and age of partner. Data are from the 1980 census and birth registers for 1980 and 1985.
Correspondence: Ministerio de Salud y Accion Social, Secretaria de Salud, Direccion de Estadisticas de Salud, Alsina 301-6 Piso Of. 6052, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10262 Gorwaney, N.; van Arsdol, M. D.; Heer, D. M.; Schuerman, L. A. Migration from Latin American countries to the United States: the economic, social and reproductive lives of Hispanic female immigrants, 1980. International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales, Vol. 29, No. 4, Dec 1991. 573-99 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The authors describe the socioeconomic characteristics and fertility patterns of female immigrants from Latin America to the United States, with a focus on reasons for fertility differentials. "Using the one per cent public use sample from the 1970 and 1980 United States census, we first compare changes in socio economic characteristics from 1970 to 1980, and then examine the determinants of fertility of female immigrants to the United States, aged 16-49, from four Latin American areas or countries of birth....The findings...suggest that there are direct effects of demographic, assimilation, and socioeconomic variables beyond those mediated by the variables in each of these sets. Further, regardless of the model, the effect of the clusters of demographic characteristics is most apparent. Age categories and marital status are the strongest indexed determinants of immigrant fertility....The effect of education and employment is strong. Among assimilation variables, duration of residence and language ability are significant determinants of Hispanic immigrant fertility."
Correspondence: N. Gorwaney, State University of New York, Old Westbury, NY 11568. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10263 Kahn, Joan R.; Anderson, Kay E. Intergenerational patterns of teenage fertility. Demography, Vol. 29, No. 1, Feb 1992. 39-57 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"We use data from the 1988 [U.S.] National Survey of Family Growth...to examine trends and determinants of the intergenerational teen fertility link for women who reached adolescence between the 1950s and the 1980s. We find that daughters of both white and black teen mothers face significantly higher risks of teen childbearing than daughters of older mothers....[and] that patterns of teenage family formation (i.e., both marriage and childbearing behaviors) tend to be repeated intergenerationally. The results suggest that....intergenerational patterns appear to operate at least in part through the socioeconomic and family context in which children grow up."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1991 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: J. R. Kahn, University of Maryland, Department of Sociology, Center on Population, Gender, and Social Inequality, College Park, MD 20742. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10264 Kulkarni, P. M. Regional variations in fertility in China--the role of the minority population factor. Demography India, Vol. 18, No. 1-2, Jan-Dec 1989. 201-9 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"Large inter-province variations in the level of fertility have emerged in the course of the recent rapid fertility decline in China. The analysis in this paper shows that a major part of these variations is explained by the minority population factor rather than by socio-economic development. Therefore, using the presence of regional variations in fertility as an evidence of the role of socio-economic development in the fertility transition in China would tend to overrate the importance of such a role."
Correspondence: P. M. Kulkarni, Bharathiar University, Department of Population Studies, Coimbator 641 046, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10265 Omer, Afaf B. Ethnicity, women's employment, and fertility: a case study of the Gezira area in central Sudan. Pub. Order No. DA9124073. 1991. 133 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Michigan.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 52(3).

58:10266 Wulf, Deirdre; Singh, Susheela. Sexual activity, union and childbearing among adolescent women in the Americas. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 17, No. 4, Dec 1991. 137-44 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
Patterns in marriage and first birth timing among adolescent women in selected Latin American and Caribbean countries and in the United States are examined and compared. The authors consider educational status; rural-urban differentials; sex behavior, including the probability of a woman having first intercourse before age 20; and levels of socioeconomic development.
Correspondence: S. Singh, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 111 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology

Studies on infertility, as well as studies of spontaneous abortion, prematurity, and other relevant pathologies of pregnancy.

58:10267 Kallan, Jeffrey E.; Enneking, Eugene A. Seasonal patterns of spontaneous abortion. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 24, No. 1, Jan 1992. 71-5 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The presence of a seasonal pattern of spontaneous abortion in the United States was found using data from the two most recent cycles of the National Survey of Family Growth (USA)....The present study...suggests a bimodal pattern in the probability of a conception ending in spontaneous abortion. A similar pattern also appears from the mean duration of aborted pregnancies...and suggests that some conception months are riskier than others as far as pregnancy outcome."
Correspondence: J. E. Kallan, Portland State University, Portland, OR 97207. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10268 Thonneau, P.; Patureau, J.; Moyse, C.; Marchand, S.; Tallec, A.; Ferial, M. L.; Lansac, J.; Lopes, P.; Tabaste, J. M.; Ducot, B.; Spira, A. Infertility in France: results of a multicenter survey in three French departments (1988-1989). [L'infecondite en France: resultats d'une etude multicentrique dans trois departements francais (1988-1989).] Contraception--Fertilite--Sexualite, Vol. 20, No. 1, Jan 1992. 27-32 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Results are presented from a survey of 1,686 couples living in three French departments who consulted a practitioner over a 12-month period for primary or secondary infertility. "The prevalence rate of infertility was found to be 14.1%, indicating that one woman out of seven in France will consult a doctor for an infertility problem during her reproductive life." The main causes of both male and female infertility are analyzed.
Correspondence: P. Thonneau, Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Unite 292, 101 rue de Tolbiac, 75645 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4. Actions and Activities Directly Affecting Fertility

Studies concerning activities, including family planning programs, that are primarily designed to influence fertility.

F.4.1. General Fertility Control and Contraception

General aspects of fertility control, primarily those concerned with family planning and family planning programs.

58:10269 Ashford, Lori S.; Haws, Jeanne M. Family planning program sustainability: threat or opportunity? Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 23, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1992. 63-5 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This paper addresses the difficulties family planning programs face as they become more independent in the face of declining donor support. The authors conclude that "three things need to occur in order for programs to become self-sufficient: They need to improve their efficiency, they need to generate income, and they must provide quality services...."
Correspondence: L. S. Ashford, International Planned Parenthood Federation, Regent's College, Inner Circle, Regent's Park, London NW1 4NS, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10270 Benjamin, A. I.; Cowan, B.; Grewal, H. N. S.; Vadhera, K. K. Fertility and contraception patterns in a tribal area of Madhya Pradesh. Health and Population: Perspectives and Issues, Vol. 11, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1988. 171-83 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng. with sum. in Hin.
Fertility trends and demographic characteristics of contraception acceptors living in a rural area of Madhya Pradesh, India, are examined in order to evaluate the impact of the government's family planning program. Data are from a survey conducted among 1,088 eligible couples and are analyzed for wife's age and family size and composition. Consideration is given to methods chosen, regional and national birth rates by method chosen, and government expenditures on financial incentives for family planning. "The study shows [not only that] this backward tribal area suffers from low family planning coverage of 18.3 per cent, but also that the only family planning service reaching this area was sterilization, with no spacing methods in evidence. The financial incentive for both acceptor and motivator appears to determine popularity of a particular method of contraception, which in this case is sterilization, particularly vasectomy."
Correspondence: A. I. Benjamin, Christian Medical College, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine and Community Health, Ludhiana, Punjab 141 008, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10271 Berquo, Elza; de Souza, Marta R. Condom knowledge and practice: contraception and the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases. [Conhecimento e uso do condom: anticoncepcao e prevencao de doencas sexualmente transmissiveis.] Textos NEPO, No. 20, Dec 1991. iii, 66, 18 pp. Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Nucleo de Estudos de Populacao [NEPO]: Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
This study examines knowledge and use of condoms among Brazilian men. Three different groups of men aged 18-30 were studied, consisting of university students, bank clerks, and construction and industrial workers. The study was carried out in the city of Campinas in 1990-1991. The authors examine both differential rates of condom use and differences among these groups in the reasons for condom use. Particular attention is given to concern about AIDS and its effect on sexual behavior.
Correspondence: Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Nucleo de Estudos de Populacao, Caixa Postal 6166, CEP 13081 Campinas, SP, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10272 Blank, Robert H. Fertility control: new techniques, new policy issues. Contributions in Medical Studies, No. 32, ISBN 0-313-27640-4. LC 91-13115. 1991. [x], 164 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut. In Eng.
This study examines some of the public-policy challenges raised by recent technological developments in fertility control. New techniques in sterilization and contraception are described and their legal and social implications are discussed. The author suggests that these developments will tend to escalate rather than diminish the debate concerning reproductive rights and responsibilities. The geographical focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: Greenwood Press, 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10273 Blayo, Chantal. Methods of birth control in Eastern Europe. [Les modes de prevention des naissances en Europe de l'Est.] Population, Vol. 46, No. 3, May-Jun 1991. 527-46 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The author reviews the methods used to control fertility in the countries of Eastern Europe, including Yugoslavia. The importance of induced abortion as a contraceptive method is emphasized. She also notes that the growth in the availability of modern methods of contraception in Hungary and the German Democratic Republic has reduced their abortion rates. There are significant differences in abortion rates among the countries, with Romania having the highest rate of about six abortions for each woman.
Correspondence: C. Blayo, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10274 Buxbaum, Lotta; Romhed, Lena; Persson, Inger; Bergstrom, Staffan. 10 years after compulsory sterilization: women are the key figures in Indian family planning. [Tio ar efter tvangssteriliseringarna: kvinnorna nyckelfigurer i indisk familjeplanering.] Lakartidningen, Vol. 86, No. 18, May 3, 1989. 1,713-6 pp. Stockholm, Sweden. In Swe.
The authors describe the development of the national family planning program in India over the last 10 years.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:10275 Chattopadhyaya, D. P. Family planning programme of India--need for its reorientation. Demography India, Vol. 19, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1990. 1-3 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The need for India's family planning program to redirect its objectives toward raising the quality of life for the country's population is emphasized in this paper, which is based on a speech presented by the Governor of Rajasthan to the Indian Association for the Study of Population. The effect of overpopulation on the labor force, educational system, and resource allocation is briefly described.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10276 Chaudhry, Mahinder D. Incentive and compensation for family planning in South Asia: a brief note. South Asia Forum, Vol. 3, No. 1, Winter 1990. 2-4 pp. Chevy Chase, Maryland. In Eng.
"The purpose of these notes is to provide a perspective for proper appreciation of the implications of the scheme of incentive payment [for family planning] in the selected South Asian countries of Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka." Data are included for each country on demographic and socioeconomic characteristics; per-case payments to personnel, recruiters, and acceptors; and sources of funding for programs.
Correspondence: M. D. Chaudhry, Royal Military College of Canada, Department of Political and Economic Science, Kingston, Ontario K7K 5L0, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10277 DeGraff, Deborah S.; de Silva, Victor. Unmet need for contraception in Sri Lanka. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 17, No. 4, Dec 1991. 123-30 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
Contraceptive prevalence and needs for contraception among women in Sri Lanka are analyzed. "Although the contraceptive prevalence rate in Sri Lanka is high, a subset of women is not practicing contraception. The proportion of those women who do not want any more children or do not want another child soon, and therefore have an unmet need for contraception, was estimated using several alternative measures....A particularly high incidence of unmet need for spacing is found among young women with one or two children. The results support the hypothesis that there is a fairly sizable unmet need for contraception in Sri Lanka, the high rate of contraceptive use notwithstanding." Data are from the 1987 Demographic and Health Survey.
Correspondence: D. S. DeGraff, Bowdoin College, Department of Economics, Brunswick, ME 04011. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10278 Foreit, James R.; Garate, Maria R.; Brazzoduro, Alfredo; Guillen, Felix; del Carmen Herrera, Maria; Cardoso Suarez, Flor. A comparison of the performance of male and female CBD distributors in Peru. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 23, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1992. 58-62 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This report presents the results of an operations research project to increase male involvement in family planning in Peru. Two community-based distribution (CBD) programs...recruited male contraceptive distributors and compared their performance to that of female distributors recruited at the same time. Both programs found it harder to recruit men than women as distributors. Program supervisors, who were women, were less comfortable with men than with other women, even though there were no differences in distributor compliance with program norms. Male distributors were more likely to serve male clients and sell male methods (condoms), while female distributors were more likely to serve female clients and sell female methods (pills). Men sold as much or more total couple-years of protection than did women, and they recruited as many or more new acceptors....The study suggests that family planning programs can influence method mix and client characteristics by recruiting men as CBD distributors."
Correspondence: J. R. Foreit, Population Council, Inopal II Project, Paseo Padre Constancio Bollar 225, Lima 27, Peru. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10279 Hagar, Tarek M. H. Correlates and determinants of women's participation in decision-making about family planning in Egypt. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1988. 1989. 97-121 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
Factors affecting women's participation in decision-making about family planning in Egypt are analyzed using data from the Egyptian Contraceptive Prevalence Survey of 1984. Although the participation of wives in such decision-making is almost universal, greater female input into the process is associated with higher levels of education and socioeconomic status.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10280 Indonesia. National Family Planning Coordinating Board (Jakarta, Indonesia). Saving life and making it better: the evolution of the Indonesian Family Planning Program. [1990?]. 40 pp. Jakarta, Indonesia. In Eng.
"This booklet is intended to describe the evolution of the Family Planning Program in Indonesia. It...will discuss the Family Planning Program operation since its inception in 1970 up to the present...." Also discussed are program activities, including information, education, and communication; contraceptive distribution; community participation; integrated program services, including services to improve maternal and child health; and government incentives.
Correspondence: National Family Planning Coordinating Board, Jalan Letjen Haryono M.T., Jakarta 13630, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10281 Indonesia. National Family Planning Coordinating Board (Jakarta, Indonesia). Technical cooperation in family planning program. 1990. 15 pp. Jakarta, Indonesia. In Eng.
"This book reviews some aspects of the implementation of [the] family planning program in Indonesia and aspects of technical cooperation in family planning offered to the international community." Areas of technical cooperation considered include "reporting systems; information, education and communication techniques; computerization (including both hard and software); logistics of contraceptive products supply; [and] community participation in developing family planning [programs]."
Correspondence: National Family Planning Coordinating Board, Jalan Letjen Haryono M.T., Jakarta 13630, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10282 Johnson, Nan E.; Sufian, A. J. M. Effect of son mortality on contraceptive practice in Bangladesh. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 24, No. 1, Jan 1992. 9-16 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
The authors investigate the impact of son mortality on contraceptive use in Bangladesh. "The present study tests three propositions: that a Bangladeshi mother has (1) an equal chance of initiating contraception regardless of previous child survival or mortality; (2) a lower chance of initiating contraception if she has lost at least one son; and (3) a greater chance of discontinuing contraception if she has lost at least one son. The data were from the 1975-76 Bangladesh Fertility Survey (BFS)...." It is found that "the mortality of sons, and not daughters, was associated with a lower rate of female contraceptive initiation of use and a higher rate of discontinuation."
Correspondence: N. E. Johnson, Michigan State University, Department of Sociology, East Lansing, MI 48824. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10283 Kiragu, Karungari. The correlates of sexual and contraceptive behavior among in-school adolescents in Kenya. Pub. Order No. DA9132679. 1991. 461 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Johns Hopkins University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 52(6).

58:10284 Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs (Seoul, Korea, Republic of). Monitoring and evaluating family planning programmes in the 1990s. Pub. Order No. 90-26. 1990. ix, 202 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
This is a report from a seminar held in June 1990 on program management information systems for family planning and maternal and child health programs in the 1990s. Following a review of the systems in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Pakistan, and the Republic of Korea, eight papers by selected experts are provided. These cover such topics as population management information systems; the adequacy of service statistics systems for program monitoring, evaluation, and research; the contribution of demographic surveys; methodological issues in program evaluation; integration and coordination of health and family welfare programs in India; the nongovernmental organization perspective from Pakistan; an experimental health management information system using a family-based approach in Maharashtra, India; a family planning management system in Harbin, China; and the experience of management information systems in West Bengal, India.
Correspondence: Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs, San 42-14, Bulgwang-dong, Eunpyung-ku, Seoul 122-040, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10285 Lande, Robert E.; Geller, Judith S. Paying for family planning. Population Reports, Series J: Family Planning Programs, No. 39, Nov 1991. 31 pp. Johns Hopkins University, Center for Communication Programs, Population Information Program [PIP]: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
The authors explore the question of who will pay for the family planning services that will be required by the year 2000 in developing countries. They suggest ways users might pay more and how governments and donor agencies might provide additional funds for this purpose.
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins University, Population Information Program, Center for Communication Programs, 527 St. Paul Place, Baltimore, MD 21202. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10286 Lines, Montserrat. Freedom of choice or fertility control: 500 bibliographic references on family planning in Mexico, 1968-1982. [Libre eleccion o fecundidad controlada: 500 referencias bibliograficas sobre la planificacion familiar en Mexico, 1968-1982.] ISBN 968-6068-56-2. 1989. 126 pp. Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia: Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
An annotated bibliography of family planning in Mexico is presented for the period 1968-1982. It is organized by subject, under five main topics: demographic problems, population and family planning policies, social science research on fertility and family planning, medical research on fertility and its control, and family planning programs. The focus of the bibliography is on the attempts by the United States to influence policies of population control in Mexico, and on the relative inability of women in Mexico to have control over their own bodies and fertility in the face of male-controlled policies of health and reproduction.
Correspondence: Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, Cordoba 45, Col. Roma, Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10287 Luthra, Rashmi. Contraceptive social marketing in the third world: a case of multiple transfer. Gazette, Vol. 47, No. 3, 1991. 159-76 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
A case study, the Family Planning Social Marketing Project in Bangladesh, is used to illustrate the social implications of transferring marketing methods and principles developed in the commercial sector in developed countries to the social sector in developing countries. "It was found that the formulation and modification of communication strategy was consistently influenced by either marketing convention or the practical needs of the marketing organization. Further, it was found that the dominance of these considerations created contradictory social implications within the project."
Correspondence: R. Luthra, 1765 Norman Way, Madison, WI 53705. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

58:10288 Mahmood, Naushin. The desire for additional children and fertility regulation in Pakistan. Pub. Order No. DA9116247. 1990. 192 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Michigan.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 52(3).

58:10289 Mturi, Akim J. Unmet need for contraception: a comparative study for Ghana, Lesotho and Sudan. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1988. 1989. 343-63 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"This paper is confined to two main objectives: to examine the unmet need for contraception of currently married women in reproductive ages who wanted no more children in...Ghana, Lesotho and Sudan; and to discuss the demographic and socio-economic differentials for women in the 'unmet need' category....The data used in this study come from the 1979/80 Ghana Fertility Survey (GFS), the 1977 Lesotho Fertility Survey (LFS) and the 1979/80 Sudan Fertility Survey (SUDFS), all of which were conducted as part of the World Fertility Survey (WFS) programme."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10290 Ngambi Kunga. Some reflections on the introduction of family planning into businesses in Cameroon. [Reflexions sur l'introduction de la planification familiale dans les entreprises au Cameroun.] Annales de l'IFORD, Vol. 14, No. 1-2, Jun-Dec 1990. 109-31 pp. Yaounde, Cameroon. In Fre.
The author discusses involving the commercial sector as a means of supplementing government resources for the development of family planning services. The case is made that through the cooperation of workers, labor unions, and employers, business can, with governmental coordination, have a significant impact on population trends.
Correspondence: Ngambi Kunga, Universite de Yaounde, Faculte de Droit et Sciences Economiques, Departement d'Economie, B.P. 337, Yaounde, Cameroon. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10291 Ogawa, Naohiro; Retherford, Robert D. Prospects for increased contraceptive pill use in Japan. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 22, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1991. 378-83 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In anticipation of the legalization of the contraceptive pill [in Japan], the...National Survey on Family Planning...asked women their views about legalization of the pill and whether they intend to use it once it appears on the market. This report analyzes these data...with a view toward assessing the prospects for increased pill use among Japanese women." It is found that "the current rate of pill use is less than 1 percent, but...[the] data indicate that about 10 percent of currently married women of reproductive age intend to use the pill when it comes on the market. Those who favor the pill do so because it is highly effective in preventing unwanted pregnancies, and because it reduces the need for abortions. Many other women report uncertainty about the pill because of concern about side effects....Many women who do not yet favor the pill may shift to it once the low-dose pill comes on the market and they are reassured about its safety."
Correspondence: N. Ogawa, Nihon University, Population Research Institute, 3-2 Misaki-cho, 1-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10292 Olenja, Joyce M. Family planning in Siaya district, western Kenya: an analysis of factors influencing fertility levels. Cambridge Anthropology, Vol. 14, No. 3, 1990. 54-67 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
The use of family planning services in the Siaya district of Kenya is analyzed using data collected in 1988 on some 200 randomly selected women. The emphasis is on the factors affecting contraceptive acceptance.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

58:10293 Pariani, Siti; Heer, David M.; Van Arsdol, Maurice D. Does choice make a difference to contraceptive use? Evidence from East Java. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 22, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1991. 384-90 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study investigates sustained use of contraceptives among women in East Java, Indonesia. Interest is focused on the effect of whether the client's choice of contraceptive method was granted or denied, and the interaction between whether choice was granted or denied and husband-wife concurrence concerning method choice....Whether the user was granted her choice of method was found to be a very important determinant of sustained use of contraceptives. The interaction between whether choice was granted and whether there was husband-wife concurrence on method choice was also important....The results imply that contraceptive continuation can be enhanced either when family planning workers pay more attention to the stated desires of their clients, or when policy is instituted allowing clients to use their method of choice."
Correspondence: S. Pariani, University of Airlangga, Medical Faculty, Surabaya, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10294 Paul, Bimal K. Family planning availability and contraceptive use in rural Bangladesh: an examination of the distance decay effect. Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Vol. 25, No. 4, 1991. 269-82 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Using empirical data collected from a rural area of Bangladesh, this paper examines the effect of family planning availability on contraceptive use. The hypothesis is that the likelihood of contraceptive adoption is a function of accessibility to two different types of family planning service outlets (i.e. distance from these outlets has an impact on the use of contraception by married women of reproductive age, 15-49 [years]). But the field data do not show a distance decay effect between availability and use of both clinical and non-clinical contraceptive methods. The observed effect is explained in terms of the presence of paved roads in the study area. The policy implications of this finding are discussed."
Correspondence: B. K. Paul, Kansas State University, Department of Geography, Manhattan, KS 66506. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

58:10295 Pitaktepsombati, Pichit; Janowitz, Barbara. Sterilization acceptance and regret in Thailand. Contraception, Vol. 44, No. 6, Dec 1991. 623-37 pp. Stoneham, Massachusetts. In Eng.
Data from the 1987 Demographic and Health Survey undertaken in Thailand are used to analyze trends in sexual sterilization and in attitudes toward this method. "The prevalence of sterilization increases with both the number of children and with the age of the woman. Among women with two or more children, there is a positive association between education and wealth, and tubal ligation, but there is no correlation between education and wealth and the percentage of husbands with a vasectomy." The authors note that "both accessibility to medical facilities and medical problems...play a role in affecting who gets sterilized."
Correspondence: P. Pitaktepsombati, Chulalongkorn University, Institute of Population Studies, Phyathai Road, Bangkok 10330, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10296 Pullum, Thomas W. The relationship of service availability to contraceptive use in rural Guatemala. DHS Working Paper, No. 2, Oct 1991. i, 60 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
Information on the local availability of family planning services collected in the 1987 Demographic and Health Survey of Guatemala is examined, and analytical and statistical models to use this information are proposed using data from rural areas. "In most of the analysis, clusters are the units of analysis. The number of women in the cluster, the number of current users of modern methods, and the means and proportions of socioeconomic indicators such as literacy are attached to the cluster data. Then follows an assessment of the impact, upon contraceptive prevalence, of the presence of family planning facilities, the degree of access to these facilities, their quality, and the existence of a local distribution program. It is found that both distance and travel time to facilities are quite important and that a few indicators of quality are also significant...."
Correspondence: Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 8850 Stanford Boulevard, Suite 4000, Columbia, MD 21045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10297 Riddle, John M. Oral contraceptives and early-term abortifacients during classical antiquity and the Middle Ages. Past and Present, No. 132, Aug 1991. 3-32 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"It is generally agreed that oral contraceptives are a product of the second half of the twentieth century and that early-term abortifacients are an even more recent discovery, still in the process of development. This article presents evidence that, contrary to this consensus, pre-modern (like present-day) traditional medical systems employed chemical means of birth-control and--although the evidence for this is less conclusive--that such chemical substances were substantially effective in controlling the birth-rate."
Correspondence: J. M. Riddle, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

58:10298 Rodrique, Jessie M. The Afro-American community and the birth control movement, 1918-1942. Pub. Order No. DA9132903. 1991. 242 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study concerns the United States and was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Massachusetts.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 52(6).

58:10299 Ross, John A. Sterilization: past, present, future. Population Council Research Division Working Paper, No. 29, 1991. 41 pp. Population Council, Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
Trends in sterilization in selected developing countries are analyzed and compared. The author finds that although sterilization protects more couples from pregnancy than any other contraceptive method, "its use has grown only gradually, and its annual rates of adoption remain low....International patterns show sterilization users to be concentrated in...China and India....Five personal characteristics differentiate its use within each country: age, parity, residence, education, and sex. A new projection method shows approximately 159 million sterilization adoptions expected between 1990 and 2000, half of them in China."
Correspondence: Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10300 Sayed, Hussein A.-A. Egypt Service Availability Survey 1989: availability and accessibility of family planning and health services in rural Egypt. Nov 1991. ix, 112, [8] pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt; Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng. with sum. in Ara.
Results from the Egypt Service Availability Survey are presented in this report. The survey, which was carried out as part of the Egypt Demographic and Health Survey, was concerned with service availability in rural areas. Specifically, the purpose was "to collect information about the service environment in which women and children live by examining the outreach services available in a community and the types of family planning and health facilities located in a 30 kilometer radius of the community." Comparisons are made between the situation in Upper and Lower Egypt. The results indicate that "two of three married rural women have a source of family planning in the village in which they live, and 96 percent live within five kilometers of a source. A majority of women live within five kilometers of a pharmacy (90 percent) or a government family planning clinic (70 percent), and a majority live in villages covered by a community-based family planning worker (55 percent) or a family planning nurse (66 percent)....The figures regarding availability of maternal and child health services are similar to those for family planning services."
Correspondence: Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 8850 Stanford Boulevard, Suite 4000, Columbia, MD 21045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10301 Sukumari Amma, C. S.; Madhavi Amma, D.; Nair, P. S. Role of contraception in birth spacing in Kerala. Demography India, Vol. 18, No. 1-2, Jan-Dec 1989. 39-48 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"A study of 420 rural women, aged 20-35 years with two or three living children was conducted in [an]...area on the outskirts of Trivandrum city [India] to delineate the impact of contraception on spacing births. Out of the total sample, 201 women were users of temporary methods such as IUD and the pill and the rest were non-users....For the analysis, the history of contraceptive use during four intervals, namely (a) the interval between marriage and first birth, (b) interval between first and second live births, (c) interval between second and third births and (d) the open interval are considered. None of the women reported any contraceptive use during the first interval, i.e. to postpone the first pregnancy. A sizeable proportion of women used contraceptives to postpone later pregnancies....The third and the open [intervals] are significantly influenced by contraceptive use. Our findings provide a clear empirical evidence of the positive role of non-terminal contraceptive methods in postponing pregnancies."
Correspondence: C. S. Sukumari Amma, University of Kerala, Population Research Centre, Trivandrum 695 581, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10302 Suwarno, Bambang; Rahardjo, Sri P. The use of log-linear models for the analysis of family planning in West Java. [Model log-linear dalam analisis data keluarga berencana di Jawa Barat.] Majalah Demografi Indonesia/Indonesian Journal of Demography, Vol. 17, No. 33, Jun 1990. 17-29 pp. Jakarta, Indonesia. In Ind. with sum. in Eng.
This study is concerned with methods for analyzing the extent of family planning practice in Indonesia.
Correspondence: B. Suwarno, Institut Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan, Bandung, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10303 Talwar, Prem P. Increasing contribution of voluntary organisations in attaining population stabilisation. Demography India, Vol. 19, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1990. 17-26 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
Issues related to family planning acceptance in India are discussed, and the role of nongovernmental and voluntary organizations in facilitating acceptance at the community level is described. Some recommendations for a successful collaboration between the public and private sectors are made.
Correspondence: P. P. Talwar, National Institute of Health and Family Welfare, Demography and Statistics Division, New Mehrauli Road, New Delhi 110 067, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10304 Toulemon, Laurent; Leridon, Henri. Twenty years of birth control in France: 1968-1988. [Vingt annees de contraception en France: 1968-1988.] Population, Vol. 46, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1991. 777-811 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
Contraceptive prevalence in France since the legalization of birth control in 1968 is examined. Data are primarily from a survey conducted by INED in 1988 among women born between 1938 and 1969. Consideration is given to changes in age at first use, methods chosen, and duration of use.
Correspondence: L. Toulemon, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10305 Trussell, James; Vaughan, Barbara. Selected results concerning sexual behavior and contraceptive use from the 1988 National Survey of Family Growth and the 1988 National Survey of Adolescent Males. OPR Working Paper, No. 91-12, Sep 1991. 21, [6] pp. Princeton University, Office of Population Research [OPR]: Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
The authors investigate trends in sexual behavior and contraceptive use in the United States, using data from the 1982 and 1988 rounds of the National Survey of Family Growth and the 1988 National Survey of Adolescent Males. Aspects considered include trends in age at first sexual exposure; current sexual activity; patterns of contraceptive use, particularly of condoms; and behavior related to awareness of AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases.
Correspondence: Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10306 Wessel, Lois. Reproductive rights in Nicaragua: from the Sandinistas to the government of Violeta Chamorro. FS: Feminist Studies, Vol. 17, No. 3, Fall 1991. 537-49 pp. College Park, Maryland. In Eng.
The author describes how the struggle for women's reproductive rights in Nicaragua progressed under both the Sandinista government and the more conservative government that replaced it in 1990. She notes that Nicaraguan women have experienced high maternal mortality from illegal abortion, and describes the efforts and achievements of women's groups to reduce such mortality through campaigns for effective birth control education and for legalized abortion.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

F.4.2. Clinical Aspects & Use-Effectiveness Studies

Selected studies on the medical aspects of fertility control methods, including studies on side effects and use-effectiveness.

58:10307 Jones, Elise F.; Forrest, Jacqueline D. Contraceptive failure rates based on the 1988 NSFG. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 24, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1992. 12-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Contraceptive failure rates during the first year of use in the United States are analyzed, using data from the 1988 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). The authors show that despite a correction for underreporting of abortion, the observed level of unintended pregnancies remains high. The report concludes that "failure rates vary more by user characteristics such as age, marital status and poverty status than by method, suggesting the extent to which failure results from improper and irregular use rather than from the inherent limitations of the method." Other user characteristics such as race, ethnicity, and religion are also considered.
Correspondence: E. F. Jones, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 111 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10308 Kulu Glasgow, Isik; Hancioglu, Attila; Akadli Ergocmen, Banu. Contraceptive failure rates in Turkey. [Turkiye'de gebeligi onleyici yontemlerin kullaniminda basarisizlik hizlari.] Nufusbilim Dergisi/Turkish Journal of Population Studies, Vol. 13, 1991. 3-11 pp. Ankara, Turkey. In Tur. with sum. in Eng.
Life table methods are used to estimate contraceptive failure rates in Turkey. "In general, survey results show that failure rates tend to be high in cases when the initiative for use is left to the users. It also appears that modern methods are used more effectively...by women who are living in urban, more developed areas and have higher levels of education than the national average, and women residing in rural, less developed areas seem to experience lower failure rates in the use of traditional methods than those living in urban areas."
Correspondence: I. Kulu Glasgow, Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute, P.O. Box 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10309 Laing, John E.; Wongboonsin, Kua. Findings on contraceptive use effectiveness from the 1987 Thailand Demographic and Health Survey. Papers of the East-West Population Institute, No. 119, ISBN 0-86638-148-1. LC 92-839. Jan 1992. vii, 40 pp. East-West Center, Population Institute: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
"Three innovative analytical methods were applied to data from the 1987 Thailand Demographic and Health Survey to study contraceptive continuation and failure. The analysis produced information on program methods that are consistent with data from past studies based on more conventional acceptor follow-up surveys....The analysis also provided new methodological insights: not only did it demonstrate that demographic surveys employing conventionally structured questionnaires can be used to generate life-table rates and direct cross-sectional rates that appear to be accurate, but it also provided a basis for assessing the validity of the indirect 'current status' methods for estimating cross-sectional continuation and failure rates."
Correspondence: East-West Center, East-West Population Institute, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10310 Onorato, Suzanne A. Organizational legitimacy and the social construction of contraceptives: the politics of technological choice. Pub. Order No. DA9119333. 1990. 343 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study examines how the respective philosophies of the Planned Parenthood Federation of America and the Population Council governed the development of different contraceptive technologies in the United States between 1945 and 1965. It was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Duke University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 52(2).

58:10311 Trussell, James; Warner, David L.; Hatcher, Robert A. Condom slippage and breakage rates. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 24, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1992. 20-3 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The study described in this article sheds further light on the prevalence of condom breakage and slippage during use by couples in the United States, and on the factors associated with these problems. It also seeks to determine whether a condom can be designed so that it can be thicker than currently available condoms without reducing sexual pleasure."
Correspondence: J. Trussell, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.3. Evaluation of Programs

Studies evaluating either the demographic impact or other criteria of effectiveness of family planning programs.

58:10312 Bose, Ashish. India's quest for population stabilisation: progress, pitfalls and policy options. Demography India, Vol. 18, No. 1-2, Jan-Dec 1989. 261-96 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author evaluates India's attempts at population stabilization since the implementation of the first five-year plan in 1951. "In spite of the completion of seven five-year plans in March 1990, the goal of population stabilisation remains distant. The population continues to grow at a faster rate than anticipated by India's planners and policy-makers...." The author attributes this growth to weaknesses in the national family planning program, namely, "(1) undesirable foreign orientation, (2) monopoly of bureaucrats, (3) monopoly of the Central Government, and (4) sole concern for quantitative targets and their achievement irrespective of the impact on the birth rate." He goes on to propose changes to the system that would concentrate on its quality, rather than on meeting numerical goals at any cost.
Correspondence: A. Bose, Institute of Economic Growth, Population Research Centre, Delhi University Campus, Delhi 110 007, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10313 Kapoor, P. N. Monitoring and evaluation of India's family welfare programme. Population Research Abstract, Vol. 2, No. 1, Jun 1991. 2-13 pp. Bangalore, India. In Eng.
"Family planning services are provided through a network of family welfare centres spread throughout rural and urban areas of [India]. An outline of the procedure used for collection of statistics necessary for monitoring and evaluation of the family welfare programme and the indices prepared for measuring the impact of the programme are described in this paper." The procedure described has been in operation since 1972.
Correspondence: P. N. Kapoor, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Department of Family Welfare, New Delhi, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10314 Khan, M. E. Learning from successful family welfare programmes: selected observations from NGOs and organized sector. Demography India, Vol. 19, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1990. 27-48 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author reviews selected family welfare programs sponsored by private sector agencies in India. Consideration is given to government collaboration, community-based distribution programs, rural health projects, maternal and child health projects, and family planning services provided by industry groups to workers.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10315 Mauldin, W. Parker; Ross, John A. Family planning programs: efforts and results, 1982-89. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 22, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1991. 350-67 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This report concerns a cross-national study into the strength of national family planning programs in 1982 and 1989, and the relationship of program strength to fertility change. In 1982, 100 developing countries, and in 1989, 98 such countries, were rated according to the strength of their family planning program efforts; 88 countries were rated at both dates. Countries are scored on...policies and stage-setting activities, service and service-related activities, record keeping and evaluation, and availability of contraceptive methods." An upward shift in family planning program efforts was seen. "Clearly, family planning programs affect fertility decline substantially...and interestingly, so do social settings. That by no means suggests that the mere availability of contraceptives is sufficient to produce a fertility decline. Good programs typically add a strong component of education, legitimation, and endorsement; both the programs and the changes in the social setting modify the climate of reproductive decision making."
Correspondence: W. P. Mauldin, Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10316 Mauldin, W. Parker; Ross, John A. Family planning programs: efforts and results, 1982-89. Population Council Research Division Working Paper, No. 34, 1991. 42 pp. Population Council, Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This report concerns a cross-national study into the strength of national family planning programs in 1982 and 1989, and the relationship of program strength to fertility change. In 1982, 100 developing countries, and in 1989, 98 such countries, were rated....Countries are scored on 30 items that are grouped into four components for descriptive purposes: policies and stage-setting activities, service and service-related activities, record keeping and evaluation, and availability of contraceptive methods." Among the findings, the authors note "a strong upward shift in effort scores occurred between 1982 and 1989....The scores indicate that developing countries are continuing to move toward more favorable policy positions and stronger implementation of action programs, with consequent fertility effects....However, a substantial enlargement in the number of contraceptive users is necessary, not only to compensate for the enlarging base of couples, but also to increase the proportion who use contraceptives."
Correspondence: Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10317 National Research Council. Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Committee on Population. (Washington, D.C.). Measuring the influence of accessibility of family planning services in developing countries: summary of an expert meeting. 1991. xii, 24 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report is a brief overview of an expert meeting on measuring the influence of accessibility of family planning services on contraceptive use and fertility in developing countries....The meeting, held January 24-25, 1991, at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, D.C., was an attempt to provide a forum for researchers, data collection specialists, and policy makers to review the usefulness and feasibility of alternative strategies for measuring the influence of service accessibility....The meeting was organized by four broad topics: measurement approaches, recent results, data collection strategies, and assessing the effects of accessibility."
Correspondence: National Research Council, Committee on Population, 2101 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20418. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10318 Ogundimu, Folu. Nigeria: problems in communicating population control. PIRT Working Paper, No. 33, Feb 1990. [31] pp. Indiana University, Population Institute for Research and Training [PIRT]: Bloomington, Indiana. In Eng.
Nigeria's official 1989 population control policy is critically examined, with a focus on reasons for resistance to the policy. Communication problems are cited as a major obstacle to its success. "The field study that is reported in this paper finds that pregnant women are refusing anti-tetanus vaccines partly because of [perceived] associations with the population control policy." The author concludes that "effective communication policies in this regard must emphasize the communication experiences of [the] local people...."
Correspondence: Indiana University, Population Institute for Research and Training, Memorial Hall East 220, Bloomington, IN 47405. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10319 Seniloli, Kesa. Family planning in Fiji. Islands/Australia Working Paper, No. 90/2, ISBN 0-7315-0700-2. 1990. [ii], 13 pp. Australian National University, Research School of Pacific Studies, National Centre for Development Studies: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
This study, prepared for a workshop involving health workers from Pacific countries, provides an examination of family planning delivery using data from a survey of two villages in Fiji. "The study shows that non-government organizations such as the Family Planning Association...employ full-time staff with no training in family planning or in community education....[and that] there is hardly any dissemination of detailed information about contraception to most young, single village dwellers in Fiji....The most common type of contraception used is tubal ligation....[and] about 14 per cent of the ever-married women of reproductive age who have more than two children, use no form of contraception." Barriers to using family planning centers, including transportation costs and the reliance on traditional methods, are also discussed.
Correspondence: Australian National University, Research School of Pacific Studies, National Centre for Development Studies, GPO Box 4, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10320 Shariff, Abusaleh. Societal determinants of the regional differentials in India's family planning programme performance. Demography India, Vol. 18, No. 1-2, Jan-Dec 1989. 1-20 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This paper attempts to explore the economic and socio-cultural determinants of family planning [in India]. It draws upon both...macro-level data and various micro--village/community level--studies to establish this relationship....Although the annual or short-term variations in performance [of family planning programs] cannot be adequately explained by socio-cultural factors, they help in establishing the long-term association between the two. A substantial improvement in education (both formal and mass education), and decentralisation of family planning promotional strategy are suggested as selective interventions to achieve the desired goal of reducing fertility in India."
Correspondence: A. Shariff, Gujarat Institute of Area Planning, Ahmedabad 382 481, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.4. Attitudes Toward Fertility & Fertility Control

Studies concerned with the interrelations between fertility control and attitudinal variables, including studies on wanted and unwanted pregnancy and children, motivation for parenthood, sex preference, and voluntary childlessness. Studies on knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of family planning and attitudes toward family size are classified under this heading.

58:10321 Bongaarts, John. Do reproductive intentions matter? Population Council Research Division Working Paper, No. 30, 1991. 32 pp. Population Council, Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"The main objectives of this paper are to examine the impact of fertility preferences on levels of contraceptive use and fertility, and to determine whether this relationship varies systematically between countries at different stages of the fertility transition. The empirical evidence examined indicates a significant but highly variable impact of the desire to stop childbearing on reproductive behavior. In 18 [developing] countries, the average fertility rate of married women who wanted no more children was...43 percent below the rate observed among women who had not yet completed their desired childbearing. These two groups of women also differed in their average level of contraceptive use....In the most traditional societies relatively few women wanted to limit childbearing....In contrast, large proportions of married women in countries near the end of the fertility transition wanted no more births, and most of these women used contraception to control their fertility. These findings suggest that ongoing fertility declines in developing countries are attributable not only to changing reproductive preferences, but also to significant increases in the degree of implementation of these preferences."
Correspondence: Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10322 Campbell, Eugene K. A note on the fertility-migration interrelationship: the case of men in Western Area, Sierra Leone. Demography India, Vol. 18, No. 1-2, Jan-Dec 1989. 103-14 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author examines "the fertility/migration interrelationship using data on the fertility attitudes of male migrants in the Western Area of Sierra Leone. The operational measure of fertility attitude is the desired family size, which is the number of children men would wish to have if they were to start reproduction all over again....The data for this study [were] obtained during the course of a sample survey on family size preferences among males in the Western Area of Sierra Leone. The enumeration was done in December 1986 to February 1987; and the author was principal investigator. Ever married men aged 20 years and over constituted the target population."
Correspondence: E. K. Campbell, University of Botswana, Department of Demography, Private Bag 0022, Gaborone, Botswana. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10323 Carrasco, Rodolfo. Unwanted pregnancy. [El embarazo no deseado.] Temas Poblacionales, No. 5, Jul 1991. 25 pp. Centro de Estudios de Poblacion y Paternidad Responsable [CEPAR]: Quito, Ecuador. In Spa.
The author analyzes fertility trends in Ecuador, with a focus on unwanted pregnancies. Factors considered include place of residence (urban or rural, coastal or mountainous), marital status, educational level of mother, maternal age, number of living children, and contraceptive use. A comparison is made between two surveys, one conducted in 1987 and the other in 1989. Reasons for the apparent decrease in the level of unwanted pregnancies are then discussed.
Correspondence: Centro de Estudios de Poblacion y Paternidad Responsable, Toribio Montes 423 y Daniel Hidalgo, Casilla No. 17-01-2327, Quito, Ecuador. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10324 Das, N. P. A simulation model to study the effect of sex preferences on current fertility. Demography India, Vol. 18, No. 1-2, Jan-Dec 1989. 49-72 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The main purpose of this research was to develop a model of fertility decision-making with respect to sex preferences, so as to provide a suitable tool for consideration for policy-makers and planners in assessing the likely implications of allowing couples to attain the desired family size and composition....For illustration, the model was applied to Indian data....[It] is recommended that the immediate goal of the country should be to aim for a birth rate of 24 which could be easily achieved under the present family planning programme....[A] revitalisation of the family planning programme whereby couples are motivated to adopt contraception as soon as they have achieved their desired family composition [is also called for]. The reduction in fertility beyond this level can be attained only through mass use of sex selection techniques...."
Correspondence: N. P. Das, Population Research Centre, Faculty of Science, Baroda 390 002, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10325 Farooqui, M. Naseem I. Son preference, fertility desire and contraceptive use in two largest cities of Pakistan. Pakistan Population Review, Vol. 1, No. 1, Autumn 1990. 54-64 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
"Utilizing data from [the 1986] Pakistan Industrial Workers Survey this study investigates the phenomenon of son preference [and] its relationship with fertility and contraceptive use in Pakistan. Analysis of [the] sex composition of ideal and desired number of children reveals son preference among industrial workers. Negative association of additional number of children wanted and desired number of children with number of living sons within each family size indicates the effect of son preference on fertility....Within each family size, workers with no living sons are less likely to be using contraception whereas contraceptive use appears to be increasing linearly with number of living sons. However, workers with no daughters as compared to those with at least one son and one daughter are less likely to use contraception for want of daughters."
Correspondence: M. N. I. Farooqui, National Institute of Population Studies, House No. 8, St. 70, F-8/3, P.O. Box 2197, Islamabad, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10326 Gilroy, Faith D.; Steinbacher, Roberta. Sex selection technology utilization: further implications for sex ratio imbalance. Social Biology, Vol. 38, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1991. 285-8 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"A survey of 242 [U.S.] undergraduates assessed attitudes toward use of sex selection technology and the choice of sex of first- and second-born offspring among potential users. Of our sample, 31 per cent endorsed use of sex selection technology, with the small subsample of nonwhites more accepting of utilization than were whites. There was a significant preference for first-born sons among all potential users, but nonwhites indicated a stronger preference than did whites. Students from rural areas were more desirous of boys than were urban residents. The desire for gender balance within the family documented in earlier studies did not manifest itself."
Correspondence: F. D. Gilroy, Loyola College, Department of Psychology, Baltimore, MD. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10327 Leung, Siu Fai. A stochastic dynamic analysis of parental sex preferences and fertility. Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 106, No. 4, Nov 1991. 1,063-88 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This paper formulates a stochastic dynamic model of fertility to evaluate the assumptions that underlie the widely used econometric tests for parental sex preferences. Unlike previous work on dynamic models of fertility, several tractable and testable predictions are established. It is shown rigorously that conventional econometric tests using fertility data are valid tests for sex preferences; however, they cannot separate son preference from daughter preference. The only definite conclusion that one can draw from fertility data is whether there are sex preferences. These results call into question the validity of conventional econometric tests for son preference."
Correspondence: S. F. Leung, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14642. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

58:10328 Mahmoud, Eman. Motivation for contraception use in Egypt. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1988. 1989. 123-55 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"This study will examine motivation to use contraception and the prevalence of contraceptive use among 'motivated' women as well as the factors that are related to the choice to use contraception." Data are from the 1980 Egyptian Fertility Survey and concern currently married women aged 25-44 who have had at least two live births.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10329 Nag, Moni. Sex preference in Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan, and its effect on fertility. Population Council Research Division Working Paper, No. 27, 1991. 43 pp. Population Council, Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"The objective of this paper is to review the quantitative findings regarding attitudinal and behavioral evidence of sex preference from surveys conducted in Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan, and assess its impact on contraceptive use and fertility. An attempt will also be made to compare the strength of son preference in the three countries." The author finds that a strong son preference exists in the three countries, although the data also demonstrate a parental desire for at least one daughter. "The effect of sex preference on contraceptive behavior and fertility in the three countries is not as pronounced as could be expected from survey data and ethnographic description, but it is not negligible and becomes more evident with a rise in contraceptive prevalence and a decline in fertility level."
Correspondence: Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10330 Sakamoto, Cecilia P. M.; Freire, Heloisa S.; Morris, Leo. Men and vasectomy in the city of Sao Paulo--a KAP study--Phase 2, 1989. [O homem e a vasectomia na cidade de Sao Paulo--um estudo de conhecimento, atitudes e comportamento--Fase II, 1989.] Aug 1991. vii, 131 pp. Centro Materno Infantil [CMI], Planejamento Familiar: Sao Paulo, Brazil; U.S. Centers for Disease Control [CDC]: Atlanta, Georgia. In Por.
This report concerns a study of vasectomy in the Brazilian city of Sao Paulo. Specifically, data are analyzed from the second phase of the study carried out in 1989, which focused on the impact of a publicity campaign on knowledge, attitudes, and practice of vasectomy.
Correspondence: Centro Materno Infantil, Planejamento Familiar, Rua Prof. Souza Barros 140, Mirandopolis, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10331 Singarimbun, Masri. Norms of adolescent sex behavior. [Norma-norma dan perilaku seks remaja.] Populasi, Vol. 2, No. 1, 1991. 11-23 pp. Yogyakarta, Indonesia. In Ind. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in adolescent reproductive health and behavior in Indonesia are analyzed and compared. The study concerns urban and rural districts of Yogyakarta, urban Denpasar, and rural Bali and includes questions on attitudes and practices concerning premarital intercourse, contraception, and induced abortion. Significant differences are noted by both sex and area, with female and rural respondents reporting less sexual experience. However, with regard to attitudes toward such topics, Balinese respondents were generally more permissive than those from Java.
Correspondence: M. Singarimbun, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Pusat Penelitian Kependudukan, Bulaksumur Blok G-7, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10332 Sobel, Michael E.; Arminger, Gerhard. Modeling household fertility decisions: a nonlinear simultaneous probit model. JASA: Journal of the American Statistical Association, Vol. 87, No. 417, Mar 1992. 38-47 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"This article proposes new methods for modeling household fertility decisions....Specifically, we model the trivariate distribution of wife's stated desire for additional children, husband's stated desire for additional children, and subsequent fertility. In the model, the stated desire of the husband (wife) is viewed as an indicator of the husband's (wife's) latent disposition toward subsequent fertility. The husband's (wife's) disposition is allowed to depend on the wife's (husband's) disposition. The two dispositions are then combined to generate the couple's propensity for subsequent fertility. We show how such models can be estimated and tested and how the parameters can be used to assess the relative influence of each partner on the propensity." The model is tested using U.S. data from the Princeton Fertility Study for the 1950s and 1960s. The results indicate that "both husband's disposition score and wife's disposition score affect the propensity score, and, under some additional assumptions, that husbands and wives have equal relative influence on the propensity."
Correspondence: M. E. Sobel, University of Arizona, Department of Sociology, Tucson, AZ 85721. Location: Princeton University Library (SM).

58:10333 Valenzuela, M. Solange; Herold, Joan M.; Morris, Leo; Lopez, Ilse. Survey of reproductive health in young adults, Greater Santiago, 1988. Bulletin of the Pan American Health Organization, Vol. 25, No. 4, 1991. 293-305 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This article reports the results of an interview survey with 1,665 residents of Metropolitan Santiago [Chile] 15-24 years old. The survey, which dealt with various aspects of reproductive health, indicated that the sex education received by 75% of the subjects generally failed to convey an accurate knowledge of the basic concepts of sexuality; that use of contraceptive methods was very limited; that approximately 25% of the 865 women interviewed had been pregnant at some time; and that 40% of all the pregnancies were unplanned. These findings demonstrate a need to begin effective sex education programs and to provide adolescent services commensurate with the circumstances of modern life."
Correspondence: M. S. Valenzuela, Universidad de Chile, Facultad de Medicina, Division Ciencias Medicas Occidente, Departamento de Salud Publica, Casilla 33052, Correo 33, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10334 Ye, Wenzhen. The determinants of demand for children: evidence from rural Hebei, China. Pub. Order No. DA9128103. 1991. 280 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Utah.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 52(4).

F.4.5. Induced Abortion

Studies on induced abortion, including those on attitudes, with the exception of studies primarily concerned with government regulation of abortion, which are coded under M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility . Studies of spontaneous abortion appear under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology .

58:10335 Baker, Jean; Khasiani, Shanyisa. Induced abortion in Kenya: case histories. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 23, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1992. 34-44 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Qualitative research was carried out to document the case histories of 30 Kenyan women who underwent induced abortion. In-depth interviews were conducted among an urban group of low-income women to identify sources of information about induced abortion and the decision-making process, and to describe the abortion experience among this group. Being unmarried and unemployed contributed to the decision to abort. Two main types of induced abortion, one provided in private facilities by medical personnel, and the other performed by a variety of untrained practitioners, are described." Several case histories are included, as are some questions used in the in-depth interviews.
Correspondence: J. Baker, Management Sciences for Health, 165 Allandale Road, Boston, MA 02130. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10336 Bradley, Jan; Sikazwe, Nsama; Healy, Joan. Improving abortion care in Zambia. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 22, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1991. 391-4 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors assess the impact of the introduction of manual vacuum aspiration techniques on the quality of abortion services in Zambia's University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka. Plans for extending the program, begun in 1988, to other hospitals around the country are described.
Correspondence: J. Healy, International Projects Assistance Services, Program for Sub-Saharan Africa, P.O. Box 100, Carrboro, NC 27510. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10337 David, Henry P. Abortion in Europe, 1920-91: a public health perspective. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 23, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1992. 1-22 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article grew out of a keynote address prepared for the conference, 'From Abortion to Contraception: Public Health Approaches to Reducing Unwanted Pregnancy and Abortion Through Improved Family Planning Services,' held in Tbilisi, Georgia, USSR in October 1990. The article reviews the legal, religious, and medical situation of induced abortion in Europe in historical perspective, and considers access to abortion services, attitudes of health professionals, abortion incidence, morbidity and mortality, the new antiprogestins, the characteristics of abortion seekers, late abortions, postabortion psychological reactions, effects of denied abortion, and repeat abortion. Special attention is focused on the changes occurring in Romania, Albania, and the former Soviet Union, plus the effects of the new conservatism elsewhere in the formerly socialist countries of central and eastern Europe, particularly Poland."
Correspondence: H. P. David, Transnational Family Research Institute, 8307 Whitman Drive, Bethesda, MD 20817. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10338 Foreit, Karen G.; Nortman, Dorothy L. A method for calculating rates of induced abortion. Demography, Vol. 29, No. 1, Feb 1992. 127-37 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper presents a methodology for calculating marital induced abortion rates from observed marital fertility and contraceptive prevalence and for modeling the impact of substituting contraception for abortion on future fertility. The methodology is validated against observed abortion complications in three populations, and the impact of substituting contraception for abortion on expected fertility is demonstrated." Data are from selected developing countries and for the cities of Belo Horizonte, Brazil; Lima, Peru; and La Paz, Bolivia.
Correspondence: K. G. Foreit, Futures Group, 1 Thomas Circle, Washington, D.C. 20005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10339 Henshaw, Stanley K. The accessibility of abortion services in the United States. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 23, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1991. 246-52, 263 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Aspects of abortion services that affect their accessibility to U.S. women are described. Following an overview of the types of providers (both hospital and non-hospital), consideration is given to barriers to abortion, including distance, cost, harassment by antiabortion demonstrators, length-of-gestation constraints, and the reluctance of many facilities to provide services to those who test positive for HIV. The author concludes that abortion services will become increasingly difficult and expensive to obtain.
Correspondence: S. K. Henshaw, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 111 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10340 Hinrichs, Katrin. Analysis of abortion statistics in the Federal Republic of Germany in the years 1977 to 1988. [Analyse der Schwangerschaftsabbruchsstatistik in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland in den Jahren 1977 bis 1988.] Materialien zur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, No. 71, 1991. 162 pp. Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung: Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger.
An analysis of official abortion statistics in West Germany is presented for the years 1977-1988. The sources of data are first reviewed, and findings concerning abortion numbers and rates are discussed. Topics covered include abortions by woman's age, marital status, parity, number of previous abortions, and reasons for abortion.
Correspondence: Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung, Gustav-Stressemann-Ring 6, Postfach 5528, D-6200, Wiesbaden, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10341 Jacobson, Jodi L. Out from behind the contraceptive iron curtain. World Watch, Vol. 3, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1990. 29-34 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The impact of the lack of modern, effective contraceptives on abortion rates in the USSR, selected countries of Eastern Europe, and Albania and Yugoslavia is analyzed and compared. Consideration is given to economic problems and political restrictions and the difficulties they impose on the importation of contraceptive materials. The success of Czechoslovakia, East Germany, and Hungary in lowering their abortion rates by providing adequate family planning and modern contraceptives is also described.
Correspondence: J. L. Jacobson, Worldwatch Institute, 1776 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10342 Jones, Elise F.; Forrest, Jacqueline D. Underreporting of abortion in surveys of U.S. women: 1976 to 1988. Demography, Vol. 29, No. 1, Feb 1992. 113-26 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors estimate levels of abortion reporting among women living in the United States using data from "the 1976, 1982, and 1988 cycles of the National Survey of Family Growth, the 1976 and 1979 National Surveys of Young Women, and the National Longitudinal Surveys of Work Experience of Youth. The estimates are based on comparisons with external counts of abortions taking place. We examine variation by characteristics of women, trends over time, and the possible effects of length of recall and of the way in which questions about abortion are asked. Abortion reporting is found to be highly deficient in all the surveys, although the level varies widely. Whites are more likely to report their abortions than nonwhites. Special, confidential questioning procedures hold promise for improving the results."
Correspondence: E. F. Jones, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 111 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10343 Kitamura, Kunio. Every child should be a wanted child: thinking about adolescent sexual consciousness and behavior in Japan. Integration, No. 30, Dec 1991. 40-4 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
Adolescent sex behavior in Japan is analyzed using data from a 1987 survey. Information is included on induced abortion by age, 1955-1989; abortion rates by age; and abortions by period of gestation. Abortion data are from the Eugenic Protection Statistics. The author concludes that the increase in abortion among adolescents is evidence of a lack of knowledge about sex and effective contraception.
Correspondence: K. Kitamura, Japan Family Planning Association, Adolescent Clinic, Tokyo, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10344 Klitsch, Michael. Antiprogestins and the abortion controversy: a progress report. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 23, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1991. 275-82 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article will explore recent developments in the clinical use and testing of mifepristone [RU 486] and other, less notorious antihormones, and examine political developments in the United States that may influence when such drugs will become commercially available here." After a discussion of the use of antihormones in France and Great Britain to induce abortion, and of other possible uses for the drugs (i.e., labor induction and cervical dilation), the likelihood of the drugs' acceptance for use in the United States is assessed. The author concludes that "rather than being a 'wonder drug,' mifepristone may instead be simply a harbinger of better medications to come. Research on antihormones is at such a very early stage that no one can really say what treatment avenues antihormones may open. But even if U.S. research on antiprogestins is slowed by fears of harassment and funding cuts, it will surely continue elsewhere in the world. There is no question that antihormones are here to stay, and that they will outlast the abortion politics that now cloud their future."
Correspondence: M. Klitsch, Family Planning Perspectives, 111 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10345 Krishnan, Vijaya. Abortion in Canada: religious and ideological dimensions of women's attitudes. Social Biology, Vol. 38, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1991. 249-57 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"This paper examines a number of demographic and sociocultural factors (e.g., age, marital status, family size, religion, religious assiduity, sex-role ideology) as predictors of women's attitudes toward abortion, using data from the Canadian Fertility Survey of 1984. The findings suggest that women's abortion attitudes are to a greater extent based on ideological positions. It appears that anti-abortion stance affects those women who are religious....Abortion attitudes also vary according to a woman's education, her family size, and province/region of residence."
Correspondence: V. Krishnan, University of Alberta, Department of Sociology, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10346 Muldoon, Maureen. The abortion debate in the United States and Canada: a source book. Garland Reference Library of Social Science, Vol. 648, ISBN 0-8240-5260-9. LC 91-3658. 1991. xviii, 238 pp. Garland Publishing: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
The author presents a selection of materials representing sociological, philosophical, religious, and legal aspects of the abortion issue in the United States and Canada. The book is intended to serve as a source work concerning the abortion debate within the recent past and to provide references for further study.
Correspondence: Garland Publishing, 717 Fifth Avenue, Suite 2500, New York, NY 10022. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10347 Popov, Andrej A. Family planning and induced abortion in the USSR: basic health and demographic characteristics. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 22, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1991. 368-77 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In 1988, the USSR Ministry of Public Health published official statistics on abortion for the first time in 60 years. Using the official data published in 1988 and unofficial statistics from a variety of independent sources, this report attempts to describe some of the basic features of fertility regulation in the USSR. Induced abortion is the main method of fertility regulation throughout the country, and a high proportion of induced abortions are unregistered and performed illegally. The availability and use of modern contraceptives is low; among those who practice contraception, traditional methods predominate. The official data leave much to be desired in the way of accuracy, reliability, and completeness. However, it is clear that the level of induced abortion is higher in the USSR than in any other country in the world."
Correspondence: A. A. Popov, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility

Studies on lactation, nutrition, fecundability, sex behavior, menarche and menopause, and other biological factors or social customs as they affect fertility directly. Factors affecting contraceptive practice and factors affecting fertility indirectly are not included here.

58:10348 Biswas, S.; Abid, Monthir A. On the estimation of mean infecundable period following childbirth. Demography India, Vol. 18, No. 1-2, Jan-Dec 1989. 95-102 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The authors develop a method for estimating the mean period of natural infecundability following a birth that takes into account the relationship between duration of postpartum amenorrhea and breast-feeding.
Correspondence: S. Biswas, University of Delhi, Department of Statistics, Delhi 7, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10349 Fink, A. E.; Fink, G.; Wilson, H.; Bennie, J.; Carroll, S.; Dick, H. Lactation, nutrition and fertility and the secretion of prolactin and gonadotrophins in Mopan Mayan women. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 24, No. 1, Jan 1992. 35-52 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The effect of lactation on menstrual cycles, ovulation and conception was studied in a group of non-contracepting Amerindian Mopan Mayan women [in Belize from 1985 to 1987]....The data show that: frequent and prolonged breast-feeding was associated with a marked increase in plasma prolactin concentrations...; ovulatory menstrual cycles and pregnancy occurred during frequent lactation; [and] in lactating menstruating women there was an inverse correlation between fat weight and months post-partum. These data suggest that other factors as well as suckling account for the effects of lactation on fecundity."
Correspondence: G. Fink, c/o MRC Brain Metabolism Unit, Edinburgh, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10350 Ford, Kathleen. Correlation between subsequent lengths of postpartum amenorrhoea in a prospective study of breast-feeding women in rural Bangladesh. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 24, No. 1, Jan 1992. 89-95 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The relationship between subsequent lengths of lactational amenorrhoea for individual women in a prospective study of breast-feeding women in Bangladesh was studied. The data indicate that previous length of amenorrhoea has significant predictive value for the subsequent length of amenorrhoea....Data are drawn from a prospective study of the fertility of women in Matlab, Bangladesh....A sample of approximately 2,500 women was followed prospectively from October 1975 to December 1979. All currently married women below age 50 in fourteen villages were selected for study."
Correspondence: K. Ford, University of Michigan, School of Public Health, Department of Population Planning and International Health, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10351 Grummer-Strawn, Laurence M. A cross-national comparison of breastfeeding differentials in low-income countries. Pub. Order No. DA9127069. 1991. 297 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Princeton University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 52(4).

58:10352 Kennedy, Kathy I.; Visness, Cynthia M. Contraceptive efficacy of lactational amenorrhoea. Lancet, Vol. 339, No. 8787, Jan 25, 1992. 227-30 pp. Baltimore, Maryland/London, England. In Eng.
"We have analysed data from nine studies of the recovery of fertility in breastfeeding women to assess the effectiveness of lactational amenorrhoea alone, irrespective of whether supplements [to the infant's diet] have been introduced, as a fertility regulation method postpartum....The probability of pregnancy during lactational amenorrhoea calculated from these studies is similar to that of other modern contraceptive methods, and it seems reasonable for a woman to rely on lactational amenorrhoea without regard to whether she is fully or partly breastfeeding." The importance of counseling women on breast-feeding, weaning, and contraception following the resumption of menstruation is stressed. Data are from developed and developing countries.
Correspondence: K. I. Kennedy, Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

58:10353 Rahman, M. Mujibur. Measurement of post-partum amenorrhoea in Bangladesh. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 24, No. 1, Jan 1992. 17-24 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Reported information on the duration of post-partum amenorrhoea usually shows considerable number preference, particularly at 6-monthly intervals. This paper presents a technique for smoothing such amenorrhoea data using a modified exponential curve. An attempt has also been made to estimate the average number of months a mother is expected to remain amenorrhoeic....The estimates presented here are based on the data from the Bangladesh Fertility Survey (BFS) 1975...."
Correspondence: M. M. Rahman, University of Chittagong, Department of Statistics, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10354 Singh, S. N.; Singh, K. K. Life table analysis of censored data on post-partum amenorrhoea period. Demography India, Vol. 18, No. 1-2, Jan-Dec 1989. 27-38 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The objective of this research is to present a short description of life table methodology to analyse data on the duration of PPA [postpartum amenorrhea in India]...and obtain corresponding survival function. The method is applied to data taken from a research project entitled 'Effect of Socio-Cultural Factors on Determinants of Fertility in Eastern Uttar Pradesh (Rural)' conducted...during 1987-90....The methodology and a short description of data are given in Section 2. The survival functions of PPA relating to different education groups are obtained in Section 3. The homogeneity of survival functions is examined in Section 4."
Correspondence: S. N. Singh, Banaras Hindu University, Centre for Population Studies, Varanasi 221 005, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10355 VanLandingham, Mark; Trussell, James; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence. Contraceptive and health benefits of breastfeeding: a review of the recent evidence. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 17, No. 4, Dec 1991. 131-6 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"In this article, we review the latest available information on the associations between breastfeeding and child health and between breastfeeding and birth spacing, with special emphasis on explicit descriptions of the components and processes underlying these relationships." The authors find that "breastfeeding provides clear health benefits for young children in developing countries, especially in areas where health conditions are poor....The potential impact of breastfeeding on fertility is highest in societies with low levels of modern contraception, little supplementation of breast milk, low nutritional status of women, and cultural taboos against sexual relations for the duration of breastfeeding."
Correspondence: M. VanLandingham, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.6. Fertility Outside Marriage

Studies on nonmarital fertility, including illegitimacy. Studies of common-law marriage and other forms of cohabitation or voluntary single parenthood are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

58:10356 Munoz-Perez, Francisco. Births outside marriage and premarital pregnancies in Spain since 1975. II. Regional trends and variations. [Les naissances hors mariage et les conceptions prenuptiales en Espagne depuis 1975. II. Diversite et evolution regionales.] Population, Vol. 46, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1991. 1,207-48 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
Trends in fertility outside of marriage and premarital pregnancy in Spain are analyzed for the period since 1975. The author notes that all regions followed the national trend but at different times, due to socioeconomic differences among regions. "There was an increase in the number of pre-marital conceptions, caused by increased sexual activity among young people, and later a decrease resulting from more widespread use of efficient methods of contraception, and the decline in the number of marriages among some sections of the population, whilst the numbers of births outside marriage increased in other groups who were less well protected against the ever-increasing liberalization of sexual conduct. Finally, fertility outside marriage was controlled, and there were more wanted births among cohabiting couples."
For Part 1, also published in 1991, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: F. Munoz-Perez, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10357 Munoz-Perez, Francisco. Births outside marriage and premarital pregnancies in Spain since 1975: I--a period of profound change. [Les naissances hors mariage et les conceptions prenuptiales en Espagne depuis 1975: I--une periode de profonds changements.] Population, Vol. 46, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1991. 881-911 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
Patterns in premarital sex behavior and pregnancies in Spain since 1975 are described. "Changes in the sexual behaviour of young people during the 1970s have resulted in a considerable increase in the number of [premarital] conceptions....The percentage of women who were pregnant at marriage increased from less than ten per cent around 1970, to between 21 and 22 per cent at the end of the decade....During the 1980s, the declining popularity of marriage and the greater use of effective contraceptive methods...led to a sharp decline in the number of premarital pregnancies." Consideration is also given to the impact of the spread of consensual unions on the premarital fertility rate.
Correspondence: F. Munoz-Perez, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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